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Conservation Management Plan for the Protection, Conservation and Preservation of Heritage Assets November 2011

www.liverpoolwaters.com


CONTENTS

1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................. 1

2

INTRODUCTION........................................................................ 5

3

UNDERSTANDING THE SITE ..................................................... 9

4

HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTRIBUTION TO OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE (OUV)……………………….70

5

ISSUES, CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES…………………73

6

POLICIES AND PRINCIPLES.................................................... 80

7

CONSERVATION ACTION PLAN............................................... 87

8

BIBLOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………..93

9

PLANS………………………………………………………………………95

APPENDIX 1: ................................................................................. 100


1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Liverpool Waters Project

1.1

Liverpool Waters is a major regeneration project involving 60 hectares of redundant docks in the heart of the city. It is proposed to create a high quality, mixed use waterfront quarter in central Liverpool, accommodating substantial growth of the city’s economy and residential numbers based on a 30 year development programme.

1.2

The outline planning application, which is accompanied by a masterplan, is intended to allow Liverpool City Council to make a decision on the general principles of how the site can be developed acceptably. Such an application allows for agreement to be reached on the amount and nature of development that can take place on the site prior to preparing detailed proposals.

1.3

40% of the Liverpool Waters site is within the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City World Heritage Site, and makes up about 22% of the whole inscribed Site as shown in Figure 1. It is of special value for the group of surviving historic docks, the dock boundary wall and the general dockland landscape. As well as the dock basins, within the site there are historic buildings and structures including the Victoria Clock Tower and the Dock Master’s Office, as well as original dockyard surfaces incorporating capstans, bollards and rail tracks. Just outside the development site are important structures such as the Stanley Dock with its massive Tobacco Warehouse, the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, and the Waterloo Warehouse. The location of on-site heritage assets is shown in Figure 2.

1.4

The City Council’s vision for the area, as set out in the World Heritage Site Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) 2009, is for ...a major long-term mixed-use development in accordance

with an agreed strategic masterplan...The development will create a unique sense of place, taking advantage of the site’s cultural heritage and integrating it with exciting and sustainable new development. The development will retain historic buildings, structures, waterspaces and features and their setting, in accordance with conservation principles and policies... 1.5

The site is largely vacant and derelict, and without major investment, the heritage assets, many of which are listed and contribute to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the World Heritage Site (WHS), will be at risk of loss. The cost of structural repairs and conservation of historic buildings and structures alone has been estimated at £6.7 million, together with an additional £292,660 for the repair of the dock boundary wall. This makes an overall cost of £7 million at

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2011 prices. In addition there are substantial costs associated with the reinstatement of historic surfaces, repair and conservation of quayside artefacts, and archaeological evaluation and mitigation. Conservation Management Plan 1.6

The Liverpool Waters application will reverse the decline of the heritage resource, and makes provision for the protection, conservation and presentation of all designated and undesignated heritage assets within the site. The Conservation Management Plan (CMP) provides a set of policies and guidance to ensure that the development will be undertaken without detriment to the special interest of the heritage assets, and ensure that any changes to the historic fabric can be managed in a positive way.

1.7

The CMP sets the framework for co-ordinated management in accordance with statutory policy and guidance and will serve to inform existing and future management documents for the development of the Liverpool Waters site. Together with its research base, it aims to provide an informed understanding of the contribution made by the heritage assets to the OUV of the WHS, so that an effective planning and management strategy can be implemented to ensure their protection and sustainability into the future.

1.8

It is intended that the CMP will cultivate a tradition of care, and encourage the managers of the heritage resource and its partners to value and respect the heritage in an appropriate manner. It balances the interests of conservation, public access, and the interests of all those who will live and work in the area. The policies and principles set out in the document are based on the identification of the significance of the area and an assessment of vulnerabilities facing the heritage of the site. Issues and Opportunities

1.9

Through the CMP process, the major issues facing the built heritage resource have been identified as follows: • Need for clear management structures • Physical nature of heritage assets • State of conservation • Cost of repair and conservation • Scale and duration of project • Quality and standards of conservation work

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• Recording, storage and accessibility of information • Lack of public access and constraints on transmission of OUV • Future use of historic buildings and structures 1.10

The LW project offers the following opportunities: • Heritage-based sustainable regeneration • Unprecedented public access • Conservation and reuse of heritage assets • Interpretation and presentation of the heritage resource Priority Actions

1.11

The priority actions have been identified as: • To establish a clear management system for the protection of the built heritage and archaeological resource • To use the conservation management plan as formal guidance • To carry out a comprehensive programme of conservation works to historic buildings and structures and return them to beneficial use • To work with the Council to prepare an interpretation strategy for the site that will promote the history and heritage of the WHS • To develop a phased action plan for conservation of heritage assets Policies

1.12

A comprehensive set of policies and principles is set out to guide the management and maintenance of heritage assets along following themes: • Management of information, research and record storage to support the development programme and interpretation of the WHS • Management of decision making in partnership with Liverpool City Council and English Heritage • Working with adjoining owners and developers to protect and enhance the wider historic environment • Feasibility studies to find appropriate and sustainable uses for historic buildings and structures • Establishment of appropriate arrangements for long term funding and resources for management of historic assets

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• Development of a 10 year forward action programme with annual reviews, together with detailed guidelines and codes of practice for repairs and maintenance of heritage assets • Preparation of a phasing programme in line with the ongoing development of the Liverpool Waters site • Establishment of a maintenance strategy involving regular inspections, monitoring and planned maintenance, executed in an efficient and cost effective manner • Development of a conservation strategy to conform with the highest appropriate conservation standards • Formulation of a new works strategy that minimises irreversible intervention in historic fabric • Preparation of an archaeological strategy to protect and present the archaeological resource • Development of an access strategy to achieve compliance with the DDA 1995 that is acceptable in heritage terms • Establishment of an interpretation strategy that will communicate the local distinctiveness of the dockland environment and its contribution to the WHS • Implementation of the CMP to be an integral element of the site development

Action Plan 1.13

An action plan related to phasing and timescales is proposed, so as to ensure that the heritage assets are fully protected, conserved and returned to beneficial use during the overall development programme.

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2

INTRODUCTION

2.1

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE DOCUMENT

2.1.1

Liverpool Waters is a major regeneration project involving 60 hectares of redundant docks in the heart of the city of Liverpool. A planning application has been submitted by Peel Land and Property (Ports) Ltd (Peel) seeking outline planning permission for the proposed Liverpool Waters development. The Conservation Management Plan (CMP) has been prepared to accompany the planning application. It builds on the recently gained understanding of the significance, value and needs of the built heritage of the Liverpool Waters site to provide a unified planning and management strategy to ensure its preservation and sustainability in the future.

2.1.2

The CMP sets out a framework for securing the protection, enhancement and presentation of designated and undesignated heritage assets through a phased conservation management programme. It will act as a tool for decision makers and managers, providing information and policies to guide future actions. The CMP will ensure that works will be undertaken without detriment to the special interest of the building, structures, historic artefacts and archaeology, and that any changes to historic fabric can be carried managed in a positive way.

2.1.3

It is intended that the benefits will be secured through a planning condition related to undertakings set out in the document.

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2.2

PREPARATION OF THE CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT PLAN

2.2.1

The methodology used for the preparation of the Plan is based on Heritage Lottery Fund guidance and is in accordance with international standards as set out in J S Kerr, The Conservation Plan: A

Guide to the Preparation of Conservation Plans for Places of European Cultural Significance, 2002. The Plan has been prepared by Peter de Figueiredo, architect, architectural historian and heritage consultant, who was responsible for the Liverpool Waters Baseline Archaeological and Cultural Heritage report. 2.2.2

Following the introduction, the document has five sections: •

Understanding the site – this develops a robust understanding of the heritage assets, based on documentary research, site investigation and analysis

Defining Significance – this arises from the understanding of the site and is informed by the Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the World Heritage Site (WHS)

Identifying Issues – the key issues facing the survival of significance of heritage assets are identified and explored

Developing Policies and Principles – based on an assessment of the issues, a series of policies and principles have been developed to help address the issues and guide future protection, conservation and preservation of heritage assets

Action Plan – setting out a programme of actions contiguous with the phased development of the site

2.2.3

The report forms one of a suite of documents that support the planning application, and should be read in conjunction with those that are listed in Section 2.2.4. The document depends on the research and analysis already carried out in the Cultural Heritage and Archaeology Baseline report, The Dock Boundary Wall Conservation Statement, the Cultural Heritage and Archaeology Chapter of the Environmental Statement, and the Historic Impact Assessment, which together provide much of the background context. As such the CMP provides only a summary of the existing research and understanding of the site, and an abbreviated definition of site significance, both of which are covered more fully in the four documents listed above. The main content of the CMP therefore relates to protecting, conserving and presenting the heritage assets, and with establishing policies and an action plan to ensure that the conservation benefits will be successfully delivered.

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2.2.4

The document should be considered in conjunction with the following reports that have been submitted in support of the planning application: •

Revised Application Forms and Certificates (November 2011)

Statement of Key Development Principles (November 2011)

Parameter Plan Document (November 2011)

Design and Access Statement (November 2011)

Environmental Statement (November 2011)

Environmental Statement – Non-Technical Summary (November 2011)

Environmental Statement – Technical Summary (November 2011)

Transport Statement (November 2011)

Retail, Leisure and Office Statement (November 2011)

Planning and Regeneration Statement (November 2011_

Building Characterisation and Precedents Study (November 2011)

Landscape Characterisation and Public Realm Precedent Study (November 2011)

Housing Statement (November 2011)

Destination Statement (November 2011)

Sustainability Appraisal (November 2011)

Heritage Impact Assessment (November 2011)

Archaeological Deposit Model (November 2011)

Flood Risk Assessment (November 2011)

Statement of Community Involvement (November 2011)

Habitats Regulation Assessment (November 2011)

2.3

THE PEEL GROUP AND SITE OWNERSHIP

2.3.1

The Peel Group is a leading UK-based infrastructure, transport and real estate company. The Group holds a number of growing businesses, including Media, Energy, Land, Property Development, Property Investment, Environmental Assets, Hotels and Utilities. The firm has a long-established experience in delivering major urban regeneration projects successfully. These have included, for example, the Trafford Centre and MediaCity UK, Glasgow Harbour and Gloucester Quays. Such projects have involved partnerships with stakeholders, in particular, local authorities.

2.3.2

Many recent projects by Peel have involved respecting and working successfully with important heritage interests, notably at Gloucester Quays. The company has been praised widely for

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innovative work and high standards in delivering schemes using alternative energy sources and in achieving the highest standards of sustainable development. 2.3.3

Peel is joint owner of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company Ltd. All of the land involved in the Liverpool Waters development is owned and controlled by the company other than adjoining areas of highway land.

2.3.4

Peel has major land and property interests in the River Mersey estuary, along the Mersey Ship Canal and in Salford and Manchester. At its broadest level, the Liverpool Waters proposal constitutes a key development opportunity, being part of Peel’s regional vision launched in 2008 known as the “Atlantic Gateway”, an aspirational plan involving a series of development projects with a capital value of some £50 billion. The cost of the Liverpool Waters scheme is approximately £5.5 billion.

2.4

PHASING AND MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVERPOOL WATERS PROJECT

2.4.1

Under the current proposed programme, construction of Liverpool Waters will take place over a period of 30 years during 2012-2041, with the site becoming fully operational by 2041. Five distinct phases are proposed, as shown in Figure 3. The programme of construction identifies site enabling works and site infrastructure works occurring on a phase by phase basis prior to completion of sub-structures, superstructures and external areas.

2.4.2

From the opening of Phase 1, and throughout the life of the development, it is proposed that the management of the site will be carried out by a bespoke management trust. This is already operational at Princes Dock, which is managed by Peel.

2.4.3

Management responsibilities will include the public realm, water bodies and historic structures to ensure that the amenity of the site is maintained to a high standard. Highways, SUDs and hard and soft landscaping will all be administered by the management company. The management company will have responsibility for delivery of the CMP.

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3

UNDERSTANDING THE SITE

3.1

SITE DESCRIPTION

3.1.1

The site of Liverpool Waters occupies some 60 hectares to the north of Liverpool’s Pier Head, and runs from Princes Dock to the south and to Bramley Moore dock to the north. The site extends 2km along the waterfront and also includes the King Edward Industrial Estate. It extends eastwards as far as the dock boundary wall that runs along Bath Street and Waterloo Road. The eastern boundary of the site is defined by the north-south axis of the A5036 carriageway, and the River Mersey defines the site’s western boundary. With the exception of the Princes Dock and the King Edward Industrial Site, the Liverpool Waters site is publicly inaccessible. A small portion of the A5046 (at St Nicholas Place) abuts the site to its south, whilst the dock system continues to the site’s north towards the boundary with Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council.

3.1.2

Over a third of the site consists of docks with open water, comprising Bramley-Moore Dock, Nelson Dock, Salisbury Dock, Collingwood Dock, Princes Dock, Princes Half-Tide dock, and East Waterloo Dock. The former West Waterloo Dock and Trafalgar Docks have been subject to earlier in-filling, and now accommodate a canal link to Pier Head from Stanley Dock. Earlier in-filling of other docks within the site has been extensive; including Clarence Dock that was closed in 1928 and became the site for a coal-fired power station, which was enlarged in the 1950’s and included three tall chimneys. The last remnants of the power station were removed in 1994, and the site has remained redundant since then.

3.1.3

With the exception of King Edward Industrial Estate, the site consists of land reclaimed from the River Mersey. The site originally incorporated a series of single storey linear transit sheds on the quaysides, with ancillary facilities such as entrance lodges, cranes and an elevated railway together with an at-grade system of rail and tram lines. The site historically had the character of a utilitarian and industrial area. This was emphasised still further by the grade II listed Jesse Hartley designed Dock Boundary Wall that separated the site from the hinterland to the east and limited access to the docks, and which forms the major part of the site’s eastern boundary. Although the dock boundary wall still remains a commanding feature, the transit sheds have been demolished over a period of time, and only the quaysides remain.

3.1.4

The quaysides still have associated elements such as mooring facilities and limited surfacing materials, some of which have associated railway lines. The remaining docks, including the two Clarence Graving Docks, retain special interest through their monumental construction and robust materials of granite and sandstone, as does the river wall marking the western site boundary.

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3.1.5

The main features of the site are the dock boundary wall and the open dock spaces. Since the site is mostly void of development, there are extensive views, both from within the site across the river to Wirral landmarks such as Wallasey Town Hall and Woodside tunnel ventilation shaft, and to the south towards the city centre including both Pier Head and the cluster of tall buildings within the commercial quarter. There are also key views into the site and beyond from the Wirral (west) side of the Mersey that allow for distant views of the Stanley Dock warehouse from the Wallasey shoreline, as well as the Victoria Clock Tower on the river’s edge and the panorama of Liverpool’s sandstone ridge to the east.

3.1.6

The eastern part of the site is dominated by one of its most distinctive features, the dock boundary wall. This varies in quality and integrity, and whilst the major part of the wall is constructed in brick, there are sections to the northern part of the site in cyclopean granite. Most of the original entrances have associated entrance lodges, built of brick and granite, and monumental entrances, whilst later openings are simple functional breaches of the wall of varied dimensions.

3.1.7

Whilst the site is largely unutilised, the southern portion has witnessed development activity in recent years. High-rise residential apartments, office blocks, hotel development, a multi-storey car park and other commercial and ancillary uses are now accommodated at Princes Dock, although parts of this dock remain to be developed. In addition, more low-rise residential accommodation is contained at East Waterloo Dock (to the west of the site). The site also includes a small industrial estate in the vicinity of King Edward Street at its south eastern corner.

