Issuu on Google+

Liverpool Waters Energy Statememt November 2011

www.liverpoolwaters.com


Contents

Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................... 4 1.0

Introduction

15

2.0

Policy Context

19

3.0

Scheme Overview

27

4.0

Energy Demand and Carbon Emissions

30

5.0

Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Systems

38

6.0

Offsite Potential Allowable Solutions

57

7.0

Liverpool Waters Energy Supply Strategies

61

8.0

Liverpool Waters Energy Supply Strategies

66

Report Conditions

69

Page 2

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Page 3

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Executive Summary This Energy Statement has been prepared as part of the Liverpool Waters proposal which seeks to deliver 1,691,000 square meters of development to provide a significant number of new homes and new business floorspace through the development of sixty hectares of former dockyards to the north of Liverpool over the next thirty years. It defines the scheme’s current approach to delivery of an energy and carbon reduction strategy in accordance with national, regional and local planning policies and anticipated step changes in regulations. In July 2009 the Government confirmed how Zero Carbon compliance for new dwellings from 2016 would be defined. This latest definition requires a level of onsite carbon compliance which is equal to a 70% reduction in regulated CO2 emissions from that permitted in the 2006 Building Regulations. Homes will also be required to achieve a minimum energy efficiency standard. The remaining carbon emissions must be mitigated through ‘Allowable Solutions’ to give net zero CO2 emissions from both regulated and un-regulated energy consumption. Liverpool Waters is required to consider the application of low carbon and renewable energy in accordance with Liverpool City Council planning policy and the ambitions of Peel Land & Property (Ports) Ltd (herein after referred to as Peel) to deliver a sustainable low carbon community. Peel has aspirations for Liverpool Waters to deliver sustainable low and ultimately Zero Carbon buildings but also acknowledges the challenges in balancing the environmental, financial and social aspects of delivering these standards. The baseline annual energy demand of around 9,000 new homes, employment, education and community land at Liverpool Waters is estimated at 213,333 MWh/yr with regulated annual carbon emissions of 56,900 TonnesCO2/yr and total emissions of 70,685 TonnesCO2/yr. The legislative requirements for the reduction in carbon emissions from new development are being increased and will continue in this way over the course of the development. These requirements include targets for Zero Carbon dwellings by 2016, public sector buildings by 2018, and commercial buildings by 2019. Liverpool Waters provides an opportunity to deliver the necessary facilities and infrastructure that have the Page 4

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


economies of scale and efficiencies that are required to make these requirements technically possible and commercially viable.

Energy Reduction The first step to achieve anticipated carbon reduction obligations is to reduce consumption through improved standards of building performance and energy efficiency in accordance with the energy hierarchy; this can be achieved through higher specifications of building fabric and insulation, improved air tightness and heating controls and optimising design and layout for passive solar benefit. As a result of the high rise apartment building form, the majority of dwellings at Liverpool Waters will have only one or two heat loss surfaces (i.e. external walls) and therefore are anticipated to be inherently thermally efficient. It is anticipated that where possible passive cooling strategies such as exposed thermal mass, good natural ventilation design, and solar shading will be sought to mitigate the extent of active cooling required at Liverpool Waters to ensure long term occupant comfort and prevent overheating in a changing climate. Conservatively it is estimated that these measures will reduce energy demand at Liverpool Waters to 185,435MWh/yr and regulated carbon emissions to 43,418 TonnesCO2/yr a 22% reduction in regulated emissions prior to the incorporation of low carbon or renewable energy technologies.

Low Carbon and Renewable Energy The high rise, principally residential, high density nature of development and urban location at Liverpool’s historic docklands presents a number of distinct opportunities and also challenging constraints to the development of a sustainable and low carbon energy strategy. The high density of development favours the inclusion of a decentralised community heating and possibly cooling network. Such a network could integrate Combined Heat and Power (CHP) cogeneration plant once sufficient base thermal load is realised for effective environmental and economic operation. The use of absorption chillers (tri-generation) plant to generate cooling in the summer months could extend CHP operational runtime during periods of low thermal demand (summer months) and optimise economic and environmental performance.

Page 5

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


A networked Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) plant with absorption chiller cooling could potentially take advantage of the unique dock water resource of the site in providing free cooling to installed CHP plant and absorption chillers. The application of solar technologies is restricted by the low proportion of south facing roof area to number of dwellings, reducing the extent to which photovoltaic (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems can contribute to overall energy demand in comparison to low density sub-urban residential development schemes. PV systems are considered most likely to be suitable in supplementing a community heat and power network. Whilst the wind speed onsite is in excess of 6m/s, the high density development proposals and World Heritage Site status are likely to preclude the inclusion of commercial scale wind turbines onsite at Liverpool Waters. The Allowable Solutions mechanism may enable investment in local offsite generation. The region, like much of the UK, is understood to be supported by an emerging biomass fuel supply market and the Liverpool Water site is located immediately adjacent to an existing wood fuel supplier at Dublin Street. Future development of Merseyside’s wood fuel infrastructure capacity could enable biomass to be a principle renewable fuel source at Liverpool Waters. During first phases of development this would most likely be in conventional biomass boilers but in the longer term could fuel Combined Heat and Power systems. Alternatively a water source heat pump system using the dock water resource could also provide low carbon heating and cooling either connected to individual buildings or as part of a combined network. The increased carbon intensity of grid electricity compared to natural gas under the 2010 Part L revision of the building regulations does not favour electrically driven heat pump technologies, however future changes to the national calculation methodology propose to better capture forecasts of future grid carbon intensity. Landfill gas, micro-hydro, deep geothermal (hot rock), domestic micro CHP and fuel cell based generation systems are not considered appropriate for deployment at this point in time, based on technical or commercial deliverability at this stage, although all systems will need to be continually evaluated for future suitability and as the grid becomes decarbonised through reduced case of fossil fuels with increasing contributions from renewable energy, nuclear and the application of carbon capture and storage systems. Figure 1 summarises the estimated individual contribution of five principle low carbon and renewable technologies to carbon reduction at each phase of Liverpool Waters. Page 6

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


35,000

30,000

Carbon Emissions Saved (Tonnes/CO2

25,000 SHW PV Gas CHP Biomass CHP

20,000

Biomass Heating WSHP

15,000

10,000

5,000

0 Princes Dock

King Edward

Central Docks

Clarence Docks

Northern Docks

Timeline

Figure 1: Individual LZC technologies operational phased carbon saving analysis

Preliminary Energy Scenarios This report presents two alternative energy scenarios which can potentially achieve the Governments commitment to reducing carbon emissions from new development. These scenarios represent just two alternative approaches in which the target CO2 emissions improvement could be achieved. Both scenarios propose high standards of building energy performance and efficiency that are phased over time in accordance with national recommended standards, leading to at minimum compliance with the fabric efficiency standards for Zero Carbon homes from 2016 and buildings from 2019. this will support achievement of environmental assessment standards such as the Code for Sustainable Homes and BREEAM.

Page 7

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Primary Energy Scenario The principle energy scenario at this stage is based on a site wide decentralised energy strategy utilising a community heating, cooling and possibly power network with multiple on site energy centres. A network distributed approach to on site generation of electricity, heat and cooling as part of the Liverpool Waters Masterplan could offer a number of distinct benefits to the development. The phasing of the Liverpool Waters development will take place over approximately 30 years; a network distributed CHP approach can achieve CO2 savings once the network connecting buildings in each phase is completed and CHP or other renewable plant is operational. A phased infrastructure delivery is considered more suitable than single centralised plant as a very large generation facility would be unlikely to come into operation until after Phase 3 (Central Docks Neighbourhood) depending on market conditions. During this period the buildings would require conventional services resulting in higher interim emissions. The use of conventional gas CHP reciprocating engines is proposed for the initial phases using one or more basement energy centres at Princes Dock or King Edward Triangle, assuming alternative bio-fuel CHP is not technically and commercially applicable at the outset, with transition to bio-fuel CHP systems or alternative technologies for later phases and future proofing to enable substitution of conventional CHP (and CCHP) plant as soon as practicable. The sites dock water resource could be utilised to provide free cooling – to CHP and absorption chiller plant as part of the trigeneration network. Establishing a 5MWe renewable bio-fuel CHP plant within a dedicated energy centre located at Central Docks, becoming fully operational at the end of Phase 3, could allow challenging Zero Carbon CO2 targets to be met and replace phase 1 and 2 gas CHP reciprocating engines which will be approaching the end of their asset life. The community energy infrastructure established and interconnected at each phase could enable alternative technologies to be adopted within the scheme as well as potential for import and export of waste heat, where it is found to be commercially viable.

Page 8

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


10,000,000

8,000,000

Energy (kWh/yr)

6,000,000 Biomass CHP Elec Biomass CHP Heat Gas CHP Elec Gas CHP Heat PV Gas Grid Electricity

4,000,000

2,000,000

0 1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

-2,000,000 Year

Figure 2: primary energy scenario annual delivered energy

This energy scenario is estimated to deliver CO2 emissions reductions of 14,375 tonnes (22%) through passive design and energy efficiency measures, and a further 34,861tonnes (53%) through CHP/CCHP and renewable energy systems, equivalent to a cumulative 75% below the development baseline. Table 1: Liverpool Waters primary energy scenario summary

Energy Scenario 1

CO2 Saving

Total CO2

(Tonnes/yr)

(Tonnes/yr)

Baseline Total Carbon Emissions

80,502

Baseline Regulated Carbon Emissions

65,356

CO2 Reduction (%)

Improved fabric performance and energy efficiency

14,375

50,981

22%

Gas CCHP

2,568

48,413

4%

PV

616

47,797

1%

Bio-fuel CHP

31,677

16,120

48% 75%

Total onsite CO2 Reduction

+5%

Zero Carbon 70% onsite carbon compliance Residual emissions mitigated via Allowable Solutions

31,266

tonnes

Page 9

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


90,000 80,014

Carbon Emission (TonnesCO2/yr)

80,000 70,000

65,960

60,000 50,000 40,000

32,499

30,000 20,000 6,676

10,000 0 Baseline

Improved Efficiency

LZC

Allowable Solutions

Figure 3: primary energy scenario emission reduction summary

90,000,000

Carbon Emission (kgCO2/yr)

80,000,000 70,000,000 60,000,000 Part L 2006 Energy Efficiency Energy Scenario 2 Allowable Solutions

50,000,000 40,000,000 30,000,000 20,000,000 10,000,000 0 1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

Year

Figure 4: primary energy Scenario carbon reduction forecast

Alternative Energy Scenario An alternative energy supply strategy could adopt individual building integrated micro generation solutions. At this stage this approach is anticipated to be based on biomass boilers located within basement plant rooms to each building and supplemented by roof mounted Photovoltaic (PV) systems. A building integrated approach would enable individual building renewable solutions to be deployed in accordance with mandated development standards without significant initial energy infrastructure investment or abnormal infrastructure planning. This approach allows innovation, limited infrastructure planning or investment with the full benefits of LZC technologies and associated financial incentives passed to occupants.

Page 10

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


However, this is approach is likely to represent a greater capital investment need for achievement of challenging Zero Carbon standards across the life of the development and is not anticipated to achieve the economies of scale and efficiencies of the primary energy scenario as individual building plant will not benefit from the optimisation of energy demand profiles possible with district energy schemes. Table 2: Liverpool Waters Alternative Energy Scenario

Energy Scenario 2

CO2

CO2 Saving

Total CO2

(Tonnes/yr)

(Tonnes/yr)

Baseline Total Carbon Emissions

80,502

Baseline Regulated Carbon Emissions Improved fabric performance and

65,356

Reduction (%)

14,375

50,981

22%

Biomass heating

15,165

35,816

23%

PV

8,623

27,193

13%

energy efficiency

Total onsite CO2 Reduction

58%

Zero Carbon 70% onsite carbon compliance

-12%

Residual emissions mitigated via allowable solutions

42,339

tonnes

9,000,000

Delivered Energy (kWh/yr)

8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 Biomass PV Gas Grid Electricity

5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

Year

Figure 5: alternative energy scenario annual delivered energy

This energy scenario is also estimated to deliver CO2 emissions reductions of 14,375 tonnes (22%) through passive design and energy efficiency measures, and a further 23,788 tonnes through biomass heating and PV renewable energy systems, equivalent to 58% below the development baseline. Page 11

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Modelling at this stage based on assumed restrictions to the extent of solar PV deployment and contribution of biomass heating to 80% of thermal demand indicates that whilst this approach would enable compliance with initial phase CO2 reduction obligations equivalent to Code for Sustainable Homes Level 3 and 4 ene1 standards it falls short in delivering onsite carbon compliance standards anticipated for later phases. Further optimisation of building fabric and internal services beyond likely regulatory requirements are anticipated to be required and greater deployment of PV to that assumed as the practical capacity within this study.

