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Liverpool Waters Destination Strategy November 2011

All information, analysis and recommendations made for clients by Locum Consulting are made in good faith and represent Locum’s professional judgement on the basis of information obtained from the client and elsewhere during the course of the assignment. However, since the achievement of recommendations, forecasts and valuations depends on factors outside Locum’s control, no statement made by Locum may be deemed in any circumstances to be a representation, undertaking or warranty, and Locum cannot accept any liability should such statements prove to be inaccurate or based on incorrect premises. In particular, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any projections, financial and otherwise, in this report are intended only to illustrate particular points of argument and do not constitute forecasts of actual performance. Locum Consulting is the trading name of Locum Destination Consulting Ltd. Registered in England No. 3801514

Contents Executive Summary ............................................................................................................... 4 1.0




Liverpool Waters........................................................................................................................ 6


Site Description ......................................................................................................................... 7


Destination Development Guidance ............................................................................................. 9


Possible Uses in the Culture Hub


Objectives............................................................................................................................... 29


Case Studies Baltimore Inner Harbour........................................................................................................ 42 Aker Brygge, Oslo................................................................................................................... 44 Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, Cape Town .............................................................................. 46 Medienhafen, Düsseldorf ....................................................................................................... 48 London South Bank ................................................................................................................ 50 San Antonio Riverwalk, Texas ............................................................................................... 51 Norra Älvstranden, Gothenburg............................................................................................. 52 Overhoeks, Amsterdam.......................................................................................................... 54 HafenCity, Hamburg............................................................................................................... 56 National Opera House, Oslo ................................................................................................... 58 National Opera House, Copenhagen ...................................................................................... 59 Millennium Centre Cardiff ...................................................................................................... 60 Gothenburg Opera House....................................................................................................... 62 The Lowry, Salford ................................................................................................................. 63 The Deep, Hull ........................................................................................................................ 64

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Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to outline ideas for how Liverpool Waters can become a world class leisure and cultural destination. It also assesses possibilities for what form the Cultural Hub building identified in the masterplan might take. It suggests eight “Destination Development Principles” that could underpin the development of Liverpool Waters into a world class waterfront destination. They are: 1. The leisure and cultural offer at Liverpool Waters will be aimed at a wide spectrum of audiences. It will aim to become an often-used leisure resource for people who live and work in Liverpool Waters and in its vicinity and for the people of Liverpool as a whole, and to make Liverpool more effective as a tourist destination by adding attractions and adding to the critical mass of its tourism offer. Giving the waterfront back to the people will be a central theme. Initiatives to encourage people to access the waterfront and to think of Liverpool Waters as a leisure destination will be present from the outset of the project. 2. Liverpool Waters will add to the “mosaic” of visitor experiences that form Liverpool City Centre. The combination of the distinctive built environment and the mixed-use nature of the occupiers will create a “cosmopolitan” style offer that will be different from, and complementary to, other quarters of Liverpool city centre that have visitor appeal. It will have synergy with them. It will itself form a mosaic of distinct experiences that contribute to the overall destination effect. 3. Liverpool Waters will add to, and be part of, one of the World’s great waterfront destinations. It will work with the other parts of the waterfront offer to make the Liverpool Waterfront brand internationally famous. 4. “Internationalism” will be a main theme of the Liverpool Waters brand and will be used to establish a distinctive sense of place. This will be in line with the role that the Liverpool docks had/have as a fulcrum of international trade and movement of people and ideas, and in line with its future as a location for international business operations. It will be reflected in naming strategy, in the design of the built realm in different parts of the development, and in the commercial and cultural activity. 5. Strong linear pedestrian routes will connect anchor attractions and “interest points”. Liverpool Waters will create strong pedestrian flows, especially from Pier Head. A number of attractions will induce people to visit the area. There will be reference to people who have arrived in Liverpool together with those that have embarked from Liverpool for the New World, a “Culture Hub”, a destination park and a restored Victoria Clock Tower. They will be linked by a continuous series of “interest” points of many types including art, water features, interpretation and places to eat and drink. 6. Liverpool Waters will make a feature of the visible historic assets, and stories related to the docks will be told in many ways – each stage of the development will be expected to add a new dimension. It will recognise its role in preserving and interpreting the Outstanding Universal Values of the World Heritage Site. It will do so by making a feature of the surviving historic assets and Page 4

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by telling stories relating the history of the dock through a variety of different means – interpretation boards, monuments, trails etc – and through a variety of different technologies. Each stage of the development will add a new element to the telling of the story. 7. Animating and making a feature of the water will be central to the sense of place. The presence of boats, crafts and activity on the water will give the development colour and interest. People will be able to get down to the level of the water at different points, and dockside water features, perhaps on occasion spilling into the dock, will provide dockside animation. 8. The public spaces will be animated and actively managed. Public spaces will be designed in such a way that they can be used for animation activity of different sorts, ranging from outdoor eating to markets and events of different types. Management arrangements will be put in place to encourage their use. The “Culture” building, envisaged to overlook the Leeds-Liverpool Canal and the River Mersey and act as a key gateway into the site at Prospect Park, and is expected to form the cultural centrepiece of the development. It could be an attraction in its own right and a facility that serves the Liverpool Waters community and beyond. The most likely uses are non-commercial or semi-commercial in nature, which is itself a challenge in the current public sector funding climate. It is likely to require grant funding for both capital cost and ongoing revenue cost, although there are some commercial options. The building could either be dominated by a single use (such as a concert hall or a theatre) or a combination of uses. Liverpool is well provided for museums and cultural venues, but the two standout weaknesses are the current state of its main producing theatre (the Playhouse) and Concert Hall (the Philharmonic). Both are occupied by highly rated companies, but the condition of their buildings is poor. A replacement venue for one of them could, therefore, be a good candidate. Liverpool’s historic Botanical Collection is also in need of a new home and might form the nucleus of a Winter Garden style attraction. There are also notable gaps in the city’s offer for a modern style food market, a standalone IMAX, a children’s museum, science centre and aquarium.

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1.0 Introduction 1.1

Liverpool Waters


Liverpool Waters is a major regeneration project involving sixty hectares of redundant docks in the heart of the city of Liverpool. An outline planning application was submitted by Peel Land and Property (Ports) Ltd (“Peel”) to Liverpool City Council in October 2010. Following post-submission consultation with the Council and other consultees, amendments have been made to the proposals. The Liverpool Waters Destination Strategy October 2010 has therefore been updated to comply with the other updated documents that together form the Liverpool Water application. This Destination Strategy is intended to form supporting guidance to the development proposal.


The Liverpool Waters Vision involves regenerating a 60 hectare historic dockland site to create a world-class, high-quality, mixed use waterfront quarter in central Liverpool that will allow for substantial growth of the city’s economy and residential numbers in a manner consistent with, and derived from, relevant regional and local planning guidance. Liverpool Waters will contribute substantially to the growth and economic development of the city, allowing ease of movement and strong connections between Northshore, its hinterland and the city centre. It will accommodate new and existing residents, attract national and international businesses and encourage a significant increase in the number of visitors to the city, adding to Liverpool’s cultural offer and providing a new and complementary destination.


Liverpool Waters will draw on the unique identity of the site and the city to define character areas, delivering a high density and accessible quarter to Liverpool which is both economically and environmentally sustainable and which will significantly reinforce Liverpool’s strong identity. Based on strong contextual and place-making principles, the area will be characterised by activity and diversity, providing public spaces that encourage formal and informal use. It will establish a stimulating and dynamic environment that re-vitalises the whole area and responds to the needs of different communities.


Liverpool Waters will include mixed use development of residential, visitor attractions and supporting uses, office/commercial and local shops and services. It will accommodate city centre expansion and will further stimulate economic and social regeneration and integration with the adjoining areas of the city centre, north Liverpool and the wider sub-region. Based on a 30 year programme, the aspiration is that Liverpool Waters will become a new city quarter with a substantial workforce and population, delivering many thousands of new jobs and homes through a multi-billion pound private sector investment. Page 6

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As an integral part of Liverpool’s iconic skyline, and continuing its tradition of innovation, Liverpool Waters will symbolise the city’s 21st century renaissance alongside its 19th and 20th century heritage on the world stage.


Site Description


The Liverpool Waters site is located in the heart of the city of Liverpool on the eastern bank of the River Mersey. As already noted, the site extends to some 60 hectares and is located immediately north of Liverpool’s Pier Head. It is over 2 km in length from Princes Dock in the south to Bramley Moore Dock in the north. The site is relatively narrow - about 450m across in the north and 200m in the south.


The site is bounded by the River Mersey to the west. To the east, the docks boundary wall lies within the site and defines it edge strongly except in two places. First, in the vicinity of Waterloo Warehouse, the eastern boundary of West Waterloo Dock and Prince’s Half Tide Dock defines the site. Second, in the south-east of the site King Edward Industrial Estate is included in the application site but located east of the docks boundary wall. The northern site boundary is not marked clearly on the ground at present but runs at the mid-point between Bramley Moore Dock (within the site) and Wellington Dock (to the north of the site). In the south, St Nicholas Place runs immediately beyond the site.


