Page 1

THE PHENOMENAL SCHOOL

Phenomenological interaction with pedagogy through architecture

r

By: Christophe ockhill

ii


M.Arch 2014

iii

Portland State University

School of Architecture PO Box 751 Portland, OR 97207


THE PHENOMENAL SCHOOL Using Architecture as A Teaching Tool for First-Hand Haptic Learning

Master of Architecture Thesis 2011 iv Department of Architecture School of Fine and Performing Arts


v


The Phenomenal School Using Architecture as a Teaching Tool for First-Hand Haptic Learning by christopherockhill

Thesis document submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture at Portland State University Portland, Oregon June 2014

vi


vii


PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS The undersigned hereby certify that the Masters thesis of Christopher Rockhill has been approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture

Thesis Committee: Advisor Margarette Leite Assistant Professor in the School of Architecture

Date

Clive R. Knights Professor of Architecture, Director of the School of Architecture

Date

viii


Acknowledgements First and foremost my mother Christine Dillion, for being the role-model I would be most fortunate to emulate. With an unwavering work ethic, ability to work her way through problems, without a doubt of success flushing out any and all opportunities to keep moving forward. With entrepreneurial vision, I could hope to exceed and an philanthropic practice I could not hope to achieve. As a property manager she not only simultaneously, single-handedly managed over a hundred estates, but managed the lives of a magnitude of the people who needed housed, employed, domesticated, and for many a second chance at life. More fortunate than merely a role model she was and always will be my guardian and care giver, supporting me throughout fiscally and emotionally, she has endured hardship so that I will never have to. She is the strongest person I know. That is a very unbiased opinion, ask anyone that knows her. Most of all she gives without asking for anything in return except that you try to succeed. Daryl Hensley, My first boss said, “you have a job here as long as you are in school, if you drop out your fired.” He also taught me an invaluable life lesson, he would say, “framers are inherently lazy, so we work smarter than harder.” He meant not that we were, he meant, there is an efficient and inefficient way of doing anything, by being alert and aware, you will spend less energy to achieve more. His framing crew acted as a family where every one was treated as equal with an equal role, and no inherent hierarchy of superiority or dominion. That allowed for an abundant flow of collaborative synergies Jada Rockhill, My 11 year old daughter a reflection of myself in every way. For allowing me to experience life through many lenses simultaneously, as a co-learner, teacher, student, guardian, care giver, and friend. There is so much to be learned about ones self by experiencing it from different perspectives. Also for enduring the time commitment synonymous with architecture school. She will looks to me as a role-model to emulate perseverance, work ethic, and striving to achieve more. Wendy Heinze and Linda Durham founders and educators of the Young Parent Opportunity Program at Clackamas Community College. In this private program I finished my final two years of high school and began to realize the inadequacies of the public school system, to no fault of educators. For the attentiveness of Wendy and Linda who a held twenty student limit between them. For returning work to students twice, for the students to gain an understanding of what they were doing and how to improve. Progressing from a C - D student throughout public school to a B + A student throughout my private school career. They urged me down this path as far as to put the scholarship application in my hands.

ix

Brian Massie, My second boss, For allowing me to pursue my career goals, by providing a flexible work schedule and for employing me in his home design firm well into the recession, that most directly effected the housing market. For never formally firing me, allowing an ebb and Flow relationship of my temporal college life and work.


Bernard ‘Reno’ Josen, For welcoming in and treating everyone as supportive loving family. This second family Reno surrounds himself with are of the highest character, honest, hard-working, elated individuals, of which I consider myself lucky to be part of. Though he calls himself a Journeyman Carpenter, in my eyes he is truly a master, of which I learn something new from every day. It would be a loss to never work with him again, regardless better yet I have gained a friend for life. Faculty of the School of Architecture: — John Cooney, For tearing the walls off my model in 181, the first of many collaborative synergies in my architecture school career, — Jeff Schnable, For broadening the scope of design abilities with a singular focus — Jason Jones, For allowing me to explore new horizons within a thoughtful guide. — B.D. Wortham-Galvin For Breaking through the walls of hypothetical building types to real life situations, places and clients. To build something that is being utilized this very minute, is a very humbling and motivating experience. — Corey Griffin, For having a contagious enthusiasm for anything and everything. That is a very valuable lesson in and of itself, to get your audience excited and better ready to receive your ides or information. My Thesis Committee: — Margarette Leite, For understanding and giving direction to often ambiguous opportunities. For bringing me back from the edge of design implosion time and again. For her look of disbelief until someone explains or draws something the right way. That truly makes everyone better as presenters and collaborators of ideas. — Clive Knights, For bringing clarity and narrative to unbridled energy of vast disparate thought, — Abby Dacey of Boora Architecture, for your valuable insight into the world architectural models of education design and collaborative critique of the design of the phenomenal school. — Julie Baasch, Molalla Middle School, Public Schools: Zalika Gardner Sunnyside Environmental School, Michelle Strobel Sunnyside Environmental School, Mike Nelsen Molalla Middle School Principal, Jessica Lehmann Molalla High School, Randee Onion Molalla Middle School, Linda Miller Rural Dell Elementary, Lissa Calder Molalla High School, Chad Pettingill Molalla Middle School, Finally Myself, For if you are doing something of this level of cognition, time and commitment purely for someone else‘s satisfaction, you are doing it for the wrong reason. I live by the Confucius credence, “Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.”

x


xi


Abstract My culminating interest in architecture school is brought on by the light its practice shines on that of my k-12 public school experience. In Kindergarten, play and creativity are high (by play I mean practice, physical interaction derived from/relating to the subject matter of reasoning.) As one progresses towards high school, practice gives way to auditory lectures of information and beliefs. Then again, in architecture school, practice implored as the most creative productive method, constantly reminds us to learn from and design to and with site context phenomena, (facts, occurrences, and circumstances observed kinestheticly through the senses). University research has found, that while 80% of public school instruction is auditory, only 10% of students are primarily ‘auditory learners’, leaving the other 90% ‘visual + tactile learners’ underserved 80% of the time. This raises the question; “how can we enhance the kinesthetic learning experience of pupils through a phenomenal interaction with the architecture?” The Phenomenal School design project is an exploration to find an answer to this question. The goal of education is knowledge, a learned understanding perceived in the overlap of beliefs and facts experienced by the pupil. Auditory teaching covers the beliefs side, the phenomenal school is to in fact reinforce the beliefs, for a holistic learning experience.

xii


xiii


Table of Contents Research Question������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Preface����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 Chapter 1 Research������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 1.1 Literature Review 1.2 Educators [10] Public School teachers wants and needs 1.3 Models of Alternative Education 1.31 Waldorf 1.32 Montessori 1.33 Reggio Emilia 1.34 Intro to LEGO Physics 1.35 Learning Landscapes 1.4 Comparative Analysis of Conventional vs. Alternative Pedagogies 1.5 Education Architecture Case Studies 1.51 siting and Planning Strategies 1.52 boora Master Planning

3.31 Plans 3.32 Models 3.33 Renderings 3.4 First Thursday

Conclusions������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 77 4.1 What I learned (Explored/Discovered/Experienced) 4.2 Reviewer Suggestions for Phenomenal School and Architecture 4.3 Next steps

References and Bibliography������������������������������������������������������������������������� 79 Additional Resources

Chapter 2 Pedagogical + Phenomenological + Architectural Explorations����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 2.1 LEXICON 2.2 Artifacts: Phenomenal Material Explorations 2.21 Sundial: Temporality + Optics 2.22 Sound + Mater: Physics + Material + Form 2.23 Tectonic + Material Adjacencies: Engineering 2.24 The Water Cycle: Geology + Geography + Meteorology 2.25 Analemmatic Sundials: Astronomy + Optics 2.26 Weathering Wall: Meteorology + materiality 2.3 Pedagogical / Architectural Explorations 2.31 Crank Roof 2.32 Venturi Air-lock 2.33 Weathering Wall 2.34 The Water Cycle 2.35 The Whispering Gallery Proof 2.36 Area Circulation 2.37 Tectonic Expression 2.38 Light + Literature

Chapter 3 The Phenomenal School������������������������������������������������������������ 38 3.1 Siting 3.11 Site Selection 3.12 Site Phenomena 3.2 Schematic Design 3.21 Imbuing boora’s Faubion 3.22 Temporal Lighting studies 3.3 Final Design Exploration

xiv


xv


List of Tables and Figures Fig 1: intro to lego physics �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 Fig 1.1 Collecting wood to build a tepee in the woods behind the schoolhouse.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Fig 1.2 A branch balanced on a split tree trunk seesaw.�������������������� 7 Fig 1.3 Learning isn’t boring for a child when their physical space is full of opportunities����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Fig 1.4 Children are curious, they ask a lot of questions and prefer to learn by doing..������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Fig 1.5 Large classrooms offer many spaces for exploration..������ 8 Fig 1.6 The physical environment is often referred to as the child’s third teacher...��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Fig 1.7 Children depict their understanding through many languages, including drawing, ..�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Fig 1.8 explorations with matter and light...���������������������������������������������� 9 Fig 1.9 A truly haptic learning experience. ..������������������������������������������������ 10 Fig 1.10 Children are curious, they ask a lot of questions and prefer to learn by doing. Fig 1.11 Southmoor Elementary stone seat walls outdoor classroom..��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 Fig 1.12 Tralor Elementary plaza of Geometric Expansion...�����������10 Fig 1.13 boora architecture schematic design...��������������������������������17-18 fig 3.1 boora architecture Master planning Faubion school...��53

xvi


I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. - Confucius, Chinese philosopher & reformer (551 BC - 479 BC) -

fig 1: intro to lego physics

1


How can we enhance the kinesthetic learning experience of pupils, through phenomenological interaction with pedagogy through the architecture, to provide a more holistic education for students?

2


“The school in brief, is a special (environment) for the facilitation of learning.” - Boyd Henry Bode -

Preface In an age were are public schools are teaching curricula of abstract and discredited theories of how children learn, one questions if our school practices have reduced our children’s ability and desire to learn. Schools practice a primarily auditory teaching style, when only ten percent of students are primarily auditory learners, then measure students engagement, understanding, and knowledge based on their ‘success’ through auditory assessment. Is the ‘success’ that current assessment practices measure the kind of success we want for our children? Auditory as it relates to teaching and learning is when verbal linguistic intelligence speaking, listening, reading, and writing are highly developed. Understanding of human capacities and the many and varied ways students can achieve, intelligence is not fixed, nor can it be measured by a unitary number in isolation. Intelligence can be developed and exhibited during performance and problem-solving processes, in the context of real-life situations.

There are elementary schools that foster creativity and safety with warm gradient tones and playful forms in their architecture, which is great and high schools have ventured out to use the city as a vocational classroom, which is also great, but there is a great overlooked opportunity in the architecture of the school house between the hyper creativity and the hyper pragmatism. This opportunity is one of, experiential, hands-on learning utilizing sensory phenomena, for the holistic education of the child.

My developing interest in architecture school, comes from the light it shines on that of my lacking therefore debilitating public k-12 school experience. I was the kid staring at the ceiling with feet that wouldn’t’ stop moving. I found in my studies this past fall, this is for good reason, I am a kinesthetic learner. Kinesthetics (Proprioception)

Diana Laufenberg said at the The Collaborative Leadership Summit, on ‘Transforming Education,’ “There is no silver bullet; there is not a magic solution to ‘fixing’ schools. True education shift and change is brutal to accomplish.” That is why The Phenomenal School is not pushing for education shift, but for transforming the environment in

is the awareness of the position and movement of the parts of the body using sensory organs. Kinesthetic learners are those who learn through experiencing/doing. 3

Alternative schools use performance-based assessments, where pupils demonstrate the knowledge and skills they have gained. in addition to taking a science test, they may present their experimental methods and findings, than writing an essay, they may write and perform a play based on how we react to, utilize and are sheltered from rain, for example, to their teachers, peers, and involved community groups.

which it exists, to reinforce the pedagogy thru phenomena.