90,000 80,014

Carbon Emission (Tonnes CO2/yr)

80,000 70,000

65,960

60,000 50,000

42,171

40,000 30,000 20,000 11,585 10,000 0 Baseline

Improved Efficiency

LZC

Allowable Solutions

Figure 6: energy scenario 2 emission reduction summary

70,000,000

Carbon Emissions (kgCO2/yr)

60,000,000

50,000,000

Part L 2006 Energy Efficiency Energy Scenario 2 Allowable Solutions

40,000,000

30,000,000

20,000,000

10,000,000

0 1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

Year

Figure 7: alternative energy scenario carbon reduction forecast

This study has also identified the potential for application of water source heat pumps (WSHP) as an Page 12

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


alternative base load heating and cooling systems and it may be possible to substitute biomass for a WSHP system at a building level in some instances. The suitability of heat pump systems will be greatly dictated by future carbon intensity of the UK’s electricity distribution network.

Summary Overall, Liverpool Waters aspires to deliver Low and ultimately Zero Carbon development but recognises the significant challenges in achieving this. Peel is committed to the delivery of sustainable development and has invested heavily in the successful deployment of commercial renewable energy generation in Liverpool. The energy scenarios presented in this report are indicative only at this stage, and represent approaches that could deliver the current anticipated future carbon reduction obligations over the 30 year build programme and Peel’s vision of a sustainable low carbon community. It is proposed that following the outline planning application a Peel Carbon Reduction Working Group will be established to work with their project design team in guiding the scheme toward low, zero and potentially positive carbon solutions as an ongoing platform to further assess and test the suitability and deliverability of the energy scenarios set out in this report and potential alternative and innovative energy delivery strategies including optimum balance between onsite and offsite carbon compliance. The future development of Liverpool Water’s sustainable energy strategy will need to continue to be fully integrated into the development process. This will enable the procurement, delivery and long term governance of any site wide energy strategy, such as that considered in the primary energy scenario, to be fully tested against alternative building integrated solutions. The potential role of any Energy Services Provider working in partnership with the Applicant or independently, including opportunities for offsite renewable energy investment, heat export and import can be continually appraised through the Carbon Reduction Working Group and the optimum solution best suited to individual phases and developer preferences be achieved. At this stage in the outline application process a series of targets are proposed for the delivery of each development phase at Liverpool Waters. These targets can form the foundations of a long term Carbon Reduction Framework for the Liverpool Waters proposal.

Page 13

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Peel LW Carbon Reduction Framework Framework •

Assessment against BREEAM communities with aspirations to deliver ‘Excellent’

Low carbon design and passive measures to reduce energy and associated carbon emissions

Design guidelines for individual parcel plots to be developed which incorporate progressive performance targets in accordance with building regulation requirements to promote passive sustainable design to deliver the innovative, energy efficient ‘green’ buildings demanded by commercial tenants and prospective residents.

Establish a Peel Carbon Reduction Working Group

Detailed feasibility of community energy and CCHP to be undertaken as each phase of development is bought forward including the application of bio-fuel CHP and utilisation of natural dock water resource

Local heat demand mapping and offsite heat export and import opportunities to be evaluated for technical and commercial viability

Development of preferred Allowable Solutions mechanism to be evaluated potentially including establishing a LW green investment fund and offsite renewable to mitigate residual emissions

Targets •

Non-residential buildings to achieve BREEAM 'Very Good' with Aspirations for ‘Excellent’ or above (subject to a suitable feasibility mechanism)

Fabric efficiency and energy consumption standards

Interim phases to aspire to achieve minimum compliance with Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4

Residential dwellings to deliver Zero Carbon compliance from 2016

Non-residential buildings to be zero carbon compliant from 2019.

Page 14

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


1.0 Introduction 1.1

Background

1.1.1

WYG has been commissioned by the Peel to prepare this Energy Statement to support the outline planning application for the redevelopment of Liverpool Waters, a site of some 60 hectares extending over 2km of largely redundant dockland within the central part of Liverpool, adjacent to the retail and commercial cores of the City on the eastern side of the Mersey estuary.

1.1.2

This major development will involve the construction of high rise towers and other buildings and supporting infrastructure, providing 9,00 high density apartments and 314,500 square metres of high quality office, recreational, retail and community space. The development will be constructed in several phases depending on tenant interest, market conditions and other factors, and is expected to take around 30 years to complete.

1.1.3

The phasing of the Liverpool Waters development will take place over approximately 30 years, depending on market conditions and other factors. The life expectancy of conventional and alternative low carbon or renewable energy plant is typically between 10 and 30 years, while building refurbishments and plant replacement may take place at 5 to 15 year intervals. It is quite likely that plant and equipment installed in initial development phase will have reached the end of its useful lives well before completion of the buildings in the final phase, allowing replacement with LZC equipment as emerging technologies and new innovations become viable.

1.1.4

This Energy Statement has been prepared taking into account the extended period of construction and the need to ensure flexibility to accommodate changing tenant requirements, further evolution of national and local planning, energy, or environmental policy, and ongoing technical developments in energy consuming equipment, low carbon technologies and building engineering services over long periods of time.

1.2

Objectives

1.2.1

This document provides an assessment of the potential opportunity and practical deployment of low carbon and renewable energy systems at Liverpool Waters as required by Liverpool City Council Planning Validation Criteria and in accordance with Peel’s aspirations to deliver a low carbon and sustainable development. It describes potential measures to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions including the theoretical and practical potential of different low carbon and renewable energy supply systems and compliance with challenging future carbon reduction objectives as well Page 15

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


as with Liverpool City Council energy policy objectives.

1.3

Scope

1.3.1

This Energy Statement relates to the Liverpool Waters Indicative Masterplan (October 2011). It is intended that this Statement should be read as a stand-alone document, separate from the ‘Liverpool Waters Environmental Statement’ (November 2011).

1.3.2

The scope of this document is restricted to the building’s energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions only. Other environmental sustainability issues, such as construction impacts or emissions from transport are addressed in other documents supporting the planning application, and are not included in this report.

1.3.3

In order to prepare this strategy an assessment of the predicted energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions arising from the phased delivery of the Liverpool Waters proposal has been undertaken, and an assessment of the potential contribution to this demand from different low carbon and renewable energy systems has been assessed based on consideration of the nature of development, available natural resources, site and physical constraints, technical and commercial suitability. A series of alternative energy scenarios have been assessed to demonstrate possible routes to compliance with CO2 reduction and planning policy objectives.

1.3.4

Simulation and modelling of phased energy consumption and contribution of generation systems has been carried out and the findings or results are summarised in this statement. This introductory section is followed by a review of applicable planning policy, regulation and legislation on energy. The main body of this statement describes the methodology used to establish the phased energy demand and carbon footprint of the scheme. It then summarises the potential deployment of different LZC technologies and these systems theoretical contribution to site energy demand and carbon emissions savings. The key findings of the Energy Statement and the predicted emissions performance of alternative energy scenarios is summarised in the final section.

1.4

Peel Sustainable Energy Vision

1.4.1

In order to realise a sustainable energy strategy for Liverpool Waters it is important to understand the drivers for change and to define a long-term vision for the scheme.

1.4.2

The Peel Group is a leading infrastructure, transport and real estate enterprise in the UK and holds significant investments in Developments and Energy. Peel’s 2009 CSR Report sets out the organisations aspirations of creating sustainable excellence, based on a long term perspective and a Page 16

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


positive legacy. It confirms the important role of environmental innovation to the Group including promoting low carbon growth and providing sustainable solutions for energy, waste and water and the Peel Group’s commitment to renewable energy and support in contributing to the Government’s renewable energy targets. 1.4.3

Peel Energy is part of the Peel Group and has a portfolio of more than 3GW of operational or in development energy generation including wind, tidal power, biomass and multi-fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage. Peel Energy has a heritage of supporting low-carbon energy projects over the last 20 years and is committed to developing, building and operating low-carbon projects across the country.

1.4.4

Wirral Waters is another development being brought forward by Peel Holdings under the ‘Ocean Gateway’ concept of strategic development projects focused along the River Mersey.

1.4.5

The energy infrastructure strategy for the Wirral Waters development approaches the delivery of energy through the use of discrete elements, connected in a holistic and integrated manner, culminating in a sustainable energy infrastructure system to be developed over the forecast 40 year build programme.

1.4.6

The outline energy strategy proposes the use of a decentralised energy generation facility onsite with a district heating system and electrical power network. The strategy envisages the use of solid fuel biomass boilers and CHP plant to enable the use of sustainable renewable biomass and potentially available waste streams and comments that to enable the scheme to meet the legislation requirements a proportion of the development electricity supply may need to be provided from wind turbines which are likely to be located offsite in viable locations.

Page 17

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Figure 8: Wirral Waters neighbourhoods & city structure - Design and Access Statement 2009

Page 18

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


2.0

Policy Context

2.1.1

Specific measures to encourage and require the use of technologies to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated carbon dioxide emissions from new developments are prominent in contemporary planning policy frameworks in the UK.

2.1.2

Policy in this area continues to evolve and account has been taken of both current policy requirements and policy developments which are expected to occur over the planning cycle for the proposed development. The most important relevant policies and related guidance are summarised below.

2.1.3

An exhaustive review of all national and local policy relating to all aspects of sustainable development is beyond the scope of this document, and reference should also be made to the Sustainability Appraisal submitted with the planning application.

2.2

PPS1 – Planning Policy Statement 1: Planning and Climate Change

2.2.1

Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS1) sets out the Government's overarching planning policies on the delivery of sustainable development through the planning system and promotes sustainable resource and energy use, including the use of renewable energy to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change.

2.2.2

It states that regional planning authorities and local authorities should promote resource and energy efficient buildings, community heating schemes, the use of combined heat and power, small scale renewable and low carbon energy schemes in developments.

2.3

PPS22 – Planning Policy Statement 22: Renewable Energy

2.3.1

Planning Policy Statement 22 (PPS22) states that the increased development of renewable energy resources is vital to facilitating the delivery of the Government’s commitments on both climate change and renewable energy and that local planning authorities may include policies in local development documents that require a percentage of the energy to be used in new residential, commercial or industrial developments to come from on-site renewable energy developments. Such policies: (i)

should ensure that requirement to generate on-site renewable energy is only applied to developments where the installation of renewable energy generation equipment is viable Page 19

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


given the type of development proposed, its location, and design; (ii)

should not be framed in such a way as to place an undue burden on developers, for example, by specifying that all energy to be used in a development should come from onsite renewable generation.

2.4

EU Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC

2.4.1

EU directives set out the end results that must be achieved in every Member State and the UK has signed up to the EU Renewable Energy Directive which includes a UK target of 15 percent of energy from renewables by 2020. This target is equivalent to a seven-fold increase in UK renewable energy consumption from 2008 levels and one of the most challenging of any EU Member State.

2.5

Climate Change Act

2.5.1

The Climate Change Act sets a legally binding target for reducing UK CO2 emissions by least 80% on 1990 levels by 2050. It established the Committee on Climate Change, which is responsible for setting binding interim carbon budgets for the Government over successive five year periods. The first three carbon budgets were announced in the Budget 2009, resulting in an interim target of a 34% reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions on 1990 levels by 2020.

2.6

UK Low Carbon Transition Plan and Renewable Energy Strategy

2.6.1

The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) published a White Paper, the UK Low Carbon Transition Plan in July 2009. The plan sets out how the UK will achieve a 34% cut in CO2 equivalent emissions by 2020.

2.6.2

The Plan is accompanied by a suite of documents, including the UK Renewable Energy Strategy which describes how the UK will meet its legally binding target to supply 15% of all of the energy it uses from renewable sources by 2020.

2.6.3

It anticipates that this will be achieved by using renewable energy technologies to supply over 30% of the UK’s electricity, 12% of the heat we use, and 10% of energy for transport.