Virtually the entire Liverpool Waters site comprises reclaimed land which was created to form docks commencing in the late 18th Century. Over a third of the Liverpool Waters site consists of docks with open water. These are (from north to south):


Bramley Moore Dock;

Nelson Dock;

Salisbury Dock; with Collingwood Dock to its east.

Trafalgar Dock (remnants) with Clarence Graving Docks to its east;

West Waterloo Dock (remnants);

Prince’s Half Tide Dock;

Princes Dock

By the early 21st century all of these docks were redundant by virtue of the changing nature of the shipping industry and the larger ships involved, both of which resulted in a refocusing of activity at Seaforth (further north) starting in the mid-20th Century. In the main, former transit sheds on the Page 7

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site have been demolished over a period although a modern transit shed remains to the south of Bramley Moore Dock. In the central part of the site the former Clarence Dock was closed in the 19th Century, in-filled and redeveloped as a power station which continued in existence until the mid1990s when it was cleared. Immediately to the west of that area, a canal acting as an extension of the Leeds-Liverpool canal has recently been constructed with the residual land further west (formerly part of Trafalgar Dock and West Waterloo Dock) now also in-filled. 1.2.5

The southern part of site in the area around Princes Dock has benefited from significant investment in commercial offices, hotels and residential development since the 1990s. However, substantial development plots remain and hence it has been included within the Liverpool Waters site.


The heritage of Liverpool associated with the docks is of international significance and the relevant parts of the city have been designated a World Heritage Site. This is on the basis of innovation in dock technology, the role of the docks in the development of maritime mercantile culture and global trading and their role in cultural connections throughout the British Empire. Parts of the site reflect these specific values and, accordingly, are included in the Liverpool World Heritage site. Key features of heritage importance will be summarised shortly. However, at this stage, it is relevant to note the international heritage importance of the docks and the remaining associated artefacts in parts of the site, especially in the area around Princes Half Tide Dock, the area north of Clarence Graving Docks and the docks boundary wall itself.


King Edward industrial estate in the south-east corner of the site comprises relatively modern warehouse-type business units. This has been included within the Liverpool Waters application site as the locality is one of substantial land use change where redevelopment is anticipated during the 30 year timeframe of this project as it has the potential to form a natural extension of the commercial core of Liverpool City Centre down to its waterfront

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Destination Development Guidance


This section of the Destination Statement outlines the general guidance that will underpin the development of Liverpool Waters scheme into a world class destination. Leisure and Cultural Offer


The leisure and cultural offer at Liverpool Waters will be aimed at a wide spectrum of audiences, with a range of experiences that will make Liverpool Waters a major destination. The leisure and cultural offer will appeal to people who live and work in Liverpool Waters itself and be a reason why people and companies choose to live, work and invest there. They will form the glue that creates and binds a new community.


The leisure and cultural offer of Liverpool Waters will attract people who live in and around Liverpool both on a day to day basis and for special day trips. They will attract tourists from other parts of Britain and from abroad, both in its own right and by adding substantially to the critical mass of the city’s destination offer. Details of these markets where assessed in the ‘Liverpool Waters Leisure and Tourism’, 2008 baseline study. Following the example of all great waterfront destination developments around the world, “giving the waterfront back to the people” will be a central theme.


A common element of the best waterfront destination developments is that they start to encourage people to make use of the area for leisure, and to think of it as a destination, from an early stage of the project. This has already started with the development of Princes Dock and large numbers of people have gathered there for special occasions, especially the arrival of famous cruise ships. Initiatives to encourage people to access the waterfront and to think of Liverpool Waters as a leisure destination will therefore be present from the outset.


There are many means by which this can be achieved in the short term from simply opening up the dockside as impediments to safety are removed, through creating new attractions and hosting events.

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Figure 1: Information Centre at Hafen City, Hamburg


Figure 2: Weekend Market, Montréal Vieux Port

Information centres provide a means of engaging with a range of stakeholders, from potential investors to potential visitors. They can be major attractions in their own right. Hafen City’s attracts about 250,000 visits per annum. The model of the city is the star attraction.


Montréal’s Vieux Port is a cleverly designed market, with the stalls made from shipping containers, creates a weekend destination on one of the quays that awaits development.


There are many means by which this can be achieved in the short term from simply opening up the dockside as impediments to safety are removed, through creating new attractions and hosting events


Liverpool Waters will add to and complement the “mosaic” of visitor experiences that form Liverpool City Centre. All great cities are made up a selection of different neighbourhoods, each with different character. These neighbourhoods, in combination, create the diversity of experience that, when added together, distinguishes great cities from lesser cities.

1.3.10 Liverpool Waters will be a new quarter that will add a dimension to Liverpool’s visitor offer that is distinctly different, but complementary, to the existing offer. Liverpool Waters itself will contain within it five neighbourhoods that will provide visitors with differing leisure and cultural experiences. 1.3.11 Many waterfront developments around the world have done this, not least Liverpool’s. Some that have particular relevance to the situation in Liverpool are described in Appendix 0, and examples are used in this section to illustrate particular points. The experiences that places offer to visitors result from a mix of the physical environment and the activities that take place in that environment. The best waterfront developments are all very different in this. This can be shown by plotting the

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“centre of gravity”1 of their visitor offer onto a place mosaic model. The model has experiences that are dominated by national multiple chains on the left and those that are dominated by unique businesses and cultural organisations on the right; businesses that compete largely on price at the bottom and businesses that compete largely on quality at the top. Figure 2: World Class Waterfront Developments plotted on Place Mosaic

1.3.12 The visitor experience in some successful waterfront destinations - like Gunwharf Quays in Portsmouth, the V&A in Cape Town and Aker Brygge in Oslo – has a large element of mainstream retail, dominated by brands. That will not be the case at Liverpool Waters. 1.3.13 The visitor experience in Vancouver’s Granville Island, by contrast, is exactly the opposite. It is possibly the world’s most successful creative industries quarter, and has an intense concentration of small-scale independent businesses and cultural institutions. It has a definite “Bohemian” character. That also will not be the case at Liverpool Waters. Liverpool Waters is likely to have more in common with developments like Overhoeks in Amsterdam, Medienhafen in Düsseldorf and Hafen City in Hamburg. The character will, to a large extent, be set by the new buildings and their occupiers. The presence of substantial Grade A office accommodation, aimed at multinational


All of the waterfront developments are big schemes that have a large variety of different components that range across the model. The analysis is intended to show the overall positioning. Page 11

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companies, is likely to nurture a type of commercial leisure use that has a greater presence of up market independent operations than is currently the case in Liverpool’s Waterfront. 1.3.14 Liverpool Waters is likely to have, as a result, a sophisticated, “cosmopolitan” atmosphere. The presence of the cultural building in the Central Docks Neighbourhood is likely to accentuate this. Liverpool’s current waterfront offer is in the middle of the model. The cultural offer, which forms a substantial part, is to the right. The commercial leisure offer is dominated by national brands and is to the left. Liverpool Waters is likely to extend the overall waterfront offer into the top right of the mosaic model. This will provide a distinct position in the visitor economy compared to Liverpool’s other main destination zones. Figure 3: Liverpool Waters positioning in relation to other neighbourhoods

1.3.15 Liverpool Waters itself will form a “mosaic” of areas, each with different character. Work in developing the masterplan has identified a number of character areas that are defined by the existing physical characteristics and the future form of the site. The Liverpool Waters Masterplan, is divided into five neighbourhoods: •

Princes Dock – Neighbourhood A

King Edward Triangle – Neighbourhood B

Central Docks – Neighbourhood C Page 12

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Clarence Docks – Neighbourhood D; and

Northern Docks – Neighbourhood E.

1.3.16 The nature of the experience that each of them will offer visitors will be created by a combination of the nature of the uses and occupiers, the style of the built realm and the type of animation activity that takes place there. The core of establishing a unique visitor identity for Liverpool Waters as a whole will be achieved by creating a distinctive sense of place in each of these neighbourhoods that fits into the wider Liverpool Waterfront offer.

One of the World’s Great Waterfront Destinations 1.3.17 Liverpool Waters will add to, and be part of, one of the World’s great waterfront destinations. The situation in Liverpool is different from many other waterfront cities in that it already has international standard waterfront development. In combination the development of the Albert Dock into tourism and leisure destination, the hugely successful Kings Waterfront, the upcoming Mann Island development, the existing Pier Head buildings and the Leeds to Liverpool Canal Link will create one of the best waterfront destinations in Britain and one of the best in the world. Work has started on initiatives to manage and promote the Liverpool Waterfront brand. 1.3.18 Liverpool Waters will add substantially to the critical mass of the offer by extending it into the northern docks and by giving it new dimensions. It will be a component part of the Liverpool Waterfront brand and will work to make that brand internationally famous. Figure 4: Major Destination Brands on Liverpool Waterfront

1.3.19 The case studies of Aker Brygge and San Antonio River walk in Appendix 0 are examples of how this can most effectively be done. The waterfront area in Toronto has a mix of commercial and Page 13

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non-commercial attractions. They have been branded the Harbour front Centre and the destination is actively managed by a non-profit partnership destination management organisation. It is envisaged that the entire Liverpool waterfront will have similarly strong branding and destination management and that Liverpool Waters will be a primary part of that. Figure 5: Harbour front Centre, Toronto

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Internationalism 1.3.20 Internationalism will be a main theme of the Liverpool Waters brand and will be used to establish a distinctive sense of place. The role of the docks as fulcrum of international trade, movement of people and exchange of ideas and technology is central to it’s identify and its historic significant. Liverpool continues to look outward, especially to America and the Far East, and is twinned with Shanghai and San Francisco, two of the world’s great waterfront cities. 1.3.21 The idea is to make “Internationalism” a predominant theme in the Liverpool Waters brand and in the way that differences between different character areas are created, perhaps with particular focus on links to other great waterfront cities. This “Internationalism” theme could be delivered through many ways, such as: •

Naming of streets, squares, buildings and parks etc.