3.1.8

The site’s surroundings contain a variety of land-uses. The main commercial core of Liverpool city centre is located adjacent to the south-east corner of the site, on the opposite eastern side of the A5036 carriageway. Directly to the south, beyond St Nicholas Place, is Liverpool’s historic Pier Head with the Liver Building, the Cunard Building and the Port of Liverpool Building, together with a ferry landing platform. To the north of the site is the Sandon Dock Water Treatment Works, whilst industrial and employment uses predominate to the site’s east and north east. The Wirral coastline, stretching from New Brighton to Birkenhead, on the western bank of the Mersey estuary, is located 1.3km to the west of the site, and provides expansive views of the site, the river frontage and Liverpool City Centre.

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3.1.9

42% of the Liverpool Waters site is within the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City World Heritage Site, and makes up about 22% of the whole inscribed Site as shown in Figure 1.

3.2

SITE HISTORY Background

3.2.1

This section of the document deals with the historic development of the dock complex and includes references to many heritage assets within the site. Some information about the early development of the docks has been included in order to provide a historic context for the site: explaining why such a large number of docks were constructed within Liverpool, and the significant advances in maritime engineering that accompanied each phase of expansion along the waterfront.

3.2.2

The development of Liverpool from small fishing port to a city of massive international significance was largely prompted by the construction of the docks. Liverpool failed to develop significantly between the 12th and seventeenth centuries as there was no established safe way of negotiating the river and putting into port as the tidal range and currents were treacherous and the river itself was strewn with hidden obstacles. In 1700 the construction of a wet dock within the confines of ‘the pool’ was proposed. It was built directly on the bedrock of the pool, with walls constructed of hand-made red brick and capped with yellow sandstone coping stones. Following its successful construction and opening of the Old Dock in 1715, there quickly followed a programme of land reclamation, sea wall and dock construction. This was to set a precedent for the continuous expansion and development of Liverpool’s waterfront through a series of ingenious engineering feats which would radically alter the face of Liverpool and its place on the world stage in the nineteenth century.

3.2.3

In 1740 the first sea wall was constructed to define the new shoreline, the line of the sea wall was later adopted as part of Georges Dock Passage. At the same time an ambitious programme of land reclamation was conducted as the citizens of Liverpool gradually began to shape the waterfront and create the area known today as Pier Head. Land was reclaimed using waste material obtained from local industry and by 1750 the land reclamation had successfully created a new strip of land known as Nova Scotia. This was quickly built upon and contained a variety of buildings including single room dwellings for the workforce, pubs and hostelries, along with two slip ways. Further land reclamation in a westwards direction between 1771 and 1785 necessitated

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the construction of two further sea walls and the Old Quay which was later superseded by the Manchester Basin (latterly the Manchester Dock). 3.2.4

The Pier Head, in its present formation, did not exist until 1771. Excavation and cartographic evidence supports the fact that the development of the Pier Head followed on from the development of Mann Island and Nova Scotia with a succession of sea walls preceding the reclamation of land into useful waterside properties. The majority of land in this area was constructed from quarry waste, including crushed pink and yellow sandstone material interspersed with discrete dumps of pottery and other cultural material representing industry occurring elsewhere in the city centre.

3.2.5

From 1771 the central area of Pier Head was occupied by Georges Dock, one of the largest in the area with an internal space of 3 acres. Georges Dock was linked to the Canning Dock via Georges Dock Passage to the south. Also built at the same time, Georges Dock Basin and Georges Ferry Basin radically altered the shape and function of the Pier Head, effectively creating a small series of islands linked by swing bridges. The Pier Head area around Georges Dock remained relatively free of structures as most of the warehouses and transit sheds were located on the east side of the docks around Strand Street and the Goree Piazza.

3.2.6

By the 1900s Georges Dock was drained and the construction of the Three Graces was underway, starting with the construction of the Port of Liverpool Building which was designed to house the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board Offices. This was followed by the construction of the Liver Building and finally the Cunard Building. The closure of Georges Dock rendered the associated docks in the network redundant. Georges Dock Basin, the ferry terminal and Georges Dock Passage were all closed at the same time.

3.2.7

By the late 1920s and early 1930s the Pier Head area had become a wide open plaza area with three circular brick structures which were used as tram turning circles. Later during World War II the structures were used as temporary air raid shelters. Pier Head has more recently served as a point of embarkation and arrival for passenger vessels. The most frequent of those vessels have been ferries crossing the Mersey, but it has also been a terminal for ferries to the Isle of Mann and Ireland and the point of emigration for millions of Europeans on their way to the New World.

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Princes Dock 3.2.8

Following the development of Liverpool’s closed dock system in the late eighteenth century; the construction of Princes Dock was the first substantial increase in the size of the docks. The initial designs were drawn up in 1800 by William Jessop and in 1810 by John Rennie, and it was remarkable for the use of steam power and an iron railway to help remove spoil. Jessop commented on the silting of those older dock entrances with tidal basins, and proposed the installation of proper locks as a solution, together with improvements to the construction of the retaining walls. By this time it has also been recognised that there were structural flaws to the use of sandstone walls set into the made ground, as it had been observed that the sheer weight of the walls made them prone to subsidence which left cracks and gaps in the dry bond. Problems with raising funds and securing land for the development, as part of the site encroached on the redundant fort and battery (which had to be acquired as part of the site), meant that work did not commence until 1810, a full ten years after the original Act to construct the dock had been passed in parliament. The problems of funding and labour were compounded by the Napoleonic Wars which limited the supply of men and horses for moving materials. By 1810, the full complement of land was still not available so work began on the construction of a dock which was now much reduced in size from the original proposal. At the same time, the sea wall that now forms the boundary of the current marine parade was also being built. Stone for the works was shipped across the river from quarries at Runcorn.

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3.2.9

The Dock was officially completed in 1821 by the Dock Engineer John Foster. Until 1832, it was the largest dock in Liverpool, and was intended to be a flagship for Liverpool’s trade with North America, for imported cotton and emigrating people. The dock covered an area of 4.6 hectares, with a lock at the southern end connecting it to Georges Dock. At the north end was a second lock leading through to Princes Dock Basin, which provided access to the Mersey. It was intended originally to build another dock on the north side of Princes Basin (maps: Kaye 1816; Swire 18234; Walker 1823), but this area was not developed until the 1830s when the land was reclaimed. A swing bridge provided access to the island forming the western side of the dock and a series of transit sheds, as well as the Dock Master’s and Pier Master’s offices (OS 1851). Further transit sheds and offices, such as a police station were on the east side of the dock.

3.2.10

Although as expensive to construct as an enclosed dock, the uses for Princes Dock Basin were limited. It could only be used by the smallest vessels, for landing fish and small coastal cargoes. It was primarily used to provide access to Princes Dock, and later for movements of materials for improvements to Princes Dock, and the construction of Waterloo and Clarence Dock.

3.2.11

Access to Princes Dock from the town was controlled by a dock boundary wall, the first to be built in Liverpool, begun in 1816 and completed in 1821 when the dock opened. Also built by John Foster, the wall was of red brick, four courses thick, with sandstone copings and a gateway built with sandstone piers in the Greek Revival style. Originally the wall extended around the dock but only the east side survives in situ. The buildings around Princes Dock were also characteristic of this phase of building as the newly constructed transit sheds were built to be easily constructed and dismantled. Archaeological excavation in 2007-08 in the area of Princes Dock showed that despite the transitory nature of these structures, they were furnished with substantial foundations and associated crane bases.

Dock Extensions in the 1830s 3.2.12

The next phase of docks to open within the central docks area was built by Foster’s successor, Jesse Hartley. Hartley is considered Liverpool’s most eminent dock engineer, and between 1824 and 1860 he more than doubled the dock accommodation. His prolific building campaign and distinctive cyclopean granite architecture style meant that his docks are the most easily recognisable. The need for a rapidly expanding dock system was the result of Liverpool’s expansion in trade arising from the growth in the textile industry and the opening up of markets

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in India and China, following the end of the East India Company’s monopolies, and in South America. The tonnage of shipping doubled between 1815 and 1830, and again by 1845. 3.2.13

One of Hartley’s main achievements was the improvement made to the design of the dock retaining walls. His early docks were built from sandstone, but from the construction of Clarence Dock in 1830, he replaced this with granite (though shortages ensured some sandstone continued to be used into the 1880s). Hartley ensured that the quality of masonry work was very high, allowing him to build using relatively thin walls with only a slight batter. Straighter walls were essential to accommodate deep, square-hulled steamships. Hartley’s construction method involved taking piers down to the level of the general foundations, leaving in masses of bedrock, and then building flat relieving arches. The walls were supported by counterforts, 6 feet square and 12 feet apart, which were cruciform buttresses set into the rear of the walls. The walls themselves were 12 feet thick at the base, 6 feet thick at the capping and 36 feet high, with a batter of only 1 inch to the vertical. They were built using his distinctive ‘cyclopean’ construction technique, using massive bonding headers, with small irregular pieces of rubble in between, fitted together precisely with very thin mortar joints.

Bennison 1841

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3.2.14

Some distance to the north of Princes Dock and tidal basin, he built Clarence Dock and Clarence Graving Dock, which opened in 1830. Clarence was a dock specialising in steamships, and it was sited well away from the existing docks to reduce the fire risk to other shipping. It comprised two enclosed dock basins, parallel to each other and the river. Access to the sea from the inner basin was through an outer, half tide dock. The half tide dock allowed water to be impounded at high tide. Once the gates were shut, ships could then pass through to the fully impounded dock system beyond.

3.2.15

On the north side of the half tide dock was a passage with a lock giving access to Clarence Gridiron Basin, which led onto Clarence Graving Docks. Dug partly from rock, the fine masonry work of the graving dock has stepped sides and granite barrel runs, and the southern dock has two chambers. The graving docks were large enough to accommodate one or two vessels at a time. After the vessels were floated in, water was removed either by pumps or drains, in order to allow repairs. In the case of Clarence Graving Docks, water was removed by pumps.

3.2.16

The mid-1830s saw a rapid expansion in Liverpool Docks, and the area between Princes Half Tide Dock and Clarence Dock was soon infilled with new dock facilities. Although John Foster had already begun work on a new dock to the immediate north of Princes Dock before its completion, it was his replacement, Jesse Hartley who built and completed Waterloo Dock between 1831 and 1834. It was a rectangular basin, orientated east/west, with its short side to the river providing five acres of enclosed water space. Waterloo Dock was chosen as the site of a number of significant buildings for the period, indicating that it was already assumed that this area of the docks would play a key role in international trade. A Northern Custom House, much smaller than the one at Canning Place, was established on the south side of the dock, along with the new fish market. In addition, the second observatory to be constructed in Liverpool was built there in 1844. This structure superseded the smaller observatory on St James Mount and played a central role in helping to fix the longitude of Liverpool in relation to that of Greenwich in London. The observatory was relocated to Bidston Hill in the 1860s, as the requirement for grain storage prompted a redesign of the Waterloo Dock. The dock was used for general cargo.

3.2.17

By 1836, Hartley had built Victoria (NMR no SJ 39 SW1063) and Trafalgar Docks (NMR no SJ 39 SW1062) in the remaining space between Clarence and Waterloo Docks. Victoria Dock, Trafalgar Dock and Waterloo Dock formed a uniform multi-functional triumvirate of dock and quay space. Each dock covered 5 acres of enclosed water. Access from the river could be gained initially through the Victoria Dock lock gate entrance; however the Victoria Dock river access was closed

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after only ten years meaning that access could only be gained through the dock network, either to the north or south. This alteration made the Victoria, Trafalgar and Waterloo system ‘the first real examples of spine and branch dock’. These docks were aligned east/west, parallel with Waterloo Dock and with their short ends to the river. Transit sheds surrounded each of the docks on each side (OS 1851). Hartley reduced both construction and operating costs by using interconnecting docks, limiting the number of river entrances. 3.2.18

Trafalgar Dock joined Clarence Dock to the north and Victoria Dock to the south. Victoria was connected to Waterloo, which had access to the river via a lock leading to Princes Dock tidal basin. This enclosed system of interconnecting docks also had the advantage of allowing ships to move around the dock system without having to wait for appropriate tides. All were built out into the river, with reclaimed land forming the islands for the outer dock walls. Recent archaeological excavations demonstrated that the majority of reclaimed land around the Trafalgar and Victoria Dock comprised quarry waste and beach sand mixed with cultural material; presumably waste brought from the city for the purpose of helping to increase the bulk of the reclamation material. Parts of the Victoria Dock and the early original Trafalgar Dock walls were recently partially demolished in order to accommodate a section of the new Liverpool Canal Link. A 15m section of each wall was demolished. However, the rest of the original dock walls survive buried beneath a series of nineteenth and twentieth century backfills.

3.2.19

With the construction of new docks, the dock boundary wall was extended to control access. Hartley’s boundary wall of the 1830s continued in the style of Foster’s dock wall of 1821, being in red brick with sandstone copings. Hartley’s gateways were all in the classical style, with square section piers in buff sandstone, with pitted rusticated bases, ashlar shafts and gabled caps with acroteria. Although the slots for the original gates survive in all the gateways, the gates themselves have been replaced by modern fencing. By Clarence Dock is a cast-iron drinking fountain, one of 33 inserted into the dock wall in 1859, in an effort to provide drinking water and keep dock workers out of the pubs. Originally the only source of drinking water on Waterloo Road was two horse troughs filled with fresh water that were located around the Princes Dock. Charles Pierre Melly was the driving force behind the installation of the drinking fountains; he undertook a study of the value of such fountains after bringing the idea back from Europe where public fountains were common place and much used. His work was published as a Treatise on Public Drinking Fountain in 1858.

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Dock Extensions in 1848 3.2.20

Following the Dock Act of 1844, work began on a total of eight new docks for Liverpool, illustrating the demand for port facilities in the town and the confidence in its continuing growth. South of the central docks, Albert Dock was built, and to the north Wellington and Sandon Dock were built and opened by 1848. Between, in the central docks area, five docks were planned and built by Jesse Hartley as part of a single construction programme. These were Salisbury, Collingwood, Stanley, Nelson and Bramley Moore Docks, and they were completed and opened in 1848, on land already reclaimed by the early 1840s, and where a fort known as the North Battery had been built (Bennison map 1841).

3.2.21

As with the 1830s docks, they formed an enclosed, interconnecting system, with Salisbury Dock the link to the river with a double half tide entrance separated by an island. Bramley Moore Dock linked to Nelson Dock, which was linked to Salisbury Dock from the north. From the east, Stanley Dock led to Collingwood Dock, which linked to Salisbury Dock. The passages linking the docks were crossed by means of double leaf, iron swing bridges. Separate barge passages were provided for canal boats using the Leeds and Liverpool Canal to pass between the Stanley Dock, Collingwood Dock, Salisbury Dock and the river. Only Stanley Dock was excavated from existing dry land, with the others built out into the river as the other central docks had been. The river wall which enclosed the docks was considered at the time to be a major feat. It was built in the same manner as the dock walls, using the ‘cyclopean’ granite technique.