2.7

North West of England Plan Region Spatial Strategy

2.7.1

It is acknowledged that the Regional Spatial Strategy (RSS) no longer forms part of the statutory development plan following Royal Assent in November 2011. However, the evidence base can still form a material consideration to a planning application and provides context for the wider region’s Page 20

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


delivery of long term sustainable energy solutions. 2.7.2

Chapter 9 of the RSS identifies the opportunity to reduce energy demand and break the link between energy demand and economic growth; promote and exploit low carbon and renewable energy technologies and increase the amount of electricity and energy for heating from renewable sources supplied and consumed within the region.

RSS Policy EM 16 Energy Conservation and Efficiency 2.7.3

Policy EM 16 states that Local Authorities, energy suppliers, construction companies, developers, transport providers and other organisations should ensure that their approach to energy is based on minimising consumption and demand, promoting maximum efficiency and minimum waste in all aspects of local planning, development and energy consumption.

RSS Policy EM 17 Renewable Energy 2.7.4

Policy EM17 states that by 2010 at least 10% (rising to at least 15% by 2015 and at least 20% by 2020) of the electricity which is supplied within the North West should be provided from renewable energy sources. To achieve this new renewable energy capacity should be developed which will contribute towards the delivery of the indicative capacity targets set out in Tables 9.6 and 9.7a-c. In accordance with PPS22, meeting these targets is not a reason to refuse otherwise acceptable development proposals.

RSS Policy EM 18 Decentralised Energy Supply 2.7.5

Policy EM18 states that plans and strategies should encourage the use of decentralised and renewable or low-carbon energy in new development in order to contribute to the achievement of the targets set out. It states that in advance of local targets being set, new non residential developments above a threshold of 1,000m² and all residential developments comprising 10 or more units should secure at least 10% of their predicted energy requirements from decentralised and renewable or low-carbon sources.

2.8

North West Sustainable Energy Strategy

2.8.1

The North West Sustainable Energy Strategy identifies the need for sustainable energy generation and supply in ensuring energy supply security and climate change mitigation for the future. It sets out that the region aspires to deploy sufficient renewable electricity generating capacity to provide 20% of final demand by 2020. It considers the potential role of different renewable energy sources in meeting the future energy demand of the region and current installations. Page 21

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


2.9

Liverpool Climate Change Strategic Framework

2.9.1

The strategic framework for Liverpool identifies a number of priority areas for action including energy and water supply. It outlines that Liverpool is working with sub regional partners and with the private sector to examine the feasibility of tidal power and wind power from the Mersey and from Liverpool Bay as well as the important role of reducing carbon emissions generated by new development.

2.10 Liverpool City Planning Validation Criteria 2.10.1 Liverpool City Council Planning Department Validation Criteria (2008) requires a Renewable Energy Report/Statement for all development exceeding 1,000 square metres (including change of use) to be submitted for outline applications for planning permission with all matters reserved.

2.11 Incentives for Renewable Energy 2.11.1 There are a number of existing and proposed financial incentives available to the owners and operators of renewable technologies, from home owners micro generation to ESCos operating larger renewable plant, and are designed to incentivise their uptake.

Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROC) 2.11.2 The Renewables Obligation (RO) is a Government initiative to incentivise large scale renewable electricity generation and is an electronic certificate based scheme. 2.11.3 Electricity suppliers need these certificates to meet their obligation under the scheme and demonstrate that they have supplied a proportion of their electricity from renewable energy sources. From 2010 a system of Feed in Tariffs (see below) will replace the RO as far as possible as the financial support mechanism for renewable micro-generation.

Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) 2.11.4 Feed-in tariffs (FiTs) are new measures introduced by the government to support the uptake of micro-generation technologies in the UK. The implementation of feed-in tariffs took place in April 2010. This mechanism provides renewable micro-generators in the UK with up to 25 year guaranteed per unit support payments (pence/kWh) for renewable electricity generation and has seem a large stimulus in installed photovoltaic’s since its inception.

Page 22

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) 2.11.5 To meet the UK's 2020 15% renewable energy target, there is a need to develop new ways of generating renewable energy in all sectors, including heat. Expansion of renewable heat will require some form of financial assistance because other forms of heat are currently cheaper. Such support will allow more people to afford renewable heat and, by expanding the market, help bring costs down more quickly. The RHI is scheduled for implementation in 2011 and will potentially provide financial assistance to generators of renewable heat as well as producers of renewable biogas and biomethane.

2.12 Building Regulations 2.12.1 Future step changes to Part L of the Building Regulations are anticipated to be the principle mechanism for appraising and enforcing compliance with increasing carbon reduction standards imposed on new homes and buildings. 2.12.2 The 2010 amendment to these regulations is to be enforced from October 2010 will require a 25% reduction in regulated carbon emissions compared to the 2006 Part L baseline. 2.12.3 These standards are anticipated to increase over time resulting in minimum carbon compliance level defined by the Zero Carbon standard of 70% onsite regulated CO2 reduction by 2016 for new homes.

2.13 Code for Sustainable Homes 2.13.1 The Code for Sustainable Homes1 is the national standard for the sustainable design and construction of new homes. The Code aims to reduce carbon emissions and create homes that are more sustainable. The Code measures the sustainability of a new home against nine categories of sustainable design, rating the 'whole home' as a complete package. The Code uses a one to six star rating system to communicate the overall sustainability performance of a new homeagainst nine design categories including energy. Table 3: CSH Design Criteria Code for Sustainable Homes Design Criteria

1

Energy and CO2

Pollution

Water

Heath and Wellbeing

Materials

Management

http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/england/professionals/en/1115314116927.html

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011

Page 23


Surface Water

Ecology

Waste

2.13.2 The Code sets minimum standards for energy and water use at each level and became operational in April 2007. Having a Code rating for new build homes is mandatory, from 1st May 2008; however no specific level achievement is mandated. 2.13.3 At the end of 2009 the Government published the consultation on the Code for Sustainable Homes and the Energy Efficiency standard for Zero Carbon Homes to seek agreement to changes to the Code in 2010 and to align it with changes to Part L of the Building Regulations and the proposed approach to adopting the definition of Zero Carbon to be imposed from 2016. 2.13.4 This consultation proposes that the Code requirements for levels 1-3 are all aligned with the Part L changes as a 25 per cent improvement in CO2 emissions and the requirements at the higher levels of the Code to reflect the definition of Zero Carbon and propose to redefine Code level 6 to match the requirement for at least 70 per cent carbon compliance with the remaining emissions, including appliances, addressed through allowable solutions. The Code is a voluntary standard only and there are no plans to change that and building regulations will remain the mandatory mechanism of enforcing energy performance at a national level. Table 4 showing regulatory steps to zero carbon and corresponding code levels.

2009 Code Current Energy Performance Code Level

Standard (Percentage Improvement over 2006 Part L)

When change to regulations takes place

consultation proposals (% improvement over 2006 Part L)

1

10%

25%

2

18%

25%

3

25%

2010

4

44%

2013

5

6

(approximately 150%)

44% 70% onsite plus 30%

100% Regulated Emissions 100% onsite plus appliances

25%

via allowable solutions 70% onsite + all 2016

residual emissions via allowable solutions

Page 24

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


2.14 Zero Carbon Development 2.14.1 In 2009 the Government confirmed the definition of Zero Carbon as to be adopted by the 2016 building regulations, recognizing that delivering Zero Carbon housing by 2016 as an extremely demanding goal and to give developers as much flexibility as possible on achieving zero carbon standards and to embed a level of cost certainty that allows economically viable zero carbon homes to be built. 2.14.2 This approach is different from the current requirements of Code for Sustainable Homes Level 6 and is based around the energy hierarchy using a three tier approach of Energy Efficiency, onsite Carbon Compliance and Allowable Solutions. 2.14.3 The revised 2016 Zero Carbon standard requires annual regulated carbon emissions to be reduced by 70% onsite compared to the 2006 Part L baseline (carbon compliance). All residual carbon emissions must be mitigated by a series of Allowable Solutions whereby developers have the flexibility to adopt a number of ‘offsite’ or financial mechanisms to mitigate carbon emissions. 2.14.4 This could include offsite wind turbines, offsite heat export/import, and installation of renewables to existing housing stock, installation of energy efficient appliances or financial contributions via the local authority as part of a Section 106 type agreement. Figure 9: Delivering Zero Carbon development

Page 25

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


2.14.5 The Government has not yet fully defined what the exact range of allowable solutions will ultimately be. However, John Healey’s Written Ministerial Statement in July 2009 set out those allowable solutions that commanded broad support following the December 2008 consultation on zero carbon homes. These included:

Potential Allowable Solutions 1. Further carbon reductions on site beyond the regulatory standard 2. Energy efficient appliances meeting a high standard which are installed as fittings within the home 3. Advanced forms of building control system which reduce the level of energy use in the home 4. Exports of low carbon or renewable heat from the development to other developments 2.14.6 On 27th July 2010 Housing Minister, Grant Shapps, committed to all new homes being zero-carbon from 2016 with a pledge that Council’s and developers could be given more flexibility in order to meet ambitious eco-standards to ensure all new homes are zero carbon from 2016. 2.14.7 His statement emphasised the potential role of community energy fund contributions from developers to deliver projects such as wind farms and district heating schemes, to meet their obligations to reduce carbon emissions from new homes, giving developers and councils more freedom and flexibility to decide how to meet their zero-carbon obligations.

Page 26

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


3.0

Scheme Overview

3.1.1

The Liverpool Waters proposal principally comprises high rise residential and commercial office buildings providing high quality accommodation, and other buildings providing a hotel, marina, retail and community spaces.

3.1.2

High density residential apartment buildings with leasehold or freehold occupants will require the provision of secure and low cost energy supplies that delivers comfortable living spaces and uninterrupted supply, with simple and adaptive control systems.

3.1.3

Commercial office spaces with professional services tenants will likely require a very high level of resilience in the building services and related installations, characterised by high levels of spare plant capacity and plant space to accommodate future growth; a high degree of flexibility in the building services and space planning to adapt to changes in operational needs; and substantial amounts of redundancy in power generation, cooling and heat rejection plant, and uninterruptible power supplies to cope with any foreseeable emergency situation.

3.2

Environmental Performance

3.2.1

The Liverpool Waters proposal is being appraised against BREEAM Communities scheme which allows developers to improve, measure and independently certify the sustainability of development proposals at the planning stage.

3.2.2

The importance of sustainable communities is recognised by Government, planning authorities and developers alike, but planning development projects that can deliver true sustainability is a complex business. To help local authorities take account of the full range of issues that must be considered from the earliest planning stages, BRE developed the Regional Sustainability Checklists. These include questions and criteria organised under eight, categories including climate change and energy, transport and movement which are tailored to suit the characteristics of the region and local priorities.

3.2.3

It is proposed that individual commercial buildings should aim to achieve BREEAM Offices ‘Excellent’ or equivalent ratings on completion of tenant fit out, with the ‘shell and core’ being designed to enable sufficient flexibility that this rating can be achieved.

3.2.4

It is recommended that energy performance targets be set in the design guidelines for each parcel plot in terms of such that at minimum compliance with the Building Regulations Part L standards and Page 27

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


its anticipated future step changes are achieved and opportunities to exceed the requirements are analysed. 3.2.5

Environmental and energy performance targets should be considered as part of a Carbon Reduction framework for Liverpool Waters and be captured as part of the schemes design guidelines.

3.3

Energy Strategy Approach

3.3.1

As Liverpool Waters will be constructed over a period of approximately 30 years, the alternative energy scenarios for Liverpool Waters have been guided as much by emerging policies and regulations as by current adopted planning policy and is concerned with the energy use and carbon emissions from buildings and in particular compliance with anticipated future step changes in building regulations and national policy objectives.

3.3.2

The energy aspects of the proposed scheme have been considered as part of the evolution of the Masterplan and it is recommended that these should be continually appraised as detailed development proposals for individual phases are bought forward.

3.3.3

Each of the residential buildings comprise a few hundred apartments and each building is therefore the equivalent of several low rise apartment buildings with a much greater building footprint. As a result of this building form, the majority of the dwellings will have only one or two heat loss surfaces (i.e. external walls) and are anticipated to be inherently more thermally efficient than smaller apartment buildings.

3.3.4

Residential units at Liverpool Waters will be required to meet the energy requirements of contemporary and future step changes of Part L of the Building Regulations. Recent revisions to Part L, which are to be enforced from October 2010, require a mandatory reduction in CO2 emissions of at least 25% below the 2006 Building Regulations Part L standards (equivalent to energy standards of Code for Sustainable Homes Level 3).