Using artists from other great waterfront cities for public art.

International themed events.

An international food market.

1.3.22 It would tie into the letting strategy, and is already reflected in calling and theming the landmark tower building Shanghai Tower. Linear Routes 1.3.23 As set out within the ‘Liverpool Waters Public Realm Characterisation and Precedent Study’ (November 2011), and as summarised within the ‘Liverpool Waters Design and Access Statement’ (November 2011), linear pedestrian routes will connect anchor attractions and “interest points”. The strategy is to create strong footfall routes through Liverpool Waters, especially connecting it to Pier Head and the rest of the waterfront, and connecting it to the commercial core of the city focussed around Old Hall Street. 1.3.24 Visitors will be enticed to walk these routes by a series of anchor attractions. The flow will be encouraged by a continuous series of “interest points” between the anchor destinations. These will range from public art to bars and restaurants, from interpretation points to water features.

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Figure 6: London South Bank

Figure 8: River walk, San Antonio, Texas

1.3.25 The South Bank now throngs with people, for the full length from Tower Bridge to Westminster Bridge, every day of the year. This has been achieved by creating a clear linear pedestrian route, often, but not always, along the river side, that links a series of attractions and points of interest. Its success has grown as the intensity of the “interest factor” along the entire length has steadily increased. There are now few gaps. 1.3.26 The River walk in San Antonio has become one of the most popular destinations in North America. The destination has been created by building attractive walkways along the canalised Rio San Antonio that connect attractions and themselves have a high intensity of interest points. Destination Anchors 1.3.27 The primary destination anchors envisaged in the first phase of the development focussed around Princes Dock neighbourhood are: •

Princes Pier;

The Pontoon; and

Shanghai Observation Deck

1.3.28 It is envisaged that Liverpool Waters will have the principal commemoration point for remembering departure of emigrants to the New World. Princes Dock was the principal point of departure for hundreds of thousands of people, from all over Europe, who left Liverpool to make a new life abroad. An interpretation within the public realm is sought to be created here, on a site provisionally referenced as Princes Pier. It will be the primary point of commemoration of the Diaspora, forming an Old World complement to New York’s Ellis Island. 1.3.29 It could be the subject of a design competition and have strong links with Shanghai Tower. It is not Page 16

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envisaged that the story of the Diaspora will be told in detail here. Visitors will be referred to the Museum of Liverpool for that. It might also commemorate the many thousands of Irish and other Europeans and internationals, including the Chinese, poured into Liverpool and stayed adding to the cultural diversity of the city - a cultural legacy that is still evident today in the architecture, street names and the faces and names of the people of Liverpool. Figure 7: Ellis Island, New York

1.3.30 The monument records the names of immigrants that passed through Ellis Island. Displays inside tell the story. Liverpool Waters would provide the monument dimension of this combination; the Liverpool Museum will provide the main interpretation. The centrepiece of the destination offer in Liverpool Waters will be a landmark cultural/leisure building. Options for this are discussed in more detail in Section Error! Reference source not found.. 1.3.31 It is also envisaged that new public park comprising Prospect Park in an east-west direction and Central Park in a north-south direction will be a destination in its own right, and could be modelled of Toronto’s H²O Park ( 1.3.32 Figure 18) and Chicago’s Millennium Park. Further explanation of the role of parks within the public realm can be found in the accompanying ‘Liverpool Waters Landscape Strategy’ report prepared by Planit IE Ltd. The park space will form a key role in place making and be the address for residential towers and commercial premises fronting onto it – reinforcing the prominence of this address in the same way as Canada Square was used in Canary Wharf or Brindley Place in Birmingham.

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Figure 8: Millennium Park, Chicago

1.3.33 The addition of art of exceptionally high standard has made this city centre park a famous destination. It is interesting also for the use of corporate sponsorship of “zones”. McDonalds, for example, are paying for the running costs of the cycling centre for 15 years. The “interest points” will be many and varied. 1.3.34 Places where people can eat and drink will be an important element. Liverpool Waters will be a major and vibrant day and night destination. A primary characteristic of most of the world’s great waterfront destinations is that they have a substantial restaurant and bar offer that attracts a broader audience than the youth orientated establishments that dominate the nightlife in UK city centres. Liverpool Waters will play an important role in giving Liverpool a more balanced and “grown up” evening offer. Figure 9: Aker Brygge, Oslo

1.3.35 Aker Brygge has 37 bars and restaurants. Most of them offer outdoor tables when the weather allows it (with blankets for when there is chill in the air). One of the most evident Page 18

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international leisure trends is the growing liking that people have for eating and drinking al fresco. Many northern European countries now offer many places where it is possible, when the weather is nice, to eat and socialise in the open air. British cities are far behind in providing the opportunity to do this. Liverpool Waters will have considerably the best opportunities for doing so in Liverpool. This is likely in itself to be a major attraction. Art will also play an important part. 1.3.36 The art in the office-led More London development on the South Bank is perhaps the most popular in London and an attraction in its own right. The masterplan for More London included a strategy to create attractive public realm on the route from Tate Modern to the Design Museum. The art realised as part of the scheme include 5 permanent public art pieces, temporary installations and exhibitions, water features and fountains, an outdoor sunken amphitheatre seating 800 people (“the scoop”), and free film, music and theatre events during summer. More London also hosts promotional events (e.g. London Marathon), sports activities and community events. More London is privately funded, managed and

maintained by More London Development. The Section 106 agreement attracted further investment through the Communities Investment Programme as well as financial and in-kind contributions from the Pool of London Partnership (local regeneration agency) and Southwark Council. It enabled an estimated £11m worth of improvements around the site. More London received the Best Built Project in the London Planning Awards 2008.

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Figure 10: “Punctuation� Art, London

1.3.37 There are many means of providing interest other than art, however, not least in the design of street furniture. Figure 11: Hafen City, Hamburg

1.3.38 The development has many imaginative ideas for creating interest and helping people to enjoy being by the water Telling the Heritage Story 1.3.39 Liverpool Waters will make a feature of the visible historic assets, and stories related to the docks will be told in many ways. Liverpool Waters will recognise that conservation, to a high standard, of important cultural heritage is a fundamental requirement for presenting the Outstanding Universal Values of the World Heritage Site in a way that enables people to see, experience, appreciate and understand it.

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1.3.40 It will also understand that historic buildings and artefacts give character to developments, both in their own right and in combination with commercial uses that take place in them, and can be significant attractions in their own right. 1.3.41 The Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Baseline Study, 2009 identified the principal tangible heritage assets on and around the site and has identified characteristics essential to Liverpool’s distinctiveness, which includes physical, social and economic factors. The ‘Liverpool Waters World Heritage Site Heritage Impact Assessment’ (November 2011), the ‘Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan’ (November 2011), and the ‘Liverpool Waters Environmental Impact Statement’ (November 2011), outline policies and principles for the treatment of these assets and characteristics through the development of the Liverpool Waters site. 1.3.42 The Victoria Clock Tower and the Graving Docks have perhaps the most potential as attractions in their own right. The Dock Masters Office, the dock police station (in NE Corner of Clarence Graving Dock) and a dock wall gate-keepers hut are also possibilities, perhaps as an interpretative grouping, as are features beyond the site boundary - the engine room of the Bascule Bridge, Stanley Tobacco Warehouse Complex and the Dock Boundary Wall. 1.3.43 The Montreal Clock Tower is at the entrance to the Old Port of Montreal and is a symbol of the city. It has been restored with insertion of a metal staircase with 192 steps leading to the top. It acts as an anchor attraction encouraging people to walk and cycle to the furthest part of the development. Figure 12: The Clock Tower, Montreal

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1.3.44 The docks have exceptionally interesting history. They were massive and innovative feats of engineering, they employed vast numbers of people in many different trades and activities, and they were the fulcrum of mass world-wide movement of people and goods. The significance is reflected in the Outstanding Universal Values (OUV) that underpins Liverpool’s World Heritage Site listing. Figure 13: The case for Liverpool’s Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) set out in Statement of Significance in the World Heritage Site Nomination Document (2002)2 1. Liverpool’s role in World History • The Development of World Trade • The Industrial Revolution • The Growth of the British Empire • The Mass Movement of People: Trans-Atlantic Slavery; Mass European Emigration; Troops in WWII 2. Liverpool’s tradition of innovative development Pioneering Dock Technology Port Management Building Construction Methods Transport Systems – Canals, Railways and the tunnels

• • • •

3. Liverpool’s outstanding urban landscape The Pier Head Waterfront The Architecture of the Commercial Centre The Civic and Cultural Buildings and monuments Warehouses The Domestic Buildings

• • • • •

4. Liverpool’s Historical and Cultural Collections

1.3.45 Liverpool accepted obligations, under UNESCO’s World Heritage Convention, to identify, protect, conserve and present the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the World Heritage Site when it was awarded World Heritage Site (OUV) status in 2004. 1.3.46 Following the UNESCO/ICOMOS Mission to Liverpool in 2006, UNESCO’s WH Committee requested that more should be done at the WHS to “transmit the true motives for Liverpool’s inscription onto the WH List”. Liverpool Waters provides an opportunity to do so, through a broad range of media.