OS 1851 Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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3.2.22

Salisbury Dock, named after the 2nd Marquis of Salisbury, a major landowner in Liverpool, was small, covering only 3 acres, as its prime function was to provide access to the other docks in the system. It did, however, take small coastal vessels, and sheds were built on the south side of the dock in 1849. Salisbury Dock does demonstrate that this period of dock construction is considered to be the culmination of Hartley’s dock design. At the entrance to Salisbury Dock, Victoria Tower was built on the central island between the two dock gates. This is a clock- and bell-tower, which was not only a landmark building at the entrance to the northern complex of docks, but provided the time to ships and neighbouring docks, and rang out the high tide and other warnings. The building contained a Pier Master’s flat, whilst nearby stands the Dock Master’s office, a two-storey granite building with battlements.

3.2.23

Like Salisbury Dock, Collingwood Dock was small, and served coasters and other small vessels. It was also the home to Liverpool Corporation’s refuse boats. It had open goods sheds built on its north and south sides in 1849. The dock was named after Baron Cuthbert Collingwood, Nelson’s right-hand man. At the east end of Collingwood Dock is the passage through to Stanley Dock, crossed initially by a swing bridge and, later, a lifting bridge that carried Regent Road. The Bascule Bridge, which has recently been restored, dates from 1932 and was constructed by Dorman Long.

3.2.24

Stanley Dock was named after the Lord Stanley, the 13th Earl of Derby, who was a major landowner in the area, and who had sold the land on which the dock was built to the Liverpool Dock Trust. The dock provided a link to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal though a canal spur with a series of four locks, enabling goods to be transferred directly from canal to ships. These goods were mainly low-cost or bulky items, such as coal for export and cotton and wool imports for the Lancashire and Yorkshire mills. The dock also connected with both the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway and the Docks Railway, allowing more expensive goods to be transhipped directly to the towns of northern England, or to other docks for links to railways to the rest of the country.

3.2.25

On the north and south sides of the Stanley Dock, two warehouses of similar design to those at the Albert Dock were built in 1852-56 for bonded storage of high value goods. They were the first dock warehouses designed for rail and hydraulic power; the hydraulic power centre on the north side of the dock providing the power for hoists, capstans and tobacco presses. By the end of the nineteenth century, the warehouses were no longer in great demand, and half the dock was infilled to construct the vast Tobacco Warehouse in 1900-01. This purpose-designed structure, 14

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storeys high, with a floor area of 1.3 million square feet could accommodate 70,000 hogsheads of tobacco and is said to be the largest brick-built warehouse in the world. It was consistently the most profitable of the Board’s warehouses. 3.2.26

From this period, Hartley’s south warehouse was used in conjunction with the Tobacco Warehouse for storage of tobacco, and the north warehouse was used for rum. In the south-east corner of the dock is the King’s Pipe, the chimney to the furnace, built c.1900, used to burn tobacco scraps. Part of the north warehouse was destroyed in the blitz and was replaced with a single storey structure. The Tobacco Warehouse remained in use until 1980, but since then the whole complex has been vacant, apart from the use of the ground floor as a Sunday market. Despite lying derelict, the warehouses surrounding the Stanley Dock still retain a large number of original fixings and machinery including the lift mechanisms.

3.2.27

Nelson Dock, which lay to the north of Salisbury and Collingwood Docks, was named after Admiral Nelson. It served a variety of ships, including the largest steamships of the time, and its principal trade was with the livestock markets of Scotland and Ireland. It had transit sheds on all sides by 1850, including a secure brick-built shed on the west. The last regular trade was in bulk rum, which was piped to the North Stanley Dock Warehouse.

3.2.28

Bramley-Moore Dock is the largest of the five docks, at a little under 10 acres, and was named after the chairman of the Dock Committee and mayor of Liverpool. Like Nelson Dock, it too was built to take the largest steamships, and its gates were thus built wider than those of Clarence Docks. The rapidly increasing size of ships, however, meant that it was soon found to be inadequate, and the dock specialised in coal export. It did not have any sheds until 1856, when a high level coal railway was built by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, which allowed wagons of coal to be taken by wagons directly to ships and dumped into the holds.

3.2.29

The dock boundary wall, which Hartley built to enclose this set of new docks differed from the earlier walls. Instead of using brick, Hartley employed the same ‘cyclopean’ granite style of building used in the dock walls, with finely jointed stones brought to a fair face, with rounded coping stones. This is now recognised as his signature style and was later copied by successive Dock Engineers, including Lyster. Set into the walls at intervals are granite plaques bearing the name of each dock and the date of construction, 1848. Within the wall at Nelson Dock is one of the surviving cast-iron drinking fountains. The gateways through the wall were also different in character from those in the earlier dock wall. The 1848 gateways are all similar in design, with

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double entrances with round tapering towers as gate piers. The central round towers are larger with slit windows as they also functioned as offices for the dock policemen. At the entrance to Salisbury and Collingwood Docks, the central turret also has a granite letter box. Gates slid out on rollers, operated by counterweights, from slits in the side gate piers, closing into slitted recesses in the central towers. Although no longer functional, the gates to all the entrances are extant.

Later nineteenth Century Dock Alterations 3.2.30

Princes Half Tide Dock: Princes Basin was modernised and rebuilt around 1868 by GF Lyster, the successor to Hartley. The original basin was inefficient and could only handle the smallest vessels. Lyster created a half tide dock, sub-rectangular in shape with dock retaining walls built in the ‘cyclopean’ granite style of Hartley, that is of granite rubble brought to a fair face laid in blocks of differing sizes with fine mortar joints. Additional emphasis was placed on the Hartley style by incorporating it into the surface of the quayside in place of the traditional rectangular granite setts. The reworking of the dock also retained the Hartley- style Dock furniture.

OS 1894 3.2.31

The half tide dock operated through a triple entrance to the river, with two passages for half tide use, and a barge lock which could be used at almost any state of the tide. The new dock was

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attractive to small vessels, particularly coastal traffic. The goods brought in were transferred to a specially built railway shed on the east quay, built in 1875. The success of Princes Half Tide Dock is reflected in the development of transit sheds around it. The 1875 shed was extended by 129 feet in 1877, at the same time as a new wooden shed was built on the south-east quay. 3.2.32

In 1873 Lyster infilled the Georges Dock Basin that previously gave access to the southern end of the Princes Dock. This allowed construction of a long floating roadway that led down to the Liverpool Landing Stage, a wood and iron pontoon that served the ferries and cross river traffic. Eventually, the landing stage was extended to 2,500 feet, running from the Pier Head northwards the full length of the Princes Dock, becoming the principal point of embarkation for transatlantic passenger liners. To cater for travellers, the landing stage was equipped with waiting rooms, customs points and baggage handling facilities. In 1895 Riverside Station was opened on the west side of Princes Dock, bringing main line passengers right down to the river’s edge, with covered bridges leading directly to the floating landing stage at two levels. The rail link to Riverside Station came in from the Waterloo Dock Goods Yard, only a short distance away.

3.2.33

At the north end of the Liverpool Landing Stage, Princes Jetty was built in 1899-1900. Designed by AG Lyster, in association with Gustave Mouchel, it was the first reinforced concrete structure in the docks and is one of the earliest examples of the use of the Hennebique system in Britain. Princes Jetty incorporates two substantial components, which appear to be constructed of timber with a concrete deck, and following the removal of the original iron and timber structure in 1975, it is the only surviving element of the Liverpool Landing Stage. It incorporates the former firedamaged remains of a timber shelter and a moveable bridge.

3.2.34

Waterloo Dock: the development of Princes Half Tide Dock was partly tied in to redevelopment of the neighbouring Waterloo Dock, also carried out by GF Lyster in 1868. The impetus for the rebuilding of Waterloo Dock was the repeal of the Corn Laws, when the MDHB saw the opportunity for importing grain from North America, using Waterloo Dock as a specialist bulk grain dock, the first in the world. The new dock comprised two basins orientated east/west, with sandstone block walls constructed across the site of the former single north/south aligned basin.

3.2.35

East Waterloo Dock was the specialist grain dock, with massive brick warehouses with open colonnades on the ground floor. Originally there were three warehouses, matching long warehouses on the west and east quays and a shorter one on the north quay. The warehouses stood on a granite base with a limestone floor. There were five working floors plus a basement

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and a mezzanine level on the top floor. The surviving warehouse is 43 bays long and 5 bays wide. The basement and mezzanine levels held machinery and conveyor belts, which were operated in all the warehouses by one hydraulically driven system, in a separate engine house. The hydraulic system also operated three moveable bridges, ten ship capstans and 24 gate engines. 3.2.36

West Waterloo Dock provided berths for medium-sized, ocean-going vessels, and provided a passage between Victoria Dock and Princes Half Tide Dock. It had two long sheds on the east and west quays, plus a smaller south shed on the south quay to the west of the passage to Princes Half Tide Dock. On the west quay, between Waterloo and Princes Half Tide Dock, was the Dock Master’s Office with clock tower (OS first edition 1893).

The Docks in the twentieth Century 3.2.37

Trafalgar Docks Development: the central docks soon became inadequate, as the size of ships increased requiring greater harbour depths, and the need for rapid turnarounds and accurate timetables made the half tide dock system inefficient. Trafalgar Dock, for example, had been designed for deep-sea sailing ships, but by 1900 could only take coastal and canal traffic. New docks were built further downstream, where the channel was deeper and the foreshore wider. In 1929, a programme of modernisation was carried out in the central docks, leading to the filling in of Clarence Dock, Clarence Half Tide Dock and Victoria Dock and the reconstruction of Trafalgar Dock (NMR nos SJ 39 SW1054; SJ 39 SW1062; SJ 39 SW1063). The filled in areas of these docks remain largely undeveloped and are now used for business and light industry, although a power station, now demolished, was built on Clarence Dock (NMR no SJ 39 SW1054). The new Trafalgar Dock was a long, narrow basin aligned north/south and parallel to the river wall. At the north end, it incorporated Clarence Gridiron Dock Basin which provided access to Clarence Graving Docks. The south end of the dock had a passage through to West Waterloo Dock. Most of the new Trafalgar Dock has now been filled in, although the walls are still visible and are clearly demarcated by a series of modern extant mooring bollards.

3.2.38

Princes Docks and Waterloo Dock Developments: the grain warehouses on East Waterloo Dock continued to operate into the twentieth century, even though they became inefficient as they failed to keep pace with changing technology. In 1904 part of the warehouses were converted to a mill, and in 1925 they were re-equipped for handling oil seeds. The north warehouse was demolished following bomb damage in 1941, and the west block was demolished in 1969 (NMR no SJ 39 SW1064). Today, only the east warehouse stands, now converted to apartments. Despite the conversion of the warehouses to residences, the dockside has retained

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much of its character including the original facing, coping stones and quayside surface. Much of the dock furniture is also still extant including mooring rings and bollards. 3.2.39

West Waterloo Dock and Princes Half Tide Dock were altered in 1949. The length of West Waterloo Dock may have been increased at this time, as the surviving north wall of the dock is constructed from finely mortared sandstone blocks, suggesting that it was the original wall to Victoria Dock, part of which may have been incorporated into West Waterloo Dock. The entrance to Princes Half Tide Dock was closed, though retaining the original lock gates in front of the blocking, and a new entrance lock was built into West Waterloo Dock. This provided direct access through the lock system to Trafalgar Dock. In 1969, there were further alterations with the development of a container port at West Waterloo Dock, resulting in the demolition of the west warehouse of East Waterloo Dock. The container terminal was for Irish and coastal container traffic. West Waterloo Dock was lengthened, and the new dock wall was constructed using the recently introduced ‘diaphragm’ wall. This consisted of a row of huge, vertical, semi-cylindrical sections, with a fin extending from the rear of each section. The modern extension to West Waterloo Dock has been mostly filled in at the northern end, as has the 1949 river lock entrance. Despite being infilled the river lock entrance is still partially visible, a long linear passage with four extant metal lock gates.

Aerial photo 1949 Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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3.2.40

The Princes Dock remained largely unchanged until 1905, by which time its shallow depth, combined with the cambered profile of the dock walls, made it unsuitable for the deeper, more square-sided steamers that were liable to suffer damage when mooring alongside the wall. A new quayside structure was therefore built within the dock, complete with sheds and a concrete deck, occupying the whole of the west side of the original water area. This proved a success, and when funds later became available from the proceeds of the sale of the Clarence Dock to Liverpool City Council for the construction of a power station, a similar structure was inserted along the east side of the dock. This established, belatedly, a specialised facility for coastal trade, with an emphasis on Irish traffic. A “roll on/roll off” terminal was installed in 1967 at the southern end of the dock, for the Irish Packet, but continuing declines in passenger numbers and the construction of the new terminal at Victoria Dock made it redundant in 1981. Despite an illustrious and varied history the dock fell into decline until the 1990s when a new phase of regeneration saw the dock placed at the heart of the newly founded waterfront business district.

Princes Dock with QE2

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Regeneration 3.2.41

After its closure in 1981, and being close to the central business district, Princes Dock was regarded as a potential area for new office development, and in 1988 its ownership passed to the Merseyside Development Corporation. In 1992, in accordance with a masterplan prepared by Tibbalds Monro, development commenced. The transit sheds and other buildings were cleared, the east quay was widened to create larger development sites, and the dock walls were rebuilt. The first phases included the Crown Plaza Hotel, and a section of Princes Parade extending northwards on the western side.

3.2.42

A revised masterplan was prepared in 1998 by Taylor Young for the Princes Dock Development Company. This provided the framework for the remainder of the site, including access to Waterloo Road/Bath Street, the partial infilling of Princes Dock and the identification of additional parcels of land for development.

3.2.43

With changes in the property market, and differing aspirations since the 1998 masterplan, further revisions were approved in April 2002. The new plan introduced a greater mix of uses, higher densities, and indicative heights for each development plot. Some new plots were allocated for development. Whilst the emphasis of this masterplan was to deliver commercial development, in recognition of changing market demands, and the failure to attract the desired volume of commercial activity, it was agreed with the Princes Dock Development Company that the original aspiration could be relaxed to allow for a greater proportion of new residential development around the dock. This has mostly been in the form of individual tall buildings.

3.2.44

At the south end of the dock, the blocked passage to the former Georges Basin and the original coursed sandstone quay wall survive. Along the riverside, where a set of derelict steps remain, it is possible to see sections of the original river wall. In 2007 work commenced on the Liverpool Canal Link.

Associated Development 3.2.45

Railways: With dock development came the development of a railway system to transport goods to and from and between docks. In 1849, the Waterloo Dock Branch Railway opened, with a massive goods station to the east of Victoria and Waterloo Docks. Further north, Stanley Dock had links to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, and in 1855 the Sandhill and North Docks Branch Railway goods line opened, with a goods station just to the north of Stanley Dock. The

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Waterloo Goods Station, in particular, increased in size, doubling in area by the end of the nineteenth century (OS 1894). 3.2.46

Within the docks, most goods were carried around by horse and cart, and it was not until the end of the nineteenth century that an internal railway system was built, the tracks for which can still be seen in many areas of the docks. The railway lines and associated granite setts surrounding them survive remarkably well within the central dock complex and the complexity of the lines indicate the busy and substantial nature of this internal railway. At the north end of the docks, a high level railway line was constructed at Bramley-Moore Dock to bring in coal for loading directly onto ships. This served the east and north quays of the dock, and linked to the Sandhills and North Docks Branch Line (OS 1893).

