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A More Perfect Union Plea for free speech and public expression in a commercial landscape


A more perfect union: Plea for free speech and public expression in a commercial landscape

Student: Christopher Perrodin Professor: Derek Hoeferlin T.A. : Ashley Hoolihan Fall 2012


PREMISE Truly public space needs the presence of public life. If it is accepted that daily public life occurs within a commercial landscape--privately owned and controlled spaces--then it follows that a publicly owned space must be inserted within the commercial in order to have a place which allows for free speech and expression among the public, a place which allows for the rule of law governing all citizens. However, spaces for public gathering rely on a richer historical context. Unlike commercial space, which can appear from and return to nowhere, civic space must remain stubbornly fixed in place due to its location within the cultural and historical fabric of its site. Though commercial architecture may change with the desires of a given moment, civic architecture carries the decisions made by its creator until the building’s form and space are considered absolutely unsalvagable. Therefore, the chosen site is located in front of the Old Courthouse in downtown St. Louis. It is at the Old Courthouse that St. Louis citizens chose to be part of the international Occupy protests. It is at the Old Courthouse that the Dread-Scott case was decided. By extension, it is understood on a deeply historical and cultural level as a location for public discussion on how to move forward as a people. The architectural design project will explore how commercial and public spaces can begin to communicate with each in order to form a more perfect union.


TABLE OF CONTENTS DISJOINTED REALITY DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST SEPARATION PUBLIC LIFE (?) CIVIC ARCHITECTURE SITE: KIENER PLAZA SPATIAL CONCEPT


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

car street vs. pedestrian street


DISJOINTED REALITY

car street vs. pedestrian street

IMAGINARY


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

empty park vs. active park


DISJOINTED REALITY

empty park vs. active park

IMAGINARY


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

empty plaza vs. active plaza

Real


DISJOINTED REALITY

empty plaza vs. active plaza

IMAGINARY


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

empty street vs. active street


DISJOINTED REALITY

empty street vs. active street

IMAGINARY


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

suburban piaza vs. Italian piaza


DISJOINTED REALITY

suburban piaza vs. Italian piaza

IMAGINARY


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

enclosed galleria vs. open galleria


DISJOINTED REALITY

enclosed galleria vs. open galleria

IMAGINARY


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

a-contextual vs. contextual


DISJOINTED REALITY

a-contextual vs. contextual

IMAGINARY


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

private security


DISJOINTED REALITY

constant surveillance

REAL


DISJOINTED REALITY

Real REAL

no protest camp allowed


DISJOINTED REALITY

public expression

REAL


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST

occupy wall street

Occupy Wall Street was the most significant demonstration of public expression in America since the Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War Protest. Where citizens chose to Site their protests and the Effects and Consequences of those spatial decisions reveal a lot about the State of Public Space in America.


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST

occupy wall street


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST Though the Civil Rights Movement was met with violent backlash from law enforcement, citizens were able to appeal to the court of law and make illegal such oppression to free speech.

Civil Rights Movement While the Vietnam War Protest faced discrimination and oppression from both the military and law enforcement, most public expression and free speech occurred in publicly owned spaces, thereby allowing citizens to amend laws and establish what is legally allowed in public spaces. Vietnam War Protest Unlike both the Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War Protests, Occupy Wall Street was conducted on Privately Owned Public Space. While occupiers were allowed to practice free speech by Zuccotti Park’s owners, they had no legal options to appeal or overturn the will of the private owners of the land.

Occupy Wall Street

free speech in practice


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST

occupy movement sites Protest was met with violent opposition from police. Revealed racial and economic unrest still present in California.

Oakland, CA Protest had a low turnout. It was conducted on public space but was separated and screened with trees from public life.

Miami, FL Though conducted on a publicly owned college campus, the protest was noted for the brutality displayed by the law enforcement called to help maintain peace.

Davis, CA

Protest had a low turnout. It was conducted on public space but could not find an effective location in proximity to public life to broadcast its message.

Las Vegas, NV Protest had a low turnout. It was conducted on public space but was separated and more importantly hidden from public life through the design of the sunken plaza in the public space.

St. Louis, MO Protest had a high turnout and reflect the general openness to civic and public activities in Seattle.

Seattle, WA


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST Population distribution of New York City Occupy Wall Street was located in one of the MOST dense areas of the city.

