Intro There are a range of different factual TV programs such as talk shows which are basically shows like Jeremy Kyle and Jerry Springer in which talk shows typically have more than one person involved as the audience normally have a input, in order to make the programme appear impartial, as not everyone will have the same view or opinion, while other shows like Jonathan Ross and Alan Carr which are chat shows and typically a one-‐to-‐one interview with a celebrity, normally done in the style of a piece of infotainment. While magazine shows have some elements of chat and talk shows, normally it contains soft news and is infotainment. As Magazine shows are typically shows that demonstrate that have interviews stuff with celebrities, cooking things and much more as it is aimed at a specific audience, it can also be seen as ‘infotainment’ as since the show is seen as a magazine programme, they would have someone to interview, about subjects or headlines about the current entertainment of informational or news. While reality shows are completely different as they are meant to be shows that are reality or even observational though they don’t seem like it, they also typically follow interactive elements with each other. EG like Made in Chelsea typically follow these people in their day-‐to-‐day activates. All these shows are shown and broadcast in differents ways as all of them can be watched on TV, bought on DVD and can be watched through internet streaming or online video players like BBC Iplayer, Netflix and more. While the main focus on the essay will be on factual programmes that are contrasting rae Documentaries and TV news programmes . Both tend to be ‘Hard News’ which is news headlines that are more serious, and while ‘Soft News’ is news headlines that ‘infotainmnet’ news that is more entertainment driven. There are also conventions that define it as each typically have presenters that explain what they want to talk about. There is also a distinctive difference between in the camerawork, editing and mise-‐en-‐scene. While these kind of shows also have new headlines while each are done in different ways as news programmes are impartial through the way it is delivered, even though programming can change its ‘mode of address’ with it’s presenter typically carrying the programme throughout, while field reporters provide the audience with in-‐depth stories, with a ‘voice of god’ voiceover that narrates the story, with actuality/archive footage supporting the story, this is similar to documentaries as they use a ‘Voice of god’ that narrates through it, and actuality/archive footage, however this may change depending on the style of the documentary, as each is very different in the way that it presents their information. As each documentary has a way of telling what it is, such as expository documentaries typically have a voice of god, and use images to illustrate alongside the voiceover. Whereas Observational documentaries have no interviews, no voiceover and instead opt for a voiceover to narrate. And finally there are interactive documentaries have the filmmakers in the film and a voiceover narrates the narrative. Even though each one of these documentaries are based around facts to different audiences. As each aim for a ‘realistic’ film, but also involve fictional elements to add a narrative. That has a beginning, middle and end.
While each type of documentary will also have a view of it such as accurate documentaries are from a first person POV as they are meant to include facts to
indicate that the information is correct or accurate. Such as in BFC when we as the viewer are informed that this bank gives away free guns with a bank account, which is true all though the filmmaker Michael Moore edits the film in a way that misleads what the audience is hearing. But the while it is twisted what he says it is still true that they sell guns alongside with a bank account, but he must also legally tell the truth otherwise he could get sued. While a 2nd POV is normally objective or impartial documentaries in which you would expect to be told the truth and be given a balanced argument, such as in ‘News at 10’ the news is told truthfully without any biased feelings towards a certain subject. The reason for this being that people wouldn’t believe what they hear, if a newscaster favours one headline or subject over another it shows based thoughts and not everyone would agree meaning programming like ‘News at 10’ needs to be truthful otherwise people wouldn’t believe what they are hearing/seeing. And the last kind of POV is third person which is basically a biased or opinionated documentary as you would hear directly the filmmaker wants you to believe, but unlike Michael Moore who had information that was accurate, but took a view of how their system was wrong. Such as in ‘The Trap’ in the opening we are told how to feel with the situation. The reason for this being that the filmmaker doesn’t want to make it seem like that this isn’t a documentary but a person's thoughts, but the filmmaker makes the documentary seem balanced, but favours towards one side of the argument.