3.2.47

The most famous railway line associated with the docks was the Liverpool Overhead Railway, officially opened in 1893. It was mainly a commuter line, and was affectionately known as the Dockers’ Umbrella. To reduce the risk of fire to the surrounding sheds, warehouses, goods yards and ships, it was run as an electric railway at the outset. It was the world’s first elevated electric railway. The line ran along the inside of the dock walls, supported by cast iron stanchions which still survive, along with one of the signal posts at Princes Dock. Within the central docks area there were stations at Princes Dock, Clarence Dock and Nelson Dock. All the stations were reached by a stairway from street level with ticket facilities on the platforms (NMR nos SJ 39 SW702; SJ 39 SW703; SJ 39 SW742). The line was closed in 1956, because of severe corrosion, and it was demolished in 1957. There are only a limited number of extant features which indicate the location of the Overhead Railway, most of which are evident along the top of the dock boundary wall. These include cast iron girders, vertical supports built into the wall and adjacent to the Wellington Dock, and a substantial stone buttress built in cyclopean granite style. The most substantial remains are associated with the bascule bridge at Stanley Dock complex.

3.2.48

Leeds and Liverpool Canal: The Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which opened from Liverpool to Wigan in 1774, provided Liverpool with access to manufacturing districts of Lancashire, Yorkshire and Staffordshire. The original terminus was at Old Hall Street, and by 1803, when Horwood’s map was published, an additional linked basin had been installed running parallel to the western side of Ladies Walk. This basin provided access to the canal system in association with activity related to the adjacent coal yards. In 1846 Jesse Hartley created a branch with four locks down to the Stanley Dock and thence into the dock system and the River Mersey via the Salisbury Dock passage. This removed the need for transhipment of goods between the canal and the docks by

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horse drawn vehicles. The canal was used to transport a wide range of goods to and from the port, including coal cotton, wool, stone, grain, pottery and general goods. The fine set of locks is constructed in granite. 3.2.49

Recent construction work carried out under the auspices of British Waterways between 2007 2009 has provided a new final section of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, ensuring that over 230 years since it was first constructed, it is now possible to bring a boat down the lock flight and through the central docks all the way to the Albert Dock. The work for the new canal required the re-opening of several previously closed dock passages including the passage between Princes Dock and Princes Dock Half Tide Basin. The culvert for the new section of canal lies within the modern infill of the Princes Half Tide Basin passage and so did not alter the original buried fabric of the dock entrance.

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3.3

CONDITION SURVEYS

3.3.1

Two separate condition surveys of heritage assets have been carried out to inform the regeneration strategy for Liverpool Waters and the Conservation Management Programme. •

A Condition Report and Planned Maintenance/Repair Schedule for the Dock Boundary Wall was prepared by Bingham Davis Consulting Engineers in April 2008.

A ‘Type 2’ condition survey of all the other existing designated structures and some undesignated structures was carried out by Bingham Davis Consulting Engineers in May/June 2009.

The survey reports (which are included as part of the Liverpool Waters planning application) are summarised below. 3.3.2

Dock Boundary Wall: the study was based on a visual structural survey from the Princes Dock to the Wellington Dock. It identifies the general structural condition of the wall and the repair and maintenance works required over the medium term. The inspection was divided into specific lengths of the wall, identified by linear chainages for a length of 2 kilometres. Structural defects were identified and cross referenced to each specific length of wall, with photographs and recommendations presented in tabular format.

3.3.3

Other designated and undesignated structures: the study includes photographs of all the structures, together with video footage of the river wall and dock retaining walls, collected from a small boat, and referenced to linear chainage points to allow easy identification of specific areas. This allows individual defects or areas of specific interest to be easily located on site in future. The study was carried out in six key stages: •

Topographical survey and survey control, related to Ordnance Survey grid and level, and includes a strip of approximately 1.5 wide around the full dock perimeter to pick up all the minor artefacts and items of dock furniture around the quaysides. The details are provided in plan, on a drawing at a scale of 1:500, identifying the main features for use as additional reference points for the video/photographs. The survey was undertaken, using a combination of GPS and ‘Total Station’ techniques.

Establishing linear chainages to reference the video footage to specific locations on the site.

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The dock wall video was shot approximately 4m away from the dock wall following a clockwise linear path around the dock perimeter at a slow speed to enable defects to be seen clearly on playback. The position of the camera remained perpendicular to the dock wall in order to prevent any perspective footage. The survey included 4.4km of linear dock wall.

River Mersey wall video was made at both high and low tide (approximately 10m difference) to reveal the full height of the wall. The survey included 0.5km of river wall.

Bridges and bridge abutments were assessed both from land and boat, with digital photos taken of main defects.

Building surveys of the building structures were made from ground level and internally, where safe access prevailed; comprising a visual assessment of the exposed and reasonably accessible structural elements and photographic survey.

3.3.4

Summary of Condition: •

The Dock Boundary Wall varies in height and construction, and includes integral gateways and gate piers, steel stanchions related to the overhead railway, drinking fountains, police huts and other structures. Weathering of the masonry and mortar jointing varies along the length of the wall to both riverside and roadside elevations. Although there were found to be various incidences of local cracking, missing bricks, corroded steelwork and other miscellaneous defects, the general structural condition of the wall was considered to be good.

The Dock Walls were found to be in generally good condition. Incidence of similar defects were found, typically mortar loss to the bed joint below the granite coping stones, areas of vegetation growth to the face of the wall, and some loss of stonework facing; a combination of mortar loss and vegetation growth was found in many locations. The coping to the north abutment at the entrance to Collingwood Dock was found to be severely displaced and required remedial works. Despite these various defects, the dock walls all appeared to be structurally stable and in reasonably sound condition.

The River Wall has had numerous repairs, most notably to the high level, where precast concrete elements have been introduced. Although the overall structural stability of the wall appeared to be satisfactory, there are incidences of weathering and tidal erosion, cracks through masonry joints, and missing elements requiring essential maintenance and repair were noted so as to prevent further deterioration. No evidence of significant vertical displacement was established that would indicate an active foundation problem.

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The Building Structures inspected vary greatly in form of construction and structural condition. The Dock Master’s Office and Victoria Clock Tower are both substantially robust structures, faced in granite laid in the ‘Cylcopean’ style of random bonding found in many of the dock structures. The floors to both these buildings are brick arch construction, though the cast iron elements which are integrated within each of the floors were showing signs of corrosion, which, in some cases, such as the roof level of the Clock Tower were fairly severe. Notwithstanding, these and other identified defects, such as local weathering/cracking and vegetation ingress to the external elevations, and general decay /deterioration internally, these two structures were considered to be in reasonably good condition. The other buildings surveyed – the Hydraulic Engine House at the Bramley-Moore Dock and the structures around the Clarence Graving Docks were found to be in various states of disrepair. The condition of the brickwork to the Hydraulic Engine House in particular was found to have localised weathering of both the brick face and mortar joints and vegetation growth. Various incidences of distress and some structural movement, evidenced by numerous cracks, particularly to the north face of the accumulator tower, where there is a vertical crack of nearly 10m in height, were considered to need further investigation. This building was considered to be in a poor structural condition, and in addition to general repair and maintenance, required significant remediation.

The Bridges and Bridge Abutments at the dock entrances and passageways have all been modified to some degree. The passage between the Bramley-Moore and Nelson Docks has been filled with an isolation structure to control the water level within the canal link. The approaches to this structure have been built over the old swing bridge recess, leaving only a small portion of the original deck apron area. The Nelson/ Salisbury Dock passage has been fitted with a new cantilever swing bridge, and various minor modifications have been carried out to the south abutment to accommodate this. The overall structural condition, however, appears to be good. At the passage between the Princes Half Tide Dock and the West Waterloo Dock, the eastern recess is well-preserved, though there is some filling in concrete and localised damage is evident to the face of two copings. The western side is partly infilled, but appears to be in sound condition. At the passage between the Princes Half Tide Dock and the East Waterloo Dock, each abutment retains its dock gate, though one recess has been partly faced with a concrete retaining wall, which appears to be in good condition.

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3.4

GAZETTEER OF HERITAGE ASSETS WITHIN THE SITE AND THEIR CONDITION

HYDRAULIC ENGINE HOUSE, BRAMLEY-MOORE DOCK

Hydraulic Tower from east

View from west showing remains of overhead coal railway

History and Description 3.3.4

The Hydraulic Engine House stands to the north east of the Bramley-Moore Dock in the far corner of the site. It consists of a brick engine house and accumulator tower with a truncated octagonal chimney and slate roofs. Attached at the rear are remains of the overhead coal railway that led to the Bramley-Moore Dock. The building contains little if any machinery or equipment.

3.3.5

The building is not part of Hartley’s development of the group of five northern docks, but was added in 1884 by George Lyster to provide a source of hydraulic power for the operation of the lock gates, capstans and swing bridges for those docks.

3.3.6

Hydraulic power relies on a head of water, and is produced by the action of a hydraulic ram, consisting of a hollow cylinder, closed at one end and in the other a sliding piston which is forced to move when water under pressure is admitted into the cylinder. The movement of the cylinder is transferred to a chain and the piston’s travel is multiplied by the number of pulleys around which the chain passes. The accumulator, into which water was pumped by a steam engine, was developed by W G Armstrong in 1850. It provided a constant supply of high pressure water, and

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effectively stored power against demand, ironing out cyclical variations in pressure from pumps. Armstrong’s accumulators and associated machinery were used throughout the Liverpool Docks. 3.3.7

Initially hydraulic power was used for specific pieces of equipment, such as cranes, but from the late 1850s, the concept of central hydraulic power generating stations was introduced. The first in Liverpool was introduced by Hartley at the Stanley Dock in 1854, followed by Wapping Dock in 1856, Birkenhead Docks 1861, Herculaneum Dock in 1864, Albert Dock in 1878 and Bramley-Moore Dock in 1884. The technology was no longer pioneering when the building was erected, and by the 1930s, electric power had replaced hydraulic power throughout the docks. The form of the building is not remarkable in the way that those at the Stanley Dock or Birkenhead Docks are, and was not specifically intended to make an architectural statement. Condition

3.3.8

The external brickwork is of moderate/poor condition, with localised weathering to varying degrees of both the brick face and the mortar joints. The tower has a vertical crack extending from a height of 1.8m to 10 m, ranging from 5mm to 20mm in width. There is extensive vegetation growth to roofs and parapets. The tower is bricked up, so that internal inspection is not possible, but the roofs are in disrepair, allowing water ingress into the building. The single storey portion which supported the coal railway has a roof supported on compound steel beams, and is in reasonable condition internally.

3.3.9

The building requires major conservation and repair to walls, roof, rainwater goods, floors, windows and doors. Whilst it has been secured against unauthorised entry, it has not yet been the subject of emergency repairs.

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BRAMLEY-MOORE DOCK AND DOCK RETAINING WALLS, INCLUDING PASSAGE TO NELSON DOCK

Bramley-Moore Dock looking north east

Passage to Nelson Dock and isolation structure

History and Description 3.3.10 The Bramley-Moore Dock is the most northerly dock within the Liverpool Waters site, and also the largest. It is one of the group of five docks that were planned and built by Jesse Hartley in 1844-48 as part of a single construction programme. The five docks formed an enclosed, interconnecting system, with the Salisbury Dock providing a link to the river. Along with Nelson Dock, the BramleyMoore Dock was built with the intention of taking the largest steam ships, and its gates were thus built wider than those of the Clarence Dock, the rapidly increasing size of ships meant that it was soon found to be inadequate, and the dock specialised in coal export. In the later 19th century a high level coal railway was built by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, which allowed wagons of coal to be taken directly to ships and dumped into the holds. 3.3.11 The retaining walls of fair faced granite rubble, constructed of large and small blocks, are listed Grade II and include entrances to Sandon Half-Tide and Nelson Docks. The recesses for a swing bridge survive at the entrance to the Nelson Dock, where a concrete isolation structure has been installed by British Waterways to control the water level in the canal link between the Albert Dock and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. Around the quaysides a number of historic features such as mooring posts, capstans and bollards survive. An area of stone setts totalling 3000 sq m survives between the riverfront and the dock. A smaller area of setts in two different sizes totalling 700 sq m survives just inside the gateway south of Bramley-Moore Dock together with some short sections of rail track.

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Condition 3.3.12 The dock is still in use for storage of sand and gravel, with access for vessels via the Sandon Dock to the north. A recently constructed reinforced concrete isolation structure prevents access to the Nelson Dock. The condition survey shows that the dock walls are generally in sound condition, though with some loss of mortar, particularly below copings, vegetal growth, and minor cracks. The eastside abutment walls of the passage to the Nelson Dock have some damage to copings. The timber dock gates to the passage to Nelson Dock, and also to the Sandon Half-Tide Dock survive in decayed condition. No urgent repairs to the dock retaining walls were identified.

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NELSON DOCK AND DOCK RETAINING WALLS, INCLUDING PASSAGE TO SALISBURY DOCK

Nelson Dock from north west

Passage to Salisbury Dock and gate

History and Description 3.3.13 The Nelson Dock is one of the group of five docks that were planned and built by Jesse Hartley in 1844-48 as part of a single construction programme. The five docks formed an enclosed, interconnecting system, with the Salisbury Dock providing a link to the river. The Nelson Dock served a variety of ships, including the largest steam ships of the time and its principal trade was with the livestock markets of Scotland and Ireland. It had transit sheds on all sides by 1850, though none now survive. The last regular trade was in bulk rum, which was piped to the north Stanley Dock warehouse. 3.3.14 The retaining walls of fair faced granite rubble, constructed of large and small blocks, are listed Grade II and include entrances to Bramley-Moore and Salisbury Docks. The recesses for a swing bridge survive at the entrance to the Bramley-Moore Dock, where a concrete isolation structure has been installed by British Waterways to control the water level in the canal link between the Albert Dock and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. The original swing bridge at the entrance to the Salisbury Dock has been replaced with a modern cantilever swing bridge that rotates from the east abutment. Around the quaysides a number of historic features such as mooring posts, capstans and bollards survive. A patchy area of stone setts totalling 3000 sq m survives between the riverfront and the dock, extending eastwards to the entrance to the Salisbury Dock. Condition 3.3.15 The condition survey shows that the Nelson Dock walls are generally in sound condition, though with some loss of mortar, particularly below copings, vegetal growth, and minor cracks. The north Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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corner of the east abutment to the passage to the Salisbury Dock has suffered some damage. The timber dock gates survive in decayed condition. No urgent repairs were identified.

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DOCK BOUNDARY WALL AND ENTRANCES FROM OPPOSITE SANDHILLS LANE TO COLLINGWOOD DOCK, INCLUDING DRINKING FOUNTAIN AND POLICE HUTS

Dock wall looking south

Drinking fountain from Regent Road

History and Description 3.3.16

The dock wall which Hartley built to enclose the set of five northern docks differed from the earlier walls. Instead of using brick, Hartley employed the same ‘Cyclopean’ granite style of construction used in the dock walls, with finely jointed stones brought to a fair face, and with rounded copings. Set into the wall at intervals are granite plaques bearing the name of each dock and the date of construction, 1848. The gateways through the wall were also different in character to the earlier ones. The 1848 gateways are all similar in design, with double entrances with round tapering towers as gate piers. The central round towers are larger with slit windows as they also functioned as offices for the dock policemen. At the entrance to the Salisbury and Collingwood Docks, the central turret also has a granite letter box. Gates slid out on rollers, operated by counterweights, from slits in the side gate piers, closing into slitted recesses in the central towers. Although no longer functional, one set of gates is still extant. The wall also incorporates cast iron stanchions remaining from the Liverpool overhead railway, designed by James Greathead and Sir Douglas Fox for the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board in 1888, and a cast iron drinking fountain, one of a series of 33 that were installed in 1859 in an attempt to keep the dock workers out of the pubs.