Population Density per square mile Less than 50 per square mile 50-249 250-999 1,000-4,999 5,000 and higher

Location

Zuccotti Park

CAMP TOWN

A desire for PUBLIC EXPRESSION needs the presence of a truly PUBLIC SPACE.

OWS vs. OSTL


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST

OWS vs. OSTL Population distribution of St. Louis Occupy St. Louis was located in one of the LEAST dense areas of the city.

Population Density per square mile Less than 50 per square mile 50-249 250-999 1,000-4,999 5,000 and higher

Kiener Plaza

Location

EMPTY TOWN

A desire for PUBLIC EXPRESSION needs the presence of a PUBLIC LIFE.


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST Spatial context of Zuccotti Park

spatial context of OWS Scale: 4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

50’ 100’ 200’

Owned by : Brookfield Prop

privately owned

Retail Stores: 15

15 commercial venues in an area 4x smaller than Kiener Plaza


DEMOCRACY AND PROTEST

spatial context of OSTL Spatial context of Zuccotti Park

Scale: 4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

4'-21 4"

50’ 100’ 200’

Owned by : City of STL

publicly owned

Retail Stores: 12

12 commercial venues in an area 4x larger than Zuccotti Park


SEPARATION


Separation

civic and commercial

How did we get here?


Separation

civic and commercial

A short discussion on the rupture between the civic and commercial Uran 6th century BC

Ciic

Coercia

112 AD

1823

Posturan 1885

1956

1962


SEPARATION Agora

Athen’s Agora

Athens, Greece 6th Century B.C. Population ~290,000

The agora was the original place of public gathering in ancient Greek city-states. While originally used only for athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life, it later became the site for market exchange as well.

agora


SEPARATION

6th century BC Commercial

6th century BC

civic space: defined

Civic

112 AD 1823 1885

market space: event days

1956 1962


SEPARATION Forum

Trajan’s Forum

Roman Capitol, Rome 106-112

Population ~1,000,000 200,000 in urban

Trajan’s Forum consists primarily of civic and religious buildings with commercial market space bordering its northeast edge.

forum


SEPARATION

112 AD Commercial

6th century BC

civic space: dominant

Civic

112 AD 1823 1885

market space: ancillary

1956 1962


SEPARATION Arcade

Galerie Vivienne

Paris, France 1823

Population ~650,000

Located between the stock exchange and civic buildings, Galerie Vivienne functioned as a clean, interior shopping experience set off from the dirty, exterior street.

arcade


SEPARATION

1823 Commercial

6th century BC

civic space: proximity

Civic

112 AD 1823 1885

market space: passage way

1956 1962


SEPARATION Department Store

Marshall Field Store

Chicago, IL USA 1885

Population ~1,099,850

The department store is noted for its close ties to the dry good warehouse. Unlike previous forms of commercial shopping, the department store creates a total, multi leveled, themed, internal experience. Marshall Field Store is most noted for introducing the escalator and the personal shopper service experience.

department store


SEPARATION

1885 Commercial

6th century BC

civic space: absent

Civic

112 AD 1823 1885

market space: total

1956 1962


SEPARATION Suburban Shopping Mall

Southdale Center

Edina, MN USA 1956

Population ~30,482

While malls of various types have existed as a spatial condition for quite some time, the suburban shopping mall was constructed in the recently formed suburb of Edina. In a way similar to BigBox, the mall brought the notion of urban, public activity back into the insistently private, quite, enclosed suburban context.

shopping mall


SEPARATION

1956 Commercial

urban space: absent

6th century BC

civic space: absent

Civic

112 AD 1823 1885

market space: total

1956 1962


SEPARATION Big-Box Store

Meijer

Grand Rapids, MI, USA 1962

Population ~177,313

It is difficult to know when the Big-Box Store became a personal shopping experience since its architectural form so closely resembles a warehouse. Meijer’s store was constructed in the recently created suburban area of Grand Rapids, Michigan. Devoid of civic space, density, commercial references, crowds, filth, smell, the site was made. Brutally ripping the department store from its context and smashing it into the expansive suburban neighborhoods, BigBox had arrived.

big-box store


SEPARATION

1962 Commercial

urban space: absent

6th century BC

civic space: absent

Civic

112 AD 1823 1885

market space: total

1956 1962


PUBLIC LIFE (?)