Part 1 All news programs have a unique way of presenting itself with news conventions such as the set that is used in ‘News at 10’ which has a set of features which make it identifiable as a news program has to typically have studio news presenters and a title screen to introduce the program with the presenter saying ‘welcomes’ and then talks about the headlines. It may then cut to field reporters on location with him or her maybe interviewing someone about something. While throughout the music adds more atmospheres being theatrically with his tone of voice grabbing the viewer attention. All of this can be seen with the mise-‐en-‐scene that is used to create this serious sense with Hue Edward’s even clearly making it seem serious with his body language showing no emotion of connection to make the viewer think he doesn’t like a particularly person or thing. He is also seen to be serious with his clothing which when compared to something else like ’60 Seconds’ which has the presenter dress casually to appeal to it’s audience, whereas he Hue Edwards has to be shown impartial and formal so that it isn’t favoring towards one side. The camera shot also is shown as a mid-‐shot to show his body language and the fact he doesn’t really change his facial expressions. The editing is also done in a way in which the viewer can get the information from Hue Edwards and use achieve footage to talk about the particularly subject matter. It also includes elliptical editing so that the viewer gets a understanding of the important parts of the news headline..The program also uses Rolling pieces of text to bring up other bits of news that isn’t as important or serious as the other subjects being covered. News Programs also typically have a particular angle of framing such as the the way ‘60 Seconds’, ‘Newsround’ and ’News At 10’ all have a way of framing that keep in the style of the program such as in ‘News At 10’
you always have a shot of Hue Edward that is centred in the middle, and has most of his chest and head in shot. Part 2 All the news programmes I will be looking at '60 Seconds', Newsround' and 'News at 10' all of which are made by the BBC, all also have unique, ways of telling the news or have specific features that would only appeal to their target audience's. As each has to be represented differently in order to appeal to their different target audiences. As each has to be easy to identify and appeal to their different audiences as they will enjoy other things compared to other news programming. Such as '60 Seconds' which is aimed at young teenage mainstreamer's, while the subjectivity in this programme is mainly entertainment news, as it follows activates that the target audience would be more interested than a typically news programme like 'News at 10' which covers more ''conventionally'' news topics, as this audience compared to BBC 3's is more formal in that the audience has a better understanding of the subject matter , whereas BBC 3, news coverage is almost dumb downed in order to gain the interest of its target audience who would most likely be wanting to watch a comedy type programme. Whereas the audience for 'Newsround' is much younger, meaning each news programme would have different ''headlines'' in that a show like 'News at 10' would have a politic headline, featured with a serious problem currently going on, whereas 'Newsround' main subject matter is sports as a young audience like this wouldn't be too interested in a serious politically headline, more in light hearted news. All the while ‘60 Secs’ is appealing to it’s demographic, through the colourful, animated graphic design, which grabs the viewers attention more than a dark bland colour like ‘Newsround’, as everything about the ‘60 Secs’ news presenter he is informal, with his clothing being casual, which is something it’s demographic can relate to, unlike ‘News at 10’ with the news presenter wearing a suit, you can also tell the change in it’s demographic through his facial expressions, tone of voice, as each is much more relaxed. Unlike 'News at 10' which is more formal in that Hue Edwards speaks in a more monotone voice and speaks directly to the viewer, while also being almost aggressive towards the viewer, with a serious voice and the fact he is shouting out the news headlines. He is also ''dressed up'' in that he has to be impartial about the headlines so that he doesn't come off biased, whereas '60 Seconds' & 'Newsround' come off more informal as there speak in a more conversational lighter tone and speaks less formally, while they both dress casually in that they both are wearing casual clothing that includes bright colour such as Ricky from ‘Newsround’ is wearing a red lumberjack shirt. making him standout, while the ‘60 Seconds presenter is wearing a black shirt, however unlike Ricky, he doesn’t standout because of the natural colour that he wears, however since, this only make’s the Pink neon and rolling text of the BBC 3 logo standout more. And in a more relaxed manner,as they have to come off more casual to their target audience's as someone like Hue Edward's wouldn't attract a younger demographic to watch their programming, while the fact that Hue Edward’s dress in a suit brings across some authority and highlight the serious nature of what he is talking about while being objective and impartial, this is seen by the fact that during '60 Seconds' the presenter as he starts off the summary of the news by saying what ''another great episode of Being Human'' appealing to the target audience in that it suggesting
that he watched it as well meaning he knows what he is talking about, as he enjoys the same programming. He also uses alliterations such as ''Murray Mania to Murray Misery'' attracting BBC 3's target audience of teenagers. As 60 Secs tries to be infotainment because it covers entertainment and informative material for the news. This is further proven by the source of it's news subjectivity as it covers entertainment news and the fact that it is a summary of the news, as the target audience would get bored of watching a news programme that is long, as they wouldn't want their demographic to get bored and change the channel. Whereas since 'News at 10' is a much more serious news programme meaning that instead of appealing to it’s target audience through would require a bigger budget as compared to '60 secs' and 'Newsround' it is aimed at a bigger audience, meaning it would take more to make it unbiased and attract a range of audience's so that the news can be ''fair'', whereas a American news programme like 'Fox News' is biased because of the owner trying to get his POV across.