3.3.17 This section of the boundary wall is 5.5 metres tall. It is listed Grade II together with the three original gateways that led into the Bramley-Moore, Nelson and Collingwood Docks. There are two further existing entrances, one modern gateway opening to Nelson Dock and one late 19th century entrance to Collingwood Dock formed for rail access, neither of which are in current use. A police Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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shelter built against the west face of the wall just north of the passage between the Collingwood and Stanley Docks dates from c.1900. 3.3.18 The dock boundary wall, which was built to provide security to the dock estate, is one of the defining features of the Liverpool docks. Until the programme of dock closure in the second half of the 20th century, and the subsequent redevelopment of the dock estate, the wall stretched for five miles north and south of the city centre. With the wholesale removal of the wall in the historic south docks, the townscape impact of this fortress-like feature can only now be appreciated in the central and north docks. Condition 3.3.19 The condition survey of the wall shows that this section of the dock boundary wall is generally in sound structural condition. Specific areas of cracking were observed at certain entrances and varying degrees of weathering to mortar. The coping stones were found to be generally in good condition. The chimney to the police hut to the north of the Stanley Dock passage is leaning, with weathered brickwork and mortar loss, and roof decay. Some remains of wooden gates survive and are in need of repair, and door and window replacements are required to the granite gatehouses. No urgent repairs to the wall itself were identified.

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COLLINGWOOD DOCK AND DOCK RETAINING WALLS, INCLUDING PASSAGE TO STANLEY DOCK

View over Collingwood Dock

Passage to Stanley Dock

History and Description 3.3.20 The Collingwood Dock is one of the group of five docks that were planned and built by Jesse Hartley in 1844-48 as part of a single construction programme. The five docks formed an enclosed, interconnecting system, with the Salisbury Dock providing a link to the river. The Collingwood Dock was small and served coasters and other small vessels. It was also the home of Liverpool Corporation’s refuse boats. Open goods sheds were built on its north and south sides in 1849. The dock is listed Grade II. 3.3.21 At the east end of Collingwood Dock is the passage through to Stanley Dock, crossed initially by a swing bridge and later a lifting bridge which carried Regent Road. There are also the foundations of former movable bridges, including a double-decker swing bridge which carried the overhead railway. 3.3.22 The retaining walls to the dock basin are of fair faced granite rubble, constructed of large and small blocks. There are entrances to the Stanley and Salisbury Docks. The Collingwood Dock Office, built in the early 20th century survives at the south east corner of the basin, and originally formed the end of a transit shed that has since been demolished. Around the quaysides a number of historic features such as mooring posts, capstans and bollards survive. A stretch of stone setts totalling 2200 sq m survives on the south quay together with a set of rail tracks. Further rail tracks are embedded in a concrete roadway running parallel with the dock wall along part of the eastern quayside. Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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Condition 3.3.23 The condition survey shows that the Collingwood Dock walls are generally in sound condition, though with some loss of mortar, particularly below copings, vegetal growth, and minor cracks. Medium term repairs are required to the stonework adjoining the recess that housed the swing bridge over the passage to the Stanley Dock, alongside the Bascule Bridge.

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FORMER COLLINGWOOD DOCK OFFICE

Front of Dock Office

Rear of Dock Office

History and Description 3.3.24 The Dock Office is situated at south east corner of Collingwood Dock. It is a two storey early 20th century building which formed the gable end of a brick transit shed that ran along the southern quayside of the dock. Condition 3.3.25 The building is in partial use for storage of materials and is fair condition. Some work is needed to the roof and rainwater goods to prevent potential water ingress. Windows are boarded on the ground floor for security.

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BASCULE BRIDGE

Bascule Bridge before and after restoration History and Description 3.3.26 The bridge carries Regent Road across the passage between the Collingwood and Salisbury Docks. It is a rolling type of lifting bridge constructed by Dorman Long to replace an original swing bridge in 1932. It is constructed of steel girders with an elevated timber-clad engine house and rolling ballast box. The Bascule Bridge dates from 1932 and was constructed by Dorman Long. It is one of five that were built in that year within the dock estate. The bridge is formed from two main steel trusses which support cross girders and a road deck. The rolling bascule consists of an arc section with a large steel ballast box which acts as the balance for lifting the bridge. A separate engine room is supported on a steel deck spanning the carriageway and was originally operated by hydraulic power. Condition 3.3.27 The bridge was fully restored in 2010 and received an award from the Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors. Whilst it no longer operates as a lifting bridge, the original hydraulic machinery and later electric turbines survive within the engine room in good condition, and it has been opened to the public during Heritage Open Days in 2010 and 2011.

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SALISBURY DOCK AND DOCK RETAINING WALLS, INCLUDING PASSAGES TO COLLINGWOOD DOCK AND TRAFALGAR DOCK

Salisbury Dock looking east to Collingwood and Stanley Docks

Dock gate at river entrance

Dock gate and walkway across passage

History and Description 3.3.28 The Salisbury Dock is one of the group of five docks that were planned and built by Jesse Hartley in 1844-48 as part of a single construction programme. The five docks formed an enclosed, interconnecting system, with the Salisbury Dock providing a link to the river. The Salisbury Dock was small, covering only three acres, since its prime function was to provide access to the other docks in the system. It did, however, take small coastal vessels and sheds were built on the south side of the dock in 1849. At the river entrance the Victoria Tower was built on the central island between the two dock gates. The entrance to the Mersey has been blocked. 3.3.29 The retaining walls to the dock basin are of fair faced granite rubble, constructed of large and small blocks. There are entrances to the Nelson and Salisbury Docks. Around the quaysides a

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number of historic features such as mooring posts, capstans and bollards survive. A stretch of stone setts totalling 2200 sq m survives on the south quay together with a set of rail tracks. Condition 3.3.30 The condition survey shows that the Salisbury Dock walls are generally in sound condition, though with considerable loss of mortar, particularly below copings, and some failure of mortar facings and a wide crack in one of the walls. This dock has suffered more concrete repairs than others in the group. Medium term repairs are required to some areas of stonework. Timber lock gates remain in decayed condition at the river entrance which has been filled with concrete walls.

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SEA WALL TO THE ISLANDS AT ENTRANCE OF SALISBURY DOCK, AND SOUTH OF THE ENTRANCE FOR A LENGTH OF APPROX. 117M

Sea Wall just south of river entrance to Salisbury Dock History and Description 3.3.31 The Sea Wall to the north island at the entrance to Salisbury Dock and south of the entrance for a length of approximately 117 m was constructed by Hartley as part of his scheme for the five northern docks. It consists of retaining walls of fair faced granite rubble with a raised lip to the coping. It was considered at the time it was built to be a major feat. Condition 3.3.32 The condition survey shows that the Sea Wall appears to have had numerous repairs carried out in the past, most notably at high level where pre-cast concrete elements have been introduced. Although the overall structural stability of the wall appears to be satisfactory, there are areas of weathering where tidal erosion has caused cracking and loss of mortar that will require essential repair and maintenance to prevent further deterioration.

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VICTORIA CLOCK TOWER

Victoria Clock Tower from south and east History and Description 3.3.33 The Victoria Tower was built by J Hartley in 1848. The tower is of fair-faced granite rubble with a round battered base and an hexagonal upper part. It was designed as a landmark at the entrance to the group of dock, providing the time to ships and rang out the high tide and other warnings. The building contained a Pier Master’s flat. Condition 3.3.34 The clock tower is in reasonable condition with no evidence of settlement or structural faults. The roof has recently been secured and made wind and waterproof. The clock mechanism has been inspected and deemed suitable for conservation. The bell has been removed, but most of the bell frame remains. It is intended to demolish the single storey extension which is in poor condition, subject to obtaining listed building consent.

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DOCK MASTER’S OFFICE

Dockmaster’s office from south

View showing remaining section of dock wall

History and Description 3.3.35 The Dock Master’s Office was built by Hartley on the sea wall south of Victoria Tower. It has battered walls of fair faced granite rubble, and a battlemented parapet. Attached is a section of the original brick boundary wall, with a lean-to police hut on the outer seaward face. Condition 3.3.36 The building is in sound structural condition, and has recently been secured and made wind and waterproof. Sea-born air has caused corrosion to the iron tie rods within the brick arched floor and roof structures. The section of surviving brick boundary wall is in poor condition with severe loss of mortar and weathered brickwork. The police hut attached to the wall is also in very poor condition. The lean to hut on the inner face of the wall is later and of no heritage significance.

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FORMER POLICE STATION NE OF CLARENCE GRAVING DOCKS

Police Station from south east and northeast before repairs were carried out History and Description 3.3.37 The small two storey building at the north east corner of the Clarence Graving Docks was a former police station with cells below. It appears to date from date from the construction of the group of northern docks in 1848, and may have been designed by Hartley. It is of brick with a hipped slate roof. A short section of the original security wall around the graving docks survives alongside the building. Condition 3.3.38 Whilst the building has suffered from neglect for a long period, it has recently received emergency repairs and is now secured and in a wind and waterproof condition.

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CLARENCE GRAVING DOCKS

Graving Dock looking east

View looking north west

History and Description 3.3.39 The Graving Docks were built by Hartley in 1830. They are dug partly from the sand stone bedrock. The fine masonry work of the graving dock has stepped sides and granite barrel runs. And the southern dock has two chambers. A pair of lock gates remains at the western end of each of the docks. 3.3.40 Around the edges of the docks are a number of small structures of historic interest. These comprise a former police station and cells, a late 19th century brick workshop, three Second World War century air raid shelters, two early 20th century brick office buildings and an open storage shelter. An area of stone setts totalling 5,200 m runs along the south edge of the southern dock together with rail tracks. Condition 3.3.41 The Graving Docks are in generally sound condition and were until recently still in use for vessel repairs. The lock gates are in need of repair and no longer contain the water, which means that the graving docks are inundated.

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STRUCTURES TO BE RETAINED AROUND CLARENCE GRAVING DOCKS

Office building, south of Graving Dock

Air raid shelter and open shelter, south of Dock

Dock Office before repairs

Open shelter

History and Description 3.3.42 The structures around the Graving Docks comprise a former dock workshop, two small brick office buildings, an open shelter for storage of materials, and three Second World War air raid shelters. The workshop dates from the late 19th century; the other buildings are 20th century. Condition 3.3.43 Whilst the buildings have suffered from neglect for a long period, they have recently received emergency repairs and are now secured in a wind and waterproof condition.

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DOCK BOUNDARY WALL AND ENTRANCES FROM COLLINGWOOD DOCK TO WATERLOO DOCK

Dock wall from Waterloo Road

Gate to Victoria and Trafalgar Docks

Police hut south of Clarence Graving Dock

Timber gate at Collingwood Dock

History and Description 3.3.44 The dock boundary wall was extended by Hartley to enclose the series of docks that he built in the 1830s to provide security and control over access. He followed the style of Foster’s dock wall of 1821, being in red brick with sandstone copings. By the Clarence Dock is a cast iron drinking fountain, one of 33 inserted into the dock wall in 1859 in an effort to keep dock workers out of the pubs. It also incorporates cast iron stanchions remaining from the Liverpool overhead railway. 3.3.45 This section of the boundary wall is 5.5 metres tall. It is listed Grade II together with the four original gateways that led into the Waterloo, Victoria, Clarence and Clarence Graving Docks. There are five additional modern gateways. Most are not in current use.

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3.3.46 The dock boundary wall, which was built to provide security to the dock estate, is one of the defining features of the Liverpool docks. Until the programme of dock closure in the second half of the 20th century, and the subsequent redevelopment of the dock estate, the wall stretched for five miles north and south of the city centre. With the wholesale removal of the wall in the historic south docks, the townscape impact of this fortress-like feature can only now be appreciated in the central and north docks. Condition 3.3.47 The condition survey shows that this section of the dock boundary wall is generally in sound condition with good vertical alignment. Varying degrees of weathering to mortar and brick faces were identified, and horizontal bed cracking was evident in places. Opening up of the beds revealed that the cause of the cracking was ferrous plates embedded in the joints, which had corroded. This is known as hoop iron bond, and was a technique used to strengthen the wall where settlement was considered likely. Some vertical cracks are also present. Coping stones are generally in good condition. Damage to the Trafalgar Dock gate piers has been caused by corrosion of iron gate fixings. The police hut south of the entrance to the Clarence Graving Dock requires repairs to roof and rainwater goods. The surviving timber gate at the Collingwood Dock entrance needs repairs. No urgent repairs to the wall itself were identified.

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CLARENCE DOCK

Power Station at Clarence Dock from west

Infilled dock looking from south west

History and Description 3.3.48 The Clarence Dock was built by Hartley in 1830 as the first element in his expansion programme arising from the growth in the textile industry and the opening of markets in India, China and South America. The Clarence Dock was built to specialise in steamships, being sited away from the existing docks to reduce fire risk to other shipping. It consisted of two enclosed dock basins, parallel to the river, one serving as a half tide dock. On the north side of the half tide dock was a passage with a lock giving access to the Clarence Basin which led on to the Graving Docks. 3.3.49 In 1929 a programme of modernisation was carried out in the central docks, leading to the infilling of Clarence Dock and Clarence Half Tide Dock. The former was sold to Liverpool City Council for the construction of a Power Station and the latter was reconstructed to form part of a new Trafalgar Dock. The Power Station was demolished in the 1990s. It is known that some sections of original dock retaining walls, most notably the northern half of the Clarence Dock, survive below ground, but substantial sections of the south and west walls (and possibly part of the east wall) were removed for the extension of the power station in the 1950s. Condition 3.3.50 The condition of the surviving below-ground masonry is not known, but where it exists and was not disturbed by the construction of the power station, it can be assumed to be in reasonable condition. Some cast iron mooring posts remain in a decayed condition.

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TRAFALGAR DOCK

Trafalgar Dock in 1970

Dock as currently partially infilled

History and Description 3.3.51 Following construction of the Clarence Dock in 1830, Hartley built three further docks on the land between the Princes and Clarence Docks. Waterloo Dock was completed in 1834, and Victoria and Trafalgar Docks in 1836. All three were aligned east west, with their short ends to the river. Transit sheds surrounded each of the docks on each side. Hartley reduced both construction and operating costs by using interconnected docks, limiting the number of river entrances to a single entrance via Victoria Dock, and connecting the three docks to the Clarence Half Tide Dock to the north and the Princes Basin to the south. 3.3.52 In 1868 the Waterloo Dock was reconstructed as two separate basins orientated north south. East Waterloo Dock became a specialist grain dock with three massive brick warehouses built on the quaysides. West Waterloo Dock provided berths for medium-sized ocean-going vessels and provided a passage between Victoria and Princes Half-Tide Dock. 3.3.53 The programme of modernisation in 1929 that saw the infilling of the Clarence Dock also led to the creation of a new Trafalgar Dock, a long, narrow basin aligned north-south, parallel to the river wall, and ultimately to the infilling the original Victoria and Trafalgar Docks in the 1970s. At the north end the reconfigured Trafalgar Dock incorporated the Clarence Grid Iron Basin which provided access to the Clarence Graving Docks. The West Waterloo Dock was altered in 1949 with further reconstruction of the Trafalgar Dock and the creation of a new river entrance. Further Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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changes were made in 1969. The modern extension to West Waterloo Dock has now mostly been infilled at the northern end and altered to accommodate the canal link. Condition 3.3.54 Aerial photographs from the 1960s and 70s indicate that the east wall and substantial lengths of the north and south walls of the original Trafalgar Dock will survive below ground in reasonable condition. The west wall may also survive, though it was either refaced or rebuilt in concrete as part of the 20th century reconstruction of the dock. The western section of the north and south walls were both removed for the realigned extension of the dock in the 1920s, and the canal link has caused a further removal of historic fabric.