1.0_Research As knowledge is the overlap of theories and facts, while theory is important in understanding prior and conceptual knowledge, the contribution of phenomena learning experience is as much needed for holistic learning. There is an important distinction between knowing that, and knowing how, Until one knows how to find their belief as a truth, one does not have knowledge. This is the exploration of The Phenomenal School, a medium, connecting phenomena facts to pedagogical beliefs through the architecture, as a simultaneous understanding, a revelation of knowledge. The conversation this thesis will produce Is far more valuable than any specific exploration it contains, as The Phenomenal School not meant to be a specific piece of architecture, but to develop a methodology for how to approach education design, a lexicon of opportunities to be taken from and added to.

4


1.1 Literature Review Schools We Need & Why We Don’t Have Them, ED Hirsch

Hirsch explains that the schools we have are “disdaining content-based curricula for abstract - and discredited - theories of how a child learns, the ideas uniformly taught by our schools have done terrible harm to America’s students.” Our school practices have severely curtailed children’s ability and desire to learn.1

“DOING SCHOOL,” How We Are Creating A Generation Of Stressed Out, Materialistic, And Miseducated Students, Denise Clark Pope

“Is the “success” that current assessment practices measure the kind of success we want for our children?”

- Denise Clark Pope -

“They are not really engaged with learning nor can they commit to such values as integrity and community.” The fear of being caught in a “grade trap” that pins future success to high grades and test scores. “Are schools cultivating an environment that promotes intellectual curiosity, cooperation, and integrity? Or are they fostering anxiety, deception, and hostility? Do today’s schools inadvertently impede the very values they claim to embrace?” Is the “success” that current assessment practices measure the kind of success we want for our children?”2

HOW WE LEARN, BOYD HENRY BODE.

“We learn from experience, an impression may or may not resemble the object we think we see. The school in brief, is a special (environment) for the facilitation of learning. Experiences take place because they are produced by the mind in reaction to the physiological stimulation.”3

Desecrates French philosopher

Desecrates proposed “the brain has two hemispheres the left and the right that are both active during cognition, leading to the full development of the individual.” One side is constructive, the other creative.

Methods and Techniques of Holistic Education Isadore L. Sonnier

“We have come to recognize that traditional education has served only the 5


“Life can be truly understood only if it is experienced as art is experienced, as inner activities expressed through physical materials. On this ground of the union of inner experience and sensory life.”

- Rudolf Steiner -

thinking and learning process of the left hemisphere. We need to include the right hemisphere to generate holistic configurationally learning. Holistic education is simultaneous process of both hemispheres. Thus, eliminating individual differences based in hemispheric preference.”4

images, through sketch, graphs and tables.

Towards Wholeness, Rudolf Steiner Education in America,

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (B) make precise bodily movements. Learn best by doing, moving, and acting things out.

Richards, Mary Caroline

In his holistic approach to education, Rudolf Steiner’s philosophy is that “life can be truly understood only if it is experienced as art is experienced, as inner activities expressed through physical materials. On this ground of the union of inner experience and sensory life.” 5

A Modern Art of Education, Rudolf Steiner

In every detail Steiner takes the different “life-periods” into consideration and arranges the lessons given in the classes according to “the needs of human nature itself.” With the intention to encourage our children to enter the “life of the world” in the right way. Nine and ten living intelligence knowledge of plants and animals. In mineralogy, physics, and chemistry. Eleven and twelve, they are able to form a rational, intellectual conception of cause and effect. At the age of fourteen and fifteen the pupil caries subject learning into vocational education.6

So Each May Learn

Musical Intelligence (M) able to produce melody and rhythm, sensitive to all nonverbal sound and the rhythms of everyday noise.

Interpersonal Intelligence (P) can relate to other people, react to moods, attitudes, and desires. Excellent team players/ managers. Intrapersonal Intelligence (I) access one’s own feelings and emotional states to form goals and conceptions of themselves. Naturalist Intelligence (N). highly attuned to the natural world of plants and animals, geography, .. The old view was that, intelligence was fixed, measured by a unitary number, measured in isolation, and was used to sort students and predict their success. The new view is that, intelligence can be developed. It is not numerically quantifiable and it is exhibited during a performance or problemsolving process. It can be exhibited in many ways, which are measured in the context of real-life situations, and understanding of human capacities and the many and varied ways students can achieve.

Silver, Harvey

Integrating learning styles and multiple intelligences into instruction, curriculum, and assessment. “Teaching Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences to Students.” Individuals do not have single, quantifiable intelligence. Intelligence is The ability to solve problems that one encounters in real life, to make something or offer a service that is valued within one’s culture.7 Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence (V) auditory skills highly developed, and they learn best when they can speak, listen, read, or write. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (L) physics finding patterns, causeand-effect, put ideas to test. Spatial Intelligence (S) Perception of visual details, create pictures and 6


1.2 Educators [10] Public School teachers’ wants and needs * Get The Students To Understand It, In A Way That They Understand * Peer To Peer Teaching: If a student can understand to a level to teaches others and does, they will know that forever. Students learn best from each other than the teacher. Hands-On Learning: Where multiple minds collaborate, this is not typical of pps. Learning by doing, practical experience. Add/ Body Movers: Some need to move (learn by continues movement), Some are distracted in their own head. If at traditional public schools you love to sit and read and draw, you are golden, If you are a body mover, you are disadvantage. Children need to do it (experience/ learn) hands-on, then need time to reflect and a way to store (the paint/clay...) Children settle so much better at one with nature than the classroom.

I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. - Confucius -

I Teach I Know Forever - Educator -

Teaching The Moment: The pupil and teacher “take ownership invested in the assignment.” Cognition of The left and right hemispheres of the brain| One side is dedicated to constructive the other creative, Both are required active simultaneously for cognition, Which is required for retention of concepts. Public schools are only budgeted to accommodate the constructive “Reading and writing need to be drilled there is really no other way.” Group-Based Learning Where multiple minds collaborate Students ‘make’ maps and globes ‘together’ based on folk tales around the world.|Making together in group-projects, Inviting: The first thing about the school is that it should be ‘inviting’, It needs to be welcoming as a place students cannot wait to go. The design of most schools is not inviting. Learning From The Natural Environment: “What if the whole school was designed to look like a forest?” The woods as a class being able to ‘explore’.

7


“The pupil, presented the opportunity of inspiration, becomes invested.”

- Educator-

Measure how tall a tree is, measure person standing next to tree. School as geocashing ‘scavenger hunt’. Area measurement. Digging and learning: Charting tracking weather Kids get spaced looking out the window, but also by their hand. Courtyards for controlled outdoor learning would be great.

Tectonics:The building car effect -> building can be a talking point of the bldg, Expose the furnace and all of its ducting to explain how systems work, That is the way we learn, through ‘interaction’ , Ecological, economical (capturing roof rain water to flush toilets) Ultra violet rays purify water

Field (Trip) Study Once a week field (trip) study to areas around Portland demonstrate| Storm water management, bio-swales, Stream ph testing (practiced in isolation in the classroom Then how do we apply to the real world by taking stream samples.

Education Revolves in a Looping Pattern: Holistic|skill based|drill based (phonix). No one way works for everybody. Right when they change the method results go up temporarily, this is because the old method worked for some and the new for others. Students learn best with the initial method “Time” said a middle school principle,We would love to do more projects building on the new. They do not use multiple methods simultaneously as the then we are doing, but those take time from standards. prescriptive path says it must be taught in solitude or it won’t stick. Educators Curriculum as it is, is 70% test, essay and project and 30% homework. Field need be able to mix/match styles for individual students. Students need trips are (non-educational), waste of time 90% of the time. Few field trips are holistic and skill based exposure successful for learning intent, Only with fewer students can the teacher connect individually. Performance-Based Assessment: Testing (1/2) + performance (1/2) = 2/2 With a large group it is just chaperoning to make sure no one is lost assessment. OMSI Field trip is unstructured, students wander without instruction. On the other hand, when OMSI sends people to the school to do science Looping: 6th -8th grade one teacher, does better Meeting Student Needs. experiments, educational content and retention is high. Pods, That Is Where You Will Live For The Next 3 Years A Great Benefit Student Not Having To Re-Adjust To A New Classroom And Teacher Sensory Needs: More students have ‘sensory needs’.|Tactile learners need Knowing The Wants And Needs Of Their Students something in the hand to play with while listening to focus/retain. Put something in front of a child and supply them to make (without instruction), No Open Floor Plans: Some students don’t have the self control/maturity for they will use the thing in front of them as the subject. Projector| students that kind of school where every kid is responsible for themselves. focus on the image and remember what they see. Use ‘story line’ (mural), students ‘build’ the mural as they learn. You have to ‘have a reason to do’ multiplication (money) Kids who do terrible on tests excel in auto shop & cad and vice versa Project-Based Curriculum: Test scores go up with art/ modeling shop. If test score are down districts take out arts to focus on reading, writing and math, and wonder why test scores go down more. Soon Oregon DOE is extending the number of school days from 170-185, this will give time to do more projects. 8


“It helps us use all our senses at the same time,” It seems to be the optimum state of learning, when everything is coming at us in lots of different ways.”

- Rudolf Steiner -

1.3 Alternative Education

Models

1.31 Waldorf Forest Kindergarten, Saratoga Springs, N.Y. Schools around the country have been planting gardens and field trips in hopes of reconnecting children with nature. The forest kindergarten is taking that concept to another level. Its 23 pupils, ages 3 to 6, spend three hours each day outside regardless of the weather, where temperatures regularly dip below freezing. The forest kindergarten is an extreme version of the outdoor learning taught at more than 100 Waldorf schools scattered throughout the United States. Based on the teachings of the Austrian architect and philosopher, Rudolf Steiner. Max Perez, nearly 5, paused after an hour of mixing sand and water into mud, asked, “Is it raining today?” “It helps us use all our senses at the same time,” Steiner said. “It seems to be the optimum state of learning, when everything is coming at us in lots of different ways.” Everywhere, there were things to discover.8 fig 1.1: Collecting wood to build a tepee in the woods behind the schoolhouse.

fig 1.2: A branch balanced on a split tree trunk became a seesaw.

9


“Montessori is a model of human development, that has two basic elements. First, children engage in psychological self-construction by means of interaction with their environments.”

“We shall walk together on this path of life, for all things are part of the universe ,and are connected with each other to form one whole unity ”

- Madame Montessori -

- Madame Montessori -

1.32 Montessori Dr. Maria Montessori felt that children shouldn’t just play but should play with toys which will teach them concepts. Montessori schools design their own toys. The child chooses what he wants to learn and the teacher guides the learning. This is know as the constructivist or “discovery” model. Students learn concepts from working with materials rather than by direct instruction. In addition to making their own toys, children are to take care of many practical activities, such as sweeping, caring for pets, and cooking. Montessori education is fundamentally a model of human development. The model has two basic elements. First, children engage in psychological self-construction by means of interaction with their environments. Second, children, especially under the age of six, have an innate path of psychological development. Based on her observations, Montessori believed that children at liberty, to choose and act freely within an environment prepared according to her model, would act spontaneously for optimal development. Montessori believed that the world around us is just as crucial a learning environment as a physical classroom. The teacher’s task is not to talk, but to prepare and arrange a series of motives for cultural activity in a special environment made for the child.9 “Fun. We said it! School is fun! Learning isn’t boring for a child when their physical space is full of opportunities. Children are curious, they ask a lot of questions and prefer to learn by doing.”10

8 9

fig 1.3: Learning isn’t boring for a child when their physical space is full of opportunities.

fig 1.4: Children are curious, they ask a lot of questions and prefer to learn by doing.

Gardner, A Nation At Risk. April 1983 Lillard, Angeline Stoll, Montessori: The science behind the genius. 2008. Battaglia, Real-Life Montessori: Nature, Mixed Aged Groups and Fun. Aug. 2013

10

fig 1.5: Large classrooms offer many spaces for exploration.