Expository is a particular type of documentary; this brand of documentary is normally so that the filmmaker can express their viewpoint on a particular subject matter. This means that expository documentaries are normally biased as they use conventions in order to convey the express or POV on a subject matter they believe to be important. These conventions include things like the use of a voiceover to illustrate the narrator's POV, while also being told from a third person view in that the person is detached from what he/she is talking about and portaged as a ”voice of god”-‐which is a mode that is used to illustrate a non-‐diegetic voiceover, narrator who makes the audience believe everything they say as fact as if they almost have authority, as the character is omnipresent and omniscient, this is seen in ''Mussolini Italian Nightmare'' with the opening sentence being ''His arrogancy, his charm, his desire to rule an Empire, intoxicated a nation''. This proves that the narrator is against Mussolini, as since he is being portrayed as a ‘’voice of god’’ meaning everything he says will be taken as fact, this is further illustrated with the archive and actuality footage alongside the voiceover, which is seen as the main convention expository documentaries. With the narrator saying that with all his wit he was a problem to Italy, and that he was a bad person in that the narrator states that a ''young Hitler Idolised him ‘‘as the his tone of voice helps convince the viewer that he is right and that Mussolini is not a good man. It is also purposely leaving out information so that the filmmaker can create a biased documentary, that fits alongside their opinion on Mussolini and the maker also leaves out and facts, so that the filmmaker can make the viewer feel as if the narrator is correct and any information that is given to them is right so the viewer should believe what they say. The usage of montage editing is done, so that the viewer thinks Mussolini is the man responsible for all the actions that are shown, through the use of archive footage. This is done by the fact that throughout the documentary most of the footage is image's of Mussolini at different
times in his life, while having a interview over the top, so that he gives information that the viewer gets is related to the image that is seen meaning the viewer would come to a conclusion that the image and voiceover fit together to create a feeling for the viewer to feel upset about the subject matter. The editing is also elliptical as certain interviews are clearly used so that the filmmaker can get the best of the information that he is given so that he can give his opinion on Mussolini, while being biased so that the viewer feels the same as the filmmaker and the narrator. A soundtrack is also played over the top in order to create a tension that fits alongside the opinion that the filmmaker is trying to get a across. There is also a ''talking head shot'' in which to inform the viewer to a greater extent we get the opinion of a expert on the subject '' as the first interview we hear from a biographer who talks about Mussolini as a child when he was expelled from his school almost trying to indicate that he had this sort of evil in him even as a child.
Part 4 Both 'Tattoo Tears' and 'Bowling for Columbine' are very different type's of documentary's with the later being a interactive documentary, while the first is an observational documentary while both have feature to identify it as that type of documentary. While both still follow the same structure of Narrative, Mise-‐en-‐scene, soundtrack, editing and cinematography Such as 'Tattoo Tears' the way the scene is presented with the prisoner interviewing the other prisoner as almost he is actually ''acting'' by playing up to the camera due to his nature of looking into the camera. Also the fact that the scene is in the middle of a real camera this is detailed when the interviewer says ''Check this out'' as almost to tell him that the camera is here in front of him, while the person being interviewed doesn't know this due to the fact he is still in his cell. while still being interviewed by this person. Whereas ''Bowling for Columbine'' uses the same type of technique by almost talking with a voiceover throughout the footage of the milkman, farmer being normal everyday things alongside the idea of America bombing countries ''whose name we couldn't pronounce'' and a half naked woman holding a dangerous weapon all being part of ''a typical day in America and this feature being seen throughout with this type of documentary also being biased due to the nature of the documentary matching only the filmmakers thoughts and no one else's. Another thing is the soundtrack used for both with ''Tattoo Tears'' having no voiceover's or music, and instead relying on diegetic sound's between the interviewer and interviewee, with the only work done to the sound is the sound bridge used when there is a cut from a shot of the interviewer's back to his face. While ''Bowling for Columbine'' uses a voiceover throughout the opening scene with a sarcastic yet casual tone of voice throughout stating a ''typical day in America'', with non-‐diegetic sound at the background and the music being almost militaristic and patriotic, trying to convey the feeling of pride for USA, again continuing the feeling of ''a typical day in America''. Also editing is used differently such in ''Tattoo Tears'' is presented in a real style due to the long duration shot, meaning the filmmaker wanted to the viewer to know that it was filmed in real time, making the character's more interesting due to the fact
that they aren't being played up and everything they are saying being truthful. Whereas ''Bowling for Columbine'' is presented into a montage with quick cuts to images that separate don't mean anything, however once edited Michael Moore presents it as if it is ''A typical day in America'' while showing his opinion, whereas ''Tattoo Tears'' is more balanced relying on actual real time footage to convey the feeling that is fair also correct(or accurate). ''Bowling for Columbine'' also uses graphic match's to show how the woman with a gun relates to the Statue of liberty also comparing the two characters against one another to see the difference over time. Moore also leaves out footage on purpose in order to create the feeling he is trying to present to the viewer, with the footage being made to look like he can got a gun in one day, as long as he didn't have any criminal charges, but could be crazy, when in fact the gun was shipped in over night from another bank 300 miles away, while he also had to sign other papers in order to get a gun such as a mailing gun orders and to have a background check afterwards.