The OUV was set out in an alternative form in a 2004 report by ICOMOS to the World Heritage Committee, and a new Statement of

Outstanding Universal Value was submitted to the World Heritage Committee in 2009 but not considered due to shortage of time. It is anticipated that it will be resubmitted to the WH Committee in 2010.

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Figure 14: Stories that can be told across Liverpool Waters 1. The People who worked in and visited the docks, with reference to: •

The lives of dock workers on the docks and the connections with their homes to the east

The work of people employed in other aspects of port activities

The lives of merchants

The port at war – major bombing campaigns, air-raid shelters and Atlantic convoys

Faith – floating churches

Liverpool’s multicultural society and diaspora, resulting from its role as an international seaport – its Internationalism

2. The Creativity and Innovation in the docks, with reference to: •

The evolution of the dock system and the influence of the succession of dock engineers (but primarily Jesse Hartley)

The romantic architecture of many of the buildings by Jesse Hartley

The broad range of influences on creativity in the city’s culture as a result of its trading connections around the world and the variety of goods that went through the port

The spirit of innovation in buildings, docks, transport systems and management systems, driven by a desire for business competitiveness

The construction of the docks and associated structures/facilities such as the dock wall

The operation of the docks

The full range of warehouses as a building type

The transport systems that were developed to facilitate the operation of the docks, including the Overhead Railway, the internal railway and carters

The way that the port heritage has been adapted and reused to contribute to the city’s urban regeneration

3. Liverpool’s Internationalism, with reference to: •

Liverpool’s trading links around the world

Liverpool’s diaspora

The impact on global demographics of Liverpool’ role in Trans-Atlantic Slavery (although the site was mostly developed after abolition and this issue is well presented in the International Slavery Museum) and Mass European emigration. The remains of Princes Jetty and the new “cultural building” provide exciting opportunities for people who wish to study and experience the geographical routes and genealogical roots of their ancestors.

The facts/myths of the docks being built by Napoleonic prisoners of war!

4. Literary Connections • The innumerable literary references to the docks, notably Charles Dickens’ Mercantile Jack, Herman Melville’s Redburn, Elizabeth Gaskell’s Mary Barton

1.3.47 Telling those stories will be a component part of the development of each of the neighbourhoods/character areas. It is not envisaged that there will be a single template for doing this, although there will be certain common standards. Stories could be told through a mixture of interpretation boards, art, monuments, plaques and trails; through a mixture of media and technology. Page 23

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Figure 15: Various means of telling stories, River walk, San Antonio

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Figure 16: Information points, Montreal Vieux Port & Hafen City, Hamburg

1.3.48 Simple interpretation points like this are perhaps the most effective means of enabling visitors to easily understand stories behind what they are looking at. Water 1.3.49 Animating and making a feature of the water will be central to the sense of place. The combination of the docks, the Leeds to Liverpool Canal and the River Mersey will mean that water will inevitably be central to the sense of place of Liverpool Waters. High dock sides and lack of animation on the water can, however, make dock developments sterile. 1.3.50 Other waterfront developments have shown how to make the most of the water. A first technique is to make it possible for people to get down to the level of the water and to look down to the water. Figure 17: Lindholmen, Gothenburg

1.3.51 In Lindholmen care has been taken care to create stepped down places where people can get closer to the water. These are used, on nice days, by the people who work there. This gives it a vibrancy that is attractive to visitors.

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1.3.52 H²O Park is an attractive waterfront pocket park in Toronto that has become a highly popular recreational facility, with the green of the grass contrasting beautifully with the blue of the water. The grass is arranged as small mounds so that people have views down to the water when they are sitting on it. Figure 18: H²O Park, Toronto Waterfront

1.3.53 A second option is to have water features on the dockside, sometimes spilling into the docks. This creates both movement and sound that enlivens the destination. Figure 19: Aker Brygge, Oslo

1.3.54 The centrepiece of the Aker Brygge development is a water feature that spills from a sheltered central piazza into the docks.

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Figure 20: San Antonio River walk

1.3.55 The San Antonio River walk is outstanding at using water in creative ways. It cascades from many different features into the canal, sometimes through buildings. This is perhaps the primary factor in animating the destination. 1.3.56 A third is to animate the water itself, providing colour, movement and things to see. The extension of the Leeds to Liverpool canal into the Albert Dock itself assists this by encouraging boat movements through the dock system. Opportunities to animate it still further will be explored. There are many other ways of providing animation to the water from creating marina space to water based activities. Figure 21: Aker Brygge, Oslo

1.3.57 Aker Brygge is also a model because of its success in creating colour and vibrancy on the water – albeit assisted by the fact that most of it is not lock gate controlled. Boats, ranging from dinghies to ocean racing yachts are moored throughout the development, ferry boats come and go and there is a restaurant ship and a hip floating summer bar. Page 27

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1.3.58 A quayside set aside for owners of historic craft to moor their boats. Each has a display telling the history. It is a cost effective way of providing character and interest to the water. Figure 22: Historic Boats Quay, Stockholm

Public Spaces 1.3.59 The new development will provide opportunities to create spaces which can be animated by a combination of commercial activity, art, and events, large and small, and will create organisational arrangements to ensure that they are used. Figure 23: London South Bank

1.3.60 Any visitor walking along the South Bank on a summer day will encounter a large variety of different types of animation activity. This is because there are appropriate spaces and “federal� organisational arrangements for putting them on.

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2.0 Possible Uses in the Culture Hub 2.1



This section of the Destination Strategy outlines ideas for what the Hub Building could be like. The intention is that the leisure and cultural hub would act as a facility for people who live and work in Liverpool Waters and wider Northshore. It would also provide an anchor attraction within the Liverpool Waterfront destination that attracts visitors to Liverpool and to Liverpool Waters and creates pedestrian movement along the waterfront. The intention is that it will provide a striking architectural form that, with the river as its foreground and tall buildings as backdrop, provides a striking image of Liverpool Waters.


Many waterfront destinations have buildings with similar objectives. Famous examples include the Sydney Opera House and the Guggenheim in Bilbao. Liverpool’s new Museum of Liverpool is itself an example. There are some others in Appendix Error! Reference source not found..


They are invariably expensive because of the innovation and quality of the build form. They are normally occupied by non-commercial or semi-commercial uses and require public funding and donations to cover both the capital and ongoing revenue cost. Achieving either is likely to be, of course, challenging in the current national financial environment.


Many possible uses could take place in the building. Figure 31 outlines a range of possibilities, and summarises their advantages and disadvantages. Most of the most likely candidates are noncommercial in nature, but some – like an IMAX, Aquarium or Food Market – could be commercial or semi-commercial.

2.1.5 There could be one dominant use, or the building could contain a collection of different uses, perhaps a mix of commercial and non-commercial.

Figure 24 and

2.1.6 2.1.7


Figure 25 are examples of striking waterfront cultural buildings, of very different scale, that

include a combination of uses. The spectacular lakeside building at Luzern in Switzerland, with an immense cantilevered roof, was designed by Jean Nouvel. It contains a concert hall, art gallery and convention centre. It opened in 2000 at a cost of 226 Swiss Francs (c. £140 million). Page 29

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Figure 24: Kultur und Kongresszentrum (KKL), Luzern, Switzerland

Figure 25: K42 Medienhaus, Friedrichshafen, Germany


K42 Medienhaus in Germany is much less lavish that the Lucern example, but striking and popular culture centre on the shores of Lake Constanz has a library, theatre (in the “pebble�), bookstore and restaurant.

2.1.10 Liverpool is probably better provisioned for cultural venues, especially in museums and visual arts, than any other regional city in the UK. Its performing arts venues are in notably poor condition, however. Figure 26 summarises the main venues for each of the primary arts forms that a city of Page 30

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Liverpool’s status typically has plus the major museums.

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Figure 26: Current venue provision for major art forms in Liverpool

THEATRE Commercial Receiving Theatre. The Empire, with 2,300 seats, is one of the largest theatres in the country. Its programme is based on large-scale musicals alongside a few weeks of subsidised opera and ballet. An £11million improvement was completed in 2002. Large Producing Theatre. The Playhouse, a traditional proscenium arch house with 650 seats, is leased from Liverpool City Council by the Liverpool Theatres Trust (LTT), which has a subsidy from Arts Council England and Liverpool City Council to produce work there and at the Everyman. The theatre has not had significant investment since the early 1970s and is now in poor condition. LTT estimate it will cost about £17 million to refurbish. It is Grade 2* listed. Small Producing Theatre. The Everyman is also run by the Liverpool Theatres Trust. Work has now started on the £28 million refurbishment of the Everyman, and it expected to have been completed by 2013.