10


“The physical environment is crucial to Reggio Emilia’s early childhood program, often referred to as the child’s third teacher.” - Louise Cadwell -

1.33 Reggio Emilia Reggio Emilia is a preschool and elementary education model. In this model the teacher is considered a co-learner and collaborator with the child and not just an instructor. Teachers facilitate the child’s learning by planning activities and lessons based on the child’s interests, asking questions to further understanding, and actively engaging in the activities alongside the child, “As partner to the child, the teacher is inside the learning situation”. 11

fig 1.7: Children depict their understanding through many languages, including drawing,

By making learning visible, the teachers are able to study the thinking and feeling of the students in order to gain insight into their understanding. Organization of the physical environment is crucial to Reggio Emilia’s early childhood program, and is often referred to as the child’s “third teacher.”12 Major aims in the planning of new spaces and the remodeling of old ones include the integration of each classroom with the rest of the school, and the school with the surrounding community. Children best make sense of their world through environments which support “complex, varied, and changing relationships between people, the world of experience, ideas and the many ways of expressing ideas.”13 Children are encouraged to depict their understanding through many languages, including drawing, sculpture, dramatic play, and writing. fig 1.6: the child’s third teacher

11 12 13

Hewett, et.al. Examining the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. 2001 Cadwell, (. “Bringing Reggio Emilia home:An innovative approach to early childhood education. 1997 Tarr, Aesthetic Codes in Early Childhood Classrooms: What Art Educators Can Learn from Reggio Emilia. 2001.

fig 1.8: explorations with matter and light.

11


“The most effective kind of education is that a child should play amongst lovely things.”

- Plato -

1.34 Intro to LEGO Physics A truly haptic learning experience, Intro to LEGO Physics instructor Scott Isler say’s it is a “Hands on experiential approach. Children explore Archimedian machines of “energy saving” mechanics,” such as pulleys. Students learn Archimedes’ and Pascals’ principles. Students work with the mechanics of the “simple machines” that underlie all labor-saving devices. The education encompasses how designing and making inform one another for the learning of the pupil?

Fig 1.10: Children are curious, they ask a lot of questions and prefer to learn by doing.

1.35 Learning Landscapes Design Concepts Community and Landscape Architects, planning and design of Denver Public Schools Learning Landscape playgrounds, Renovate elementary playgrounds into innovative learning spaces. Replacing outdated play equipment and pea gravel with colorful asphalt play games, outdoor classrooms and gathering spaces, ...

Fig 1.9: A truly haptic learning experience

The goal is to create unique themes for each playground reflective to each schools curriculum and community. Learning Landscape’s Landscape Architects utilize and vocationally educate volunteers students, teachers, parents, and DPS staff.14 The most effective kind of education is that a child must play amongst lovely things. -Plato

14

Design Concepts: Community and Landscape Architects

Fig 1.11: Southmoor Elementary stone seat walls outdoor classroom

Fig 1.12: Tralor Elementary plaza of Geometric Expansion.

12


Length of bar represents subject focus time dedication. Hatches represent senses and value to the kinesthetic learner. Auditory: Forget Visual: Remember Practice: Understand 13

(Portland Public Schools)

R A D I T I O N A L

Social Studies

Health

E V E L K

-3

(Reading) Distinguish info provided by pictures and information provided by text. (Writing) gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (Speaking/ Listening) collaborative converse of topics/ texts with peers/ adults refusal skills of tobacco and alcohol. Identify sources of air and water pollution. 911, poison control #, earthquake ‘duck, cover/ hold on’ and ‘stop, drop/ roll’. Addition/ subtraction. Tell and write time. Represent and interpret data. Relate to Measure and estimate lengths. Measurement/estimation intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects. Linear and area measures.

PhysEd

No dedicated staff, lacking educational content: Travels safely in directions, pathways,

Science

Basic plant/ animal structures/ functions. Organism Life cycles & environments

levels in relation to self, others, objects. PE vocabulary body part identification, spatial awareness, directionality, laterality, muscles and bones.

(food webs). properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... Daily and seasonal weather changes. Movement of objects in the sky. Not part of full time curriculum. Communities, cultures address sim need/concerns (building). calendar time: yesterday, today,.., weeks,.., years. Event sequence: e.g., school holidays. Simple time lines of events in the city of Portland. location in the school e.g., office, library, playground...

Arts

(The Catlin Gabel School) Private

English

Arts/practical skills woven into/enhancing education in heart, hand & brain. (Pictorial intro to alphabet, poetry, drama, nature, house building, & gardening. Read aloud as jumping-off point for discussions in math,writing, social studies. Class journal: write/dictate all views of a significant event. Include illustrations. Share/ present writing w/ peers/ adults for development of oral language.

Health

Same as ODE in PPS + Differences in people are discussed: Motor skills, Blindness, Deafness

Mathematics

Investigations: research-based infusion of math throughout our daily activities.

PhysEd

ODE+ use life skills in crafting, cooperation, corroboratively design, hand to tool

Science Social Studies

Arts

Mathematics

Social Studies

(The Phenomenal School)

This calls for a qualitative crossanalysis of public (traditional) and alternative models, to find the specific areas The Phenomenal School will inform specific subject matter not only education but wholistic learning, as to foster the allround development of human capacities and abilities.

T

These case studies raise the question in their own pedagogy that applies to The Phenomenal School; of how such experience could be designed so as to foster the all-round development of human capacities and abilities.

L T E R N A T I V E

Alternative Pedagogies

Mathematics

A

1.4 Comparative Analysis Conventional vs.

English

H E N O M E N A L

- Confucius -

Arts

P

I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.

L

Not part of full time curriculum. Lacking educational content

English Health

PhysEd Science

Calendar, days-in-school, pattern recognition, estimation, addition/ subtraction, place value/gather data/ read graphic organizers. Count coins.

literacy, take active contributive role in mechanics of life. How do I use tools in a purposeful way? Interpret ideas into finished objects? Plan my work? What is actually happening. “Bugs”basic arthropod anatomy and physiology; how spiders.., Work. Campus Explorations biome/ habitat. Geology; rocks/ fossils. Tumblers/ polish to better “see”. production/causes, qualities/ measurements, vibrations in toys/ musical instruments. Daily work IS social studies! Classroom self-reflection, peer interaction and investigation. Strengths/ challenges. Families/ community (our own/ others’ roles/ jobs, we can be of service to others in these realms. Where food comes from/ how it impacts the individual, the family/ larger community.

Arts/practical skills woven into/enhancing education in heart, hand & brain. (Pictorial intro to alphabet, poetry, drama, nature, building, & gardening. f flower), interaction w/ phenomena, help sound/ spelling of letter/ word. Reading text embedded in the armature of phenomena throughout the school. Class journal: write/dictate all views of a significant event. Include illustrations. On the confluence of the dense urban fabric and lush forest give many opportunities for student groups lead by educators and mentors, to: Identify sources of air and water pollution. The importance of drinking plenty of water.

TIME & SPACE Sun Dial: Tell and write time w/ phenomena the concept is derived from, our many relations to the sun. North Star: at the center of the sun dial a north star acts as 0,0 to a coordinate plane that conveys addition and subtraction to Measure and estimate lengths, linear and area measures. And way finding to sundials scattered across the school. Wood Shop life skills in crafting, cooperation, corroboratively design, hand to tool literacy, mechanics of life. Planning purposeful ideas into finished objects. Tactical pathways travel causes awareness of ones own body/ corroboratively coordinate their peers to achieve goals. Energy of the sun identify concepts (light & heat) Vibrational energy Production/causes, qualities/ measurements, vibrations in the building. How sound/ wind/ water energy is captured and converted it into vibrational energy, flow of the medium through a specified surface, to understand /analyzed as tactile experience, which can then be compared to its source energy. Building Cultures need/concerns. Harvest materials from site to make vernacular structures from diverse cultures to understand how/ why different cultures deal with their physical environment. Sun Dial: calendar time: yesterday, today,.., years. Event sequence.


LEVEL4-5 Not part of full time curriculum. Lacking educational content

(Reading) Ask/answer questions of text, referring to text as basis for answers.

LEVEL6-8 Not part of full time curriculum. Lacking educational content Reading, Writing and Language skills continued and refined.

(Writing) tech. Publish (keyboard) info from print, digital; take brief notes (Speaking & Listening) use information known about topic under discussion. Campaign alcohol/ tobacco. Health affects air/ water pollution. Healthy snacks. Selfimage. Community physical activity. Puberty. Anatomy. Fire. Violence.

Geometric measurement: understand measure angles, classify shapes, lines. Graph points on coordinate plane, solve real-world/ mathematical problems.

Consider alternative modes of transportation. Emotions change adolescence. Identify ways to be physically active throughout a lifetime. Consequences of sexual activity. Solve problems of angle measure, area, surface area, and volume of cylinders, cones and spheres. Use ratio concepts and reasoning. Proportional relationships. Pythagorean Theorem.

Locomotor/ object control in game. Change speed to elude, leads receiver. Monitors target heart rate. Group/team cooperation, success and enjoyment.

Rhythmic dances. Basic biomechanics scientific principles in skill development. Calculates/ monitors Target/ Resting heart/ recovery rate. Exercise/ nutrition in weight control/ body composition. Benefits: social, physical exertion, competition, health.

Earth’s place/ patterns of movement within/ Solar system cycles. Object’s physical property/ position affect its movement. Forms/ uses of energy. Magnetism/ gravity. Compare motion of objects. E.g., of energy transfer.

Create inventions to address human needs/ aspirations. Processes plants and animals obtain energy/ materials for growth and metabolism. Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved. Compare types/ properties of waves and explain how they interact with matter.

Map represents real place. Expose to global features: oceans, rivers, mountains. Introduce simple grid to find locations. Compare ways different cultures deal with modified their physical environment/ social conditions. Map Oregon: natural resources, crop and climate regions.

How/ why people alter their physical environment. People do different jobs to meet basic human/ economic needs. Three productive resources (human, natural and capital)

History, acting as Caesar.., Absorbs Shakespeare’s language, to work as a team for a goal greater than the sum of its parts.

World History: architecture, modern art, Handwork: sewing.., Woodworking. Music: singing, string, wind, brass, & percussion. Art: painting, form/perspective drawing, beeswax/ clay modeling.

Variety of writing forms: poetry, narrative, persuasive, descriptive, and report writing of relevant focused literature examples, by mini-lesson, one-on-one and in small groups. Writing is employed in every subject as well.

Reading, Writing and Language skills continued and refined.

ODE/ PPS + Habits Of Mind visual, auditory, kinesthetic, action roleplay

Various cultures eat differently explore family food influences. Math portion/ content. Social norming sexual orientation, drugs/ alcohol using FCD data.

Surveys and Graphs Place Value, Number Sense/ large numbers, Multiplication/ Division, Money, Decimals/ Fractions, 2/ 3-D Geometry, Probability/ Statistics/ Hands-on Algebra

Algebraic thinking woven throughout the curriculum. Studentdirected pursue interest/ methods, where s/he needs to go next. Skills/ concepts in context of application/ analysis. Scientific/ graphing calculator/ Geometer’s Sketchpad.

Limitations/ possibilities working with wood. How to create my ideas. Look into construction of three-dimensional project. Collaboration is valued Students encouraged to act as teachers to peers. Begin planning of projects

Design/ build vehicle? Maximize our team efforts? What materials will best suit the process? Pre-conceptualize, between form/ function, evaluate/understand cohesive design. Teach ‘knowhow’ to cope with the physical world.

Make/ read map; use magnetic compass; campus community. Basic metric units of distance, simple machines, energy transmission, Forest explorations, Earth‘s water recycling system. Air Pressure—aluminum drink cans, balloons, and our lungs. Heat energy: convection, conduction,/ radiation; molecular motion; Chemistry chemical energy, Light energy

Biology marine/ human. OR. Institute Marine, fishing docks, seashore Cape Arago. Habitats/ biota first-hand, marine algae, birds, In the field. Space science: solar system: robotics/ computer programming. Environmental science: local stream restore. Data/ analyses. 4 day class trip to Mt. St. Helens volcano “sludge.”

Space for students to show understanding through nonverbal means! Community-building work, collaborative learning opportunities, multi-modal/ interdisciplinary activities. Children’s ability to talk about what they are doing is sometimes behind their ability to do.

Migration. Begin with an inquiry into where each of us is from. Information literacy skills: History geography, economics government politics to understand why people came to Oregon/ Northwest/ regions of USA.

Horticulture select, plant, tend, color producers in garden, or forage nature, practice metrology, chemistry, mixing minerals to create palatable compound. Test compounds through series of art applications. Mural painting, set design, building from rammed earth bricks, sticks,..