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VICTORIA DOCK

Victoria Dock joined with

Excavation of Victoria Dock wall for canal link

Waterloo West Dock, 1955 History and Description 3.3.55 Following construction of the Clarence Dock in 1830, Hartley built three further docks on the land left between the Princes and Clarence Docks. Waterloo Dock was completed in 1834, and Victoria and Trafalgar Docks in 1836. All three were aligned east west, with their short ends to the river. Transit sheds surrounded each of the docks on each side. Hartley reduced both construction and operating costs by using interconnected docks, limiting the number of river entrances to a single entrance via Victoria Dock, and connecting the three docks to the Clarence Half Tide Dock to the north and the Princes Basin to the south. 3.3.56 In 1868 the Waterloo Dock was reconstructed as two separate basins orientated north south. East Waterloo Dock became a specialist grain dock with three massive brick warehouses built on the quaysides. West Waterloo Dock provided berths for medium-sized ocean-going vessels and provided a passage between Victoria and Princes Half-Tide Dock. 3.3.57 The programme of modernisation in 1929 that saw the infilling of the Clarence Dock led to the reconstruction to create a new Trafalgar Dock, a long, narrow basin aligned north south parallel to the river wall, and ultimately to the infilling the original Victoria and Trafalgar Docks in the 1970s. The West Waterloo Dock was altered in 1949 with further reconstruction of the Trafalgar Dock and the creation of a new river entrance. Further changes were made in 1969. The modern extension

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to Trafalgar Dock has now mostly been infilled at the northern end and altered to accommodate the canal link. Condition 3.3.58 Aerial photographs from the 1960s and 70s indicate that the east wall and substantial lengths of the north and south walls of the original Victoria Dock will survive below ground in reasonable condition. The west wall may also survive, though it was either refaced or rebuilt in concrete as part of the 20th century reconstruction of the Trafalgar and West Waterloo Docks. The western section of the north and south walls were both removed for the realigned system the 1920s, and the canal link has caused a further removal of historic fabric.

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WEST WATERLOO DOCK AND RIVER ENTRANCE

Waterloo West Dock from north

Passage to Princes Half-Tide Dock

River entrance to West Waterloo Dock

Entrance gates

History and Description 3.3.59 Hartley’s original Waterloo Dock which was aligned east-west, with its short ends to the river, was reconstructed by Lyster in 1868 as two separate basins orientated north-south. East Waterloo Dock became a specialist grain dock with three massive brick warehouses built on the quaysides. West Waterloo Dock provided berths for medium-sized ocean-going vessels and provided a passage between Victoria and Princes Half Tide Dock. 3.3.60 The north grain warehouse was damaged by war-time bombing, and the warehouse on the western side of the dock was demolished in 1969. Low rise apartment blocks have been built on the north and west quaysides. In 1949, the West Waterloo Dock was remodelled with a new river entrance at the south end of the dock. This involved the removal of most of the original 1834 dock wall as remodelled in 1863/68. It also removed the Dock Master’s Office and West Shed, and blocked the entrance to Princes’ Half Tide Dock. Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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Condition The West Waterloo Dock was altered in 1949, when the new river entrance was constructed. This involved the removal of much of the original west wall, but Lyster’s east wall remains and is visible along the edge of the canal link. The 1949 river entrance is partially infilled, but retains its concrete walls and lock gates in reasonable condition.

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PRINCES HALF TIDE DOCK AND DOCK RETAINING WALLS, INCLUDING RIVER ENTRANCE AND PASSAGE TO WEST WATERLOO DOCK

River entrance to Princes Half Tide Dock

Princes Half-Tide Dock from north

History and Description 3.3.61 The Princes Half Tide Dock began as a tidal basin, built at the same time as Princes Dock in 1821 by J Foster. Although as expensive to construct as an enclosed dock, the uses for Princes Basin were limited, and it could only be used by the smallest vessels such as for landing fish and small coastal cargoes. It was primarily used to provide access to Princes Dock and later in the construction process of Waterloo and Clarence Dock. 3.3.62 In 1868 it was modernised by G F Lyster, with dock retaining walls in the style of Hartley, and two passages and a barge lock were built at the river entrance following Hartley’s design for Salisbury Dock (see above). and two passages and a barge lock were built at the river entrance. 3.3.63 The retaining walls to the dock basin are of fair faced granite rubble, constructed of large and small blocks. There are entrances to the West Waterloo and East Waterloo Docks, where recesses survive for swing bridges that no longer exist. Around the quaysides a number of historic features such as mooring posts, capstans and bollards survive. Condition 3.3.64 The condition survey shows that the Princes Half Tide Dock walls are generally in sound condition, though with some loss of mortar, particularly below copings, vegetal growth, and minor cracks. Localised damage has been caused to the entrance abutments to the West Waterloo Dock. Timber lock gates to the river entrance survive in decayed condition, although the passages have been filled with concrete walls. No immediate works are required to the dock retaining walls. Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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PRINCES DOCK AND DOCK RETAINING WALLS

Princes Dock looking south

Canal entrance at north end of Prince Dock

History and Description 3.3.65 The construction of the Princes Dock represented the first substantial expansion of Liverpool’s closed dock system that had been created in the late 18th century. Designs by J Rennie in 1810 were executed by J Foster who completed the works in 1821. The construction was remarkable for the use of steam power and an iron railway to help remove spoil. Until 1832 it was the largest dock in Liverpool and was intended to be a flagship for Liverpool’s trade with North America for imported cotton and for emigration. The dock had a lock at the southern end connecting it with Georges Dock, and at the northern end was a second lock leading to the Princes Dock Basin which provided access to the Mersey. A series of transit sheds and offices stood on the east side of the dock. 3.3.66 In 1873 Lyster infilled the Georges Dock Basin which allowed the construction of a long floating roadway that led down to the Floating Landing Stage, a wooden and iron pontoon that served the ferries and cross river traffic. Eventually the landing stage was extended to 2,500 feet, running from the Pier Head northwards the full length of the Princes Dock, and becoming the embarkation point for transatlantic passenger liners. In 1895 Riverside Station was opened on the west side of the dock, bringing main line passengers right down to the river’s edge, with covered bridges leading directly to the floating landing stage at two levels. In 1905 the whole west side of the original water area of the Princes Dock was altered by the introduction of a concrete quayside structure complete with sheds, followed in the 1920s by another similar structure on the eastern side. This established a specialised facility for coastal trade with an emphasis on Irish traffic. 3.3.67 After its closure in 1981, Princes Dock was regarded as a potential area for new office development, and following the preparation of a masterplan in 1992 the first phase of development Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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at the southern end commenced. The transit sheds and other dock buildings were cleared, the east quay was widened to create larger development sites, and the dock walls were partly rebuilt. A revised masterplan prepared in 1998 provided a framework for the remainder of the site, including road access and the partial infilling of the dock. Further revisions were made in 2002, when a greater mix of uses was approved, higher development densities and indicative heights for each development plot. A new footbridge across the dock was constructed in 2001, and has recently been lifted to accommodate the passage of canal boats. Alterations were made to the north and south walls for the canal link. Condition 3.3.68 Following the changes made in the early 20th century and the recent regeneration of the dock, relatively little historic fabric remains visible above ground. With the partial infilling, the dock walls were mostly retained, but with new retaining walls built within the dock. At the south end, the blocked passage to the former Georges basin and the original coursed sandstone quay wall survive. Along the riverside, where a set of derelict steps remain, it is possible to see sections of the original river wall. The walls are in good condition throughout.

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PRINCES DOCK BOUNDARY WALL AND ENTRANCES, INCLUDING DRINKING FOUNTAINS

Dock Wall looking south from Bath Street

Gate at Bath Street

History and Description 3.3.69 Access to Princes Dock was controlled by a boundary wall, the first to be built in Liverpool, begun in 1816 and completed in 1821 when the dock opened. Built by J Foster, the wall was of red brick, 5.5 m high and four courses thick in English bond, with sandstone copings and a gateway built with sandstone piers in the Greek Revival style. The wall originally ran around all sides of the dock, but it survives today only on the east side. The remaining gateway is at the northern end of the dock, and consent has been granted for a new opening adjoining the multi-storey car park. This section of wall, together with the gateway is listed Grade II. 3.3.70 Between 1845 and 1865, the wall was extended northwards to connect with the wall that Hartley had built to enclose his group of 1830s docks. This section of wall is built of brick to the same height and form as the Princes Dock section, and incorporates four original gateways, all designed by Hartley, and built of granite rubble masonry. There is also one modern opening that leads via a mini roundabout into the Princes Dock. This section of the wall is unlisted, but is treated as a listed structure since it is attached to the gate piers which are listed Grade II. 3.3.71 A short section of the 1821 Prince’s Dock wall was rebuilt, probably after GF Lyster became Dock Engineer in 1861. This runs northwards from a point marked by a vertical break where a drinking fountain with outlets on both sides of the wall has been inserted as far as the 1821 gateway. A further short section was rebuilt at the southern end of the Princes Dock and is identical in materials and construction to the section described above. These two short sections are also unlisted. Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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3.3.72 The section of Foster’s original Princes Dock wall survives largely as built, but an increase in the level of Bath Street carried out in the 1970s has affected its appearance on the east side, and two small doorways have been punched through it in recent years. The section of wall running from Princes Dock to Waterloo Dock has been lowered in height where it passes the Waterloo Warehouse, and the southernmost part of the Princes Dock wall was lowered in height when the Crowne Plaza Hotel was built. 3.3.73 The dock boundary wall is one of the defining features of the Liverpool docks. Until the programme of dock closure in the second half of the 20th century, and the subsequent redevelopment of the dock estate, the wall stretched for five miles north and south of the city centre. With the wholesale removal of the wall in the historic south docks, the townscape impact of this fortress-like feature can only now be appreciated in the central and north docks. Condition 3.3.74 The condition survey shows that this section of the dock boundary wall is generally in sound condition, though repairs are required to the 1821 gateway, which has cracked due to the corrosion of ferrous metal cramps. Repairs to brickwork, re-roofing, new rainwater goods, windows and door are required to the lean-to police shelter just south of the gateway. The surviving timber gate to the north gateway requires repair. A first phase of repairs has been carried out on the river side of the wall in the vicinity of the Malmaison Hotel.

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REINFORCED CONCRETE AND WOODEN JETTY INTO MERSEY, WEST OF PRINCES DOCK

Jetty from river History and Description 3.3.75 At the north end of the Liverpool Landing Stage the Princes Jetty was built in 1899-90. Designed by A G Lyster, in association with Gustave Mouchel, it is said to be the first reinforced concrete structure in the docks and one of the earliest examples of the use of the Hennebique system in Britain. The jetty incorporates two substantial components, which appear to be constructed of timber with a concrete deck, and following the removal of the original iron and timber structure in 1975, it is the only surviving element of the Liverpool Landing Stage. It incorporates the former fire-damaged remains of a timber shelter and a moveable bridge. The landing stage was the embarkation point for emigrants and travellers by ship and was connected to Riverside Railway Station by covered bridges at two levels. Condition 3.3.76 The reinforced concrete structure is in sound and repairable condition, but the timber decking, balustrades and shelter are seriously decayed and dangerous.

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PRINCES DOCK TO BRAMLEY-MOORE DOCK AREAS OF HISTORIC SURFACING AND DOCK-RELATED INFRASTRUCTURE INCLUDING CAPSTANS, MOORING FACILITIES AND RAILWAYS

Paving and rail tracks, Clarence Graving Dock

Paving at Princes Half Tide Dock

Quayside mooring posts

Capstans, bollards and inspection covers

History and Description 3.3.77 Around the quaysides of all the historic docks are features such as mooring posts, capstans and bollards. In addition there are several areas of historic pavings in different materials and patterns. All these areas have been surveyed, and include stone setts, cobbles and flags. Along seaward side of the dock boundary wall, along the river edge and along certain quaysides there are stretches of rail tracks, which have also been surveyed. All these features have been plotted onto a GIS map base, and related to below ground archaeology. Condition 3.3.78 The historic surfacing and dock-related infrastructure throughout the site is in a varying state of repair. The surfacing is often patchy and rutted, subject to subsidence and damage, and will in Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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most cases require lifting and relaying on a solid sub-base. In some areas setts have been overlaid with concrete or asphalt. The train tracks will need to be repaired and any voids filled with a suitable compound to make them suitable for pedestrian access. Where possible, bollards, capstans and mooring posts will be repaired and retained in situ. Where this is not practical, they will be carefully removed, restored and reused in appropriate locations within the public realm.

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4

HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTRIBUTION TO OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE (OUV)

4.1

The Statement of OUV for the WHS as a whole is included as Appendix 1 to this report. It is derived from the three Criteria for Inscription of the WHS. Considered in these terms, the following cumulative list of tangible and intangible heritage attributes have been identified as contributing to the understanding of OUV: Criterion (ii): Innovative techniques and methods of construction •

Layout and planning of docks in relation to each other, to the river, to the city and to other transport modes

Dock structures including dock gates

Warehouses

Technical buildings

Dock wall and security

Innovative port management

Spirit of innovation

International mercantile systems

Criterion (iii): Maritime Mercantile Culture •

Dock structures, Victoria Clock Tower, boundary wall

Commercial offices and banks

Prestigious display buildings

Lives of merchants

Lives of dock workers

Lives of sailors

Role in the slave trade

Role in emigration

Criterion (iv): Outstanding Example of World Mercantile City •

Dock landscape

Docks and urban plan

Relationship of commercial centre, docks, river and sea

Civic pride manifested in grand architecture

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4.2

Commercial offices, shipping offices and banks

Cultural display

It is clear from this list that the heritage assets included in the gazetteer at 3.4 are fundamental attributes of OUV and contribute to the integrity and authenticity of the WHS. They have been assessed in terms of significance as follows:

A: Liverpool Waters Heritage Assets in WHS

Listed

Significance

Hydraulic Engine House, Bramley Moore Dock

Grade II

Very High

Bramley Moore Dock and dock retaining walls, including passage to Nelson Dock Nelson Dock and dock retaining walls, including passage to Salisbury Dock Dock Boundary Wall and entrances from opposite Sandhills Lane to Collingwood Dock, including drinking fountain and police huts Collingwood Dock and dock retaining walls, including passage to Stanley Dock Collingwood Dock office

Grade II

Very High

Grade II

Very High

Grade II

Very High

Grade II

Very High Medium

Bascule Bridge

High

Salisbury Dock and dock retaining walls, including passages to Collingwood Dock and Trafalgar Dock Sea Wall to islands and south of Salisbury Dock entrance

Grade II

Very High

Grade II

Very High

Victoria Clock Tower

Grade II

Very High

Dock Masters Office

Grade II

Very High

Clarence Dock Fire and Police Station Clarence Graving Dock

High Grade II

Very High

Clarence Graving Dock Workshop

Medium

Trafalgar Dock Office Building

Medium

Clarence Graving Dock Office Building

Medium

Clarence Graving Dock WWII Air Raid Shelters

Medium

Open Shelter

Medium

Dock Boundary Wall and entrances from Collingwood Dock to Waterloo Dock including drinking fountains Princes Half Tide Dock, including river entrance and passage to West Waterloo Dock Princes Dock Boundary Wall and entrances, including drinking fountains Dock areas of historic surfacing and dock-related infrastructure

Grade II

Very High

Grade II

Very High

Grade II

Very High High

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Zone Clarence Dock

High

Trafalgar Dock

Medium

1836 Trafalgar Dock

High

Victoria Dock

High

1834 Waterloo Dock

High

West Waterloo Dock and river entrance

High

Princes Dock

Medium

Princes Jetty

High

Dock areas of historic surfacing and dock-related infrastructure

High/Medium

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5

ISSUES, CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES

5.1

The purpose of the conservation management plan is to establish a range of policies and an action plan that will protect the significance of the heritage assets during and following the development process. This section of the document defines the aspects of vulnerability and constraints that must be addressed. In addition, opportunities are positively identified, taking account of the overall development objectives.