MUSIC Arena. Liverpool Echo Arena and Convention Centre Liverpool has a 10,600 capacity Arena, an auditorium with a capacity of 1,350, and a flexible space of 3,725 sq metres, which caters for large scale popular entertainment, including pop and rock music. Concert Hall. With 1,600 seats, the Grade 2* Philharmonic Hall is home to the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, one of the four major independent symphony orchestras in the English regions. It is a concert hall that presents, in addition to its classical programme, a wide variety of rock, pop, jazz and world music, as well as other events. The Hall is in need of full refurbishment and has been considering options, including the possibility of moving to a new building on the waterfront. Opera House. Opera takes place in the Empire. Manchester is currently negotiating with the Royal Opera to convert the Palace Theatre into a northern opera house.

VISUAL ARTS Classic. The Walker Art Gallery has one of the finest collections of fine and decorative art in Britain. It had a complete refurbishment in 2002. Modern. Tate Modern, one of only two regional outposts of the Tate. Contemporary. Bluecoat Arts Centre. Reopened in 2008 after major expansion.

MUSEUMS Natural and Human History. The 150 year old World Museum Liverpool has outstanding collections and was re-opened after full refurbishment in 2005. Maritime History. The Merseyside Maritime Museum. City History. Museum of Liverpool. Other. International Slavery Museum.

2.1.11 The poor condition of the main non-commercial performing arts venues is currently the main concern in cultural provision in the city. Whilst the Everyman is being rebuilt, the city’s main producing theatre (the Playhouse) and its main concert hall (the Philharmonic) are both in need of either refurbishment or new premises. A waterfront venue could be an attractive proposition for either or both of them, although it would leave a difficult issue as to what to do with their existing premises. Page 32

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2.1.12 Other obvious gaps in the Liverpool destination offer include a standalone IMAX based attraction, an aquarium, a Science Centre and a Children’s Museum. Figure 27: Landmark buildings containing large format cinemas

2.1.13 IMAX Jakarta is in the shape of a giant snail; Kinemax at Futoroscope in Poitiers is shaped as a giant crystal. There are less obvious possibilities. Another Liverpool treasure that is in need of a new home is the Liverpool Botanical Collection. Creating a home for it could be a good fit with the Internationalism theme proposed for Liverpool Waters. Figure 28: Liverpool Botanical Collection The Liverpool Botanical Collection is, with approximately 10,000 plants, one of the largest publicly-owned plant collections in Britain. It is also one of the oldest plant collections in the country, dating from 1802. Its main feature is a collection of orchids. The collection was held, until it closed in 2004 because of funding cuts, at the Liverpool Botanic Garden, one of the first gardens in the UK built through public subscription. The garden was founded by William Roscoe, who is known as ‘the father of Liverpool Culture’ because of the many institutions he helped found in the city. The glasshouses were demolished in 2004 and the plants were taken out of public view to a Liverpool City Council Parks Department nursery, where they largely remain today. The collection has largely been out of public view for over twenty years, despite successful exhibits of parts of the collection at the Southport Flower Show in recent years. Since August 2008, a third of the collection has been on public display in the glass houses and walled garden of Croxteth Hall & Country Park, Liverpool. The rest of the collection will remain in nurseries for the time being, with the intention of reuniting it in a permanent home at some point in the future. The collection played an important role in the European Capital of Culture programme, as the inspiration behind ‘Liverpool Fragrant’, a major artistic project led by international visual artist Jyll Bradley who documented the many stories behind the collection and created a complete archive of its history.

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Figure 29: Sheffield Winter Garden

2.1.14 The Sheffield Winter Garden in the heart of the city has been a big popular success. It is 70m in length and 21m in height and contains 2,000 plants. It is adjoined by a hotel and the Millennium Galleries, which stages exhibitions from different national museums. 2.1.15 Liverpool also lacks a good modern food market of the type that is increasingly common on the continent (Gothenburg, for example, has three). They have great visitor appeal. The Public Market is the anchor attraction at Vancouver’s Granville Island and Borough Market is probably currently the most successful destination on London’s South Bank. Figure 30: Food Market, Uppsala, Sweden

2.1.16 The Uppsala food market is a very popular modern food market created from tram shed. Like other modern food markets, it is as much about eating on the premises as buying. It has a waiter service restaurant and extensive seating indoors and out for eating food bought at the stalls.

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Figure 31: Possible uses in the building Name







“EDUTAINMENT” Science Centre

Hands on


There is an absence of

Somewhat “old hat”.



Science Centres in

Many of them were built

facility aimed

Cardiff; Glasgow

Merseyside and the North

at the turn of the century

particularly at

Science Centre;

West more generally,

with funding from the

older children.

WWW Belfast;

although the Museum of

National Lottery through


Magna, Rotherham;

Science and Industry in

the Millennium

include an IMAX.

Discovery Point,

Manchester does fill the




Needs a high level of

Could have a

ongoing revenue support.

theme - e.g. Space, with a domed IMAX providing a Planetarium. Children’s

Similar to

Eureka! in Halifax is

Eureka! has been

Might not be ideal for a



Science Centre,

only current UK

consistently popular over

landmark form of


but aimed at

example. Most US

a long period of time,

building. Might require


cities have them.

despite having a difficult

some ongoing revenue


There is one, for


support, although not as

example, in

much as a Science

Baltimore’s Inner


Harbour. Commercial


KidZania is a

Very popular and

Probably not ideal in its


version of

commercial version

currently not in Britain.

own right for a landmark


of Eureka! that

Commercially viable.



replicates a city on


small scale of children. It is a Mexican operation that is franchised around the world. There are other versions like Wannado City in Florida. Landmark

An aquarium of

The Deep in Hull,

Have a synergy with

Aquaria that are



the National Marine

waterfront locations.

“landmarks” are typically

onal standard

Aquarium in

Reliably attract large


that has a strong


visitor numbers.

There is a popular

None currently in

aquarium nearby at


Ellesmere Port.

conservation and education role.


May operate with little or no subsidy.

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A commercial

Sea Life Centres,

Could be done

A commercial aquarium is




which are owned


not likely to have

by Merlin

Likely to be popular.

“landmark” architecture.

Entertainments, the world’s second largest operator of attractions. Eco Centre

A facility that


recreates natural


Unique in UK.

Possible competition with


Chester Zoo’s development plans.

fauna and flora. Might include the Liverpool Botanical Collection. IMAX

Large format film

BFI South Bank

Becoming more

Perhaps better as part of

theatre showing

IMAX London.

successful because of

a commercial leisure


IMAX versions of major

operation than a

productions and

new blockbuster movies.

landmark building.


Films shot with normal


movie digital cameras can

Can be

be converted to be used

associated with

on IMAX systems.


an attraction or be part of a multiplex. Can be domed. PERFORMING ARTS Opera House


Oslo, Gothenburg

Suited to “statement”

Exceptionally expensive


designed to

and Copenhagen


to build and run.


stage opera.

have all built

Would compete with


landmark opera

Manchester’s ambitions.


houses on their


waterfronts. The Lowry in Salford is similar. None of them are “pure” opera houses i.e. they also stage other art forms.

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Concert Hall



Suited to “statement”

Only likely to be viable if


designed to



it is a new home for the


stage opera and

Concert Hall,

Relocating the

Philharmonic. That would,



designed by de

Philharmonic would bring

in turn, mean providing


Meuron & Herzog,

a revenue subsidy.

an alternative use for the

is the landmark of

Grade 2* listed

Hamburg’s Hafen

Philharmonic Hall.

City development.

Very expensive (the Hamburg project is estimated to cost 500 million Euros – it was originally budgeted at 77 million).


Large theatre of

The Empire; The

Suited to statement

Unlikely that Liverpool


+2,000 seats

Luxor is the

architecture and creating

can sustain two theatres


designed to

centrepiece of

a popular cultural hub.

of this size.


Rotterdam’s Kop

West End style

van Zuid




Theatre that

The Liverpool

The Playhouse is in poor

What to do with existing



concentrates on


condition and will either




drama that it

need refurbishment or

produces itself

relocation to a new home.

and on hosting

The Liverpool Theatres


Trust would probably


seriously consider being

Could possibly

tenants of a new theatre.

be a

They would bring an

replacement for

operating subsidy.



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Branch of a

An outpost of

The National

Could be highly

Overlap and competition



the National

Gallery and British

prestigious and bring a

with National Museums of



Gallery, similar

Museum do not

world famous brand to


to Tate

currently have

the city. It would be the

The V&A is unlikely

Liverpool, either


right level of aspiration in

because they are

with a

terms of taking the city to

pursuing outstation


the next level of cultural

projects in Blackpool and

collection or



rotating displays.

Questionable if the

The most

National Gallery would


allow “star” pieces to be

would be a

located away from

National Gallery

Trafalgar Square.