3.3.5

The unique attributes and location of the site and the scale and density of the proposed scheme both impose a number of limitations but also creates distinct opportunities for use of non-fossil fuel and renewable energy sources. Whilst there are potentially significant constraints imposed by the site’s specific red line boundary; the wider Liverpool docklands (offsite) potential is also recognised. This Energy Statement acknowledges these particular boundary conditions and also considers wider opportunities and potential for innovation features, such as the use of dock water as a sustainable source of cooling and heating. Page 28

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


3.3.6

The scale and density of the proposed development suggests that energy supply efficiency and emissions savings could be optimised by linking individual buildings through a decentralised community energy network.

Page 29

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


4.0

Energy Demand and Carbon Emissions

4.1.1

The Liverpool Waters proposal energy demand and carbon emissions footprint has been developed as follows. Calculation of the carbon emissions footprint of the development was established as shown in Figure 10 below Figure 10: energy demand and carbon footprint calculation methodology LW Master Plan Area

Energy Use x

Schedule

4.1.2

Reference

x

Data

CO2 Intensity Factors

LW CO2 =

Emissions Footprint

The total floor area of the proposed development in the region of 1,691,100 square metres including up to 733,200 square metres of residential apartments and up to 314,500 square metres of commercial office space. Table 5 below breaks down the 1,691,100 square metre into its component parts as follows: Table 5: Liverpool Waters phased accommodation (figures shown in square metres)

Use Class Residential (Class C3) Commercial Office (Class B1) Comparison Retailing (Class A1) Convenience Retailing (Class A1) Financial and Professional Services (Class A2) Restaurants and Cafes (Class A3) Drinking Establishments (Class A4) Hotels and Conferencing (Class C1) Non-residential Institutions (Class D1) Assembly and Leisure (Class D2) Cruise Liner Terminal & Energy Centre (Sui Generis) Internal Servicing (Sui Generis) Parking (Sui Generis) Total 2

2

Rounded up to the nearest whole 100

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011

Floorspace (sq.m) 733,200 (9,000 residential units) 314,500 19,100 7,800 8,600 27,100 19,200 53,000 (654 rooms) 8,900 33,300 17,600 36,000 412,800 1,691,100

Page 30


4.1.3

The total floor area of each land use is further broken down across the five neighbourhoods. The five neighbourhoods being:

4.1.4

Neighbourhood A – Princes Dock

Neighbourhood B – King Edward Triangle

Neighbourhood C – Central Docks

Neighbourhood D – Clarence Docks

Neighbourhood E – Northern Docks.

Table 6 below breaks down the figures provided in Table 5 to give an indication of how land uses could be distributed across the site in accordance with the Liverpool Waters masterplan. Table 6: Liverpool Waters phased accommodation (figures shown in square metres) Use Class

Princes Dock

King Edward

Central Docks

Triangle

4.1.5

Clarence

Northern

Docks

Docks

A1 Shops (comparison) A1 Shops (convenience) A2 Financial & Professional A3 Restaurants & Cafes A4 Drinking Establishments

0 sq.m

826 sq.m

8,665 sq.m

5,668 sq.m

3,910 sq.m

100 sq.m

1,000 sq.m

4,168 sq.m

1,500 sq.m

1,000 sq.m

0 sq.m

4,778 sq.m

2,555 sq.m

1,005 sq.m

250 sq.m

7,535 sq.m

354 sq.m

11,822 sq.m

5,115 sq.m

2,178 sq.m

0 sq.m

2,513 sq.m

12,527 sq.m

2,883 sq.m

1,193 sq.m

B1 Business

57,014 sq.m

85,201 sq.m

165,823 sq.m

4,570 sq.m

1,800 sq.m

C1 Hotels

14,875 sq.m

0 sq.m

35,305 sq.m

2,755 sq.m

0 sq.m

C3 Dwelling Houses D1 NonResidential Institutions D2 Assembly & Leisure

88,425 sq.m

100,730 sq.m

235,220 sq.m

89,338 sq.m

219,458 sq.m

0 sq.m

0 sq.m

600 sq.m

1,750 sq.m

6,550 sq.m

734 sq.m

0 sq.m

30,625 sq.m

1,000 sq.m

940 sq.m

Servicing

4,627 sq.m

3,553 sq.m

17,486 sq.m

4,451 sq.m

5,717 sq.m

Sui Generis (other) Sui Generis (Parking)

0 sq.m

0 sq.m

16,600 sq.m

0 sq.m

1,000 sq.m

25,130 sq.m

62,300 sq.m

180,320 sq.m

41,860 sq.m

103,100 sq.m

TOTAL3

198,500 sq.m

261,300 sq.m

721,800 sq.m

161,900 sq.m

347,100 sq.m

The overall proportion of each of the principal uses as represented across each of the five neighbourhoods that together make up the Liverpool Waters site are shown in Figure 11 below. It is apparent from Figure 11 that the most significant uses are residential, with business use

3

Rounded up to the nearest whole 100

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011

Page 31


representing the second largest usage. Other uses including hotels, restaurant and cafes and community spaces and altogether makes up the remaining of the total area. Figure 11: breakdown of development according to usage categories

4.1.6

Energy use reference data has at this stage been based on energy benchmark data from sources such as CIBSE Guide F, and Energy Consumption Guides published by BSRIA, the Energy Saving Trust and Carbon Trust, and on a sample of SAP 2009 and dynamic thermal modelling results for similar building types and uses carried out by WYG.

4.1.7

The energy assessment includes that part of the energy consumption governed by Building Regulations Part L (i.e. heating, cooling, lighting, fans and pumps, and that associated with occupant activities in the buildings, such as use of domestic electrical equipment, kitchen appliances, office equipment, lifts, etc. It therefore represents an assessment of the total energy consumption Page 32

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


likely to result from the completed Masterplan development in operation.

4.2

Baseline Energy Assessment

4.2.1

Table 6 provides a summary of the predicted annual energy consumption of the Liverpool Waters proposal drawn against the housing figures for each phase extracted from the ‘Liverpool Waters Housing Statement’ (November 2011). The estimated heating, cooling and electricity consumption is broken down according to each of the five neighbourhoods as follows: Table 6: Baseline Phased Energy Demand

Name

Princes Dock

No of Units

Space Heating (MWh/yr)

Total

Total

Hot Water

Cooling

Electricity

Regulated

Unregulat

(MWh/yr)

(MWh/yr)

(MWh/yr)

Energy

ed Energy

(MWh/yr)

(MWh/yr)

Total Energy (MWh/yr)

1,187

13,979

6,351

1,924

11,724

33,978

3,543

37,521

1,211

13,481

6,186

1,796

11,120

32,583

3,619

36,202

2,829

31,679

14,521

4,237

26,187

76,624

8,453

85,077

1,074

6,826

3,564

503

4,092

14,985

3,209

18,194

2,639

13,701

7,602

584

6,597

28,484

7,855

36,339

8,940

79,666

38,224

9,044

59,720

186,654

26,679

213,333

King Edward Triangle Central Docks Clarence Docks Northern Docks LW Total

4.3

Passive Design and Energy Efficiency

4.3.1

Improvements to building fabric specification and passive design solutions are the first step in reducing the forecast demand in Table 6 above. As the Liverpool Waters proposal is at the outline stage there are no detailed building design, façade treatment, or mechanical and engineering systems designed. During design development of Liverpool Waters proposal, the application of passive design and energy efficiency measures will need to be evaluated for each individual building envelope, and appropriate techniques and equipment incorporated into the design of each building to meet and where possible exceed regulatory compliance.

4.3.2

In order to ensure that the designers of the various buildings incorporate the relevant LZC technologies and passive design features, design guidelines should incorporate requirements for a Page 33

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


detailed appraisal of potential solutions for each building envelope as they are bought forward for development. Consideration has been given to the opportunities and methods for reducing energy consumption and emissions, taking into account the constraints of high density and high rise buildings on this site. For example adopting “Passive House” or equivalent exemplary standards for residential buildings could result in a very low energy design. However there is limited experience and application of this approach in the UK which is mostly restricted to much smaller, low rise apartment buildings or individual dwellings, and the same strategies are not necessarily applicable to, or feasible in, very tall structures. 4.3.3

As a minimum the first phase residential buildings will be required to meet the energy requirements of the 2010 Part L Building Regulations- equivalent to Code for Sustainable Homes Level 3 and a 25% reduction in CO2 emissions over 2006 Part L standards. Based on phased improvements in fabric efficiency according to the zero carbon energy efficiency standard and implementation of low energy lighting systems, optimisation of passive cooling design solutions Tables 7 sets out an estimate of potential reductions in energy demand over the development lifecycle. Table 7: Improved Efficiency Phased Energy Demand

Name

Princes Dock

No of Units

Space Heating (MWh/yr)

Total

Total

Hot Water

Cooling

Electricity

Regulated

Unregulat

(MWh/yr)

(MWh/yr)

(MWh/yr)

Energy

ed Energy

(MWh/yr)

(MWh/yr)

Total Energy (MWh/yr)

1,187

11,223

6,352

1,635

9,105

28,315

3,547

31,862

1,211

10,261

6,186

1,527

8,204

26,178

3,619

29,796

2,829

24,110

14,521

3,601

19,324

61,446

8,458

69,904

1,074

5,254

3,564

428

2,787

12,033

3,209

15,242

2,639

10,604

7,602

497

4,157

22,861

7,885

38,631

8,940

61,452

38,255

7,688

43,577

150,833

26,718

185,435

King Edward Triangle Central Docks Clarence Docks Northern Docks LW Total

4.3.4

This energy assessment is considered realistic for the Liverpool Waters proposal at this outline stage. This assessment is therefore neither a “worst case” nor a “best case” prediction of the likely energy consumption of the completed scheme. Rather it represents a point in time estimate which may be improved on once the detailed proposals for each phase and individual building are brought forward. Page 34

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Figure 12: Cumulative Annual Energy Demand Over Time 180,000,000

160,000,000

140,000,000

Energy (kWh/yr)

120,000,000

HWS Cooling Heating Electricity

100,000,000

80,000,000

60,000,000

40,000,000

20,000,000

20 40

20 38

20 36

20 34

20 32

20 30

20 28

20 26

20 24

20 22

20 20

20 18

20 16

20 14

20 12

20 11

0

Year

4.3.5

It should be recognised that the underlying targets and requirements for the energy performance of the individual buildings, particularly beyond 2016 are anticipated to be very challenging, especially for a high rise, high density and high specification scheme such as Liverpool Waters.

4.3.6

Compliance with the 2010 Building Regulation Part L revision and Code for Sustainable Homes level 3 ene1 target for the residential buildings will require a 25% improvement in carbon dioxide emissions over the 2006 standard, which poses unique challenges for buildings, especially those over 100 metres in height.

4.3.7

The energy assessment has been presented in terms of the heating, cooling and power consumption for each principal development phase between 2012 and 2041. The specific requirements for each individual building should be dealt within the design guidelines, enabling flexibility to be maintained in the design of each building to take into account the particular opportunities and constraints applicable to each building envelope, the impact of construction phasing, future development of the national calculation methodology and possible technical developments during the project life cycle, within the overall predicted carbon emissions footprint of the Masterplan. Page 35

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


4.4

Carbon Emissions Assessment

4.4.1

The carbon emissions intensity factors used in the assessment are those given in the 2010 revision of the Building Regulations Part L2A and are summarised in table 8 below. Table 8: CO2 Emission Conversion Factors Fuel Source

4.4.2

kgCO2/kWh

Fuel Source

kgCO2/kWh

Grid Supplied Electricity

0.517

Biomass

0.013

Grid Displace Electricity

0.529

Biogas

0.018

Natural Gas

0.198

Waste Heat

0.058

The predicted carbon emissions footprint of the Liverpool Waters proposal based on the energy assessment data presented in section 4.0 and CO2 emission factors listed in table 8 is summarised in Table 9 below.