Pupils practice analytical writing, comparing artistic Ideas, Techniques & Processes of “successful” artists and significance to cultures, by research, practice and multiple field trips to nearby art museums. Make door, table, desk, chair, canoe

(Writing) take rigourous field notes, summarize experience/teachable moments, formatted into essay. (Reading) embedded text refers to literature/ digital research in the library.

Group work on term projects analyzing some phenomena of the school, essay format,presented to peers, faculty and vested community mentors.

Students advocate the importance of physical activity, ways to be for a lifetime, Differentiate sedentary/ active lifestyle, Promotes Mental, Social and Emotional Health of the students and their families, by bringing their families to the school to volunteer/ after school, to participate in the phenomenological experiences.

Communication skills to express personal needs, wants and feelings, pro-social behaviors, healthy family and peer relationships, are woven into every subject. From the beginning TPS is a micro community of group-project-based studies, representing real-life macro community when graduate.

Environment: Read, interpret, and create simple bar and picture graphs by Recording/ analyzing Surveys/ graphs seen in natural and built environment of the school campus. North Star 0,0 coordinate mapping area Multiplication/ Division, Hands-on Algebra

Hands-on Algebra (e.g., Trajectory Project) Making math a hands-on experience can make a positive difference for many students, transforming the subject from a set of procedures applicable only in the classroom, to a powerful tool for understanding the world. Pythagorean Theorem.

Working with wood. How to create my ideas. Look deeper into construction of threedimensional project. Collaboration is valued Students act as teachers to each other. Drawing/ planning of projects Astronomical bodies. Energy of the sun define concepts and methods of solar harvesting (geothermal, hydro, wind, photo, light, heat) Vibrational Energy continued Chemistry Garden/ TBD Map represents real place. Expose to global features: oceans, rivers, mountains. Simple grid to find locations. At the center of the sun dial a north star acts as 0,0 to a coordinate plane. location in the school e.g., office, library, playground... globe/flat maps as models of the earth. Draw simple maps that show how land is used in the school and local community. Map Oregon: natural resources, crop and climate regions.

Make door, table, desk, chair, canoe,.. for school, home or community. Building one to one life skills from the micro to macro scale. Astronomical bodies. Energy of the sun define concepts and methods of solar harvesting (geothermal, hydro, wind, photo, light, heat). how gravity keeps objects in the solar system in regular/ predictable motion/ describe resulting phenomena. Interactions producing Earth’s seasons. Causes of patterns of atmospheric and oceanic movement and the effects on weather and climate. Woven with Physical education, making vernacular furniture/ structures of local , national and international cultures. Grow and prepare food from own/ other cultures. In groups Recreate historically accurate portrayal of chosen time period through lens of culminating subjects learned over the years.

14


1.41 Pedagogy | PPS + [A]lternative Alternative pedagogy are including and in addition to PPS Arts knowledge of the arts, orally and in writing K-3 Create, present/perform an idea, mood/ feeling [A]Arts/practical skills woven into heart, hand & brain 4-5 explain how essential organizational principles shape an idea, mood or feeling found in the work [A] History, acting as Caesar.., Absorbs Shakespeare’s language, 6-8 Control essential organizational principles [A] World History|architecture, modern art, Handwork | sewing.., Woodworking. Music: singing, string, wind, brass, & percussion Painting, form/ perspective drawing, beeswax/ clay modeling English K-3 (R) Distinguish info provided by pictures from text (W) gather info of provided sources to answer question (S/L) collaborative conversation with peers/ adults 4-5 (R)Ask/answer questions of text and as base for answers (W) Tech. Publish (keyboard) , digital info; take brief notes (S/L) use information known of topic under discussion 6-8 Reading, Writing and Language skills continued/refined Health K-3 refusal skills of tobacco and alcohol. Identify sources of air and water pollution. 911, poison control, earthquake ‘duck, cover/ hold on’ & ‘stop, drop/ roll’ 4-5 Campaign alcohol/ tobacco. Health affects air/ water pollution Healthy snacks. Self-image. Community physical activity. Puberty Anatomy. Fire. Violence [A] ODE/PPS+Habits Of Mind visual, auditory, kinesthetic, action role-play 6-8 Consider alternative modes of transportation. Emotions change adolescence. Identify ways to be physically active throughout a lifetime. Consequences of sexual activity Mathematics 15

K-3 Addition/ subtraction. Tell and write time. Represent and interpret data. Measure and estimate lengths. Measurement/estimation intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects Linear and area measures [A] Investigations|research-­based infusion of math throughout our daily activities. Calendar 4-5 Geometric measurement: understand measure angles, classify shapes, lines. Graph points on coordinate plane, solve real-world/ mathematical problems [A] Surveys and Graphs Place Value, Number Sense, Money, Decimals/ Fractions, 2/ 3-D Geometry, Hands-on Algebra 6-8 Solve problems of angle measure, area, surface area, and volume of cylinders, cones and spheres. Use ratio concepts and reasoning. Proportional relationships. Pythagorean Theorem [A] Algebraic thinking woven throughout the curriculum Physical Education K-3 Travels safely in directions, pathways, levels in relation to self, others, objects. PE vocabulary body part identification, spatial awareness, directionality [A] ODE+ use life skills in crafting, corroboratively design, hand to tool literacy, take active contributive role in mechanics of life. How do I use tools in a purposeful way? Interpret ideas into finished objects? Plan my work? 4-5 Locomotor/ object control in game. Change speed to elude, leads receiver. Monitors target heart rate. Group/team cooperation, success and enjoyment [A] Look into construction of three-dimensional project. Students are encouraged to act as teachers to peers Planning of projects 6-8 Rhythmic dances. Biomechanics scientific principles in skill development. Calculates/ monitors Target/ Resting heart/ rate [A] Design/ build vehicle? Maximize our team efforts? What materials will best suit the process? Pre-conceptualize, between form/function, evaluate/ understand cohesive design. Teach ‘know-how’ to cope with the physical world


Science K-3 Basic plant/ animal structures/ functions. Organism Life cycles & environments (food webs). properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... Daily and seasonal weather changes. Movement of objects in the sky [A] Campus Explorations biome/habitat Geology; rocks/ fossils. Tumblers/polish to better “see”. production/causes, qualities/ measurements, vibrations in toys/ musical instruments 4-5 Earth’s place/patterns of movement within/Solar system cycles. Object’s physical property/position affect its movement. Forms/uses of energy. Magnetism/ gravity. Compare motion of objects. E.g., of energy transfer [A] Make/ read map; use magnetic compass; Basic metric units of distance, simple machines, energy transmission, Forest explorations, Earth‘s water recycling system. Air Pressure—aluminum drink cans, balloons, and our lungs. Heat energy: convection, conduction,/ radiation; molecular motion; Chemistry chemical energy, Light energy 6-8 Create inventions to address human needs/ aspirations. Processes plants and animals obtain energy/ materials for growth and metabolism, Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved. Compare types/ properties of waves and explain how they interact with matter [A] Biology marine/ human. OR. Institute Marine, fishing docks, seashore Cape Arago. Habitats/ biota first-hand, marine algae, birds, In the field. Space science: solar system: robotics/ computer programming. Environmental science: local stream restore. Data/ analyses. 4 day class trip to Mt. St. Helens volcano “sludge”

Map Oregon: natural resources, crop and climate regions [A] Community-­building work, collaborative multi-­modal learning/ interdisciplinary activities. Children’s ability to talk about what they are doing is often behind their ability to do 6-8 How/ why people alter their physical environment. People do different jobs to meet basic human/ economic needs. Three productive resources (human, natural and capital) [A] Migration. Inquiry, where each of us is from. History geography, economics government politics to understand why people came to Oregon/ Northwest/ regions of the USA.

Social Studies K-3 Not part of full time curriculum. Communities, cultures address similar need/concerns (building). calendar time: yesterday, today,.., weeks,.., years. Event sequence: e.g., school holidays. Simple time lines of events in the city of Portland. location in the school e.g., office, library, playground... [A] Daily work IS social studies! Families/ community (our own/ others’ roles/ jobs, we can be of service to others in these realms Where food comes from/ how it impacts the individual, the family/ larger community 4-5 Map represents real place. Expose to global features: oceans, rivers, mountains. Introduce simple grid to find locations. Compare ways different cultures deal with modified their physical environment/ social conditions. 16


1.5 Education Architecture 1.51 Sitting and Planning Strategies

Case Studies

Modern designers in the realm of new school design, have begun to redefine the classroom experience, by integrating indoor-outdoor environments more intimately with the architecture, in response to modern pedagogy, calling for revitalization of a lost connection to nature. The following newer schools were selected to demonstrate and serve as examples of these indoor-outdoor environments of natural hands-on learning. Gardening, rain gardens and bioswales are a great step in the right dirrection, but

Cherry Crest | Elementary

NAC | Outdoor Learning rain-gardens and green roofs create opportunity for students to gain an in-depth understanding of natural cycles on the site of the school.

17

Thurston | Elementary

Mahlum | Bio-swale Outdoor Classroom and Learning Garden.


still only scratching the surface education and design. Designers now, are constantly think of how phenomena are effecting the buildings and comfort level of their occupants. The ability for their thoughtful interactions to be utilized as education opportunities, exhibited as a teaching tool are great.

Benjamin Franklin | Elementary

Mahlum | Connecting children with nature from the views in the classrooms and outdoor learning courtyards. Orientation to solar optic phenomena is present, but is neglected as a learning/teaching tool.

River View | Elementary

NAC | Classrooms clustered around shared learning spaces, that connects indooroutdoor phenomenal learning spaces, bringing the wetland into the heart of the school.

18


1.52 boora Architecture Schematic Design A Designer at boora stated, In the making of some new high tech schools architecture is not considered at all! Some schools focus around the cafeteria and others around the library. There is a need for more exterior learning environments (wetlands/ bio-swales). Outdoor activity needs to be connected and accessible to every classroom w/ mud sink indoor-outdoor transitional space. Natural/stack ventilation. Create better space in general. Children are kinesthetic learners.

boora architects, Portland, with numerous built school designs in the area, enlightened me on the design process, from classroom, to grade cluster commons, to schemes that shared the phenomenal indoor-outdoor project space environmental experience. Flexible classrooms and breakout space, accommodate a variety of teaching and learning styles, social interaction and collaborative learning outside the classroom. A main concern of any design is wether the building tall and compact or short and stretched. With nine grade levels or groups to place into the building, should the grades be organized by wings, or vertical separation? Should the building have three wings, a large welcoming hall and gathering space, with views down from the second floor to exploratory and making spaces. Possibly it should be organized around a vertical open space, with All levels look into a vertical gathering space and Lots of light from above.

Flexible classrooms and breakout space, accommodate a variety of teaching and learning styles, social interaction and collaborative learning outside the classroom.

Are the common spaces internally or externally focused?

Is the building tall/compact or short/stretched?

With 9 grade levels or groups to place into the building, should the grades be organized by wings, or vertical separation? 19


3 wings, a large welcoming hall and gathering space. 2nd floor views down to exploratory/making spaces.

Internally focused, wide looped hallway, breakout spaces found in the collaborative core space.

Groups of classrooms and offices with views out to courtyards and with breakout spaces with the same courtyard view.

Organized around a vertical open space. All levels look into a vertical gathering space. Classrooms look out to external views. Lots of light from above.

FIG 1.13 BOORA ARCHITECTURE SCHEMATIC DESIGN

20


2.0_Pedagogical + Phenomenal

21


+ Architectural Explorations

Growing up children are told, don’t touch that! Don’t drag your hand on the wall or grocery isle shelves and merchandise, but what is really happening here? We are visual+tactile learners’, we see something, form a hypothesis of what it might feel like, then proceed to explore with our hands to gain results and form conclusions. It is our human nature to explore, while admittedly there are situations we should not be exploring/learning through touching, however school, the special environment deemed for learning should be the exemplar situation were tactile interaction is encouraged as part of the experience.

