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A more perfect union: Plea for free speech and public expression

A More Perfect in a commercialUnion landscape

Plea for free speech and public expression in a commercial landscape


A more perfect union: Plea for free speech and public expression

A More Perfect in a commercialUnion landscape

Plea for free speech and public expression in a commercial landscape


Premise

Table of Contents Disjointed Reality

Truly public space needs the presence of public life. If it is accepted that daily public life occurs within a commercial landscape--privately owned and controlled space--then it follows that a publicly owned space must be inserted within the commercial in order to have a place which allows for free speech and expression, a place controlled by the laws governing all citizens.

Democracy and Protest Separation Public Life (?) Civic Architecture Site: Kiener Plaza Spatial Concept


Disjointed Reality

car street

Real

Disjointed Reality

Imaginary

pedestrian street


Disjointed Reality

empty park

Real

Disjointed Reality

Imaginary

active park


Disjointed Reality

empty plaza

Disjointed Reality

Real Real

Imaginary

active plaza


Disjointed Reality

empty street

Disjointed Reality

Real

Imaginary

active street


Disjointed Reality

suburban piaza

Real

Disjointed Reality

Imaginary

Italian piaza


Disjointed Reality

interior galleria

Real

Disjointed Reality

Imaginary

Italian galleria


Disjointed Reality

store with no context

Real

Disjointed Reality

Imaginary

store with context


Disjointed Reality

private security

Real

Disjointed Reality

Imaginary Real

constant surveillance


Disjointed Reality

no protest camp allowed

Real

Disjointed Reality

Imaginary Real

public expression


Democracy and Protest


Democracy and Protest occupy wall street

Occupy Wall Street was the most significant demonstration of public expression in America since the Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War Protest. Where citizens chose to Site their protests and the Effects and Consequences of those spatial decisions reveal a lot about the State of Public Space in America.

Democracy and Protest occupy wall street


Democracy and Protest free speech in practice Though the Civil Rights Movement was met with violent backlash from law enforcement, citizens were able to appeal to the court of law and make illegal such oppression to free speech.

Civil Rights Movement While the Vietnam War Protest faced discrimination and oppression from both the militart and law enforcement, most public expression and free speech occured in publicly owned spaces, thereby allowing citizens to amend laws and establish what is legally allowed in public spaces. Vietnam War Protest Unlike both the Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War Protests, Occupy Wall Street was conducted on Privately Owned Public Space. While occupiers were allowed to practice free speech by Zuccotti Park’s owners, they had no legal options to appeal or overturn the will of the private owners of the land. Occupy Wall Street

Democracy and Protest occupy movement sites Protest was met with violent opposition from police. Revealed racial and economic unrest still present in California.

Oakland, CA Protest had a low turnout. It was conducted on public space but was separated and screened with trees from public life.

Miami, FL Though conducted on a publicly owned college campus, the protest was noted for the brutality displayed by the law enforcement called to help maintain peace.

Davis, CA

Protest had a low turnout. It was conducted on public space but could not find an effective location in proximity to public life to broadcast its message.

Las Vegas, NV Protest had a low turnout. It was conducted on public space but was separated and more importantly hidden from public life through the design of the sunken plaza in the public space.

St. Louis, MO Protest had a high turnout and reflect the general openness to civic and public activities in Seattle.

Seattle, WA


Democracy and Protest OWS vs OSTL

Democracy and Protest OWS vs OSTL

Population distribution of New York City

Population distribution of St. Louis

Occupy Wall Street was located in one of the MOST dense areas of the city.

Occupy St. Louis was located in one of the LEAST dense areas of the city.

Population Density per square mile

Population Density per square mile

Less than 50 per square mile

Less than 50 per square mile

50-249

50-249

250-999

250-999

1,000-4,999

1,000-4,999

5,000 and higher

5,000 and higher

Location

Zuccotti Park

CAMP TOWN

A desire for PUBLIC EXPRESSION needs the presence of a truly PUBLIC SPACE.

Kiener Plaza

Location

EMPTY TOWN

A desire for PUBLIC EXPRESSION needs the presence of a PUBLIC LIFE.