5.2

Issues are defined with reference to a number of legal, physical, environmental, economic, social and educational factors.

STATUTORY DESIGNATIONS AND PLANNING CONTROLS 5.3

Many of the heritage assets are protected as listed buildings. Conservation area designation imposes restrictions on demolition and requires that special attention is given to the preservation or enhancement of its character or appearance. World Heritage status is a material consideration in the determination of planning applications and requires that the OUV of the WHS should be protected, conserved and presented.

5.4

Consent may be required before carrying out works to any buildings or structures on the Liverpool Waters site. This will depend on the nature and location of the works proposed. Works that essentially involve repair of existing fabric on a like-for-like basis can be differentiated from works that entail alteration, and are unlikely to require planning permission or listed building consent. Should the materials needed to create an authentic repair no longer be obtainable, or a substitute material is required because the original specification would no longer achieve an acceptable result, statutory consent may be required, depending on the extent and type of repair being undertaken.

SCALE OF PROJECT 5.5

The development of the Liverpool Waters site presents an enormous challenge. The site covers an area of 60 hectares, which is largely vacant and derelict. Much of the site consists of large water spaces, with restricted areas for development, whilst there is an absence of highway networks or services infrastructure. Although it is close to the city centre, it adjoins areas of low grade industrial activity and low property values, where regeneration activity has not yet taken hold.

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CONDITION OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 5.6

A summary of condition drawn from the Bingham Davis survey documents described in 1.5 above indicates that whilst the majority of historic structures are in sound condition, the scale of repairs required is very extensive.

COST OF REPAIR AND CONSERVATION 5.7

The scale of costs for repairs to historic buildings and structures, historic surfacing and archaeology is very high. The figures below are drawn from a Summary Costings paper prepared for the development.

Historic Buildings and Structures 5.8

The cost of structural repairs and conservation of historic buildings and structures has been estimated at £6.7 million, together with an additional £292,660 for the dock boundary wall. This makes an overall cost of £7 million at 2011 prices. Included are the following works: •

Lifting of historic surfaces and features (railway lines, mooring bollards etc) for re-use (included in external works). Formation of the flood plateau may make the retention of some features unfeasible in situ.

Structural repairs to buildings in conjunction with the Bingham Davis condition surveys. No allowance has been made for internal refurbishment. Where such structures lie beneath the 7.15m plateau it is assumed that local flood mitigation measures will be included in the generality of the external works – no specific allowance having been included.

Dock boundary wall to be repaired in line with the works indentified in the Bingham Davis condition survey.

Historic Surfacing 5.9

External Works, including on site roadways and public realm (but excluding strategic access and off site highways), have been estimated at a cost of £58 million. The works measured identify character areas independently, along with the generality of the site rates which are based on per m2 costs for intended type and location within the World Heritage Site designation. It is assumed that areas of heritage surfacing will be incorporated into the scheme as a whole. Where dock edges are below the 7.15m plateau level, allowance has been made for stone copings to be installed to raise the levels accordingly. It is assumed that all dock and river wall edgings will be protected with railings.

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5.10

5.11

Allowance has been made for: •

Lighting;

CCTV; and

Street Furniture and Signage

Public artwork, this is at 10% of the external works costs.

An allowance for new bridge structures has been included, this is based on all bridges being fixed except one bridge at Bramley-Moore Dock which would be lifting to enable higher ships to access the wider dock system.

Archaeology 5.12

Site clearance and preparation has been estimated at £16 million, and includes for the clearance of all site features excluding those referred to in the heritage structures section of the documentation. The cut and fill exercise has been based on a general site level of 7.15m AOD.

5.13

Any new dock wall or canal wall structures have been assumed as being piled foundations (to rock heads 15m below datum, terminating 5m below finished height), reinforced concrete walls with granite facings from finished height to 600mm below existing water levels. It is assumed that these will be constructed behind coffer dam structures with constant dewatering activities being required during the construction period. The new levels have been assumed as being made up from available site won material.

5.14

Allowance for bridging existing below-ground archaeological features is included within the site preparations.

LACK OF PUBLIC SECTOR FUNDING 5.15

The only available source of funding for conservation works is private capital. Investment in conservation will only be viable if it is phased as an integral element of the development programme.

SITE ACCESS CONSTRAINTS 5.16

The Liverpool Waters site is mostly isolated from the city centre at present, being concealed by a high dock boundary wall and in derelict condition. No roads or pedestrian routes cross the site,

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which is difficult to navigate. Pedestrian activity in the adjoining areas is low, and therefore the site currently seems remote from the city centre and established leisure destinations. 5.17

Opening the site up to public access will have implications for the conservation of heritage assets in the following respects: •

Introduction of road access with a highway network, bridges, designated footways as required, car parking, traffic management measures and signage.

Introduction of services, drainage and essential infrastructure throughout the site

Health and safety requirements in relation to the river wall and dock water spaces.

Compliance with building regulations relating to fire safety, general health and safety, noise, energy efficiency, disabled access etc.

PHYSICAL NATURE OF HERITAGE ASSETS 5.18

With the exception of a single listed building consent application relating to the one proposed new access through the dock boundary wall opposite Dublin Street, no detailed proposals are made for any of the historic structures or buildings. Some suggested uses, however, have been made, as follows: •

Hydraulic Engine House, Bramley-Moore Dock – energy centre

Victoria Clock Tower – visitor facility

Dockmaster’s Office – interpretation centre/retail unit

Police Station, Clarence Graving Docks – visitor facility

Workshop, Clarence Graving Docks – dock workshop

Office Buildings, open shelter, air raid shelters, Clarence Graving Dock – kiosks/exhibition structures

5.19

The dock spaces will be used for a range of leisure-based water activities, with pontoons crossing the Bramley-Moore and Nelson Docks.

5.20

Adaptation for new uses will need to take account of the physical characteristics of the buildings and structures, such as the plan forms and volume of spaces, the access constraints, the lack of natural lighting, the functional character of the interiors and issues arising from building regulations.

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CLIMATE CHANGE 5.21

One of the possible effects of climate change is the rise in sea levels, which poses a threat to shoreline settlements and sites. It is a requirement of the Environment Agency that adequate precautions to be put in place to safeguard habited areas from risk of flooding.

5.22

The Flood Risk Assessment produced for the scheme recommends that all floor levels and emergency access routes are to be constructed above a level of 7.25m AOD as a minimum. This will provide at least 100mm freeboard above the estimated 1 in 200 year extreme Mersey level up to the year 2115 (including climate change). This could have implications for heritage assets such as historic surfaces.

OWNERSHIP CONSTRAINTS 5.23

A number of significant heritage assets that contribute to the setting of the Liverpool Waters site are not in Peel’s ownership. These include the Stanley Dock with its important warehouses and ancillary buildings, the Waterloo warehouse, the Bonded Tea warehouse and the warehouse at 27 Vulcan Street. Whilst the Waterloo warehouse is in good condition and fully occupied, the other buildings vary from fair to poor condition, with the Stanley Dock north warehouse being on the English Heritage ‘heritage at risk’ register.

5.24

Consent was granted in 2008 for mixed use conversion and refurbishment of the Stanley Dock warehouses. A revised application related solely to the tobacco warehouse was submitted in September 2011 with the stated aim of making the approved scheme economically viable and to allow for implementation to commence before the existing consent expires in December 2011. It is unlikely; however, that any major work will be carried out at the Stanley Dock until there is a significant rise in property values in north Liverpool, something that will be dependent on development taking place on the Liverpool Waters site.

NEED FOR CLEAR MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE 5.25

A systematic and co-ordinated programme for cyclical repair and maintenance, along with periodic reviews and implementation of best practice guidelines is required to ensure that the heritage resource is managed in a positive way.

5.26

The management programme also needs to take account of other factors which could further protect as well as make more accessible the distinctive character of the site such as interpretation and record storage.

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NEED FOR APPROPRIATE MAINTENANCE 5.27

Without effective monitoring of condition and regular maintenance, heritage assets will decay and the integrity of the WHS is threatened. Equally, inappropriate or poor quality repairs can affect the significance of heritage assets and OUV.

5.28

National and international guidelines all emphasize the importance of regular maintenance based on the principle of minimal intervention. The Burra Charter (ICOMOS, 1979) states that ‘the cultural significance of a place is embodied in its fabric, its setting and its contents’. It stresses that retaining cultural significance must necessarily involve the least possible intervention. The

Venice Charter (ICOMOS 1964) states ‘it is essential to the conservation of monuments that they be maintained on a regular basis’. BS 7913:1998: The Principles of the Conservation of Historic

Buildings (BSI, 1998) states that ‘systematic care based on good housekeeping is both cost effective and fundamental to good conservation’. 5.29

The essential aim of maintenance when dealing with historic buildings is therefore to retain as much of the fabric as is possible, since the fabric itself is important. The Burra Charter specifically defines maintenance as ‘the continuous protective care of the fabric, and is to be distinguished from repair’. Obviously repair works are inevitable from time to time, but in many cases repair will involve restoration or reconstruction and can affect integrity and authenticity.

RECORDING 5.30

When historic assets are affected by adaptation, restoration, refurbishment or demolition, it is important to record the changes made. The level of recording depends on the significance of the asset and the magnitude of change.

INFORMATION GATHERING 5.31

The information gathering on the history, architecture and archaeology of the site has been thorough and comprehensive, and is included in the documents listed in section 1.4 above. This has informed the masterplan as well as the Environmental Statement.

5.32

Working drawings, specifications and other information held in the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board archives remain to be analysed in greater detail. This will be carried out at the detailed masterplan (reserved matters) stage and in advance of any site works as part of the archaeological mitigation strategy.

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OPPORTUNITIES 5.33

Sustainable regeneration of the central docks brings enormous opportunities for its social and environmental enhancement, alongside protection, conservation and presentation of the historic environment. The scale of the area is vast, much of the historic fabric is in poor condition, and this sector of the city has lacked investment for a long period. The introduction of new uses and major new development is vital in order to create value to fund conservation.

5.34

The environmental quality of the site is currently very poor. This allows scope to create a wholly new quarter of the city with development and open spaces of high quality to complement the historic identity of the waterfront. The redundant water spaces and river’s edge offer opportunities for recreational and leisure-based development in order to help restore animation and activity to the docks.

5.35

The mix of developable land and water spaces provides the opportunity for a highly distinctive environment. The early twentieth-century development of the Pier Head with the Three Graces and the evolving cluster of towers centred on the Business District demonstrate ways in which distinctive waterfront identity can be achieved in a civic context.

5.36

The central docks have never been publicly accessible. The possibility of high-density mixed use development could bring back the levels of human activity that they have lacked for so long, and which are vital for their understanding and enjoyment.

5.37

Lack of public access to the site has meant there is limited understanding about the site and its heritage importance. Access provides the opportunity for presentation and interpretation of the historic dockland environment and its contribution to the OUV of the WHS through a range of measures and techniques including a visitor information centre, on site panels and displays, public art, festivals, educational activities and trails.

5.38

The City Council’s regeneration strategy and its policy and design guidance in the Liverpool WHS Supplementary Planning Document places an emphasis on the distinctiveness of the built heritage and schemes such as the Albert Dock and the Ropewalks are nationally regarded as successful examples of best practice in adapting high quality historic environments to the needs of a modern urban economy. The exceptional nature of the heritage assets within the Liverpool Waters site provides the opportunity to create a distinct sense of place.

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6

POLICIES AND PRINCIPLES

6.1

INTRODUCTION

6.1.1

This section of the document sets out the policies which Peel intends to adopt relating to the protection, conservation and presentation of heritage assets. These have served to inform the masterplan, and will also underpin the conservation management programme during the development of the site.

6.1.2

The policies are necessarily broadly based, since the masterplan is indicative, and will be subject to adaptation and refinement in the future. The timescale for implementation cannot at this stage be accurately predicted.

6.1.3

The policies address the issues identified in Section 5.

6.2

POLICIES

6.3

Management of Information

The Conservation Management Plan (CMP) will provide a framework for managing information about the heritage of the Liverpool Waters site, to which new information will be added as it arises. The site owner, using its professional advisers, will work over the long term with Liverpool City Council (the Council) and English Heritage (EH) towards developing and maintaining a comprehensive heritage archive of accurate records for the site. This will be stored in hard and digital formats, including a GIS-based archaeological deposit model linked to a gazetteer of heritage assets and a photographic database. The site owner will ensure that comprehensive records are made of all heritage assets before the commencement of each phase of works and during the works. Such records will be made available for use in the local Heritage Environment Record (HER). The site owner will produce a short history of the site directed towards the general public for publication by the Council/English Heritage.

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6.2

Management Decision Making

The site owner will seek endorsement of the CMP from the Council and English Heritage as a basis of understanding and management of the heritage of the site. Management decisions regarding the protection, conservation and presentation of the heritage resource will be taken in accordance with the CMP. The site owner, using its professional advisers, may review and amend the CMP over time as required, and will consult with the Council and English Heritage on such changes. 6.3

Wider Historic Environment

The site owner will work with the Council, other stakeholders, surrounding landowners and developers to protect, conserve and present the wider historic environment as proposed in the WHS Management Plan. 6.4

Use of Buildings and Structures

Feasibility studies will be carried out for the historic buildings and structures to find appropriate and sustainable uses which respect their historic character and setting. These studies will be prepared and submitted in support of the detailed masterplans at reserved matters stages. The potential for public access to heritage assets will be explored wherever reasonable. 6.5

Resources

Long-term funding and specialist resources for the management of the historic environment will be budgeted for expressly, secured and maintained during the development of the site. 6.6

Programme

A 10-year forward works action programme will be developed, structured and prioritised, with annual reviews as a guide to the maintenance and repair of historic assets. The programme will be in accordance with the CMP, which will be reviewed and updated at no less than 5-yearly intervals.