22


2.1 Lexicon

Connecting Phenomena to Pedagogy thru Architecture

2.11 Connecting Phenomena to Pedagogy through Architecture

To properly contribute to the desired education of developing minds, the Lexicon is a diagrammatic representation of the potential synergies between pedagogical subject matter of reasoning, the phenomena of which the pedagogy is an abstract reasoning and the contextual architectural setting of the school, as ‘a special environment for the facilitation of learning.’ In short the lexicon is an amalgamation of current PPS and alternative pedagogies, connecting the architecture to pedagogy, through phenomenal first-hand experience.

Phenomena

Phenomena Physics: is the Science of matter and energy and the way they act on each other in mechanics, acoustics, optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, radiation, atomic structure, and nuclear phenomena

Material Interaction

Material: Physical rather than spiritual or intellectual| derived from/consisting of matter/relating to the subject matter of reasoning

Artifactual Architectural Explorations

Architecture: both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures

23


L e x i c o n |

C o n n e c t i n g A r c h i t e c t u r e | t o P e d a g o g y | t h r o u g h P h e n o m e n a

Pedagogy Pedagogy

Phenomena Phenomena

Material Interaction Materiality

Arts

Physics science of matter and energy and the way

Material physical rather than spiritual or intellectual|

Optics physics: observable interaction of light + matter.

Wood

Casting Light

Forest Habitat

knowledge of the arts, orally and in writing. K-3 Create, present/perform an idea, mood/ feeling. [a]Arts/practical skills woven into heart, hand & brain. 4-5 explain how essential organizational principles shape an idea, mood or feeling found in the work. [a] History, acting as Caesar.., Absorbs Shakespeare’s language, 6-8 Control essential organizational principles [a] World History|architecture, modern art, Handwork| sewing.., Woodworking. Music: singing, string, wind, brass, & percussion. Painting, form/perspective drawing, beeswax/ clay modeling.

they act on each other in mechanics, acoustics, optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, radiation, atomic structure, and nuclear phenomena

Architecture Architecture

derived from/consisting of matter|of/or relating to the subject matter of reasoning

the hard substance that makes up trees

Architecture

both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures

Analemmatic sundials

Analemma is a curve representing the changing angular offset of a celestial body, marked specifically by the sun at the same time (noon) each day or month of a gnomon in a fixed position

English

K-3 (R) Distinguish info provided by pictures from text. (W) gather info of provided sources to answer question. (S/L) collaborative conversation with peers/ adults 4-5 (R)Ask/answer questions of text and as base for answers. (W) Tech. Publish (keyboard) , digital info; take brief notes (S/L) use information known of topic under discussion. 6-8 Reading, Writing and Language skills continued/refined.

Health

K-3 refusal skills of tobacco and alcohol. Identify sources of air and water pollution. 911, poison control, earthquake ‘duck, cover/ hold on’ & ‘stop, drop/ roll’. 4-5 Campaign alcohol/ tobacco. Health affects air/ water pollution. Healthy snacks. Self-image. Community physical activity. Puberty. Anatomy. Fire. Violence. [a] ODE/PPS+Habits Of Mind visual, auditory, kinesthetic, action role-play 6-8 Consider alternative modes of transportation. Emotions change adolescence. Identify ways to be physically active throughout a lifetime. Consequences of sexual activity.

Analemma

Human Gnomon

Root Bridge

Nursing

Stonehenge Analemma

Filtering

Casting Shadow

Pattern

Timber

Host

Horizontal Analemma

Human Gnomon

Burnt

Once the analemma is determined, a horizontal sundial with a vertical gnomon that is not fixed must change position in the analemma daily to accurately indicate time of day. Tell and write time. Reflection

Color

Visible Spectrum

Weathered

Water Damaged

Worn

Copper

Oxidized Copper

Unfinished Rusted Corten

Steel

Iron

Chemical rust Iron

Temporality of or relating to time.

Metal

Weathering

North Star|coordinate mapping

Mathematics

K-3 Addition/ subtraction. Tell and write time. Represent and interpret data. Measure and estimate lengths. Measurement/ estimation intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects. Linear and area measures. [a] Investigations|research-based infusion of math throughout our daily activities. Calendar 4-5 Geometric measurement: understand measure angles, classify shapes, lines. Graph points on coordinate plane, solve real-world/ mathematical problems. [a] Surveys and Graphs Place Value, Number Sense, Money, Decimals/ Fractions, 2/ 3-D Geometry, Hands-on Algebra 6-8 Solve problems of angle measure, area, surface area, and volume of cylinders, cones and spheres. Use ratio concepts and reasoning. Proportional relationships. Pythagorean Theorem. [a] Algebraic thinking woven throughout the curriculum.

Physical Education

K-3 Travels safely in directions, pathways, levels in relation to self, others, objects. PE vocabulary body part identification, spatial awareness, directionality. [a] ODE+ use life skills in crafting, corroboratively design, hand to tool literacy, take active contributive role in mechanics of life. How do I use tools in a purposeful way? Interpret ideas into finished objects? Plan my work? 4-5 Locomotor/ object control in game. Change speed to elude, leads receiver. Monitors target heart rate. Group/team cooperation, success and enjoyment. [a] Look into construction of three-dimensional project. Students are encouraged to act as teachers to peers. Planning of projects 6-8 Rhythmic dances. Biomechanics scientific principles in skill development. Calculates/ monitors Target/ Resting heart/ recovery rate. [a] Design/ build vehicle? Maximize our team efforts? What materials will best suit the process? Pre-conceptualize, between form/function, evaluate/understand cohesive design. Teach ‘know-how’ to cope with the physical world.

Millennium Timespace Analemma

Astronomic Orientation

Solar Compass

Meteorology science that deals with the atmosphere

Solar Heat Energy

Rain

Wind

TIME & SPACE Sun Dial: At the center of the sun dial a north star acts as 0,0 to a coordinate plane that conveys addition and subtraction to Measure and estimate lengths, linear and area measures. And way finding to sundials scattered across the school.

Tactility Geology Raw Iron Ore

Stainless

Precious metals

Glass

Soil

Hydrology

What experiences of material can be enhanced through deliberate adjacencies w/ other materials and forms?

Landscapes

Water Cycle

Glaciers

Natural Resources

Soil

Hydrology

Landscapes

Soil

Hydrology

Landscapes

Gases

Science

K-3 Basic plant/ animal structures/ functions. Organism Life cycles & environments (food webs). properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... Daily and seasonal weather changes. Movement of objects in the sky. [a] Campus Explorations biome/habitat. Geology; rocks/ fossils. Tumblers/polish to better “see”. production/causes, qualities/ measurements, vibrations in toys/ musical instruments. 4-5 Earth’s place/patterns of movement within/Solar system cycles. Object’s physical property/position affect its movement. Forms/uses of energy. Magnetism/ gravity. Compare motion of objects. E.g., of energy transfer. [a] Make/ read map; use magnetic compass; Basic metric units of distance, simple machines, energy transmission, Forest explorations, Earth‘s water recycling system. Air Pressure—aluminum drink cans, balloons, and our lungs. Heat energy: convection, conduction,/ radiation; molecular motion; Chemistry chemical energy, Light energy 6-8 Create inventions to address human needs/ aspirations. Processes plants and animals obtain energy/ materials for growth and metabolism. Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved. Compare types/ properties of waves and explain how they interact with matter. [a] Biology marine/ human. OR. Institute Marine, fishing docks, seashore Cape Arago. Habitats/ biota first-hand, marine algae, birds, In the field. Space science: solar system: robotics/ computer programming. Environmental science: local stream restore. Data/ analyses. 4 day class trip to Mt. St. Helens volcano “sludge.”

North Star

Scupper Waterfall

Geography

Concrete

Rain

Unfinished Rusted Corten

When rain hits the metal roof it creates a familiar percussion, quickly amalgamating in central gutter leading to the scupper: this is an excellent opportunity to talk about precipitation and surface tension of water. Rain gardens/bio-swales, a multitude of lessons: surface tension (high speed cameras used at my daughters school), PH testing, Volume, meteorology (inches of rain fall), evaporation, then returning the water from the impermeable to the earth/aquifer.

Learning Garden Topography

Human|Cultural Landscape

Physical|natural environment

Topography

Human|Cultural Landscape

Physical|natural environment

Development Environmental

Engagement

Application

Atmospheres

Acoustics Acoustics

Environmental

Atmospheres

Atmospheres

Stone Form

Form

Whispering Gallery

Whispering Gallery

Resonance

Social Studies

K-3 Not part of full time curriculum. Communities, cultures

Limestone

Weathered by the Ocean

Volcanic

address similar need/concerns (building). calendar time: yesterday, today,.., weeks,.., years. Event sequence: e.g., school holidays. Simple time lines of events in the city of Portland. location in the school e.g., office, library, playground... [a] Daily work IS social studies! Families/ community (our own/ others’ roles/ jobs, we can be of service to others in these realms. Where food comes from/ how it impacts the

The Whispering Gallery Proof |If you stand at one focus of a room with elliptical walls, any sound waves that leave you in a horizontal direction and bounce off the walls will be reflected along paths that take them through the other focus of the Slate

Marble

Alabaster translucent

24

Clay

Brick

Top soil |organic matter

Drought


Physics science of matter and energy and the way

they act on each other in mechanics, acoustics, optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, radiation, atomic structure, and nuclear phenomena

Material physical rather than spiritual or intellectual|

derived from/consisting of matter|of/or relating to the subject matter of reasoning

Architecture

both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures

explain how essential organizational principles shape an

2.2 Artifacts

Phenomenal Material Explorations

2.21 Sunlight Pedagogy

Phenomena

Materiality

Optics

Concrete

Casting Light

Directionality

Temporality

Human

Analemma

Human Gnomon

Physics: observable interaction of light + matter.

A hard, smooth coposition that modulates light thru its form + finish

Mathematics K-3 Addition/ subtraction. Tell, write and Measure intervals of time. Measure Linear and area. [a] research-based infusion throughout our daily activities. Calendar 4-5 Geometric measure: measure angles, real-world/ math problems. 6-8 angle measure, Ratio concepts, Proportions. Pythagorean Theorem. Social Studies K-3 Communities, cultures need/concerns. calendar time: yesterday, today,.., weeks,.., years. Event sequence: school holidays. 4-5 Map represents real place. global features: oceans, rivers, mountains. 6-8 Three productive resources (human, natural and capital)

Of or relating to time.

Organic, kenetic, temporal

Science K-3 Organism Life cycles environments (food webs). properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... Daily and seasonal weather changes. Movement of objects in the sky. 4-5 Earth’s place/patterns of movement within/Solar system cycles. 6-8 Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved.

25


Artifactual Exploration Analemmatic sundials

Analemma is a curve representing the changing angular offset of a celestial body, marked specifically by the sun at the same time (noon) each day or month of a gnomon in a fixed position.

Temporality

Once the analemma is determined, a horizontal sundial with a vertical gnomon that is not fixed must change position in the analemma daily to accurately indicate time of day.

Temporality

Geomitry

Geography

Months, Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

26


Physics science of matter and energy and the way

they act on each other in mechanics, acoustics, optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, radiation, atomic structure, and nuclear phenomena

Material physical rather than spiritual or intellectual|

derived from/consisting of matter|of/or relating to the subject matter of reasoning

Architecture

both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures

explain how essential organizational principles shape an

2.22 Sound + Matter

Phenomena

Materiality

Meteorology

Wood

Science

Wind

Directionality

4-5 Object’s physical property/position affect its movement. Forms/uses of energy. Magnetism/ gravity. Compare motion of objects. E.g., of energy transfer. 6-8 Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved. Compare types/ properties of waves and explain how they interact with matter.

Acoustics

27

Form

Pedagogy

Scientific study of the atmosphere

Soft, temporal, resonant

Mathematics 6-8 angle measure, Ratio concepts, Proportions. Pythagorean Theorem, perfect geometries. Social Studies 4-5 Map represents real place. global features: oceans, rivers, 6-8 Three productive resources (human, natural and capital)

Science of all mechanical waves gases, liquids, solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

Resonance


Artifactual Exploration Acoustic Impedance

Sound can make clear and enhance phenomena less perceptible to the eye.

the ratio of the sound pressure in a medium to the rate of alternating flow of the medium through a specified surface due to the sound wave force, acting in the direction of motion, to the velocity of the resulting vibration.