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

public vs. private

CONFLICTED INTERESTS

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. -Preamble to the Constitution


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

public vs. private

Shopping is arguable the last remaining form of public activity. Through a battery of increasinlgy predatory forms, shopping has infiltrated, colonized, and even replaced almost every aspect of urban life. Town centers, suburbs, streets, and now airports, train stations, museums, hospitals, schools, the Internet, and the military are shaped by the mechanisms and spaces of shopping...[making] it one of the principal--if only--modes by which we experience the city. -Rem Koolhaas


PUBLIC LIFE (?) Big Box Retail Store -Enclosed -Destionation center -Single retailer

Indoor Mall -Enclosed -Destination center -Multiple retailers

Commercial Strip -Open air -Walking path -Multiple retailers

daily public life


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

daily information exchange Commercial Strip Action

walking

Information device

window display

Checkout Counter

Action

paying

Information device

news rack

Road Action

driving

Information device

billboard


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

big-box store


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

big-box store

Former context:

urban department store

controlled space: parking lot

commercial space: retail warehouse


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

mall


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

mall

Former context:

urban galleria

controlled space: mall corridor

commercial space: retail stores


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

commercial strip


PUBLIC LIFE (?)

commercial strip

Former context:

city street

controlled space: sidewalk

commercial space: retail stores


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE Unlike commercial space, which can appear from and return to nowhere, civic space must remain stubbornly fixed in place due to its location within the cultural and historical fabric of its site.


Though commercial architecture may change with the desires of a given moment, civic architecture carries the decisions made by its creator until the building’s form and space are considered absolutely unsalvagable.


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE St. Louis, MO 1821 Population ~4,500

Foundation of the court house

St. Louis, MO 1846 Population ~35,390

Dred Scott v. Sandford

Old Courthouse


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

Old Courthouse St. Louis, MO 1950 Population ~880,000

Dense urban context

St. Louis, MO 1965 Population ~622,236

Leveled urban context


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE St. Louis, MO 2000 Population ~348,189

Kiener plaza created as foreground to courthouse

St. Louis, MO 2009 Population ~319,294

HOK proposal for Kiener plaza

Old Courthouse


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

Old Courthouse St. Louis, MO 2011 Population ~318,069

Occupy St. Louis sited at Kiener plaza in front of the old courthouse. Despite low density in the area, protest site considered appropriate due to its historically understood location as a place where major decisions are made. St. Louis, MO 2011 Population ~318,069

Michael van Valkenburgh Associates proposal for the CityArchRiver project


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

CityArchRiver

REAL

Why no Shopping?


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

CityArchRiver

IMAGINARY

CityArchRiver 2015 will make the Arch easier and safer for everyone toexperience by connecting, invigorating and expanding the park’s grounds and museums. Designed by world-renowned landscape architecture firm Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, CityArchRiver 2015 connects the Gateway Arch grounds with the East and West riverfronts and the region. Through the creation of new spaces for events and public education, expanded museum space, additional park acreage and bicycle trails, children’s play areas, performance venues and a lively, invigorated riverfront, locals and tourists alike will find new opportunities to learn, linger and enjoy one of the world’s most recognized icons.


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

No shops? No density? No speech? Too green! Too quiet!

CityArchRiver


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

CityArchRiver Somewhere these people bought something...

A small admittance of retail’s needed presence on the water front.


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

co-exist

Can the Civic, the Public and the Commercial co-exist?


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

co-exist


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

co-exist


CIVIC ARCHITECTURE

co-exist


SITE: KIENER PLAZA


SITE: KIENER PLAZA

urban context


SITE: KIENER PLAZA

urban context


urban context

SITE: KIENER PLAZA

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SITE: KIENER PLAZA ’

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’

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1’

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urban context


SITE: KIENER PLAZA

urban context


SITE: KIENER PLAZA

proposed program


SPATIAL CONCEPT


SPATIAL CONCEPT

early exploration


Public Space

Mediatheque


SPATIAL CONCEPT

Broadcasting

interplay of program

Shopping


SPATIAL CONCEPT

OMA’s proposal for Les Halles provides a framework around which programs can enteract in section. Each program emerges from the ground plane as its tower.

OMA, Les Halles


SPATIAL CONCEPT

OMA, Les Halles

In plan, the ground plane is divided into zones around which each tower exerts a certain influence.


SPATIAL CONCEPT

SANAA’s Rolex Learning Center stands as a strong example of how to blur programs together. Without using partition walls, the building divides the program up by bending both floor and ceiling up or down to create small hills and valleys.