North, British Museum North or National History Museum north. Other candidates are the V&A and the National Portrait Gallery. Could include an extra facility for the Tate. Exhibitions

A centre that


Can provide high quality

High level of overlap with

specialises in

Galleries, Sheffield

art at lower cost than

the Museum of Liverpool.

exhibitions that

displaying a permanent

are touring and



is curated from national museums.

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A museum that

There is not

Would fill a national gap.

Museum of

specialises in

currently a UK

number of museums that

Difficult to fund given the




national museum of

Liverpool already has.

perhaps an


outpost of the

although it is

Museum of

included in the

Science and

National Media


Museum in Bradford (part of the National Museum of Science and Industry). Many other countries have them – the Dutch version has recently relocated from central Rotterdam into premises in Kop van Zuid.


A museum

Modern or

displaying a



Art Gallery.

collection of art.

Walker Art Gallery.

Suited to landmark

Requires a collection.


Very expensive.


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Appendix 1 – Case Studies

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Baltimore Inner Harbour The Inner Harbour forms a template, about 20 years ahead, for the ongoing regeneration and development of the Liverpool Waterfront. There are considerable similarities between the two situations. Baltimore shows how consistent and vigorous application of long term vision has created a mixed-use destination of great critical mass, a scale and transformation that would have seemed a dream 40 years ago. The foundations of the development were, as has been the case in Liverpool, created by large scale public sector investment in attractors. The private sector then progressively took the lead in further stages of development, extending the development from its inner visitor core, as will be the case with Liverpool Waters. Addition of further largely-public sector funded cultural and educational attractions has kept the offer fresh and sustained the momentum. The 1950s saw a dramatic decline in Baltimore’s Central Business District as the city’s industrial base collapsed and the middle classes fled to the suburbs. The subsequent redevelopment of the Inner Harbour is perhaps the most successful and influential docks based inner city regeneration scheme in the world. Liverpool’s waterfront development has been following a similar trajectory. The first major regeneration initiative was a civic and commercial development of a 33-acre site between the retail core and the harbour area with an anchor building by Mies van der Rohe. Figure 32: Baltimore National Aquarium, Inner Harbour

Mayor Theodore McKeldin Jr. commissioned a more ambitious masterplan in 1964 to incorporate 240 dockside acres adjoining the Charles Centre. The plan, by architect and planner David Wallace, provided a template for a 30 year, $260 million regeneration. The basic principle was to bring the public to the water’s edge, an innovative idea at the time. In 1965, Charles Center-Inner Harbour Management Inc., a non-profit organisation, was formed to implement the Inner Harbour Plan. A voter approved loan of $12 million, and a $22.4 million federal grant, Page 42

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allowed the city to move forward with land purchases and the clearing out of the warehouse district. Four key interventions were made in subsequent years to establish the Inner Harbour as a destination: • • • •

A Convention Centre (1979), with $35 million funding from the State Legislature. The Harborplace Mall (1980), a European-style pavilion of speciality retail and restaurants developed by the Rouse Corporation. The Baltimore National Aquarium (1981), funded by the City at a cost of $21 million. The Hyatt Regency Hotel (1981), with support funding from the federal government ($10 million) and the city ($2 million). It has become one of the most successful of the entire chain. Hyatt bought out the City’s interest in the 1980s.

Development took off from these foundations of these public-sector led interventions. There are now 6,000 hotel rooms in the vicinity of the Harbour, major office and residential development and a large range of attractions. 90 developers have been involved. The city has, notably, been able to continue adding attractions so that the offer has developed increasing critical mass. Figure 33: Attractions at the Inner Harbour Baltimore Maritime Museum

Maryland Science Center

Baltimore Orioles

National Aquarium

Baltimore Ravens

Port Discovery Children's Museum

Fort McHenry

Spirit Cruises

Harbour Place & The Gallery

World Trade Center

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Aker Brygge, Oslo Aker Brygge has much in common with Liverpool Waters in that it was redundant docks adjacent to the city centre that were developed by a single developer. It is a truly mixed use scheme, perhaps the most so in Europe. It has large elements of office, residential, retail, and leisure that are very integrated. It has extensive use of public art and well-thought out design. One of its most attractive features is that the buildings are linked by upper floor passageways, giving it a sheltered internal street pattern in addition to an outdoor street pattern. Figure 34: Aker Brygge, with Oslo City Hall in the background

Aker Brygge is a development of the former ship yard of Akers Mekaniske Verksted, which was shut down in 1982. Aker Brygge is in the inner harbour, on the edge of Oslo city centre. It was formerly the centre of Oslo’s shipbuilding industry. Aker, the owners of the shipyard, set up a development company to lead the regeneration of the area. The first phase was completed between 1989 and 1998. The construction of Aker Brygge has been carried out in stages by the developers Aker Eiendom AS. The first stage, completed in 1986, was to rebuild the major workshop halls as shopping areas. The development is currently about 260 000m², consisting of 86,000 m² of office space, 24,000 m² of shops and restaurants, 380 apartments, a small boat marina, a cinema and theatre. It attracts more than 6 million annual visits. A feature of Aker Brygge is that different uses have been combined within single buildings, and the development imitates a traditional urban streetscape, with active frontages on the lower floors, offices at intermediate level and residential above. Below market rents were used in some circumstances to create a good retail and leisure mix along key routes. Integrated management of the site is now provided by Bryggedrift AS, a company owned in common by the owners of the individual properties. Page 44

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Although Aker delivered the development, the public sector made a significant contribution through infrastructure projects like a new road tunnel. The development has completely transformed the relationship of the city and the fjord by opening up access to the waterfront and treating environmental problems in the shipyards.

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Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, Cape Town Perhaps the best “Festival Waterfront” in the world, the V&A demonstrates how a rich and varied, actively managed, visitor offer can be attractive to many potential users: staying tourists, day trippers, local residents and people working nearby. It is a good example of “mosaic” thinking. The developers have deliberately concentrated commercial and cultural activities of different types, including two large craft markets and a mall that specialises in independent retailers. It is also analogous to Liverpool in that it shows how the visitor offer in a waterfront development can be successfully extended outward from an inner core. The Victoria & Alfred Waterfront is a mixed-use property development extending over 23 hectares, located around the historic Victoria and Alfred Basins, which formed Cape Town's original harbour. The V&A Waterfront Company acts as both developer and property manager in terms of tenanting, security, cleaning, maintenance, marketing and administration. It was formed in 1988 when the then landowner of the Cape Town harbour, state-owned transport corporation, Transnet Limited, established the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront (Pty) Limited, as a wholly-owned subsidiary company to redevelop the historic docklands. Figure 35: V&A Waterfront

The mix is about 83 000 m² offices, 67 000 m² retail and 43 000 m² residential. The V&A Waterfront has 483 retail tenants. The anchor development was the Victoria Wharf Shopping Centre, which has a mix of national chain and specialist shops, a craft market and multiplex. The Alfred Mall and Clock Tower Centre have a more specialist offer. There are about 70 restaurants, taverns and eateries and seven hotels. The development was built as an “island”, separate from the Central Business District, and that was a key factor in its initial success. It has, however, been progressively connected into the CBD. The new Cape Town International Convention Centre was built on the edge of the CBD, and a canal constructed between it, a new marina and the V&A. That forms a development corridor for new offices and apartment blocks. The Marina Residential development is centred on a fully serviced marina basin with jetties, private yacht berths Page 46

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and vistas from the open-plan homes. The wide variety of attractions and entertainment on offer makes the V&A Waterfront a popular destination, with over 20 million visits per year. In addition to two large visitor attractions - an aquarium and a maritime museum - there are frequent live performances by street entertainers, musicians, singers and theatre groups. The Liverpool Waterfront will probably be similar in that the visitor “hub” is likely to remain in its original location (i.e. the Albert Dock”), but will be extended outward, in different form, by the new development. As in Cape Town, one of the consequences will be to more firmly integrate the docks into the central business district.

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Medienhafen, Düsseldorf An office dominated development that has become a popular destination not because of its “attractions” but because of its trendy bars and restaurants, which are sustained by office users, in a contemporary environment. It is anchored by the regional broadcasting organisation and has succeeded in attracting major private sector companies in media and design. The presence of the headquarters of Hugo Boss has also resulted in a fashion cluster. It shows how it is possible to create an exceptionally popular destination for locals and tourists by making commercial development visitor friendly and architecturally distinctive. Figure 36: Medienhafen, Düsseldorf

The €400 million transformation of parts of Düsseldorf’s old Rhine harbour with its disused warehouses into a “Media Harbour”, has positioned the city as a centre for creative industries and new media. Medienhafen is about a mile from the Central Business District and has been connected to it the “Rhine Promenade”, a riverside cycle and walking boulevard created by removal of a road. It has developed into Page 48

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Düsseldorf’s trendiest destination. One of the reasons for this is the striking nature of the architecture. The City deliberately parcelled out the sites to different developers and encouraged them to use leading known architects. The development has work by the likes of Frank Gehry, Will Alsop and David Chipperfield. Most of the buildings have restaurants and bars at ground floor level, with extensive outdoor seating, especially focused on Media Plaza, where there is also an active events programme. As a result, the area has become one of the city’s foremost lunch and after work meeting and leisure destinations. There are three hotels. The centrepiece of the development is a “living bridge” across the dock with one of the top rated restaurants in Germany located in the middle in a striking building. In addition to providing a route from one side of the development to the other, the bridge functions as a place for meeting people, sitting down, having lunch or enjoying the view of the architecture. The largely residential development of the western part of Medienhafen, with anticipated investment of over €700 million, is underway.