Resonance: Vibrational Energy

The whispering gallery proof

Pitch/Tone

Megaphone/Eartrumpet

At one focus of a room with elliptical walls, any sound waves projected in a horizontal direction, bounce off the walls, reflecting along paths that take them through the other focus of the ellipse. This is a characteristic property of the

Resonance/tone/pitch/energy

geometry of ellipses: drawing a line in all directions from one focus, to the curve, the reflected ray will travel an ‘equal distance’ through the other focus. 28


Physics science of matter and energy and the way

they act on each other in mechanics, acoustics, optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, radiation, atomic structure, and nuclear phenomena

Material physical rather than spiritual or intellectual|

derived from/consisting of matter|of/or relating to the subject matter of reasoning

Architecture

both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures

explain how essential organizational principles shape an

2.23 Tactility

Tectonic + Material Adjacencies are a means of studying the physical relationship of materiality and form in the context of diverse materials and forms. The question asked is, what experiences of material can be enhanced through deliberate adjacencies w/ other materials and forms.

Phenomena

Materiality

Tectonics

Steel

Heavy

Hard

Physics

Wood

Hot solar oven

Soft

Only in adjacent context do we consider material properties.

Pedagogy Science K-3 properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... [A] Campus Explorations biome/habitat 4-5 Heat energy: convection, conduction,/ radiation; molecular motion; Chemistry chemical energy. 6-8 To raise it from the load bearing earth,brings attention to the points of connection between materiality. how does one material support another and how do they connect?

Radiant heat energy transfer

29


Artifactual Exploration Material Feel the hot and cool side of wood in the sun, now feel the heat of the sun radiating from the black steel, once again feeling the hot side of the wood feels cool to the touch. What are the physical properties of steel and wood

that result in their response to the solar rays/ waves? What is happening to a surface that is painted black that causes it to gain heat, than the same material with a white surface or any other color?

Adjacencies To raise it from the load bearing earth,brings attention to the points of connection between materiality. how does one material support another and how do they connect?

Adjacency

Tectonic construction

principles of material, fabrication

30


Physics science of matter and energy and the way

they act on each other in mechanics, acoustics, optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, radiation, atomic structure, and nuclear phenomena

Material physical rather than spiritual or intellectual|

derived from/consisting of matter|of/or relating to the subject matter of reasoning

Architecture

both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures

explain how essential organizational principles shape an

2.24 The Water Cycle Pedagogy

Phenomena

Materiality

Meteorology

Wood

Science of the atmosphere

Mathematics K-3 Measurement/estimation intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects Linear and area measures. Science K-3 Basic plant/ animal structures/ functions. Organism Life cycles & environments (food webs). properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... Daily and seasonal weather changes. [A] Campus Explorations biome/habitat 4-5 Earth‘s water recycling system. Heat energy: convection, conduction,/ radiation; molecular motion; evaporative cooling. 6-8 Processes plants and animals obtain energy/ materials for growth and metabolism, Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved. [A] Biology marine/ human. OR. Institute Marine, fishing docks, seashore Cape Arago. Habitats/ biota first-hand, marine algae, birds, In the field. Environmental science: local stream restore. Data/ analyses.

Casting Light

weathering

Temporality

Earth

Summer Drought

Absorbant habitat

Times with(out) water

Social Studies 4-5 Map represents real place. global features: oceans, rivers, mountains. Map Oregon: natural resources, crop and climate regions.

31


Artifactual Exploration The Water Cycle When rain hits the metal roof it creates a familiar percussion, quickly amalgamating in central gutter leading to the scupper: this is an excellent opportunity to talk about precipitation and surface tension of water. Rain gardens/bio-swales, a multitude of lessons: surface tension (high speed

cameras used at my daughters school), PH testing, Volume, meteorology (inches of rain fall), evaporation, then returning the water from the impermeable to the earth/aquifer.

Temporality

32


Physics science of matter and energy and the way

they act on each other in mechanics, acoustics, optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, radiation, atomic structure, and nuclear phenomena

Material physical rather than spiritual or intellectual|

derived from/consisting of matter|of/or relating to the subject matter of reasoning

Architecture

both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures

explain how essential organizational principles shape an

2.25 Sunlight and Shadows Pedagogy

Phenomena

Materiality

Optics

Concrete

Casting Light

Directionality

Temporality

Human

Analemma

Human Gnomon

Physics: observable interaction of light + matter.

A hard, smooth coposition that modulates light thru its form + finish

Mathematics K-3 Addition/ subtraction. Tell, write and Measure intervals of time. Measure Linear and area. [a] research-based infusion throughout our daily activities. Calendar 4-5 Geometric measure: measure angles, real-world/ math problems. 6-8 angle measure, Ratio concepts, Proportions. Pythagorean Theorem. Social Studies K-3 Communities, cultures need/concerns. calendar time: yesterday, today,.., weeks,.., years. Event sequence: school holidays. 4-5 Map represents real place. global features: oceans, rivers, mountains. 6-8 Three productive resources (human, natural and capital) Science

Of or relating to time.

Organic, kenetic, temporal

K-3 Organism Life cycles environments (food webs). properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... Daily and seasonal weather changes. Movement of objects in the sky. 4-5 Earth’s place/patterns of movement within/Solar system cycles. 6-8 Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved. Compare types/ properties of waves and explain how they interact

33


Artifactual Exploration Analemmatic sundials

Analemma is a curve representing the changing angular offset of a celestial body, marked specifically by the sun at the same time (noon) each day or month of a gnomon in a fixed position.

Temporality

Once the analemma is determined, a horizontal sundial with a vertical gnomon that is not fixed must change position in the analemma daily to accurately indicate time of day.

Human Gnomon

Building Gnomon

Shade Gnomon

34


Physics science of matter and energy and the way

they act on each other in mechanics, acoustics, optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, radiation, atomic structure, and nuclear phenomena

Material physical rather than spiritual or intellectual|

derived from/consisting of matter|of/or relating to the subject matter of reasoning

Architecture

both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures

explain how essential organizational principles shape an

2.26 Weathering Pedagogy

Phenomena

Materiality

Meteorology

Glass

Wind Casting Light

Hard

Temporality

Wood

Rain

Soft

Scientific study of the atmosphere

Social Studies 4-5 Map represents real place. global features: oceans, rivers, mountains. 6-8 Three productive resources (human, natural and capital) Science K-3 Organism Life cycles environments (food webs). properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... Daily and seasonal weather changes. Movement of objects in the sky. 4-5 Earth’s place/patterns of movement within/Solar system cycles. 6-8 Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved.

Of or relating to time.

35


Artifactual Exploration Weathering and Temporality The variety of materials show weathering and conductance of heat (tempurature) temporality: new panels could be mounted every 1-5 years, a record of time through materiality.

Hands-On Investigation

Welcoming

Topography!

36


2.3 Pedagogical / Architectural Explorations

2.31 Crank Roof

The Crank Roof is an interactive kinetic architecture, of which, while raining, pupils manipulate to learn lessons of gravity, trajectory, slope(pitch),arch, inertia, and the laws of motion. Under tutelage of the instructor a student acting as the caller, relays instruction to his/her pupils, to crank the wall up and down to find angles project water furthest/nearest the building. This kinesthetic experience allows the instructor to effortlessly relay educational content of the activity, such as math, science, meteorology, geography, geology, human and natural resources. One of many educational focuses of this field study could be Social Studies and climatology, how our climate differs and is similar to other areas of the globe and how other cultures build based on their climate and why that may or may not work here. FIG 5.1: PRECEDENT INSPIRATION IMAGE |CRANK DOOR CHICKEN-POINT-CABINTOM-KUNDIG

37

FIG 5.2: PRECEDENT INSPIRATION IMAGE| CRANK DOOR SCHEMATIC


38


2.32 Venturi | Air lock

The Venturi effect is a jet effect|According to the laws governing fluid dynamics as a funnel the velocity of the fluid increases as the cross sectional area decreases, with the static pressure correspondingly decreasing. Upon Convergence velocity increases while pressure decreases, upon divergence velocity decreases while pressure increases. Air Lock Permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel and its surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel and loss of air from it. Closing the end of the convergent wind will create a vacuum causing internal doors to be pushed open into the space to equalize the volume of air diverging on the other side and vice versa if the divergent end is closed while the convergent end is open the doors will push into the interior corridors. Three principles with a multitude of lessons, Venturi Effect, volume and vacuums.

2.33 Weathering Wall

Different materials weather at different rates/conditions. Weathering Temporality: The variety of materials show weathering and conductance of heat (tempurature) temporality: new panels could be mounted every 1-5 years, a record of time through materiality. Science environments properties/ uses of (rocks, minerals, soil... Daily and seasonal weather changes. Explain how energy is transferred/ transformed/ conserved.

39


40


2.34 Rain Water Systems

When rain hits the metal roof it creates a familiar percussion, quickly amalgamating in central gutter leading to the scupper: this is an excellent opportunity to talk about precipitation and surface tension of water. Rain gardens/bio-swales, a multitude of lessons: surface tension (high speed cameras used at my daughters school), PH testing, Volume, meteorology (inches of rain fall), evaporation, then returning the water from the impermeable to the earth/aquifer.

2.35 The Whispering Gallery Proof

At one focus of a room with elliptical walls, any sound waves projected in a horizontal direction, bounce off the walls, reflecting along paths that take them through the other focus of the ellipse. This is a characteristic property of the geometry of ellipses: drawing a line in all directions from one focus, to the curve, the reflected ray will travel an ‘equal distance’ through the other focus.

41


42


2.36 Area Circulation

Understand Area + Volume Over time through the cubism corridor you notice patterns emerging |1 to 4|4 to 16 |16 to 256 to 65,536,| or |1(4)|42 |162|163.. Light+Shadow: As the shadows climb the grid surfaces, the space divides into rectangular and triangular counts of temporal area and volume.

The Ponzo illusion Notice The small cardboard robot standing on the shelf in the for ground and the giant one at the end of the hall. You are looking down this hall through a transparent glazing. Crop your view horizontally. The robots are 2D images of the exact same scale fixed to the glazing The Ponzo illusion is a geometrical-optical illusion. The human mind judges an object’s size based on its background. The same effect could be achieved without glazing, by hanging 2 or 3D models of the identical object from the ceiling in the for-ground. Seeing is Believing: In Brain Rules vision trumps all other senses, the ponzo illusion is a reminder to not underestimate or take for granted, “concrete� evidence.

43


44


2.37 Tectonic Expression

Using texture as a way finding tool. Entry into project spaces of the school where students explore learning through making, celebrate the phenomenal interaction with the architecture.

The entry celebrates transition from finishes to tectonic expression 45


46


3

2.38 Light + Literature

0) Light Source (sun 1) Point of first interaction (optic projection) 2) point of reflection 3) Projection surface Larger Concept When 0-3 align uninterrupted word(s)/images projected, move across the ceiling as the sun (light source) moves across the sky (earth spins). If 0-3 were interrupted by the ? (wall of the classroom), a specific opening could allow for specific text/ image to project specific times of day+year. Meteorology Overcast vs. Sunny| outside may be unremarkable/interesting, But with the interaction of light and ‘literature’ our brains are wired to recognize its presence (symbology), possibly enough to recognize its absence. Rain|In the paradox of simultaneous sun and rain, falling water will do two of two things|disturb and raise the level the surface of the reflecting pool. Wind| on the waters surface, ripple altering its reflection and refraction angle. Time k-3 Social Studies|Calendar Time|Phenomena characteristic of analemma sundial 4-5 Science|Earths patterns within solar system cycles-> angle of incidence-> Mathematics k-3 estimate intervals of time| 4-5 understand measure of angles 6-8 Pythagorean Theorem

47


0

1

?

2

48


3.0_

49


The_Phenomenal_School

50


K-8 Faubion School

K-8 Rigler School

K-8 Laurelhurst School

K-8 Marrysville School

51


3.1 Sitting

Phenomenal Material Explorations 3.11 Site Selection Criteria for Site Selection

In determining a location for the design of the phenomenal school it was important to define the following criteria: Need for Natural Phenomena, Where k-8 schools expressed as needed, Solar access, Trees, Topography, and a subtantial size Site. Need for Natural Phenomena Being located in the forest surrounded by natural phenomena is arguably one of the best environments to learn experientially, thus limiting the need to be design architecturally. On a (sub)urban island, TPS can provide much needed interaction with these educational phenomena.