Table 9: LW Improved Efficiency Energy and Carbon Footprint

Name

Total

Regulated

Total

No of

Regulated

C02

Unregulated

Units

Energy

(kgCO2/YR)

Energy (MWh/yr)

(MWh/yr) Princes Dock

Un-Regulated C02 (kgC02/yr)

1,187

33,978

10,672

3,543

1,831

1,211

32,583

10,294

3,619

1,871

2,829

76,624

24,227

8,453

4,370

1,074

14,985

4,233

3,209

1,659

2,639

28,484

7,467

7,855

4,061

8,940

186,654

56,893

26,679

13,792

King Edward Triangle Central Docks Clarence Docks Northern Docks LW Total

4.4.3

The regulated carbon emissions footprint before the integration of low carbon or renewable energy has been calculated using benchmark values as approximately 56,900 tonnes of CO2 per annum (rounded up). This is referred to as the ‘Improved Efficiency’ standard in this document. The total carbon emissions after including all unregulated energy use is estimated as approximately 70,685 tonnes of CO2 per annum. Page 36

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


4.4.4

This assessment has at this stage been based on benchmark data to establish the ‘Baseline’ Target Emission Rate (TER) values and estimates of potential improvements due to improved fabric efficiency, lighting and control systems. In reality it is anticipated that these standards may be improved upon as technology and construction practices evolve over the build programme and as such will need to be continually re-evaluated as development phases and individual buildings move forward to detail design.

Page 37

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


5.0

Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Systems

5.1.1

In preparing this Energy Statement for the Liverpool Waters outline planning application, a full range of commercially available and potentially viable low and zero carbon (LZC) technologies suitable for application within the application site boundary has been considered informed by the unique characteristics of the site, the scale of the development and diverse mix of uses, the long timescale of the development and available natural resources as well as applicable constraints

5.1.2

5.1.3

This included the following technologies: •

Gas fired conventional CHP (co-generation and tri-generation);

Solar Water Heating;

Wind Power Generation;

Solar Photovoltaics;

Heat Pumps for Heating or Cooling; and

Biomass fuels for heating or CHP.

In addition, opportunities of the application of LZC technologies as part of wider area opportunities that may exist beyond the site boundary have been considered in relation to their potential ‘Allowable Solutions’ contribution. •

Commercial Scale Wind;

Energy from Waste; and

Tidal.

5.2 Heating and Cooling Networks 5.2.1

Community or district heating and cooling, where buildings are collectively served by the same central heating plant, is widely developed in Europe. Although historically not widely implemented in the UK, it is now seen as a part of the solution for delivering sustainable communities for the future. There are powerful environmental drivers for this approach principally because it enables the integration of combined heat and power (CHP) and renewable energy generation.

5.2.2

The extent and scale of these networks is determined by a range of factors including the phasing of the development; the thermal and heat rejection characteristics of the various building types; the Page 38

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


scale of the individual buildings; and the variation in plant efficiency at different scales. 5.2.3

No existing distinct heating or cooling networks within the vicinity of the site have been identified to which the proposed development can be connected, and as the site is bounded by the River Mersey to the west the only viable opportunities for interconnections to other existing demand or new developments is likely to be to the east of the site., however at this stage no suitable commercial connection opportunities have been identified. Any viable opportunities should be considered further at each phase of development and may present the opportunity for offsite heat export.

5.2.4

Consideration has been given to the merits of a single large central energy centre providing heating, cooling and power to all the buildings on the site. However a more energy efficient approach of distributed smaller energy centres serving groups of buildings is likely to be more appropriate, with heating and cooling networks linking buildings to enable balancing of surplus (waste) heat energy as appropriate and growing as the scheme grows.

5.2.5

This distributed approach has the benefit of the construction and availability of initial phase energy centre plant being linked to the building cluster which it serves, pumping energy and network thermal losses are minimised as the energy centre plant is located close to the load and district heating and cooling infrastructure investment is minimised. Distribution networks can be future proofed in design to take account of additional loads as networks organically grow.

5.2.6

There is less technical risk in procuring multiple energy plant of optimum size than in designing and procuring a single large plant to serve the whole development once fully constructed. Such design would inevitably have to include a margin of excess capacity, or risk being undersized with the short fall in capacity having to be made up from mains supplies.

5.2.7

Larger renewable energy centre plant (bio-fuel CHP) design and procurement can take advantage of technological developments during the life cycle of Liverpool Waters proposal in terms of design development and construction. A larger renewable plant could substitute the conventional plant supplies from smaller localised energy centres installed in initial phases as heating and cooling networks expand and connect.

5.2.8

The high density mixed use nature of development with a high proportion of residential occupancy is well suited to a decentralised community energy approach. Two alternative approaches to network implementation at Liverpool Waters is considered suitable, either a single centralised large energy centre, or multiple smaller energy centres located at each phase of development. Page 39

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


5.2.9

In addition to heating and hot water, cooling could also be provided at Liverpool Waters by means of a district cooling network. Such a system could be fed by centralised or localised absorption chillers to optimise the run time and performance of any installed CHP and could potentially be connected to the surrounding dock water

5.2.10 The capacity and the extent to which the dock water can be utilised as part of such a network would be subject to detailed engineering analysis and design work, including hydrological and thermal surveys and simulations which would need to be undertaken as part of the first phase detail design stage.

5.3 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) 5.3.1

Combined Heat and Power, or CHP as it is more commonly referred, is the simultaneous generation of usable heat and power (usually electricity) in a single process. CHP utilises the heat produced in electricity generation rather than releasing it wastefully into the atmosphere; a process called cogeneration.

5.3.2

In typical conventional power generation, much of the total energy input is wasted. CHP, where the heat produced in electricity generation is used, can reach efficiencies in excess of 85%. CHP can provide a secure and highly efficient method of generating electricity and heat at the point of use.

5.3.3

Typically a good CHP scheme is assumed can deliver an increase of up to 25% in efficiency against the separate energy system it replaces. By recovering the majority of what would otherwise be waste heat, and where possible incorporating absorption chillers carbon savings over 25% may be achieved.

5.3.4

The energy assessment and WYG experience indicates that the base heating load is primarily the domestic hot water demand in the residential apartments and hotels.

5.3.5

Due to the anticipated improved thermal efficiency of the building fabric and the low external wall area to floor area ratio of the high rise residential buildings, the space heating demand is anticipated to be relatively low and concentrated in the heating season.

5.3.6

The space heating demand in the commercial office buildings with high internal gains and heat recovery is anticipated to be very low and of relatively short duration. Hot water demand in these buildings is also likely to be low, due to low water consumption. Page 40

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


5.3.7

The Liverpool Waters proposal could integrate a Combined Heat and Power plant operating on natural gas, and to serve the residential domestic hot water demand. This arrangement gives the optimum plant size and efficiency by ensuring that the plant operates continuously for long periods, which also contributes to minimising other (non – CO2) emissions, and reducing unscheduled maintenance requirements.

5.3.8

It is envisaged that in order to match the CHP output to daily and annual load variations, and to accommodate the phasing of the residential developments, that the CHP plant would be made up of several units, which may be located together in one building or separately in individual buildings. The current technology is assumed to be reciprocating engine plant operating on natural gas, with standard efficiencies.

5.4 Combined Cooling Heat and Power – CCHP 5.4.1

In addition to contribution to the heat and power demand an option to provide cooling to the commercial offices, retail and if necessary residential apartments would be to use CCHP (trigeneration) plant.

5.4.2

This would require ‘conventional’ gas reciprocating engine CHP plant to be coupled to one or more absorption chillers installed either at a central energy centre or at localised building plant rooms. This plant could be expected to operate for some 3,500 hours per year based on the likely tenancy of non-residential buildings and their likely operational requirements.

5.4.3

Application of the absorption chiller enables the CHP unit(s) operational hours to be extended with cooling being provided through the summer months.

5.4.4

The emission reductions from combined heat and power plant with absorption chillers have been calculated based on currently available technology. It should be recognised that newer technology may become commercially available and more technically and economically effective during the Masterplan design and construction cycle. The forecast emissions savings from CHP are presented in table 10 below.

Page 41

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Table 10: CHP trigeneration CO2 emission reduction

Area

Technology

Configuration

Gas CHP and

500kWe gas

Absorption

reciprocating

chillers

engine

Gas CHP and

1,000kW gas

Edward

Absorption

reciprocating

Triangle

chillers

engine

Gas CHP and

2,500kWe gas

Absorption

reciprocating

chillers

engine

Gas CHP and

4,000kWe gas

Absorption

reciprocating

chillers

engines

Gas CHP and

5,000kWe gas

Absorption

reciprocating

chillers

engines

Princes Dock King

Central Docks Clarence Docks Northern Docks

Gas CHP LW Total

and Absorption chillers

5.4.5

Assumed

Annual

Annual

Heat

Electrical

Energy

Energy

Output

Output

(MWh/yr)

(MWh/yr)

6,906

3,700

11,107

Annual

CO2

% of

Saving

Regulated

(Tonnes)

CO2

1,131

1,243

18

7,810

431

2,674

17

23,652

19,710

6,190

6,891

17

30,835

30,904

8,135

10,787

24

38,554

34,693

10110

13,475

27

38,554

34,693

10,110

13,475

27

cooling output (MWh/yr)

5,000kWe gas reciprocating engines

The base case assumption is that a natural gas CHP plant with a rated output of some 500kWe and installed absorption chiller(s) operating at 90% capacity continuously (about 7,884 hours per annum) will be sufficient to meet the base thermal load of Phase 1. Installed capacity could then gradually increase until once the development is fully constructed CHP plant of >5,000kWe could be installed.

5.4.6

It should be noted that the emissions savings for tri-generation, as with heat pump technologies, are heavily dependent on the value used for the carbon intensity of displaced electricity. The value used throughout this statement is that given in Part L 2006. Over time, this value is likely to be revised and long term projections may ultimately be captured in the national calculation methodology.

5.4.7

The Liverpool Waters site is located immediately adjacent to both water within the docks and the River Mersey. This could present an opportunity to use this volume of water to provide a free low carbon cooling system for the proposed development. This could potentially be achieved by means of a distributed cooling network fed from the adjacent dock water. Page 42

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


5.4.8

One option is to use dock water heat exchange extracting water from the dock and supply it to the buildings via a district cooling network; pass it through heat exchangers in each building and then return the water to the dock. Water taken from the dock would be returned warmer in summer or cooler in winter once it has been used to regulate the temperature of the building.

5.4.9

However, given that cooling is not anticipated to be a primary driver for energy at Liverpool Waters the free dock water cooling could be combined with a CHP solution and the use of tri-generation cooling generated at central or localised building absorption chillers. The dock water could be used to cool both the installed CHP engine(s) and absorption chillers reducing the energy needed for cooling at the site

5.4.10 The amount of heat that can be taken from (or transferred to) the docks will need to be determined by detailed engineering requirements beyond the scope of this report, along with guidance from ecological specialists and regulatory agencies, and compliance with environmental legislation. A detailed hydrological and thermal study would be required to establish the capacity of the dock to absorb heat inputs from the development without having an adverse effect on the ecology or the environmental conditions within the docks.

Page 43

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Case Study: MediaCityUK Tri Generation Energy Strategy

Peel’ commitment to sustainable development can be seen at MediaCityUK which is a purpose built media development at Manchester’s Salford Quays being developed and managed by Peel Media and the first development in the world to become a BREEAM approved sustainable community. The development utilises a tri-generation system for the decentralised generation of heating, cooling and electricity from an ground floor energy centre housed within the development multi storey car park with district or community heating and cooling network. Figure 14: Media City community energy tri-generation network

The energy centre is designed in modular fashion, to be installed in two distinct phases, and includes two 9MW gas boilers, a 2MWe gas CHP engine and 1.5MW absorption chillers. Chilled water from the CHP is combined with free cooling from the canal to optimise efficiency. Overall regulated CO2 emission reduction is estimated at 29%.

5.5

Renewable Energy Technologies

5.5.1

The potential application of renewable energy technologies within the Liverpool proposal are described in detail below. The rationale for suitability or rejection of technologies is described and theoretical contribution to energy demand and reduction in carbon emissions discussed.

Photovoltaic 5.5.2

As part of the scheme evolution an overall site shading study was carried out based on the building envelopes and volumes to establish those areas which would not be subject to significant shading due to adjacent buildings (please refer to the ‘Liverpool Waters Environmental Statement’ (November 2011). Collective shading impacts would likely preclude the viability of PV on large parts of the façades of the commercial buildings, in particular the south elevations, throughout the year.

5.5.3

At this stage it is assumed that PV cells could be installed solely on roofs of the buildings which offer optimum solar exposure and are readily accessible for maintenance, with the electrical Page 44

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


interconnection arrangements are simplified as far as possible. 5.5.4

An initial assessment indicates that an area of approximately 143,500m2 of roof area could be available for PV installations. This area has been translated as a maximum theoretical of 130,000m2 and also a reduced practical capacity of 93,000m2 of PV, equivalent to approximately 13,000kWp of high efficiency crystalline PV generating capacity.

