Interview techniques Essay Interviews typically feature in a range of factual type programming but can be translated in a number of different ways depending on the type of programme they are. For example programming like chat shows would use light hearted, while also being informal and promotional, as shows like 'Alan Carr: Chatty Man''. While other programming use interviews differently such as News or factual entertainment as both are sort of ''magazine shows'' that cover an interview's differently, shows like ''Newsnight'' is hard news, the purpose to investigate a particular subject matter. While Factual entertainment covers entertainment programming and news as programming like ''BBC Breakfast'' and ''Top Gear'' as they are mainly light hearted, but may cover hard news type programming while Factual is also a mixture of formal/informal. Documentaries are typically made for a particular style of interview. Documentaries are also a mixture of formal and informal, as the documentary may change throughout with the interviews changing in a way, whereas a chat show wouldn't change and would be informal. Interviews can feature a variety of different interview techniques, for example there are a range of different questions types that are used to illustrate different points as a direct question would clearly be aimed at one person and only that person can really answer the question. Another technique can be the style that the interview is presented in as each type of programme would feature different styles as a promotional programme would be something in which famous person would basically advertise their own or someones Else's product or combative as someone may be aggressive towards someone else in order to achieve their goal. Structuring is another important factor as the way an interview is structured helps tell what kind of interview it is. An introduction can help introduce a particular subject or theme so that the viewer knows the interview is about .Communication skills are key during an interview as a rapport has to be built for the interviewer to get the information that he wants from the interviewee and this can be seen through the pair’s facial expressions or their body language as each gives more information about the person to further involve each other in the conversation. Interviews would also have a purpose to each different style, interview the purpose is to expressed or explain a opinion so that the audience get a viewer from the maker of the product or programme.
Paxman Interviews Chloe Smith Early on the first thing Paxman says is a repeating his question to ensure he gets an answer from her, and throughout uses direct questions and suggestive question to get a response from her, however at points he is trying to be informal with a calm mannered speaking voice and has good body language with typical hand gesture's and so. But at most point's he is combative and uses development questions to get
the answer that he wants and this is further proven from the investigative question he asks while also asking her is a sarcastic tone with many things meant to make her sound stupid. Such as him asking her ‘’Why can’t you tell me the change in policy if that's what you're here to do’’. However at point's she throws back a question in order to avoid a answer. The start and finish of the interview are both different points with early on him trying to build confidence and talk in a calm tone, however the later half he is more combative throughout demanding a answer with lines that read ''Did it happen this afternoon'' & '' Sorry is this some sort of joke''. And at points she is thrown off with herself stuttering or coughing shown a bit of hesitation. This may be that Paxman has clearly got research to back up what he is saying. Also whenever Paxman has a response to one of Smith's so called ''answer's'' the camera pulls out to Paxman to get a facial response to what she has just said.
Jonathan Ross interview When comparing the Paxman interview the Jonathan Ross interview with Tom Hardy, it is very different in all ways as the interview style is presented in a more relaxed manner and is informal, as the subject matter that is brought up is very different. When compared to the Paxman interview in, which it was Paxman’s job to find out what he could from Chloe Smith as in a politically manner, the Ross interview is about the interviewee advertising and promoting his/her product or film. The point of of the Ross interview is to entertain the viewer, as he brings up interesting subjects such as ‘So Tom where is your accent from, as it is hard to pinpoint’, this kind of interview is much more light hearted and interesting to a casual viewer, as they might want to know more about the person on the show, whereas the Paxman interview is about a particular subject matter. Paxman is used in order to get a response he can use against Chloe Smith, as throughout the interview Paxman is very combative as he won’t give up until he gets the answer he was looking for. Ross uses a more relaxed setting in order to get a response, yet not as aggressive as Paxman as he asks him questions he may know, the answer’s to in order to get a response from the viewer, by asking him ‘’. Later on, Ross plays Hardy up to the audience by saying ”what is your next role” and Hardy responds with Mad Max, and Ross goes” Hold on a second he’s going to be Mad Max ladies and gentlemen”, yet throughout the interview the pair make jokes about one another, and there is some rapport between the two even though Hardy gets aggressive towards Ross, hiding from the audience in a way with most points, When Ross plays up Hardy, he appears to try to hide his face or almost say ”no please” when the audience cheer Hardy for being 7 years sober, this shows that the intention of both these interviews is almost completely different in that Hardy is there to promote his work and have some fun, while the Paxman interview is much more personally as Paxman wants to almost humiliate Chloe Smith in that he isn’t giving her the answers that he wants.