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London South Bank The South Bank is not a docks development, but is perhaps the best example in the world of successful riverfront destination development based on ‘string of pearls’ strategy of creating and connecting destinations. This has much in common with what Liverpool Waters will be achieving by extending the destination offer northwards. Most of the riverfront was bleak and inaccessible until completion of the pedestrian River Walk in 1988. This opened up the area, generated footfall and acted as a catalyst for other regeneration developments. The South Bank has since been transformed: derelict buildings converted or demolished, workshops set up, new public spaces created, eating and drinking establishments opened and pubic art and festivals introduced. With many of London’s most popular visitor attractions opening on the South Bank (e.g. Design Museum, London Dungeon, Borough Market, the Globe, Tate Modern, and the London Eye) over the past 25 years, the South Bank has evolved into perhaps the primary tourism area in London. Figure 37: Restaurants in the Festival Hall

As it has become a more attractive place to visit, the South Bank has also progressively become a more attractive place for residential and office development. The core infrastructure investment, such as the Millennium Bridge and the new pedestrian bridge at Charing Cross, was made by the public sector, but the private sector has filled the gaps and built on the core infrastructure on a large scale. Marketing, public realm and social projects have been delivered for the past 15 years through the South Bank Employers Group (SBEG), a partnership of 15 major commercial organisations operating in the area. SBEG has fostered substantial private sector investment and oversees the local regeneration programme. SBEG also administers the South Bank Partnership, a group comprised of local MPs, Local Authority officers and business and community representatives. Page 50

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San Antonio Riverwalk, Texas The Riverwalk, like the South Bank, is not a standard docks development, but the principles that have been applied to make it a world class destination are relevant to Liverpool Waters. They include creating pronounced pedestrian routes connecting anchor attractions, making use of water spilling into the docks to create ambience, use of greenery to create contrast, and strong destination branding. The San Antonio Riverwalk, also known as Paseo del Río, is an intricate network of walkways, bridges and staircases through the middle of the business district along the banks of the San Antonio River. The Riverwalk was the brainchild of architect Robert Hugman who proposed it in the late 1920s as an alternative to paving over the San Antonio River, which was prone to flooding. Original construction began in 1939 but cohesive plans were not unveiled until 1963. A second wave of public investment for improvement and extension of the network began during the early ‘80s as waterfront residential property became increasingly popular. The Convention Centre, a number of major hotels and the Rivercentre, a large shopping mall and entertainment complex with IMAX and multiplex cinema, act as anchors for the Riverwalk. San Antonio’s most important tourist attraction, The Alamo, a former Roman Catholic mission and fortress compound now converted into a museum, is located nearby. The 2.5 mile central loop is lined by shops, cafés, restaurants, nightclubs and public art. Figure 38: San Antonio Riverwalk

The Riverwalk is currently being extended in stages at a cost of $216 million. The first phase, completed in May 2009, connected the original downtown part of the river with the San Antonio Museum of Art and the historic Pearl Brewery to the north. The extension to the south, connecting four of the city’s 18th century Spanish colonial missions, is set to be completed by 2014. This will take the Riverwalk to 13-miles long. The Riverwalk has been promoted since 1968 by the non-profit Paseo del Rio Association, which organises special events and festivals and publishes a monthly visitor magazine. It also acts as an advocacy organisation for local businesses. It is a model for the kind of destination marketing that might be applicable to Liverpool Waterfront. Page 51

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Norra Älvstranden, Gothenburg Gothenburg’s primary waterfront development is similar to Liverpool Waters in that it does not have a large retail component and has been deliberately planned to attract multi-national companies of the highest order. Its visitor attractions are relatively low key, but it has been given destination appeal by the making the water accessible and by animating the spaces, not least with art of high quality. It is, like Liverpool Waters, a very ambitious project covering a large area. It includes a number of zones with a different mix of uses and a different character, forming a “mosaic” effect. Figure 39: Lindholmen section of Norra Älvstranden

Norra Älvstranden stretches over 5 kilometres along the north bank of the Göta Älv River, opposite Gothenburg’s historic city centre. It is the former site of three large shipyards, which became derelict in the 1970s. It was decided in the late 1980s that it would play the central role in the vision of changing Gothenburg from an industrial city to a knowledge-intensive city. This vision focused on creating a vibrant, diverse, mixed-use area that complemented the city centre, was built at a human-scale, promoted sustainability and a highquality environment, made the riverfront open to all, encouraged visitors and created natural meeting points. When the scheme is completed, in about 2025, Norra Älvastranden will have about 13,000 residents, 40,000 workers and 13,000 students. It will be an important extension of the city centre, and one of the main drivers of the regional economy. Because of the size and scale of the area, it has been parcelled into sections, each focusing on different types of commercial, residential and leisure development. This creates distinctive character in different parts. Page 52

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The major leisure and cultural attractors are: •

Blå Hallen, which was built in 1961 for the manufacture of diesel motors for ships, is now used for exhibitions, concerts and conferences and has a hotel;

An 84 m gantry crane is now a viewing platform. Bungee jumps from the crane are a popular attraction;

An 18th century East India ship, the 'Götheborg', was rebuilt and launched in September 2004. The shipyard was open for visitors during the reconstruction.

The centre piece of the Norra Älvstranden development is the Lindholmen Science Park, which is dedicated to research and development in modern media, mobile communication and intelligent vehicles and transports systems. It has 180 companies, including Volvo Cars, Volvo Technology, Ericsson and IBM, as well as the educational and government organisations such as Chalmers University of Technology, the University of Gothenburg and Gotenburg Municipality. While the City of Gothenburg (which also owns the land) has taken the overall lead through the Norra Älvstranden Utveckling AB, the private sector has made a major contribution to the way that the plans for the area have developed, and to the success of the scheme and the city as a whole.

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Overhoeks, Amsterdam This development also has much in common with Liverpool Waters. It is a private sector development consisting of high-rise offices and apartments, providing Amsterdam with a new skyline. It will increase the city centre’s office accommodation by about a quarter. It is located in neighbourhood that is deprived and perceived to be unsafe. It has worked from a basic principle that an important means of overcoming this is to make the development a destination. It has had an active policy of encouraging access while in planning and under construction, and includes a “landmark” cultural building of the sort that is likely to feature in Liverpool Waters. Overhoeks is a new urban waterfront district that is being built on the north bank of the IJ, opposite Amsterdam’s Central Station. The site was created when, in 2004, Shell decided to redevelop it to create a new state of the art Fuel Technology Centre. 20ha of surplus land was sold to the Amsterdam municipality. A consortium of ING Real Estate and Ymere, a housing corporation, was appointed to redevelop it for residential, commercial, cultural and recreational purposes. Figure 40: Overhoeks, Amsterdam

The development will comprise 2,500 apartments (split into 80% market sector and 20% social housing), 70,000 m² of high-rise office space, 35,000 m² of commercial space and 25,000 m² of cultural and other non-commercial space, and a riverside park. Residential sales for the first phase of Overhoeks started in early 2007. The buildings were designed by internationally renowned architects - Alvaro Siza, Tony Fretton, Banake Van der Hoeven, Coenen & Co, Mecanoo and Geurst & Schulze. Office and commercial space will come online from 2010 onwards, with the Page 54

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project due to be completed by 2015. The cultural focus will be a re-located National Film Museum, with a striking design by Austrian architects Delugan Meissl. The Tolhuistuin, a ‘secret’ garden which functions simultaneously as venue, production house, summer festival location and houses an unconventional collection of cultural organisations, will be another important cultural attractor. Although the site has the advantage of proximity to the city centre and great views, it is in a part of the city with a poor reputation. It has an image of being dull, drab, deprived and dangerous. The strategy to overcome this was to create an activity mix that would create a vibrant waterfront quarter that would be both an exceptionally attractive place to live and work and an attractive place to visit and spend time in.