5.5.5

The regulated carbon emissions savings associated with this quantity of PV are estimated at 12% and summarised by phase in Table 11 below. Future technology improvements may further enhance the emissions savings associated with this area of PV. The true extent of PV installation capacity, including both roof and facdes, will need to be assessed at an individual building level through each phase of development. Table 11: PV delivery energy and CO2 reduction Carbon

% of

Saving

Regulated

(Tonnes CO2)

CO2

2,117,312

1,120

16

1,079

932,176

493

6

4,664

4,029,881

2,132

8

14,365

2,052

1,773,051

938

26

21,562

3,080

2,661,422

1,408

22

13,326

11,513,843

6,091

12

PV

Total

Electricity

Estimated

demand

Roof Area

7,087,164

26,391

17,154

2,451

8,195,440

11,619

7,552

Central Docks

25,205,760

50,230

32,650

Clarence Docks

2,905,980

22,100

Northern Docks

4,504,476

33,173

47,898,820

143,513

93,283

Neighbourhood Princes Dock King Edward Triangle

Total

5.5.6

Installation Area

kWp

Total output

Feed-in tariffs (FiTs) are new measures introduced by the government to support the uptake of micro-generation technologies in the UK. This mechanism will provide renewable micro-generators in the UK with up to 25 years guaranteed per unit support payments (pence/kWh) for renewable electricity generation.

5.5.7

Financial support mechanisms such as the FiT now makes PV installations more financially attractive and commercially viable investments, and whilst capital costs remain high Government research indicates the FiT could represent as much as an 8% return on investment with payback achieved in less than 10 years for well placed installations. This is likely to result in a number of innovative funding and delivery mechanisms, which could be explored at Liverpool Waters.

Page 45

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Solar Hot Water 5.5.8

Solar Hot Water (SHW) has been used for many years on a small scale and developed for a wider market with pressurised systems. Typically, for a single dwelling the area of solar collector required to meet summer demand would be 2 – 5m2 depending on building size, occupancy, panel efficiency and DHW demand and requires an adequately sized storage tank(s) for hot water. Panels have lifetimes approaching 30 years with modest maintenance requirements.

Figure 15: Solar thermal flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

5.5.9

A SHW system will typically generate a maximum 65% of domestic hot water demand. However, at Liverpool Waters hot water is forecast to represent just 25% of total energy demand and the inclusion of any SHW system is restricted both by the demand for hot water and availability of unobstructed south facing roof area given the dense and often high rise nature of development proposals. Systems inclusion could potentially compromise the viability of any community energy network using CHP as SHW panels would act to significantly reduce the base thermal load in the summer months.

5.5.10 The table on the following page summarises the practical potential of SHW at each neighbhourood including estimated carbon savings.

Page 46

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Table 12: SHW delivery energy and CO2 reduction Regulated Hot Water

CO2 Tonnes

Neighbourhood

Estimated Roof Area

SHW Installation Area (m2)

% of available roof area

Total output (kWh/yr)

Carbon Saving (Tonnes

% of Regulated

CO2)

CO2

Princes Dock

4,943,700

7,017

26,391

7,910

30%

2,966,220

587

8

King Edward Triangle

6,180,900

8,263

11,619

9,889

85%

3,708,540

734

9

Central Docks

18,940,500

25,387

50,230

30,305

60%

11,364,300

2,250

9

Clarence Docks

3,715,500

3,544

22,100

5,945

27%

2,229,300

441

12

Northern Docks Total

8,235,810

6,493

33,173

13,177

40%

4,941,486

978

15

42,016,410

50,704

143,513

67,226

47%

25,209,846

4,992

10

5.5.11 Whilst SHW is considered technically feasible for inclusion at Liverpool Waters however, their inclusion is likely to be precluded if a site wide community heating network is bought forward. A key consideration is the availability of roof area or facades with suitable south facing orientation to accommodate the installation of solar panels as well as the need for thermal storage tanks. 5.5.12 In large residential buildings containing multiple apartments, a communal solar heating system is likely to be a more appropriate solution than individual systems supplying each apartment. Solar panels can be used to heat centralised solar calorifiers or cylinders in individual units if a centralised hot water system supplies the apartments a solar calorifier to pre-feed the main hot water calorifiers, or a calorifier that can be heated by both the solar collectors and the LTHW system or immersion heaters could be considered. Any solution will ultimately depend on control philosophy and plant room space of each individual building.

Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps 5.5.13 Heat pumps extract thermal energy from a variety of renewable sources, including the air, earth or water, and upgrade it to a higher, more useful temperature. If the heat source for the system is the air then it is known as an Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP). Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) has a relatively constant Co-efficient of Performance (CoP) whereas air source heat pumps have a CoP that declines with air temperature. 5.5.14 The site, and indeed the whole of the river frontage of the city centre, is man-made, with the docks being formed by extending into the River Mersey and the bedrock of the wider LW site is understood to be Sherwood sandstone. Whilst sandstone offers a considerably higher thermal conductivity, in the range 2.2-2.6 W m-1 K-1, .compared to other rock types such as limestone or granite there is not considered sufficient land area available for the extensive deployment of horizontal loop GSHP Page 47

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


systems at Liverpool Waters. It is anticipated that the most likely foundation solution for the majority of structures will be piling, into the sandstone bedrock. The sites surface water strategy including the utilisation of onsite attenuation and drainage systems is likely to further heavily restrict the application of GSHP systems. 5.5.15 ASHP can often be more practical to install than their ground source counterparts; there is no digging or drilling involved and often fewer plumbing connections are required during installation, however the carbon saving benefit is much lower due to systems reduced Coefficient of Performance (2.5). The increased carbon intensity of grid electricity compared to natural gas under 2010 part L emission factors does not favour the inclusion of ASHP systems at this time, however the future decarbonisation of the national electricity distribution network and how this is addressed in the assessment of carbon compliance should be reevaluated at each stage of development.

Water Source Heat Pump 5.5.16 The dock water at Liverpool Waters could potentially be utilised to provide space heating and cooling, and, in the past systems using copper coils in the water have been used. Pumping river water through an open loop heat pump delivering very high-efficiencies with an overall system CoP of 5 is assumed and at this stage heat pump units require water at temperatures above 5 to 8°C (varying depending on type). Contaminants in the dock may also be a concern in some circumstances. Alternatively a closed loop system could also be considered. Table 13: WSHP theoretical delivered energy and CO2 reduction Annual Neighbourhood

Space Heating

Cooling

Technology

Heat

Configuration

Energy Output

Princes Dock

Annual cooling output

CO2 Saving

% of regulated CO2

11,223

1,635

0.5MW

4,184

852

763

11

10,261

1,527

1MW

8,367

1,704

1,526

10

Central Docks

24,110

3,601

2.5MW

20,918

4,260

3,814

9

Clarence Docks

5,254

428

4MW

33,469

6,815

6,102

14

Northern Docks

10,604

497

5MW

41,837

8,519

7,628

15

61,452

7,688

41,837

8,519

7,628

15

King Edward Triangle

Total

Page 48

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Antwerp Dock Water Heating Project Dock water has replaced electric fires and heaters to heat one of the port authority's office buildings As part of its aim to reduce energy consumption and thus pollutant emissions, Antwerp port authority (APA) is using dock water to heat its offices in the Noordkasteel Bridge building.

Housed in a concrete column underneath the Noordkasteel Bridge there are rooms with a total area of 515m², housing among others offices for the maintenance personnel, a canteen, a storeroom, a workshop and a low voltage room. Since these facilities are located right next to the water and require only heating, using dock water for this purpose is an excellent alternative to the electric fires and heaters previously employed. A heat pump extracts heat from the dock water (whose temperature varies between 4 and 24°C in the course of the year) and supplies it to the building.

5.5.17 The integration of water source heat pump system using the available dock water resource at Liverpool Waters is considered a potential method of providing heating and cooling to buildings at Liverpool Waters, such a system could be supplemented by solar technologies or renewable intermediate and peak heat sources such as biomass. 5.5.18 The full extent to which any technology using the available dock water can be implemented will be subject to an assessment of the necessary environmental impacts and engineering suitability as the development progresses. The limited volume of water in the docks may be a critical constraint and the amount of heat that can be rejected particularly in the summer months may be very limited. The application of thermal storage may be able to effectively balance heat supply and demand.

Page 49

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Onsite Wind 5.5.19 The Liverpool Waters site has an indicative wind speed of 4.5m/s to 6.3m/s at ground levels ranging from 10m to 45m AGL4. These indicative wind speeds are above the minimum 5m/s required to deliver a productive output from wind turbines. 5.5.20 Whilst the theoretical wind resource at Liverpool Waters is good, the principle barrier to the deployment of large commercial wind energy onsite at Liverpool Waters is considered to be the necessary buffer distances from buildings and the associated visual impact, noise and shadow flicker which could significantly impact upon development of the site. 5.5.21 An alternative would be to install smaller micro wind turbines on the roof of dwellings. This would potentially have significant aesthetic impacts and structural impacts. These turbines would also give rise to vibrational noise which would need to be dampened and the electrical energy produced is subject to significant fluctuation with recent studies indicating low energy yields being achieved. 5.5.22 There may be the possibility to further investigate medium scale wind systems onsite in specific locations; although this has not been proposed as part of the schemes outline planning application.

Biomass Heating 5.5.23 Biomass boilers generate heat that can be used for domestic space heating and hot water. Biomass is generally considered a carbon neutral fuel as the equivalent CO2 emitted on burning was absorbed from the atmosphere in its production. Figure 16: wood pellet boiler, biomass delivery truck and pellets

4

UK Wind Speed Database http://www.bwea.com/noabl/

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011

Page 50


5.5.24 Fuel quality is relatively important in terms of combustion efficiency and it is important to secure a reliable, and preferably local, source of biomass material. Emissions resulting from transport should not be ignored and fuel supply should ideally be sourced within 20km of the point of use. A large fuel store with adequate arrangements for fuel delivery must be integrated within the scheme. According to figures published by the Biomass Energy Centre, the CO2 emissions resulting from transport is negligible compared to the savings from switching to biomass which is considered a carbon-neutral fuel. 5.5.25 Regional studies estimate that there are approximately 250 non-domestic renewable heat installations in the North West Region and that almost all of these are biomass boilers5. The 2007 North West Biomass Woodfuel Strategy identified the availability of over 220,000 tonnes per annum of waste wood with sawmill co-products and recycled wood contributing a further 70,000 tonnes per annum. 5.5.26 Liverpool Wood Pellets Limited are specialist wood pellet stockists and wood fuel suppliers, located immediately adjacent to Phase 4 of the site, offering long term fixed price contracts available from 12 month to 3 years and can supply biomass from 10kg bags up to bulk deliveries of 100 tonnes at a time6. 5.5.27 Individual building biomass boilers could be included at Liverpool Waters; this would require suitable planning of plant and building services with suitable arrangement for fuel storage facilities and robust fuel feed mechanisms as part of building design, possibly through the use of basement plant rooms. At times of very low load (i.e. summer off-peak periods) biomass systems may not be the most effective and there may be a case for including a complementary heat source such as gas peaking boilers for part load (summer) use. 5.5.28 NOx and particulate emissions from biomass boilers must be managed to ensure potential air quality impacts are suitably controlled. 5.5.29 The potential CO2 saving of biomass heating systems at Liverpool Waters has been assessed based on optimum sizing of boiler plant at 55% of peak load to deliver an estimated 80% of annual thermal demand. Further optimisation of biomass heating plant could be achieved through connection to a community heating network (Section 5.1)

5 6

4NW Towards Broad Areas for Renewable Energy Development 2008 http://www.liverpoolwoodpellets.co.uk/

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011

Page 51


Table 14: biomass heating carbon reduction Annual Neighbourhood

Space

Biomass Annual Hot

Boiler

CO2

Water

Thermal

Saving

Heating Princes Dock

Generation

% of Regulated CO2

Tonnes of Wood Chip

Tonnes of Wood Pellet

6,351

6,351

10,944,576

2,025

29

3,127

2,280

6,186

6,186

13,146,936

2,432

29

3,756

2,739

Central Docks

14,521

14,521

40,311,864

7,458

29

11,518

8,398

Clarence Graving

3,564

3,564

7,355,472

1,361

38

2,102

1,532

Northern Docks

7,602

7,602

15,779,354

2,919

45

4,508

3,287

61,452

38,224

101,598,776

18,796

37

29,028

21,166

King Edward Triangle

LW Total

5.5.30 The potential CO2 saving of biomass heating systems at Liverpool Waters has been assessed based on optimum sizing of boiler plant at 55% of peak load to deliver an estimated 80% of annual thermal demand. Further optimisation of biomass heating plant could be achieved through connection to a community heating network (Section 5.1) 5.5.31 Biomass heating is estimated as able to reduce CO2 emissions by 18,796 tonnes equal to 37% of the forecast regulated CO2 emissions. The volume of biomass required is estimated at 21,166 tonnes of wood pellet or 29,028 tonnes of wood chip. It is considered at this stage that biomass boilers could be integrated at Liverpool Waters either within individual building plant rooms (Alternative Energy Scenario ) or as part of a community heating network (Primary Energy Scenario) this allows fuel supply purchasing, storage and delivery as well as boiler maintenance to be managed centrally via the network operator. 5.5.32 Biomass boilers could be used as the networks primary heat generation source, intermediate generation in support of gas CHP or as the principle fuel source for a bio-fuel CHP system. At this stage it is anticipated that to achieve optimum sizing and performance biomass plant would not be designed to meet peak thermal load requirements and would be supported by conventional high efficiency gas boilers.