Robbie Williams BBC Breakfast Interview
BBC Breakfast interviews typically would feature a range of techniques which can be seen in a Robbie Williams interview that took place on 20/9/12, which started with Robbie answering a question that was clearly done off camera with his response being ''Yeah I am nervous, I keep dreaming about her'' with Robbie talking about his newborn child, and the interviewer shows a emotional attachment with him, as she responses ‘'ahh, that’s lovely'', to get a response from Robbie as he replies to the interviewer once as he says''I don't want to be selfish, and I don't want to make a mistake'' the interviewer replies to this ''You will be alright, I have two'' almost to comfort him saying everything will be alright. The interview's style is to be light hearted and promotional, as early on Robbie talks about his newborn, and the pair exchange a couple of jokes in order to lighten the mood, however the second half is promotional as the interviewer again asks him a question off camera, and he responds ''Yeah I did write it with a good friend of mine, Gary Barlow'', clearly talking about his new single, as throughout the interview at this point the viewer is shown clips of the video to Robbie's new single, and the pair talk about writing the song and making the video, as it is illustrated throughout. This also means that the pair would have a rapport as they clearly know what they are talking about and it is clear Robbie isn't uncomfortable talking about the subject matter throughout he interview. While the purpose of the interview is to be informational and emotionally, as the viewer would clearly want to know about Robbie Williams unless they wouldn't be watching the interview, as the pair talk about His newborn, his new single, his time back together with Take That, while the emotionally link is the fact that Robbie clearly demonstrates a bond between him and his newborn child, as he talks about the fact he ''can't get her out of my mind'', ''In the dream I feel a love I have never felt before'' this allows the audience to have a insight about into the situation he is currently in. There is a difference between his interview and the Newsnight interview with Chloe Smith as the interviewer is much calmer and builds a rapport with Robbie Williams. Whereas Jeremy Paxman clearly wants a different kind of answer from Ms. Smith so he has to have a different attitude as the questions he is asking are completely different as he is asking her questions that she ain’t allowed to answer and is serious, whereas the Robbie interview is he promoting his own work and talking about his personal life. The Jonathan Ross interview has a lot in common with the BBC interview as both interviewers and interviewees have somewhat the same attitude, and jokingly talk about the interviewee lives. The only difference is the way Tom Hardy’s response as he is defensive and very suggestive towards the questions Jonathan Ross asks him.
Michael Moore interview James nickel’s Michael Moore throughout his interview with the Tofu farmer asks him different questions in order to get as mixed response from him, and to almost make him look crazy with earlier on Moore asks him close questions, to introduce him, while also being light hearted by asking him simple questions that relate to the bombing that the farmer was excused of. While asking him questions like ‘’Did Timothy McVeigh
ever stay here’’ and him answering yes, while Moore also asks him if ‘’He was a good guy’’ knowing exactly what the farmers will say, while the fact that the two also look like they are friends by having a casual conversation with light hearted talk. Moore does this to show the farmer almost as a normal person up to the point we hear him talking about the fact he has a gun under his pillow, with this point Moore directing questions at him with the intention of getting his opinion on it with Moore’s intention of making him look and sound crazy. With Moore actually cutting off him asking the framer a question in order to provoke an answer from him while again making him look crazy by the fact it looks like he is just ranting on about the fact people thought he was a gun nut and more. With Moore also making it look like throughout the interview he is disgusted about what he is saying, while in fact Moore is trying to convey his biased opinion of the farmer onto the viewer with the editing, body language he presents all making him look abnormal. While later on Moore asks him a question about Gandhi saying basically why not do the Gandhi method, and him replaying ‘’I’m not familiar with that’’, While the camera shot indicates it is almost filmed at a different point, making it look like this whole section is filmed as one piece whereas in fact Moore filmed piece of this scene in different places in order to get a reaction from the farmer so that Moore can get a POV on him that looks like he is crazy. Whereas early on Moore intention was to build rapport between the pair almost in order to get the answer’s from him that he wants, pushing past his biased, unfair opinion on the viewer. Moore also asks him questions about the bombing he was a excused of, almost to get his response on the subject with it looking like he is no happy about the subject as his body language and facial expressions and tone of voice all sound different when compared to his interview with Moore inside his home.