SANAA, Rolex Center


SPATIAL CONCEPT

SANAA, Rolex Ceneter

The holes in the rectangle help to bring natural light into the building. However, someone inside the building cannot access the outside through these punctures.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIBLIOGRAPHY http://artobserved.com/2008/08/banksy-showsup-in-force-in-new-orleans/

http://www.stoa.org/diotima/icons/academia_mosaic.jpg

http://www.caradvice.com.au/126746/carbon-tax-relief-promised-for-ordinary-drivers/

http://www.builtstlouis.net/arch.html

http://lornastearoomdelights.com/

Olive Street north from Sixth Street. Photograph, 1920. Missouri History Museum Photographs and Prints Collection. Swekosky-MHS Collection. n14762.

http://www.portlandonline.com/parks

Photographer Dana Haynes

Georges Pierre Seurat “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte”

“Interior Garden Court with stairway to upper level in Southdale Regional Shopping Center, the first enclosed shopping mall.” Color transparency by Grey Villet, Life magazine photo archive

http://www.stlouisarch.com/visit/list-of-attractions/kiener-plaza/

http://bi-stateroof.com/projects2.php

Susy Guese “Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II”

Photographer Noel Y.C.


BIBLIOGRAPHY http://constructionmarketingblog.org/ home-center-retail-opportunities-for-construction-brands/#.UNK49m_AdaI

Photographers Brendan McDermid / Reuters-Landov

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Marshall_Field_ Warehouse_Store.jpg

Adbuster’s image which incorporates the 3 dimensional work of Arturo Di Modica titled “Charging Bull

Photographer al3xbyal3x “Security Guard on Segway @ Valley River Mall in Eugene, Oregon”

National Archives and Records Administration “Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C.”

photo courtesy of Wayne Police

Photo courtesy of the Associated Press

http://theoldspeakjournal.wordpress.com/tag/ political-activism/

AP Photo/ Louis Lanzano

AP Photo/Noah Berger

Seth Wenig/AP

Ethan Miller/Getty Images News

Photographer David Carson


BIBLIOGRAPHY Joe Raedle/Getty Images North America

Photographer Billy Hathorn

Photographer David Carson

Photographer Alfred Molon

Jasna Hodzic / The California Aggie/EPA

Spencer Platt/Getty Images

Photographer Joshua Trujillo

Watercolor by Peter Connolly

John M. Camp. 2001. The Archaeology of Athens. New Haven: Yale University Press: fig. 59.

http://www.wane.com

Piranesi.Il Campo Marzio dell’Antica Roma (1762)

Howard Chandler Christy “Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States”

Platner, 1904

Ben Schumin “Pentagon City Mall.”


BIBLIOGRAPHY Photographer Mbzt

http://news.walmart.com/news-archive/2011/04/11/walmart-reinforces-its-commitment-to-deliver-low-prices-every-day-on-everything

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Marshall_Field_ Warehouse_Store.jpg

http://shoppingwithjuan.com/advantages-shopping-mall.html

“Interior Garden Court with stairway to upper level in Southdale Regional Shopping Center, the first enclosed shopping mall.” Color transparency by Grey Villet, Life magazine photo archive

http://www.visitusa.com/arizona/cities/phoenix/ shopping.htm

http://visittheloop.com/

http://mrcheckout.net/about-us/blitz/500-storeblitz/blitz-defined/

http://maoy.strategyonline.ca/2009/omd/mcdonalds.html

Boehl & Koenig – Photographer “Old Courthouse. St. Louis, Missouri.”

Artist Louis Schultze

“This is Our St. Louis” by Harry M. Hagen.

“This is Our St. Louis” by Harry M. Hagen.

Photographer Daniel Schwen


BIBLIOGRAPHY HOK blogspot

From the MVVA plans

Photographer Albert Samaha

From the MVVA plans

From the MVVA plans

Courtesy of OMA.

Photographer Michael Barera

Courtesy of OMA.

From the MVVA plans

Courtesy of OMA.

From the MVVA plans

Courtesy of OMA.


BIBLIOGRAPHY http://squidz-bark.blogspot.com/2010/05/ rolex-learning-center.html

http://amaarquitectura.blogspot.com/2008/12/ descarga-el-artculo-publicado-por-en.html

http://www.tomiokoyamagallery.com/

http://amaarquitectura.blogspot.com/2008/12/ descarga-el-artculo-publicado-por-en.html

A More Perfect Union  

The research is used to help inform my degree project. It is a polemical exploration of the separation between civic and commercial space.

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