Bio-fuel CHP 5.5.33 Bio-fuel CHP is a common renewable energy technology specified to achieve zero carbon development standards, however, the extensive application of this technology at a community energy scale is currently unproven in the UK and the performance of technologies at small scales is subject to much debate. Available Bio-fuel CHP energy generation systems based around gasification or combustion are summarised below: Page 52

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Stirling Engines: The Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine powered by the expansion of a gas when heated, followed by the compression of the gas when cooled. There are currently a number of Biomass CHP Stirling Engine prototypes in operation but this technology is still be considered as emerging and engine prototypes range from 1 kW to 200 kW.

Steam Engines: Steam engines are the most common approach to biomass CHP, relying on traditional technologies in the form of direct combustion heating water-tube steam boilers generating high-pressure steam that is passed through a steam turbine. The heat to power ratio of this system is approximately 5 to 1 and the scale of system is usually quite large. Traditional waste incineration and coal-fired combustion relies on this technology. Water is fed under pressure to the boiler where it produces superheated steam. This is fed to a reciprocating engine which turns a generator to produce electricity before being returned to the condenser. Steam engines are available in sizes from 20kWe to >2500kWe. Steam engines have a good turn down ratio compared to other steam generation technologies such as turbines. They are less sensitive to changes in steam conditions and may operate on saturated steam. Steam engines require less feed water treatment than steam turbines. A steam engine may provide a suitable biomass CHP solution for installation at Liverpool Waters.

Steam Turbines: Steam turbines utilise the Rankine cycle to produce power. Water is fed under pressure to the boiler where it produces superheated steam. This is fed to a turbine where it is used to produce electricity before being returned to the condenser. The steam is cooled back into hot water (which may be utilised for district heating or similar) and the water is then pumped to the boiler again. A steam turbine is generally a closed loop system with the same water continually being fed around the cycle. Steam turbines require dry steam as the action of water droplets on the blades of the turbine can cause failures. Turbines exist in size from 5 kW up to 100MW+. Typically the higher the pressures and temperatures the higher the efficiencies and higher the capital costs. The heat to power ratio is very variable depending upon the application.

Organic Rankine Cycle Engines: Generators based on the Organic Rankine Cycle are gaining in popularity in Europe at 0.5 – 1.5 MWe capacity. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) operates in an identical way to a steam turbine except that the fluid used is an organic oil that has a lower boiling point than water. Because the working fluid degrades at high temperatures the organic Page 53

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


oil is not heated directly in the boiler but in a heat exchanger with the thermal oil from the boiler. Commercially available ORC generators range in size from 450kWe to 1,500kWe. ORC generators have a good turndown ratio and can operate at less than 50% load, however they do not have a very good electricity to heat ratio with just 18% of the energy output as electricity. 5.5.34 Biomass gasification relies on the thermal degradation of biomass woodchip into gas in the absence of air. Gasification is the conversion of the combustible part in the bio-fuel into gases (hydrogen, CO, methane, CO2 and nitrogen) and char by combusting the fuel via a restricted flow of oxygen. The majority of these systems use woodchips as their fuel supply. The gasification process is a proven concept and is similar to the process of producing gas from coal, however past attempts to apply it for small-scale woodchip gas production have not been fully successful. There are gasified biomass CHP systems in use in Europe and an increasing number of proposed and operational installations in the UK.

University of East Anglia biomass CHP gasification plant

The University of East Anglia (UEA) has constructed a 1.4MWe biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP) plant, estimated to run at over 80% efficiency. The CHP plant will use biomass in the form of locally produced forestry woodchip to provide the base heat and electricity component required for the university campus, and reduce its existing carbon footprint by 34%. The principle product of the gasification plant is synthesis gas used to drive CHP plant, which will generate 1.4MW of electricity and over 2.0 MW of heat consuming approximately 10,000 tonnes of locally sourced biomass fuel stock. Figure 17: UEA biomass gasification chp energy centre

5.5.35 Whilst HP itself is well established, the use of bio-fuels in CHP at Liverpool Waters will presents a number of technical challenges.

Page 54

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


5.5.36 Biomass fuelled CHP units and CCHP units could make a significant contribution to reducing CO2 at Liverpool Waters. In Europe there are many examples of wood or multi-fuel CHP systems linked to community heating systems and a progressively increasing proportion of buildings in urban locations served by them. Most of these systems are relatively large with a capacity of several to tens of MW electric (MWe) 5.5.37 For CHP plants of several MWe capacity and above well proven steam generation systems are available. Combustion combined with steam turbines are reliable and can be cost effective down to as small as 1 MWe. At this size between 1.6 and 4 MW of heat are produced making them suitable for only large new developments utilising community heating systems. 5.5.38 Biomass fuelled CHP/CCHP systems under 1 MWe capacity would fit very well into the phased pattern of development at Liverpool Waters but have proved difficult to develop. There are several emerging technologies but so far none has a clearly established track record with installations in routine operation over several years. Some are now starting to be adopted commercially after extensive trials and use as demonstration units. 5.5.39 However, the planned installation of several Biomass CHP systems as part of the UK renewable energy initiative and advances in technology encourages the use of biomass CHP as part of a long term zero carbon energy strategy. Any large biomass CHP plant would potentially have an industrial aesthetic and should ideally be located with consideration of aesthetic impacts, fuel delivery access and distribution network requirements and this would need to be carefully planned as part of the detailed design of the later phases of development at Liverpool Waters. 5.5.40 Connecting a mix of development as part of a community heating network benefitting from different characteristic heat demand profiles such as proposed at Liverpool Waters can significantly improve thermal diversity and performance of a CHP led energy strategy. 5.5.41 The scale of development at Liverpool Waters is considered to represent a sufficiently large and diverse thermal demand that a bio-fuel CHP plant could be considered. This is not anticipated to be suitable until Phase 3 of the development (Central Docks) is bought forward and sufficient connected thermal loads realised, this could potentially be achieved through the application of a gas CHP led district heating scheme. Biomass CHP and CCHP plants could support the development of Liverpool Waters in line with future national Zero Carbon policy aims Preliminary evaluation of biomass CHP at Liverpool Waters indicates inclusion of an operational 5MWe biomass CHP plant once final phases are delivered could deliver Zero Carbon development with annual carbon emission Page 55

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


reduction of 65%. The connection of offsite energy loads may present opportunities for further optimising the scale and performance of any CHP system and the export of any excess heat generated onsite.

Page 56

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


6.0

Offsite Potential Allowable Solutions

6.1.1

The revised Zero Carbon definition sets out that once a minimum standard of onsite carbon emission reduction has been achieved equal to approximately 70% of regulated 2006 Part L emissions a series of Allowable Solutions will be available by which all residual emissions can be mitigated. Figure 18: Allowable Solutions in Zero Carbon compliance hierarchy

6.1.2

One potential Allowable Solution is the investment in offsite or near site low carbon or renewable energy systems. Assuming that minimum onsite carbon compliance standards of a 70% reduction in CO2 is achieved then approximately 30,500 tonnes of CO2 would require mitigation via allowable solutions at Liverpool Waters.

6.1.3

The Peel Groups diverse investment interests including that of Peel Energy means that the Allowable Solution mechanism could enable the mitigation of such emissions through wider investment in LZC technologies in Merseyside and the North West and even potentially export of any excess renewable heat produced by onsite generation plant.

6.1.4

At this stage how these mechanisms will ultimately function and be applied to deliver Zero Carbon standards is yet to be determined and will need to be continually reviewed at each phase of development. A function of the Peel Carbon Reduction Working Group for Liverpool Waters (7.1) will be to review the potential application of Allowable Solutions in order to optimise the application of Page 57

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


offsite renewable energy.

6.2

Offsite Commercial Wind

6.2.1

It is considered most likely that the wider offsite application of commercial wind energy by the Applicant could be considered as part of a combination of ‘Allowable Solutions’ in mitigating residual carbon emissions of development beyond 2016 that are not addressed onsite.

Port of Liverpool Wind Farm The Port of Liverpool wind farm is a row of four turbines situated in the commercial docks at Liverpool, Merseyside owned by Peel Energy. The turbines have been built along the dock wall between Alexandra and Huskisson docks, and overlooking the River Mersey. The development consists of four Nordex N90, 2.3 MW turbines producing a total of 10MW of electricity and became fully operational in early 2009. Figure 19: Port of Liverpool wind farm

6.2.2

The table below summaries the potential contribution of offsite wind energy to mitigating carbon emissions at Liverpool Waters.

Table 15: commercial wind CO” reduction Total Turbine Output 1.5MW 2.5MW 4MW

Annual Energy Turbine Specification

Output (MWh/yr)

1 No 1.5MWe GE Wind 1.5s 1 No 2.5MWe 2 No 2MWe Vestas V90 2MW

CO2 Saving (Tonnes)

% of regulated

% of total CO2

CO2

2,628

1,390

2%

1%

4,380

2,317

4%

3%

7,008

3,707

6%

5%

9.2MW

4 No Norde N90 2.3MW

16,118

8,526

13%

11%

15MW

5 No 3MWe Vestas V90

26,280

13,902

21%

17%

Page 58

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


6.2.3

It can be seen that investment in 5 no 3MWe wind turbines, equal to 15MW of installed capacity, could offset 26,280 tonnes of CO2 this is equivalent to 17% of total CO2 emissions at Liverpool Waters. It should however be noted that regional studies estimate the theoretical additional wind energy capacity of Merseyside at just 18MW7.

6.3 Energy from Waste 6.3.1

Energy from Waste (EfW) is a process whereby energy is created in the form of electricity or heat from a waste source. Such technologies reduce or eliminate waste that otherwise would be transferred to landfill.

6.3.2

EfW is a form of energy recovery and most processes produce electricity directly through thermal treatment, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels. An EfW plant could generate electricity and heat that could be connected to Liverpool Waters as part of a community heat and power network.

6.3.3

The applicability of this technology within the redline boundary is considered unsuitable given the scale of plant and associated impacts of odour and emissions in the management and processing of waste within the site boundary.

Sandon Dock STW Phase 5 (Northern Docks) of the site is located adjacent to the Sandon Dock Sewage Treatment Works operated by United Utilities (UU). Currently the Sandon Docks STW uses anaerobic digestion (bacterial digestion of wet waste in absence of oxygen) to generate biogas which is used to fuel 2no 1MWe jenbacher CHP reciprocating gas engines installed in 2002. Each CHP unit has a waste heat recovery system that transfers heat to the anaerobic digester heating system. Figure 20: Sandon Docks Sewage Treatment Works

7

4NW Towards Broad Areas for Renewable Energy Development 2008

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011

Page 59


6.3.4

Whilst this facility is located adjacent to the final phase of the Liverpool Waters site, in WYG’s experience major utilities such as United Utilities will rarely have any commercial interest in increasing AD and CHP capacity to support development beyond their treatment works and any energy (heat and power) generated from STW expansion would likely be utilised solely by UU.

6.3.5

Despite this early discussions with UU with regard to their immediate and long term plans for the STW and the installed CHP plant at Sandon Docks could be considered such that any opportunities for a wider coordinated energy supply strategy to the Docklands in the long term may be achieved and may present possibilities for both heat export and import.