Conclusion The main difference between TV news and documentaries, is that TV News is need to be impartial and truthful, and accurate about the information that they send out, as we as an audience believe everything that they say to be true. As if it is found out that the news isn't telling you the truth then, you will most likely get sued or even fired by OFCOM, as your audience wouldn’t believe anything that you said after that , a recent example of this kind of situation is when Newsnight had broadcast a report, that indicated that a politician was a paedophile, and this news was later found out to be false, and due to this the programme’s audience didn’t believe everything that they, said and were forced to pay the person for compensation, and all of this for a while threatened the state of the show.Whereas Documentaries are more more in line to be subjective, through the filmmakers opinion, this typically done in a third person point of view meaning the audience are more in line to believe what they are seeing . As an example of this use is when a ‘voice of god’ voiceover is used by someone who is detached from the subject matter, as this is something typically seen in expository documentaries to be specific, even though documentaries are subjective, since it express a point of view in a third person view, meaning we preserve it as being accurate. Another issue is the representation that the filmmaker chooses in order to preserve the subject that they are covering it, weather it be in a negative or positive (or a balanced argument) light. As the use of the soundtrack, the editing, mise-‐en-‐scene and camerawork can all be presented in a particular way that controls the way that it is shown in. As a show like News at 10 has a very different target audience when compared to something like Newsround as News at 10 is aimed at a serious audience of adults that are interested or want to know the big news going on in the day. While a childrens programme like Newsround. highlights the less major news events and follows almost happy news programme’s with it being someone doing something semi-‐successful. News programmes also rely on the use of sound to help indicate the authenticity or ‘realistic’ nature that diegetic sound is used to represent as if it is ‘actual’ sound. Whereas Non-‐diegetic sound instead how you can change how your subject matter is presented, as you could add a ‘voice of god’ voiceover to express a clear view
point, while music can be used in the same way to help express your idea or to make the viewer feel a certain way about something that they are seeing, as non-‐diegetic sound is traditionally called ‘Commentary’ sound. However a filmmaker can also present their work in a biased manner, as showing them a one-‐sided argument, and not a balanced argument which lets the audience make up their own mind. This is a typical problem with a biased viewpoint, the audience could disagree with your opinion, meaning they won’t believe what they are seeing in the documentary. Documentaries aren’t the only form that is biased as the news is to, as the news typical presents the news in the viewpoint of a certain country of even a TV channel, an example of this is news of UK troops dying in Iraq/Afghanistan, but not other countries. Another important thing for factual programming is all programming is made for a particular target audience, a somewhat niche audience with filmmakers knowing this as they made it to appeal to a certain demographic, meaning viewers that are not in the target audience, wouldn’t turn over and watch this programme that isn’t clearly aimed at them. But some viewers will watch and disagree with the programme, such as them noticing that it has a subjective viewpoint, with the filmmaker only showing evidence that further helps prove their point, however not all audience members will notice this and are more inclined to believe everything they see as objective, as they believe documentaries are something that is proven to be fact and accurate, even though everyone’s opinion is viewed truthful to themselves.
Published on Apr 24, 2013