Marilyn Manson Interview The Marilyn Manson interview is very much like he interview that Moore does with Nickel's earlier on as Moore starts off the interview with archive footage that demonstrates Marilyn Manson as a bad person as at the beginning we hear a range of reasons that people believe is responsible for the Columbine killings as Moore uses a voxpop say Manson is the reason and this is clear by the fact there is the footage that is made to be like this with people in Columbine believing that Manson was responsible for the actions. It is also clear later during the actually interview Moore favours his opinion of Manson as throughout his interview Moore asks him questions in which he gets a calm response, whereas Moore also edit's it by using cross cutting meaning he cuts up the interview into part's and we see this clearly, so that we see a religious preacher talking about Manson being a problem to Columbine in a manner that isn't as even as Manson's response as the Preacher has a different attitude when compared to Manson who known for his rock music answers in a calm manner. Moore also asks him direct and suggestive questions as so that he can provoke a answer much like in the James Nickel's interview where Moore clearly asks him a question he knows Nickel's will rant on about it making him look more crazy, whereas Manson is made to look normal and sophisticated with Moore asking him ''Did you know that more bombs were dropped in the costavoall more then any
other day of that war ?'' Manson responses ''Yes I did know that'' so that we can get Manson's view about the particular subject matter. This furthermore shows the rapport the pair are trying to build with the pair being in a small space yet still talking in a calm manner as Moore throughout the interview he is active listening, almost so that he can get Manson’s view of the columbine killings or just to get a response Moore can create to make the viewer think Manson isn't the bad person he instead Moore uses the religious person as a opposite to Manson’s in every way. This is clear with the cross cutting done between the two different piece's letting the viewer into both sides of the coin, but we focus on Manson and are made to think he is innocent, whereas this is because of the fact that Moore is right wing much like Masons meaning he wouldn't grill someone like he does in his other interviews. The wind up question also summaries the whole interview as Moore asks him ''If you were to directly to talk to the people from columbine what would you say to them’’ Manson’s responds by saying ''I wouldn't say anything I would just listen'' showing the point is to be informational towards the fact that many people believed that Manson was some what the cause of the Columbine killings and get Manson’s view that he was unfairly sentenced. There is also a difference between this interview and the James Nickel’s interviews as Michael Moore treats James Nickel’s as if he is crazy and edits the interview to prove this as Moore ask him question so Nickel’s can purposely rant on about something that is important to him. Whereas the Manson interview as you can see Moore acts up to him, and makes him look like a nice and calmer person when compared to the Religious group that didn’t want him performing in Columbine.