Democracy and protest spatial context of OWS 4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

15 commercial venues in an area 4x smaller than Kiener Plaza

4'-21 4"

privately owned

Retail Stores: 15

4'-21 4"

50’ 100’ 200’

Owned by : Brookfield Prop

Spatial context of Zuccotti Park

Scale: 4'-21 4"

Scale:

4'-21 4"

Spatial context of Zuccotti Park

Democracy and Protest spatial context of OSTL 50’ 100’ 200’

Owned by : City of STL

publicly owned

Retail Stores: 12

12 commercial venues in an area 4x larger than Zuccotti Park


Separation


Separation

Separation

civic and commercial

How did we get here?

civic and commercial

A short discussion on the rupture between the civic and commercial

Urban 6th century BC

iic

ommercial

112 AD

1823

Posturban 1885

1956

1962


Separation Athens

agora

Separation

6th century BC

Athen’s Agora

Commercial

Athens, Greece 6th Century B.C. Population ~290,000

112 AD

The agora was the original place of public gatheringin ancient Greek city-states. While originally used only for athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life, it later became the site for market exchange as well.

6th century BC

civic space: defined

Civic

1823 1885

market space: event days

1956 1962


Separation Trajan’s Forum

Roman Capitol, Rome 106-112

Population ~1,000,000 200,000 in urban

Separation

112 AD Commercial

civic space: dominant Trajan’s Forum consists primarily of civic and religious buildings with commercial market space boardering its northeast edge.

Civic 6th century BC

Forum

forum

112 AD 1823 1885

market space: ancillary

1956 1962


Separation Arcade

Galerie Vivienne

Paris, France 1823

Population ~650,000

arcade

Separation

1823 Commercial

112 AD

Located between the stock exchange and civic buildings, Galerie Vivienne functioned as a clean, interior shopping experience set off from the dirty, exterior street.

6th century BC

civic space: proximity

Civic

1823 1885

market space: passage way

1956 1962


Separation Department Store

Marshall Field Store

Chicago, IL USA 1885

Population ~1,099,850

department store

Separation

1885 Commercial

112 AD

The department store is noted for its close ties to the dry good warehouse. Unlike previous forms of commercial shopping, the department store creates a total, multi leveled, themed, internal experience. Marshall Field Store is most noted for introducing the escalator and the personal shopper service experience.

6th century BC

civic space: absent

Civic

1823 1885

market space: total

1956 1962


Separation Suburban Shopping Mall

Southdale Center

Edina, MN USA 1956

Population ~30,482

shopping mall

Separation

1956 Commercial

urban space: absent

112 AD

While malls of various types have existed as a spatial condition for quite some time, the suburban shopping mall was constructed in the recently formed suburb of Edina. In a way similar to BigBox, the mall brought the notion of urban, public activity back into the insistently private, quite, enclosed suburban context.

6th century BC

civic space: absent

Civic

1823 1885

market space: total

1956 1962


Separation Big-Box Store

Meijer

Grand Rapids, MI, USA 1962

Population ~177,313

big-box store

Separation

1962 Commercial

urban space: absent

112 AD 1823

It is difficult to know when the Big-Box Store became a personal shopping experience since its architectural form so closely resembles a warehouse. Meijer’s store was constructed in the recently created suburban area of Grand Rapids, Michigan. Devoid of civic space, density, commercial references, crowds, filth, smell, the site was made. Brutally ripping the department store from its context and smashing it into the expansive suburban neighborhoods, Big-Box had arrived.

6th century BC

civic space: absent

Civic

1885

market space: total

1956 1962


Public Life (?)