Context Diversity of communities served by school and grounds. Conclusion Based on the criteria chosen, it was clear that Faubion was the opertune site of The Phenomenal School.

Where k-8 schools expressed as needed PPS bond measures approved five elementary and K-8 schools across Portland will be modernized [1 fully renovated,1 historic renovation,1 k-5 modernization, and 2 rebuilt].

Trees Existing would be nice, but trees can be transplanted onto site

Large Site Incorporate indoor-outdoor learning, without compromising sport fields. Faubion Pk-8: Laurelhurst K-8: Markham K-5: Marysville K-8: Rigler K-8:

7 Acre 3 Acre 9 Acre 5.2 Acre 8.7 Acre

se

ts

re c

di

es

to

D

oe

s

tr e

s N

ee

ds

es cc A

as H

es

ex pr

s ol

ho

sc

kre

he W

N

ee

d

fo

Topography Significant Grade change across site,

8

rN

at u

ra l

Ph

en

om

en

a

No Historic renovation Historic renovation is outside the focus of the thesis, so it would be added time consumption to an already strict budget.

d as un H not ne as re ed G ed ra qui La de re rg H ch i e an sto si di te ric g ve e ac ren rs ity ro ov ss at of s co ite ion m m un iti es se rv ed by sc ho ol

Solar access Direct sun during school hours at least

FAUBION PK-8 LAURELHURST K-8 MARKHAM K-5 MARYSVILLE K-8 RIGLER K-8

52


PPS SITE

61 51

49

47

47

44

41

57

PPS SITE 54 41

41 36 CU PROPERTY

31

88 61

41

45

47

36

65 38

38

31

44

23

12

47 38 12

10

9

24 41

38

80 57

47

46

54 75 41

41

49

45 67

52 23 45 41

41

36 10

31

Record High

Average High

103

9 100°F

ST MICHAEL’S

31 48

46

41

12

101

Average Low

Record Low

23

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

104 106 103

10

92 88

PPS SITE

80°F

80

79

67 92

56 51

49

47 ST MICAEL’S

71

61

60°F

40°F

75

67

65 CU PROPERTY

80

73

71 ST MICAEL’S

41

36

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

ST MICAEL’S

92

36

Legend 24

CU PROPERTY

52 71

54

47

44

48

57

57 53

31

9

SITE

80 57 53 73

36

31

51

24

49 67

61

56

67

92

51 71 41

71

92

67

79 56

52

48

46

73

65

92

106 104 80 80 103 75

101

71

67

53

103

79 71

CU PROPERTY 57

56

38

PPS SITE 75

ST MICHAEL’S

67

65

38

80

73

71

92 88

80

79

CU PROPERTY

92

ST MIC

ST MI

88

38

41

38

44

57

57

47

46

54

53

52 48

41

41

41

36

36

31

31

24

CU PROPERTY

23

20°F

12

10

9

Topography

0°F

CU PROPERTY

Annual chance of sun : 42.89617486%

Legend

Clear Days

45

-20°F

Partly Cloudy Days

Cloudy Days

Record Tempuratures 28 25

21

22

19

17

14

7

8

9

17

23

26

12in

20

8

ST MICAEL’S

24

10in 9

16 12

6in

8

9

16

8

9

14

4

6

3

3

4

CU PROPERTY

6 1

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

25%

25%

10%

MICHAEL’S

10%

20%

20%

ST MICHAEL’S

ST MICHAEL’S

15%

25%

20% 20%

15%

25%

25%

20%

MICHAEL’S

ST MICHAEL’S

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

25% 25%

10%

1.54

Precipitation

20%

15%

1.69 0.59 0.71

15% 15% 10% 10%

T MICHAEL’S

25%

3.42

3.40

2in

4

5

Solar Access

53

4.50 2.55

2

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

4.79

15%

10%

20%

MICHAEL’S

2

8 6

4

6.74 6.94

16.4

4in

12

7

4

8in

8

15%

10%


ST MICHAEL’S

103

101

104 106 103 92

88

PPS SITE

80

79

71

67

65 61 56 relationship 51

57

57 The Faubion School site is characterized by its unique to Concordia 53 49 University School of Education, which takes advantage 47 of synergetic opportunities 47 46 44 for collaboration between the schools, and active outreach to 41 the community. 41 38

52

48 41

36

36

31

31 23

12

10

9

25%

10%

ST MICHAEL’S LS

15%

15%

10%

5%

10%

CU P PROPERTY TY

March

25%

April

25%

25%

20%

ST MICHAEL’S LS

ST MICHAEL’S LS

15%

10%

5%

20%

15%

10%

15%

10%

5%

5%

CU P PROPERTY TY

25%

20%

20%

15%

10%

5%

CU P PROPERTY TY

February

10%

15%

5%

CU P PROPERTY TY

January

20%

15%

5%

CU P PROPERTY TY

25%

20%

20%

ST MICHAEL’S LS

ST MICHAEL’S LS

25%

25%

20%

ST MICHAEL’S LS

ST MICAEL’S

24

Access Looking at the aerial map of the campus DAG members marked how they entered and exited the campus daily, by car, bike, foot, and bus? 2 doors vs 1 door accessible by both Dekum and campus. Seeing/feeling connection to Concordia. Auditorium creates that feeling. Access for cars off Dekum vs. off Rosa Parks favored Access for buses could work on 29th but favor Dekum

45

41

ST MICHAEL’S LS

38

The following 67 phenomena: geography, flora, fauna, wind, precipitation, temperature, 92 topography, solar access, and solar orientation were studied in order to better orient the design of the phenomena with the pedagogy thru the architecture. 54

ST MICHAEL’S LS

3.12 Site Phenomena

75

73

71 CU PROPERTY

80

5%

CU P PROPERTY TY

CU P PROPERTY TY

CU P PROPERTY TY

CU PROPERTY May

June

July

August

NORTH

ST MICHAEL’S LS

10%

15%

10%

5%

20%

20%

20%

ST MICHAEL’S LS

ST MICHAEL’S LS

20%

15%

25%

25%

25%

ST MICHAEL’S LS

25%

15%

10%

15%

10%

5%

5%

5%

EAST

LSS ST MICHAE MICHAEL’ L’

WEST

CU P PROPERTY TY

CU P PROPERTY TY

CU P PROPERTY TY

CU P PROPERTY TY

SOUTH

September

October

November

December

Wind Speed (M/S) > 11.06 8.49 - 11.06

CU P PR ROPE OPERT OPER RT Y RT

5.40- 8.49

OREGON PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION STATION

|

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

| ANN

ESE

ESE

ESE

S

NNW

NNW

NNW

NNW

NW

NW

ESE

ESE

| ESE

3.34 - 5.40 1.80 - 3.34

PORTLAND INT’L AP, OR (KPDX) |

0 - 1.80

Solar Azimuth

25%

Prevailing Wind [Force] + [Direction]

25%

25%

54

25%


SITE A

3.2 Schematic Design 3.21 boora Faubion Master Planning boora architects, Portland, are currently working on the new Faubion design. The design team is currently looking at a three-story building in order for the size and all program elements to be able to fit on the site. boora | Faubion Design Advisory Group minutes DAG 2 Self-learning through problem-solving activities of the real world. A place where technology+nature co-exist. PPS has 7 items that they ask design to strive for: LEED Gold, Opportunity to meet Living Building Challenge in the future. Materials Red list: required not including these items in the design. Using the fewest finishes as possible in the design Recycling as much as possible of the existing building. Use the school as a teaching tool for its students. DAG 3 Boora created a Vision Statement | Faubion/Concordia will be a community-centered campus modeling a holistic education. [Transparency of how things work] with tech lab Auditorium hall.

Main entrance from Dekum St. this allows the school to maintain an extension to the CU library on the southwest corner. SITE B

FIG 3.1 BOORA ARCHITECTURE MASTER PLANNING FAUBION SCHOOL

The entry will remain off Dekum. The building is extended to a full east to west orientation and also has an entrance off of NE 29th. The two common entries open into a welcome hall. 55

DAG 5 Gary Withers, Concordia Vice President. Classroom and Instructional Space, so there are Multiple ways to use the space to teach, with Excellent natural light and Views to exterior. Transparent separation of vibrant, collaborative spaces. Flexibility and complex, great space should adapt as work changes sliding whiteboard walls, no walls at all, wall go up� use of space-gathering for working, maker space� outdoor working and learning spaces� A bigger learning garden area to get enough sunlight, with outdoor-indoor spaces� A hand washing trough near the garden would be good�


56


3.22 Decided scheme (SITE A)

The decided scheme (SITE A) took into consideration important sight lines, the economy of the double loaded corridor, and the connection w/ Concordia School of Education. It was designed with a minimal foot print to allow gracious green space and a learning garden. However, the scheme had lost the phenomenal nature of earlier schemes exemplified in the indoor-outdoor project spaces.

- Concordia University Library -

57


- NE Dekum St -

- C i r c u l a t i o n -

-Classrooms-

- G y m -

C

a

f

ĂŠ

-

- O f f i c e -

- H a l l -

-Classrooms-

- C i r c u l a t i o n -

- A d m i n i s t r a t i o n -

- NE 29th Ave -

- P a r k i n g -

1 / 6 4 " = 1 ' - 0 "

- NE Rosa Parks Way -

58


3.22 Imbuing boora’s Faubion with phenomenal learning environments.

outdoor project spaces, and more formal moves of the newer models of education architecture. First adding indoor-outdoor project spaces, then reconfiguring circulation, to break the institutional grid feeling, leading full circle to the temporal nature of the sun. Thoughtful shifting of the central lecture mass on the south side creates specific temporal optic experiences between the sun, architecture and students.

1

2

The Strategy for designing the phenomenal school includes working with the general plan configuration that boora has generated, taking advantage of its economic use of space, sight lines, green space, and a learning gardens, however, reapplying the phenomenal nature of earlier schemes exemplified in the indoor-

Addition of indoor-outdoor project spaces, to boora plan.

59

Reconfiguring formal circulation to break the institutional grid feeling.


3

Addition of green roof, learning garden

4

Thoughtful mass shifting on the south side creates temporal solar experiences.

60


3.23 Temporal Lighting Studies

The thoughtful shifting of the central lecture mass on the south side creates specific temporal optic experiences between the sun, architecture and students.

61


62


-Classrooms-

- Project Space -

- TWO IN THE AFTERNOON -

- Project Space -

-Classroom-

-Gymnasium-

- C o m m o n s - TWO IN THE AFTERNOON -

-Air-Lock-

- TWO IN THE AFTERNOON -

- E n t r y -Commons-

-Circulation-

- Project Space -

-Air-Lock-

-Circulation-

-Classroom-

-

C

a

f

ĂŠ

-

-Classroom-

-Solar Shade-Wind Sails-

-

3

p

m

-

9 a m -

F 63

I

R

S

T

3 / 1 2 8 " = 1 ' - 0 "

S


3.3 Final Design Exploration 3.31 Plans

-Classrooms-

-Commons-

-Commons-

-Circulation-

-Classroom-

-Commons-

- Project Space -

- Project Space -

-Classroom-

-Circulation-

- N O O N -

- Project Space -

-Circulation-

-Commons- N O O N -

-Commons-

- N O O N -

- N O O N -

-Air-Lock-

-Gymnasium-

-Ca

-Air-Lock-

mer

a

Obs

cura -

A dinamic synergy is created between the entry commons, indoor-outdoor project spaces, and specific shifting of the lecture mass, create phenomenal learning environments between the pedagogy, architecture and students.

-

C

a

f

ĂŠ

-

-Classroom-

-Solar Shade-Wind Sails-

3

p

-

9

-

m

a m -

S E C O N D 1 / 1 2 8 " = 1 ' - 0 "

64


On the third floor in addition to entry commons, indoor-outdoor project spaces, 6 - 8th graders have dirrect acces to green roof learning gardens, for phenomenal environmenal learning.