Charles Heston Interview Michael Moore near the end of ''Bowling for Columbine'' interviews Charlton Heston who is a member of the NRA. Early on in the interview Moore tries to build an rapport in which he starts off by being informal and conversational by the fact that more firsts states to Heston that he is also a member of the NRA in which Charlton replies ''Good for you'' almost like he is happy he is talking to someone else that is a member, also to build a friendship with him saying that the pair have something in common, and allow Moore to ask more personal questions later on. Moore also asks Heston, basically if he has had any reason why he has guns in his home by saying ''Do you keep guns in the house'' and ''Have you ever been assaulted'' almost to indicate the point of Heston having guns is pointless this is also told through his body language as it starts off casual and later through the interview changes with the questions asking being more combative and aggressive. Whereas in the Manson interview he has a much calmer attitude towards him and treats him with respect, while he may also play up to him, he dos it to make Manson look good and almost the better person. While this interview Moore is clearly aggressive against him almost disgusted with him. While The Nickel’s interview he isn’t as aggressive and wants to see what he will say so that he can interest the viewer. Moore is also suggestive as Charlton talks about the fact that there is a high gun rate in different places and the fact there is a high blood rate Moore then Says ''And what Germany doesn't as much blood on their hands''. Moore also asks him direct questions in order to get a response from in such as when Moore asks Charlton ''Do
you wish to issue an apology'' almost suggestive as well because Moore is basically saying to you want to say sorry for the death of a 6 year old child that had nothing to do with you, and was because of the fact there was a gun rally a day after her death, and Heston defends himself by saying he didn't know about the child's death until after the gun rally Moore at this point however doesn't say anything While earlier on when Heston was talking about the crime rate. Moore asks him if he thinks ''Its a ethnic thing'' almost trying to make Heston sound like the bad person in the interview and make the viewer like the person has done no right as Moore at the end of the interview gets a picture of the 6 year old that died as Heston is walking away to make it look like it Heston has no empathy for the little girl, while in fact it is edited so that it looks like Moore is showing him the picture as it is happening whereas in fact the quick cutting between the two men is unusual for a documentary to have two camera during a interview, and instead is edited to the beliefs of the filmmakers and to make the viewer fell as if Charlton Heston is wrong . Whereas the other BFC interviews are very different while the Jame’s Nickel’s interview is aggressive at points, he is much more aggressive in this interview towards the end. The only reason the Nickel’s interview is aggressive is that Nickel’s at points will digress and go on and rant. While the Manson interview is completely different as Manson is treated with more respect, while the Heston one Moore has a calm manner and introduces himself as a nice person who. While each interview has the same purpose each is some what different in that communication skills between the pairs each having a unique attitude towards Moore or his beliefs and the interview styling.
Conclusion The difference between the Bowling for Columbine and the Newsnight interviews is that the BFC interviews are informal in that the interviews are done in a way that is presented in as Moore doesn’t know the response he is going to get and often it isn’t scripted, meaning Moore relies on the unknown natural of his interviews and edits them to bring across his point of view. The BFC interviews are also typically pre-‐ recorded and feature heavy usage of elliptical editing . Whereas Newsnight is formal as it is shown as a professional look of things and has a script Jeremy Paxman will rely on to ask the interviewee questions. His interviews are also broadcast live and use multi-‐camera set-‐ups and mix the footage. Another difference is that BFC interviews have a voiceover throughout and include actuality/archive footage and all of this is done to as part of the introduction. The Jonathan Ross interview is also very different when compared to the BFC interviews, as the Jonathan Ross interview unlike the BFC interviews is a mixture of formal/informal as it is shown and presented in a way that is formal, but some of the corresponding actions aren’t scripted. Such as the way Tom Hardy starts to act up during the interview because he isn’t comfortable with the interview. While it is also somewhat like Newsnight as it is recorded live but it ain’t broadcasted live as it has the same set-‐up as Newsnight as it is multi-‐camera set-‐up and uses elliptical editing much like BFC interviews so that it can be changed to portray someone in a particular way. The BFC interviews are also very different as it’s purpose is to be informational & interpretive, while the newsnight’s is to enhance audience understanding &
interpretive, which is some what different as the BFC interviews want the viewer to informed, yet express an opinion. While in comparison the Jonathan Ross interview is meant to emotional and promotional as each week Ross would interview someone about something of theirs that is coming out soon. The Ross interview is also different within the NVC (Non-‐Verbal Communication) between the pair as they are almost uncomfortable which creates a informal kind of setting even though they are dressed formally. While the BFC interviews are clearly informal in every aspect as both people are dressed informal, it is recorded on location and not in a studio. Finally the Jonathan Ross interview is also more similar to the Newsnight interview as it is filmed live in front of a audience, and is ‘’mixed’’ live, but more editing is done to cut done the whole interview to what the filmmaker wants to be shown much like Michael Moore with his BFC interviews. While Newsnight is shown live, broadcast live and ‘’mixed’’ live with two/three camera’s. The questions that are asked are very different as Moore asks the interviewees much more open questions and suggesting to get their POV on the situation he is talking about. While the Jonathan Ross interview has more closed questions to get an answer he wants from the interviewee, and Newsnight has open questions and developmentally questions in order to build upon a answer Paxman has already got.