Public Life (?)

public

Public Life (?)

private

Conflicted interests

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. -Preamble to the Constitution

Shopping is arguable the last remaining form of public activity. Through a battery of increasinlgy predatory forms, shopping has infiltrated, colonized, and even replaced almost every aspect of urban life. Town centers, suburbs, streets, and now airports, train stations, museums, hospitals, schools, the Internet, and the military are shaped by the mechanisms and spaces of shopping...[making] it one of the principal--if only--modes by which we experience the city. -Rem Koolhaas


Public Life (?) Big Box Retail Store -Enclosed

daily public life

Public Life (?)

daily information Commercial Strip Action

walking

Information device

window display

-Destionation center -Single retailer Indoor Mall -Enclosed

Checkout Counter

Action

paying

Information device

news rack

-Destination center -Multiple retailers

Commercial Strip

Road

-Open air

Action

driving

Information device

billboard

-Walking path -Multiple retailers


Public Life (?)

big-box store

Public Life (?)

big-box store

Former context:

urban department store

controlled space: parking lot

commercial space: retail warehouse


Public Life (?)

mall

Public Life (?)

mall

Former context:

urban galleria

controlled space: mall corridor

commercial space: retail stores


Public Life (?)

commercial strip

Public Life (?)

commercial strip

Former context:

city street

controlled space: sidewalk

commercial space: retail stores


Civic Architecture Unlike commercial space, which can appear from and return to nowhere, civic space must remain stubbornly fixed in place due to its location within the cultural and historical fabric of its site. Though commercial architecture may change with the desires of a given moment, civic architecture carries the decisions made by its creator until the building’s form and space are considered absolutely unsalvagable.


Civic Architecture

Old Courthouse

Civic Architecture

Old Courthouse

St. Louis, MO 1821

St. Louis, MO 1950

Population ~4,500

Population ~880,000

Foundation of the court house

Dense urban context

St. Louis, MO 1846

St. Louis, MO 1965

Population ~35,390

Population ~622,236

Dread-Scott Case.

Leveled urban context


Civic Architecture

Old Courthouse

Civic Architecture

Old Courthouse

St. Louis, MO 2000

St. Louis, MO 2011

Population ~348,189

Population ~318,069

Kiener plaza created as foreground to courthouse

Occupy St. Louis sited at Kiener plaza in front of the old corthouse. Despite low density in the area, protest site considered appropriate due to its historically understood location as a place where major decisions are made.

St. Louis, MO 2009

St. Louis, MO 2011

Population ~319,294

Population ~318,069

HOK proposal for Kiener plaza

Michael van Valkenburgh Associates proposal for the CityArchRiver project


Civic Architecture

CityArchRiver

Real

Civic Architecture

CityArchRiver

Imaginary CityArchRiver 2015 will make the Arch easier and safer for everyone toexperience by connecting, invigorating and expanding the park’s grounds and museums.

Why no Shopping?

Designed by world-renowned landscape architecture firm Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, CityArchRiver 2015 connects the Gateway Arch grounds with the East and West riverfronts and the region. Through the creation of new spaces for events and public education, expanded museum space, additional park acreage and bicycle trails, children’s play areas, performance venues and a lively, invigorated riverfront, locals and tourists alike will find new opportunities to learn, linger and enjoy one of the world’s most recognized icons.


Civic Architecture

No shops? No density?

CityArchRiver

Civic Architecture

CityArchRiver Somewhere these people bought something...

No speech? Too green! Too quiet!

A small admittance of retails's need presence on the water front.


Civic Architecture

co-exist

Can the Civic, the Public and the Commercial co-exist?

Civic Architecture

co-exist


Civic Architecture

co-exist

Civic Architecture

co-exist


Site: Kiener Plaza


Site: Kiener Plaza

urban context

Site: Kiener Plaza

urban context


Site: Kiener Plaza





urban context





36’







18’



1 

9’ 3’

 36’

 

18’

 

2

9’ 3’

  18’

 

3

9’ 3’

36’

18’

4

9’ 3’

Site: Kiener Plaza

urban context


Site: Kiener Plaza

urban context

Site: Kiener Plaza

proposed program


Spatial Concept


Spatial Concept

early exploration


Spatial Concept Public Space

Mediatheque

Broadcasting

interplay of program Shopping


Christopher perrodin dt f12 124  

Part 3 of a 5 part refining process. The final product is posted already as "A More Perfect Union.

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