-Classrooms-

-Air-Lock-

-Gymnasium-

3

p

-Classroom-

Space

Project Space -

-

Project Space -

-

m

Project

-Solar Shade-Wind Sails-

-Classroom-

- N O O N -

-Air-Lock-

-Circulation-

- N O O N -

-Circulation-

- N O O N -

- N O O N -

-GreenRoof-LearningGarden-

-Whispering Gallery-

-Circulation-

-Classroom-

9 a m -

T

65

H

I

R

D

3 / 1 2 8 " = 1 ' - 0 "

-GreenRoof-LearningGarden-


3.32 Models

The model brings the phenomena to light, in a final amalgamation of explorations of indoor-outdoor project spaces, green roof learning gardens and best highlighted

the phenomena interaction with the pedagogy through the architecture, which is explored in depth in the next pages.

66


67


In addition to phenomena as education, many public school educators said, Inviting, the first thing about the school is that it should be ‘inviting’. It needs to be welcoming as a place students cannot wait to go. It is to be a simply phenomenal place children are energized to come each day. This the reason for indoor-outdoor

project spaces and the common spaces, is for if nothing else to excite the children’s imaginations. When children’s imaginations are excited they are open to influence from others.

68


WHAT HAS 4 LEGS IN THE MORNING -

Thoughful shifting of the central lecture mass on the south side and the temporal nature of our relationship to the sun, allows for specific optic experiences at nine in the morning when the students arrive, the afternoon as they congregate in common spaces during the lunch hour and three in the evening upon departure from the school. Each with its own significance to the student they share a

69

commonality located in the circulation corridor. To draw attention to this temporal phenomena relating to the pedagogy of telling and writing time and thru to higher years Pythagorean theorem, text is utilized, as we are naturally drawn to symbology. The text is specific to correlelate with the time of day, for the student to gain an understanding over time of why this morning text is lit when it is morning but more significant why it cannot be seen the rest of the time. The text chosen is the


sphinxes riddle, what has four legs in the morning, two in the afternoon and three in the evening? The three sections of this riddle are dispersed in the space to align with their solar temporal counterpart.

-Classrooms-

-Gymnasium-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

70


- 2 IN THE AFTERNOON -

71


- TWO IN THE AFTERNOON - TWO IN THE AFTERNOON -

- TWO IN THE AFTERNOON -

-Classrooms-Gymnasium-

72


- AND 3 IN THE EVENING?

73


-Classrooms-

-Gymnasium-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

[A] Humans

74


The Musical Entry

(1) As children arrive from the south they are welcomed with giant solar shade wind sails, making the invisible visible while protecting the envelope from harsh solar gain. (2) From the north students flock to triple height wind louvers, serving as gateway to both secure the interior when not in use and channel wind from the faced inside. (3) Proudly utilizing the Crank Door, Chicken Point Cabin, by Tom Kundig, children explore Archimedian machines of “energy saving” mechanics,”

such as pulleys, working with the mechanics of the “simple machines” that underlie all labor-saving devices. (4) Another labor saving device, the rolling barn doors are the final tuning device , directing airflow in the entry commons. (5) the east and westward walls of the double height entry commons, serve as large pinup spaces to display students work. The loose nature of paper makes

7

1

75


3.33 Renderings -Classrooms-

-Air-Lock-

it ideal for activating kinesthetic learning, the fluttering and rustling of the tiny sails creates a audio visual, tactile experience for congregations or those just passing through. (6) Harp strings than handrails, keeps children safe, while connecting the levels and a learning experience of vibrational energy. (7) Solar Projection gives a lesson in optics. (8) Learning Gardens.

-Air-Lock-

-Gymnasium-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

6

5 4 8

3

7

2

76


-Classrooms-

-Gymnasium-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

Circulation

Growing up children are told, don’t touch that! Don’t drag your hand on the wall or grocery isle shelves and merchandise, but what is really happening here? We are visual+tactile learners’, we see something, form a hypothesis of what it might feel like, then proceed to explore with our hands to gain results and form conclusions. It is our human nature to explore. While admittedly there are situations we should not be exploring/ learning through touching, school, the environment deemed for learning should be the exemplar situation were tactile interaction is encouraged as part of the experience. (1) Wood paneling wraps the project spaces, transverse the path of circulation, encouraging to be touched while delineating specific areas of the school. (2) While maintaing a visual threshold the exposed rafter ceiling gives lessons of loading through tectonic expresion. (3) indoor-outdoor project spaces act as a repreive from focused lecture spaces, while engaging pupils with nature. (4) 4’ planter boxes than handrails,

keeps children safe, while providing ecological education. 1

77


2

4 3

78


3.4 First Thursday

On June 5th 2014, The Phenomenal School became an interactive exibit, center stage at the AIA’s Center For Architecture Portland, Portland State Univeristy End of Year Show: Traversals. Placed child high from the floor, students of all ages explored with flashislights, learning lessons of the temporal optic nature of the earths relationship to the sun.

79


-Classrooms-

-Gymnasium-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

-Classroom-

80


4.1 learned (Explored/Discovered/Experienced) Conclusions formed from this phenomenal exploration were based initially on the following areas or research: — Current and historic research — Public School Educators wants and needs — Models of Alternative Education — Comparative Analysis of Conventional vs. Alternative Pedagogies — Education Architecture Case Studies: of siting and Master Planning In support of this research, a number of explorations were carried out to discover opportunity thru the architecture of the school house, as a medium, connecting phenomenological facts to pedagogical beliefs for a simultaneous understanding, a revelation of knowledge, enhancing the kinesthetic learning experience of pupils, to provide a more holistic education for students. The lexicon connecting phenomena to pedagogy thru architecture, was utilized to explore the many opportunities arising from the research, in the way one would learn in The Phenomenal School, thru artifactual and architectural explorations.

I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. - Confucius, Chinese philosopher & reformer (551 BC - 479 BC) 81


4.0_Conclusions 4.3 Moving Forward 4.2 Reviewer Suggestions for Phenomenal School and Architecture Reviewers had many interesting suggestion, more interesting was that they were not a critique of the thesis, but collaborative phenomenological, pedagogical, architectural design ideas as follows: — Warped floors to activate ones sense of balance — Some indoor-outdoor project spaces are cantilevers others are point loads, for lessons in tectonics — Roof light scoops — Use color to delineate space — to the same effect as the diurnal sundial, Light Cannons that project specific dates onto the wall such as fall harvest, spring break, memorial day, January.., — What does the phenomenal classroom look like? Pick a model (Montessori) to model classrooms after.

The conversation this thesis came to produce Is far more valuable than any specific exploration it contains, as The Phenomenal School was never meant to be a specific piece of architecture, but to develop a methodology for how to approach education design, a lexicon of opportunities to be taken from and added to. Reviewers and external advisors validated the success of The Phenomenal School by asking what if, giving suggestions of possible opportunities, than critiquing the how of what had been explored, as the level of clarity was understood. This is success for The Phenomenal School in that they are now themselves exploring the possibilities, which was the goal from the beginning. The importance moving forward is placed on the synergetic relationship between Architects and engineers, and architect and educators. Designers need to know that what they are proposing can/will be accomplished and that what has been accomplished is validated by the success of its students.

82


References and Bibliography 1

Hirsch Jr, Eric D. The schools we need: And why we don’t have them. Random House Digital, Inc., 2010.

2

Pope, Denise Clark. Doing school: How we are creating a generation of stressed out, materialistic, and miseducated students. Yale University Press, 2001.

3

Bode, Boyd Henry. How we learn. DC Heath, 1940.

4

Sonnier, Isadore L., ed. Methods and techniques of holistic education. CC Thomas, 1985.

5

Richards, Mary Caroline. Towards Wholeness: Rudolf Steiner Education in America. Wesleyan University Press, 1980.

6

Steiner, Rudolf, Jesse Darrell, and George Adams. A modern art of education: fourteen lectures given in Ilkley, Yorkshire, 5th-17th August, 1923. Rudolf Steiner Press, 1972.

7

Silver, Harvey F., Richard W. Strong, and Matthew J. Perini. So each may learn: Integrating learning styles and multiple intelligences. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1703 North Beauregard Street, Alexandria, VA 22311-1714, 2000.

8

Gardner, David P. “A nation at risk.” Washington, D. C.: The National Commission on Excellence in Education, US Department of Education (1983).

9

Lillard, Angeline Stoll, Montessori: The science behind the genius. 2008.

10

Battaglia, Real-Life Montessori: Nature, Mixed Aged Groups and Fun. Aug. 2013

11

Hewett, et.al. Examining the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. 2001

12

Cadwell, Bringing Reggio Emilia home: An innovative approach to early childhood education. 1997

13

Tarr, Aesthetic Codes in Early Childhood Classrooms: What Art Educators Can Learn from Reggio Emilia. 2001.

14

Design Concepts: Community and Landscape Architects

83


Aditional Recources Betts, George Herbert. The mind and its education. D. Appleton, 1916. Schunk, Dale H. Learning theories: An educational perspective. Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc, 1991. Reid, Jo-anne, Peter Forrestal, and Jonathan Cook. Small group learning in the classroom. Heinemann, 1990. Schoenfeld, Alan H. How we think: A theory of goal-oriented decision making and its educational applications. Taylor & Francis US, 2010. Reiff, Judith C. “Learning Styles. What Research Says to the Teacher Series.” (1992). Edson, Lee. How we learn. Time-Life Books, 1975. Miller, Bruce L., and Jeffrey L. Cummings, eds. The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders. Guilford press, 2007. Falk, John H. “Free-choice science learning: Framing the discussion.” Free-choice science education: How we learn science outside of school (2001): 3-20. McLean, James E., and Lee K. McLean. How children learn language. Singular Publishing Group, 1999. Richardson, John TE, Michael W. Eysenck, and David Warren Piper. Student learning: Research in education and cognitive psychology. Open University, 1987. Risberg, Jarl, and Jordan Grafman, eds. The frontal lobes: Development, function and pathology. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Krasnegor, Norman A., G. Lyon, and Patricia S. Goldman-rakic. Development of the pre frontal cortex: Evolution, neurobiology, and behavior. Paul H Brookes Publishing, 1997. National Association of Secondary School Principals (US). Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribing programs. Natl Assn of Secondary School, 1979. McCarthy, Bernice. The 4MAT system: Teaching to learning styles with right/left mode techniques. Barrington, Ill.: Excel, 1980. Carbo, Marie. Teaching Students to Read through Their Individual Learning Styles. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, 1986. National Association of Secondary School Principals (US). Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribing programs. Natl Assn of Secondary School, 1979. 84


Rist, Georg, and Peter Schneider. “Integrating Vocational and General Education: A Rudolf Steiner School. Case Study of the Hibernia School, Herne, Federal Republic of Germany. UIE Case Studies 1.” (1979). Steiner, Rudolf. Discussions with Teachers: Fifteen Discussions with the Teachers of the Stuttgart Waldorf School from August 21 to September 6, 1919; Three Lectures on the Curriculum, September 6, 1919. Vol. 3. SteinerBooks, 1997. Ravitch, Diane. The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. Basic Books, 2011. Steiner, Rudolf. The education of the child: and early lectures on education. Vol. 25. SteinerBooks, 1996. Steiner, Rudolf. “The younger generation: Education and spiritual impulses in the 20th century (Lectures, 1922).” (1967). Miller, Alice. Thou shalt not be aware: Society’s betrayal of the child. Macmillan, 1998. Miller, Ron. “What are schools for.” Holistic education in American culture 3 (1997). Luka, Virginia. Palau: Social and Cultural Changes in a Micronesian Paradise* McNair Faculty Mentor: Dr. Younghee Kim SOU McNair Scholars Journal Spring 2012 – Vol. 8 Online: privateschool.about.com/od/privateschoolfaqs/f/montwaldorfdiff behance.net/gallery/Waldorf-School-Recreating-the-Home german.about.com/library/blschule Behance.net/gallery/Waldorf-School-Recreating-the-Home steiner.edu brightpathkids sacwaldorf.org

85


86


87


THE PHENOMENAL SCHOOL

Phenomenological interaction with pedagogy through architecture

r

By: Christophe ockhill

88


89

Architecture Masters Thesis: The Phenomenal School  

A Phenomenological interaction with pedagogy through architecture