6.4

Tidal

6.4.1

Tidal power schemes use the rising and falling tides to generate electricity. This process typically involves use of a tidal barrage. The North West has been established as an area of theoretical potential for tidal power generation and the Mersey was included as one of four possible locations for a tidal power scheme in 2007. Peel Energy is looking at opportunities for exploiting tidal energy from the Mersey Estuary and tidal range potential installed capacity has been estimated at 620MW which could provide enough electricity to supply up to 260,000 homes: a substantial portion of the energy needs of Liverpool and Merseyside yet alone Liverpool Waters.

6.4.2

The primary objective of the power from the Mersey scheme is to deliver the maximum amount of affordable energy (and a maximum contribution to carbon reduction targets) from the tidal resource in the Mersey Estuary with acceptable impacts on the environment, shipping, business and the community by either limiting direct impacts or providing acceptable mitigation and/or compensation. An initial study completed in 2007 confirmed that there are several viable options and an aim to deliver power from the River Mersey by 2020.

6.4.3

It is recommended that the Allowable Solutions mechanisms and the development of the methodology for the allocation of carbon credits to development for offsite renewable energy investment is continually re-evaluated as part of the Liverpool Waters Carbon Reduction Framework and at each phases of developments design and construction programme.

Page 60

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


7.0

Liverpool Waters Energy Supply Strategies

7.1.1

From the initial appraisal of renewable and low carbon technologies two alternative potentially technically and commercially suitable approaches for energy supply strategies at Liverpool Waters are considered at this stage to be:

Primary Energy Scenario CHP community heating, cooling and power strategy at this stage considered the optimal solution

Page 61

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Alternative Energy Scenario Building integrated strategy principally based on Biomass and PV

7.2

Liverpool Waters Future Carbon Reduction Framework

7.2.1

It is recommended that a robust Carbon Reduction Framework be established for Liverpool Waters to support the delivery a sustainable, low and ultimately zero carbon energy supply strategy.

7.2.2

This overarching framework can play an important role in guiding the future development of the schemes energy strategy as individual phases and specific buildings are bought forward. This Energy Statement represents the first building block of delivering a long term Sustainable Energy Strategy at Liverpool Waters.

7.2.3

It is envisaged that this will be built on by Peel, their development partners and Liverpool City Council to develop the preliminary energy scenarios and compliance requirements considered in this report and assess potential procurement and delivery mechanisms following granting of an outline planning consent for the scheme. Page 62

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Sustainable Energy Strategy and Peel Carbon Reduction Framework Table 16: guiding framework for development LW Sustainable Energy Strategy and CRF Outline appraisal of potential for low carbon and renewable energy statement and application of sustainable development principles

Achieved By Sustainability Appraisal and Energy Statement in support of outline planning application. The Applicant aspires to achieve BREEAM Communities ‘Excellent’ standard at Liverpool Waters. Design guidelines Individual parcel plots to be developed which incorporate progressive performance targets in accordance with

Low carbon design and passive measures to reduce

building regulation requirements to promote passive

energy demand and associated carbon emissions

sustainable design to deliver the innovative, energy efficient ‘green’ buildings demanded by commercial tenants and prospective residents.

Community energy supply strategy

Specific phase and building feasibility studies accompanying reserved matters planning applications and detailed energy supply strategy. This should include the application of CHP at each phase and the potential for technical and commercially viable deployment of biofuel CHP Feasibility and Design Opportunities for application and restriction to the use of

Use of natural dock water resource

LW natural dock water resource regarding environmental and engineering limitations and opportunities this could form part of detailed phase energy supply feasibility studies and services design Mitigation Solutions Development of potential Allowable Solutions mechanisms to be evaluated as part of Peel Carbon

Allowable Solutions Mechanisms

Reduction Framework potentially including establishing a LW green investment fund and offsite renewable energy deployment strategy to mitigate residual emissions

Page 63

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Residential Dwellings Targets Table 17: Residential Dwelling Targets Residential Targets

Achieved By

Phased improvements in energy efficiency in accordance with national guidance delivering EST Best Practice at minimum until 2016 and Zero Carbon fabric efficiency standards from 2016 onwards From 2016 apartments to have a maximum energy demand of

ƒ

High insulation standards for walls, roof and glazing

ƒ

Passive design and layout optimisation to benefit from and protect against solar gain

ƒ

Design for low air permeability and minimal thermal bridges

ƒ

Natural ventilation or mechanical ventilation with heat recovery

ƒ

Dedicated low energy lighting

ƒ

Smart metering systems

ƒ

Low carbon and renewable energy supply

2

39kWh/m for space heating and lower where achievable. Total primary energy demand for space heating, domestic hot water, lighting and appliances to be <120kWh/m2 All dwellings to at minimum achieve a 44% reduction in Carbon emissions compared to 2006 Part L All dwellings to be minimum Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4

A/A+ Rated Appliances where provided

Specify energy efficient appliances only where provided

Interim phases <2016 Code for Sustainable Homes Level

Ensure all targets are met in accordance

4

with Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4 Ensure all targets are met in accordance

>2016 Code for Sustainable Homes Level 6

with Code for Sustainable Homes Level 6/Zero Carbon

All dwellings constructed beyond 2016 to be Zero Carbon

Zero Carbon onsite compliance

Page 64

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


Non-Residential Development Targets Table 19: Non-Residential Targets Non-Residential Targets Best Practice energy efficiency

Achieved By ƒ

High insulation standards for walls, roof and glazing

ƒ

Natural ventilation where possible and use of mixed mode ventilation systems and heat recovery where necessary

ƒ

Dedicated low energy lighting

ƒ

Passive cooling solutions where possible

ƒ

Building Management Systems (BMS) and smart metering

ƒ

Low Carbon and renewable energy supply

All public sector buildings constructed beyond 2018 to be Zero Carbon All private sector buildings constructed beyond 2019 to be Zero Carbon

Ensure all targets are met in accordance with BREEAM – Minimum ‘Very Good‘

BREEAM ‘Very Good’ with aspiration to deliver ‘Excellent’

Page 65

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement – November 2011


8.0

Liverpool Waters Energy Supply Strategies

8.1.1

IThis report provides energy demand estimates for the development of 9,803 new homes and 586,898m2 of non-residential development at Liverpool Waters based on a baseline 2006 Building Regulations Part L compliance scenario.

8.1.2

The baseline energy load is estimated at 213,333MWh/yr, with approximately 46% of this required for space heating and hot water and annual regulated carbon emissions of 56,893 tonnes/yr.

8.1.3

Following the inclusion of energy efficiency measures such as dedicated low energy lighting, improved building fabric specifications and heating systems the total site annual energy demand is estimated as 185,435MWh/yr with annual carbon emissions of 43,418 tonnes/yr

8.1.4

Peel is committed to the delivery of low carbon and sustainable development and aspires for all homes at Liverpool Waters aspire to achieve a minimum Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4 with an aspiration for the majority of homes to achieve Zero Carbon compliance standards as required by future step changes to national building regulations. The scheme proposes that all non-residential buildings will aim to achieve BREEAM Excellent or equivalent sustainability assessment standard.

8.1.5

This study has found that specific characteristics and nature of development proposed for Liverpool Waters means achievement of these standards is likely to be very challenging.

8.1.6

The application of a number of renewable technologies including large commercial scale wind turbines and ground source heat pumps are prohibited by site specific constraints. The deployment of onsite energy from waste is not considered suitable within the development boundary at this stage based on associated environmental impacts.

8.1.7

Development proposals present a distinct opportunity for a community energy scheme using district heating and cooling.

8.1.8

This report presents a primary energy scenario utilised decentralised community energy which can potentially achieve phased compliance with anticipated future step changes in carbon emission reduction culminating in delivery of the Governments revised Zero Carbon standard at Liverpool Waters, equal to an onsite 70% reduction in regulated CO2 emissions compared to a 2006 Part L Page 66

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; November 2011


Baseline. An alternative building integrated solution is also presented and highlights the likely challenges in achieving challenging emission reduction obligations. 8.1.9

The two scenarios represent just two alternative ways in which renewable energy can be integrated and target CO2 emissions be achieved. Technology will continue to advance and other building envelope and low carbon energy systems will likely be able to provide equivalent standards.

Primary Energy Scenario The recommended approach presents a Liverpool Waters community heating, cooling and possibly power network, whereby energy is generated onsite at Liverpool Waters from multiple phased energy centres and distributed to buildings via a low temperature hot water, cooling and possibly electricity network. This strategy would enable efficient CHP co-generation and CCHP tri-generation systems to be integrated initially using proved gas CHP reciprocating technology and ultimately bio-fuel gasification, steam engine or ORC plant, potentially using the available dock water resource in combination with conventional gas boiler plant to meet all of Liverpool Waters space heating and hot water demand.

Alternative Energy Scenario This alternative approach presents a building integrated approach to delivering Zero Carbon development at Liverpool Waters whereby individual building solutions are adopted to achieve the target standards set for Liverpool Waters. This requires little initial infrastructure planning or investment and allows individual land parcel developers to adopt different approaches at different phases and utilise different technologies over time. However, this approach is unable to benefit from the potential economies of scale and efficiencies achieved through a site wide energy strategy and restrictions to the inclusion of biomass and PV at an individual building level could make carbon compliance very challenging.

8.1.10 It is recommended that a dedicated Carbon Reduction Working Group led by Peel will be able to develop the Energy Scenarios outlined in this Energy Statement as part of a strategic Carbon Reduction Framework for the scheme. Peel has extensive involvement and experience in the long term delivery of energy infrastructure and working in partnership with delivery partners including energy services companies (ESCoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s) in the design, installation, ownership and governance of energy supply systems to operate and maintain such infrastructure.

Page 67

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; November 2011


8.1.11 This approach will result in a robust long term procurement and delivery strategy for Liverpool Waters that will establish individual phase energy supply strategies within the context of the long term energy vision for the scheme in order to achieve the outline targets set in this report and find an acceptable balance of sustainable development objectives. 8.1.12 It is anticipated that this Carbon Reduction Framework will be taken forward by Peel following an outline planning consent and that as individual phases of development are bought forward a full energy supply and carbon dioxide emissions assessment will be undertaken to demonstrate compliance with the targets and regulation.

Page 68

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; November 2011


Report Conditions This report is produced solely for the benefit of Peel and no liability is accepted for any reliance placed on it by any other party unless specifically agreed in writing otherwise. This report is prepared for the proposed uses stated in the report and should not be used in a different context without reference to WYG. In time improved practices, fresh information or amended legislation may necessitate a reassessment. Opinions and information provided in this report are on the basis of WYG using due skill and care in the preparation of the report. This report refers, within the limitations stated, to the environment of the site in the context of the surrounding area at the time of the study. Specific conditions can vary and no warranty is given as to the possibility of changes in the market, legislation or in the environment of the site and the surrounding area over time. This report is limited to those aspects reported on, within the scope and limits agreed with Peel under our appointment. It is necessarily restricted and no liability is accepted for any other aspect. It is based on the information sources indicated in the report. Some of the opinions are based on unconfirmed data and information and are presented as the best obtained within the scope for this report. Reliance has been placed on the documents and information supplied to WYG by others but no independent verification of these has been made and no warranty is given on them. No liability is accepted or warranty given in relation to the performance, reliability, standing etc of any products, services, organisations or companies referred to in this report. Whilst skill and care have been used, no investigative method can eliminate the possibility of obtaining partially imprecise, incomplete or not fully representative information. Any monitoring or survey work undertaken as part of the commission will have been subject to limitations, including for example timescale, seasonal and weather related conditions. WYG accept no liability for issues arising from our assessments impact on other aspects of the development, future planning conditions or obligations. Sustainability performance is influenced by many factors over prolonged periods, including the degree to which advice on assessed sustainability measures is incorporated into detailed designs and specifications, then implemented and operated. WYG accept no liability for issues with performance arising from such factors. In particular, WYG accept no liability for the outcome of Code for Sustainable Homes, BREEAM, EcoHomes, CEEQUAL and any other assessments. It is noted these assessments typically depend on the degree to which measures are implemented and on good evidence being supplied to demonstrate compliance. It is assumed that proposed sustainability measures will be assessed by others within the project team (e.g. in terms of likely energy consumption).

Page 69

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; November 2011


Page 70

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; November 2011


Page 71

Liverpool Waters Energy Statement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; November 2011


Liverpool Waters - Energy statement