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HafenCity, Hamburg In many ways Hamburg is following a similar trajectory to Liverpool where, in order to address declining city centre population, physical decay and social deprivation, regeneration initiatives are driving redevelopment of the waterfront through a combination of major cultural projects, new residential development and commercial space. Hafencity also actively communicated the vision for the development and its benefits to potential audiences before and during the development process, and includes a “landmark” cultural building of the sort that is likely to feature in Liverpool Waters. The scale of the HafenCity development (157 ha) makes it one of the most notable waterfront schemes in the world. It is transforming a former port and industrial area between the River Elbe and the historic Speicherstadt warehouse district, a short walk from Hamburg city centre. When completed in 2025, the development is expected to increase the size of Hamburg city centre by 40%. With a city centre population of only about 14,000 (one third on social welfare) and gaps in the retail and cultural offer, it was felt that this type of mixed-use development would reposition Hamburg as a more attractive destination for new residents and investment. The mix is primarily residential and commercial: 5,500 apartments for between 10,000 and 12,000 residents and commercial property to accommodate over 40,000 jobs. The development will also comprise a wide range of offices, schools, shops, and facilities for culture, leisure and tourism. The overall masterplan for HafenCity was completed in 2000 and work commenced in 2001. The first residential tenants occupied sites along the Santorkai in 2005. At the same time, several employers, including the logistics company Kuhne and Nagel, have already occupied commercial premises. The process used by HafenCity GmbH to manage design, investment and development is particularly interesting. The company retains control of the site and developers are only awarded ownership and planning permission when they are ready to begin construction, in order to prevent speculative holding of land. An architectural competition is a requirement for every building in the scheme. This approach has, to date, attracted interest from world-class architects and designers, even for the less iconic structures. HafenCity’s leisure and cultural components are conceived on a grand scale. The Elbephilharmonie, a landmark new concert hall facility designed by Herzog de Meuron, is being constructed on top of ‘Kaispeicher A’, a former cocoa warehouse. The original warehouse will house a car park, while the concert venue, a boutique hotel and other facilities will sit atop the warehouse in a Page 56

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new-build structure whose form imitates waves. The concert hall will contain two auditoria with capacities of 2,150 and 550. It is controversial because it is greatly over budget. Figure 41: Elbephilharmonie, Hafen City, Hamburg

Other core leisure and cultural attractors include: •

A combined science centre and aquarium in a landmark new building near the waterfront, designed by Rem Koolhaus.

A maritime museum housed within a converted warehouse – the other surviving original building.

A collection of historic ships moored along floating pontoons between the Santorkai and Dalmankai.

A new cruise terminal, marina and over 10 kilometres of quayside promenades.

• HafenCity GmbH (the company in charge of development on-site) has established a visitor and information centre. It has been exceptionally popular, with c.250, 000 visits pa. Figure 42: HafenCity

Building overhangs are being used to shelter pedestrians. The moorings are where the city’s collection of historic boats and ships are to be located. People will be able to walk between them through the middle of the dock.

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National Opera House, Oslo The $800m National Opera House was designed by Norwegian architects Snøhetta. It opened in April 2008. It is the centre-piece of the ‘Fjord City’ development in Bjørvika, a waterfront area which was traditionally a backwater. It is the largest urban development project in Norwegian history and will be delivered over 10-15 years. After the opening of the Guggenheim museum in Bilbao in 1997, there was discussion in Oslo about the potential of creating a ‘Bilbao effect’ in Oslo. Although there was considerable disagreement, it was decided to invest in a landmark building. At 38,500m², the Opera House is the biggest of Norway’s cultural buildings. It has a 1,350 seat main auditorium, 400 seat flexible theatre and 200 seat rehearsal room. Opera and dance form the core of its programming. The architectural brief for the opera house called for something monumental that would provide Norway with a national focus. The new structure is sympathetically designed to fit its fjord setting. It is clad in 35,000 Carrara-marble slabs and the sloping side designed to resemble an iceberg. 1.3 million people visited the building in its first year. Figure 43: National Opera House, Oslo

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National Opera House, Copenhagen The modern Copenhagen Opera House, designed by Danish architect Henning Larsen, opened to the public in January 2005. It took only 4 years from concept to completion. At a cost of more than £250 million, it is also one of the most expensive opera houses. It was a gift to the Danish public by shipping magnate Sir Mærsk McKinney Møller. The Opera House is located on Dock Island in Copenhagen Harbour, just opposite the royal palace Amalienborg and the Marble Church. It is the centrepiece of a 40,000m² waterfront residential quarter. The Opera House has fourteen storeys, five below ground. The restaurant section, with terrace offering views over the Copenhagen waterfront, is one of the greatest public draws. It has a total area of c.40, 000m². The main auditorium seats 1,500. The building is run by the Royal Danish Theatre and hosts opera and ballet. The focal point of the Opera House is the large floating roof which covers the entire building and continues for 32 metres over the plaza to the harbour front. It was inspired by Jean Nouvel’s Cultural and Conferences Centres in Luzern, Switzerland. The exterior adheres to Nordic traditions with simple colours and natural materials including sandstone and granite. It contains a ceiling made of gold leaf and has a lacquered maple auditorium inspired by the shape of a conch shell. Figure 44: National Opera House, Copenhagen

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Millennium Centre Cardiff The Wales Millennium Centre (WCM) is a landmark on Cardiff Bay. It is 3,700m² in gross size. The brief was to create a centre that was “unmistakably Welsh and internationally outstanding”. Phase one was designed by architect Jonathan Adams of Capita Architecture (formerly called Capita Percy Thomas) and completed in November 2004. It involved the construction of the 1,900-seat main auditorium, 250-seat studio theatre, six function rooms, a hostel, performance and teaching space, restaurants and coffee shops. Architects Tim Green and Keith Vince of Capita Architecture designed phase two, which was completed in January 2009. It has a 350-seat hall, the interior of which resembles a Welsh chapel. Figure 45: Wales Millennium Centre

The main auditorium is specifically designed for operas, concerts and other performing arts. WCM has seven resident companies, including the Welsh National Opera. The public areas of the Centre are focused into two centres: the waterside and anchorage. The former is the larger public space, offering catering and retail provision, an exhibition space with interactive media and space for free public performances. The anchorage has two distinct features, a steel dragon and key, symbolically representing Wales and goodwill. This area contains a flexible space for exhibitions, retail and outreach facilities. The WMC cost £106.2 million. The National Lottery Millennium Fund contributed £31.7m, the National Assembly of Wales contributed £37m, Arts Council Wales contributed £10.4m and a private investor, London-based South African businessman Donald Gordon, donated £20m to be shared equally between the Royal Opera House in London and the WMC. A major sponsorship agreement between the WMC and the Page 60

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Principality Building Society (the most significant single arts donation the Society had ever undertaken) provided the remaining funds for the project. The WCM attracts more than a million visitors per year.

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Gothenburg Opera House The Opera House is the centrepiece of the city’s waterfront renewal. It opened in 1994. Over 6,000 private individuals sponsored the project, and Volvo was a principal patron. It is situated at the foot of the Avenyn, the city’s main street, and next to the marina Lilla Bommen in the Gothenburg harbour. Old Danish Viking ship, the Barken Viking, is moored in the marina and used as a hotel, restaurant and conference centre. Its programme is opera, dance and “West End” style musicals. Its architect, Jan Izikowitz, was inspired by its surrounding landscape resulting in the silhouettes of ships, hulls, wind-filled sails, bridges and harbour cranes that can be seen in the architecture of the building. With a total area of c.29, 000m², the building has a 1,300 seat main auditorium, 300 seat studio and an orchestra pit for about 1,000 musicians. It hosts about 270 performances per year and welcomes 250,000 visitors annually, at about 85% seat occupancy. The building was completely renovated in 2009. A 130 million kronor self-financed extension is also to be built on the west side to provide an additional 3,000m² over three stories including an auditorium seating 550 spectators, cafés, rehearsal rooms, conference and practice rooms. Figure 46: National Opera House, Gothenburg

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The Lowry, Salford The Lowry opened in April 2000, offering a combination of performing and visual arts. The total cost of the complex was about £120 million. This included the building itself, the footbridge across the Quays, the Plaza in front of the building, the Digital World Centre and improved transport and pedestrian infrastructure. Funding came from the Arts Council, the Millennium Commission, the Heritage Lottery Fund, European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), English Partnerships, Salford City Council, Trafford Park Development Corporation and the private sector. It was one of the “landmark” projects to mark the new Millennium. It was designed by Michael Wilford and Architects and quickly became a landmark. Figure 49: The Lowry, Salford

The Lowry has two auditoria, with capacities of 1,730 and 466, and a studio space which seats up to 180. It also has 1,610 sq metres of gallery space. The theatres offer a diverse mix of performing arts, often of international renown and covering the full range of performing art forms. The galleries display a changing variety of works by contemporary and established artists alongside the permanent L S Lowry collection. The centre currently has 850,000 visitors annually3, 640,000 (75%) use the theatres, 160,000 (19%) the galleries and 50,000 are corporate users (6%).


From an interview with Jonathan Harper, Marketing Director, The Lowry.

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The Deep, Hull Designed by Terry Farrell and Partners and costing £45.5m, The Deep in Hull is a charitable public aquarium dedicated to increasing people’s enjoyment and understanding of the World's oceans. It features Europe's deepest viewing tunnel and a ride ascending through 10 metres of water. A central objective was to create a building with a bold, pioneering image for the city of Hull. The fourstorey building is therefore designed to be a dramatic icon – literally “emerging” from the sea. The project was primarily funded by the Millennium Commission (£22 million), ERDF (£8 million), Single Regeneration Budget (£4 million), the Regional Development Agency (£3.4 million) and Hull City Council (£5.4 million). Figure 47: The Deep, Hull

It opened in March 2002 and has been relatively successful, especially given its location, attracting about 250,000 visits a year. It accommodates a Learning Centre, the Total Environment Simulator and the University of Hull's research facility. The Business Centre, close to the site's western edge helps to fund and contribute to marine based research for the educational part of the scheme.

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Liverpool Waters - Destination strategy