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A set of detailed guidelines and codes of practice for works to heritage assets will be prepared and submitted to the Council as part of the listed building consent applications and consultations process. A comprehensive monitoring and reporting procedure to support the forward works programme will be prepared and submitted for approval by the Council. The programme will take account of the need for environmentally and economically sustainable development and management. 6.7

Phasing

The scale and condition of the site requires a phased approach to development. This provides some flexibility and allows the site to be developed in line with market conditions and possible unforeseen events. The CMP provides a broad basis of understanding that will enable the objective of protecting, conserving and presenting the heritage of the site over the life of the project to be achieved. It is planned that all heritage assets will be repaired and brought back into use in accordance with the development phasing plan. Bearing in mind the timescale for delivery of all phases, the CMP is intended to ensure that all buildings and structures are maintained in sound condition pending full refurbishment and reuse. 6.8

Maintenance Strategy

The overall objective of the maintenance strategy is to carry out the right treatment in the right place at the right time, making best use of available funds and making a long and lasting improvement to the condition of the heritage. Regular inspections will be made by specialist conservation consultants of all heritage assets to check the condition and need for maintenance or repair. The frequency of inspection will depend on a number of factors: whether the asset is in use or not; whether it has already been fully repaired; its location and its state of vulnerability. Inspections will identify and prioritise a list of works needed for the protection and safeguarding of heritage assets, which will enable work to be planned and executed in an efficient and cost effective manner. Works will be carried out in accordance with the policies set out in the CMP. Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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In the case of historic buildings, a regular maintenance schedule will be prepared involving the annual clearing of gutters and drains, removal of debris and weed growth, and necessary security measures. Maintenance works will be planned and prioritised in advance. 6.9

Conservation Strategy

All work will be planned and carried out to the highest appropriate conservation standards. All building conservation projects will be supervised by a recognised built heritage professional. Contractors working on the repair or alteration of historic buildings or structures will be required to demonstrate their knowledge and experience of appropriate materials and techniques. When carrying out repairs, removal of existing fabric should be minimised. Any proposals to restore or reconstruct missing elements of fabric should require special justification or be based on sound evidence. Interventions should be reversible where possible. Regard should be had to contributions of different periods of work in a historic structure, though heritage value and significance of such contributions must be judged within the context of the asset as a whole. Poor quality previous repairs should be removed and replaced with more sympathetic materials. Patina of age forms part of the value of historic structures and its removal should only be considered when it is essential to the protection of historic fabric. Falsification of patina is inappropriate. All repairs should use appropriate materials and be carried out on a like-for-like basis, unless structural or health and safety factors require otherwise. All construction work should be managed in ways that will minimise the risk of damage, particularly by fire, to the historic fabric during the works. Protection to heritage assets should be ensured, including interior fixtures and fittings that are integral to the design and function of the building. Specialist safety audits and risk assessments should be carried out to best current practice as necessary, including appropriate and adequate induction and on-site training for contractors. Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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Removal of items that detract from a historic building or structure’s significance is encouraged. Historic materials, fixtures and fittings are valuable elements of a historic structure and should remain in situ. Where this is not possible, they should be carefully salvaged and stored for reuse in an appropriate context. All conservation works will be recorded and records placed on the site archive and made available for use in the local HER. 6.10

New Work Strategy

Interventions should wherever possible be reversible. It is preferable that they should be located in areas that have already been altered. 6.11

Archaeological Strategy

All development involving ground-breaking work will be accompanied by an appropriate level of archaeological assessment and/or mitigation in order that the archaeological record is protected. Areas of high archaeological potential within the site have been identified. It is the stated policy of the site owner to protect and present the archaeological resource in accordance with best practice. All archaeological evaluation will be recorded and records placed on the site archive and made available in the local HER. 6.12

Public Access Strategy

A Disability Audit will be commissioned so that all heritage assets will be compliant with the DDA 1995. A Disability Audit will be made by a qualified person and its recommendations considered by the site owner. The recommendations of the Audit will be implemented provided that they are reasonable and acceptable in conservation terms, and do not involve negative impact or intrusion into significant fabric. Consideration will be given to providing periodic public access to parts of the site in advance of development, on a controlled basis, provided that adequate safety standards can be achieved. Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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6.2.13

Interpretation Strategy

Heritage interpretation should aim to communicate the local distinctiveness of the dockland environment and its contribution to the WHS. The site owner, using its professional advisers, will work with relevant local and national organisations to achieve this aim. The site owner will work with the Council and English Heritage to identify and present those features of OUV and significance to the WHS through interpretation to raise awareness of heritage issues. The site owner will assist the Council with plans it may have to disseminate the historic associations of the site by means of an interpretation strategy, a business plan and an education plan. This will reinforce the sense of place and actively promote the values of the WHS to local communities and visitors. The site owner will assist the Council to work with local communities before, during and after development to foster a sense of ownership in relation to new environments created within the former docks and their heritage context. The site owner will work with the Council in its promotion of the use of the docks for educational purposes with schools and lifelong learning through the Local Education Authority and other educational bodies. The site owner will work with the Council and surrounding property owners to develop links to other local features and areas through walking and cycling routes and interpretative facilities. Interpretative signage will be carefully planned and designed, and integrated into historic sites with minimal intrusion to the historic enviroment. The site owner will work with the Council to develop a public arts programme involving local people and schools to promote a sense of place based on the heritage of the site. 6.2.14

Implementation

The objectives of the CMP must be followed through as integral elements of the site development. Should development not be carried out, either as a result of refusal of planning Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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permission or other factors, the option of doing nothing may lead to loss of historic buildings or structures and would be difficult to reverse. It is therefore vital to ensure that the actions set out within the CMP are implemented.

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7

CONSERVATION ACTION PLAN

7.1

The following actions will be carried out as indicated to ensure that the heritage assets are protected, conserved and presented, by returning them to beneficial use during the overall development programme.

7.2

Water Filled Docks, including passages, bridge abutments and lock gates

In accordance with the CMP, and at the appropriate time, each of the water bodies will be drained of water and inspected to assess the condition of the dock retaining walls in full. This will inform the ongoing conservation programme. The principal works to be carried out will include removal of plant growth, replacement of missing or damaged masonry, replacement of mortar to open joints, re-pointing of copings, and concrete repairs to dock retaining walls. Surviving lock gates will be repaired and refurbished wherever practical and appropriate. Conservation works will be carried out and the respective water bodies returned to active use in accordance with the approved development phasing programme. Vegetation will be removed by specialist contractor as part of the regular inspection and maintenance programme. 7.3

Sea Wall

The site owner will work with MDHC, which is responsible for the maintenance of the sea wall, and which is a subsidiary of the Peel Group. The principal works to be carried out will include replacement of missing or damaged masonry, replacement of mortar to open joints, re-pointing of copings, and concrete repairs to retaining walls. Surviving lock gates will be repaired and refurbished wherever practical and appropriate The sea wall will be conserved in accordance with the approved development phasing programme.

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7.4

Dock Boundary Wall

The principal works to be carried out to the wall will include replacement of missing or damaged masonry and brickwork, replacement or repair of damaged copings, repairs to vertical, horizontal and stepped diagonal cracks, removal or treatment of corroding embedded steelwork, and capping of former overhead railway stanchions. Mortar joints will be raked out and re-pointed as required. The works will be carried out in accordance with the specification agreed with LCC and already implemented in Phase 1. In areas where vertical cracking has occurred, scientific monitoring devices will be installed within 12 months of commencement of development and monitoring will be carried out for a minimum period of 12 months. The hoop iron bond steel plates placed within the bed joints of the outer leafs of the wall will be removed, using mortar raking chisels and the beds re-pointed. These works will be carried out in a hit and miss approach, repairing 10m lengths of wall with 10m lengths retained as current condition with no more than 3 bed joints routed out at any one time. Stainless steel tie bar repair will be introduced at six course intervals up to the height of the wall by bonding, using grade 304 stainless steel rebars resin grouted into the joints, using a 2 part filled polyester resin grout. Ongoing structural monitoring in these locations will be carried out following the repairs. All drinking fountains will be refurbished and restored in accordance with the specification agreed for Phase 1. All necessary repairs to the historic gateways will be carried out, including the dock police structures, central stone gate houses and gate piers. Remaining timber gates will be repaired and reinstated to remain in an open position. Conservation works will be carried out in accordance with the approved development phasing programme. Vegetation will be removed by specialist contractor as part of the regular inspection and maintenance programme.

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7.5

Historic Surfaces

Surviving historic ground surfaces, including stone flags, setts, cobbles, cover plates and rail tracks will be retained in situ wherever possible and appropriate, and utilised as elements of the public realm, in accordance with the approved landscape proposals. Where necessary, they will be carefully taken up and relayed in the same position on a new sub-base to achieve a safe, convenient, accessible and sustainable surface. In any areas where they cannot be retained in situ, surviving historic surfaces will be carefully taken up and reused in appropriate locations that reinforce their functional context and consolidate the integrity and authenticity of the historic landscape, in accordance with the approved landscape proposals. The conservation, relaying and specialist treatment of historic surfaces will be carried out in accordance with the approved development phasing programme. 7.6

Historic Artefacts

Surviving quayside artefacts such as mooring posts, bollards, capstans, crane bases, sluices and lock gate mechanisms and cover plates will be repaired and retained in situ wherever possible, and used as elements of the public realm. Where necessary, they will be carefully removed for repair and conservation by specialist conservators, and refitted in the same locations. Where artefacts are incapable of repair, consideration will be given to replication. In any cases where they cannot be retained in situ, surviving artefacts will be carefully taken up and reused in other appropriate on-site locations that reinforce their functional context and consolidate the integrity and authenticity of the historic landscape, in accordance with the approved landscape proposals. An inspection and audit will be carried out within 12 months of grant of any planning permission to assess the condition of all historic artefacts. Those items considered to be at risk of loss will be carefully taken up and moved to safe storage for conservation as appropriate. The conservation and specialist treatment of historic artefacts will be carried out in accordance with the approved development phasing programme.

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7.7

Hydraulic Engine House

A ‘Type 3’ survey of the exterior and interior will be carried out within 12 months of grant of planning permission in order to identify a programme of urgent repairs that will return the building to a sound wind and waterproof condition. The recommendations of the survey will be implemented within 24 months of the commencement of development. Conservation works will be carried out and the building returned to beneficial use in accordance with the approved development phasing programme. 7.8

Victoria Clock Tower

Measures will be put in place within 12 months of commencement of development to monitor the cracks in the stonework to the north and west elevations to assess whether there is any movement in the structure. Consideration will be given to demolishing the 2 no. small extensions to the east face of the tower and making good to the original structure within 12 months of commencement of development. Proposals for refurbishing the clock faces, restoring the clock mechanism to full working order, and reinstating the bell will be prepared within 24 months of commencement of development. Conservation works will be carried out and the building returned to beneficial use in accordance with the approved development phasing programme. 7.9

Dockmaster’s Office

Measures will be put in place within 24 months of commencement of development to monitor the crack in the stonework to the east elevation to assess whether there is any movement in the structure. The crack in the lintel and stonework below the window to the west elevation will be repaired in accordance with the phasing programme. The section of attached brick boundary wall including the former police hut on the riverside face of the wall will be repaired in accordance with the phasing programme. Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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Consent will be sought for demolishing the brick hut on the landward side of the wall within 24 months of the commencement of development. Conservation works will be carried out and the building returned to beneficial use in accordance with the approved development phasing programme. 7.10

Dock Workshop, Police Station and other minor buildings around the perimeter of the Clarence Graving Dock

An inspection of all the minor buildings in the vicinity of the Graving Dock will be carried out at 12 month intervals, and any emergency works identified as necessary will be carried out as a matter of urgency. Conservation works will be carried out and the buildings returned to beneficial use in accordance with the approved development phasing programme.

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8

BIBLIOGRAPHY

8.1

REFERENCES

8.1.1

Primary Sources Gregson’s map of Liverpool of 1565 (with later additions) Bowker’s map of Liverpool of c.1572 Okill’s map of Liverpool of 1650 Eye’s map of Liverpool of 1765 Eye’s map of Liverpool of 1785 Anonymous map of Liverpool of 1795 Horwood’s map of Liverpool of 1803 Gage’s map of Liverpool of 1807 Kaye’s map of Liverpool of 1816: Dwire’s map of Liverpool of 1823 J and A Walkers map of Liverpool of 1823 Map of Liverpool of 1829 taken from A Strangers Guide to Liverpool Henry Austin’s map of Liverpool of 1836 Gage’s map of Liverpool of 1836 Bennison’s map of Liverpool of 1841 Bennison’s map of Liverpool of 1848 Ordnance Survey map of Liverpool of 1848 Dower’s map of Liverpool of 1863 Philips map of Liverpool of 1881 Anonymous map of Liverpool of 1885 Ordnance Survey map of Liverpool of 1890 Bartholomew’s map of Liverpool of 1891 Bacon’s map of Liverpool of 1901 Ward-Lock’s map of Liverpool of 1904 Ordnance Survey map of Liverpool of 1908 Abel-Haywood’s map of Liverpool of 1924 Ordnance Survey map of Liverpool of 1928 Aerial photographs, NMR nos. SJ 39 SW1054; SJ 39 SW1062; SJ 39 SW1063, SJ 39 SW1064

8.1.2

Secondary Sources • • • • • • • •

Belcham, J (ed), Liverpool 800, Liverpool, 2005 A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Dock Engineering, Brysson Cunningham,

Charles Griffin and Company, 1910 Adams, M, An Archaeological Desk-Based Assessment of a Proposed Development of Land at Princes Dock, Unpublished Report, 2005 Australia ICOMOS, The Burra Charter, Burwood, Australia, 1999 Council of Europe, European Landscape Convention, Council of Europe Treaty Series, 176, Strasbourg, 2000 Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), Circular 07/2009, Circular on the protection of World Heritage Sites, London 2009 Department for Culture, Media, and Sport (DCMS), The Government’s Statement on the Historic Environment for England, Part 1, London, 2010 Department for Culture, Media, and Sport (DCMS), The Government’s Statement on the Historic Environment for England, Part 2, London, 2010

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Department for Culture, Media, and Sport (DCMS), Policy Statement on Scheduled Monuments, London, 2010 Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) PPS5 Planning for the Historic Environment, London, 2010 English Heritage, Conservation Principles Policies and Guidance for the Sustainable Management of the Historic Environment, London, 2008 English Heritage, The Protection and Management of World Heritage Sites in England, London, 2009 de Figueiredo, P and Egerton Lea Consultancy Ltd, Liverpool Waters: Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Baseline Study, Unpublished Report, 2008 Giles, C, The Historic Warehouses of Liverpool, Unpublished Draft Report, 1999 Heritage Lottery Fund, Conservation Management Planning, 2008 Hodgkinson, D and Emmet, J British Waterways Liverpool Canal Link: Archaeological and Cultural Heritage/Architectural Heritage Impact Assessment, Unpublished Report, 2003 Hynes, J, Construction of the Liverpool Dock System During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, BSc Thesis, 1996 ICOMOS, Nara Document on Authenticity, Paris, 1994 ICOMOS, Xian Declaration on the Conservation of the Setting of Heritage Structures, Sites and Areas, Paris, 2005 Jarvis, A, Princes Dock: A Magnificent Monument of Mural Art, Birkenhead, 1991 Jarvis, A, Liverpool Central Docks 1799-1905: An Illustrated History, Stroud, 1991 J S Kerr, The Conservation Plan: A Guide to the Preparation of Conservation Plans for Places of European Cultural Significance, 2002 Liverpool City Council, Liverpool Unitary Development Plan, Liverpool, 2002 Liverpool City Council, Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City Management Plan, Liverpool, 2003 Liverpool City Council, Maritime Mercantile City: Liverpool: Nomination of Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City for Inscription on the World Heritage List, Liverpool, 2005 Liverpool City Council, Liverpool World Heritage Site Supplementary Planning Document, Liverpool, 2009 Liverpool City Council, Draft Local Development Framework (LDF) Core Strategy Preferred Options, Liverpool, 2010 Liverpool Museum, Liverpool Historic Warehouse Survey: Documentation, Unpublished Report, 1998 Liverpool Vision, Strategic Regeneration Framework, Liverpool, 2000 Milne, G J, Maritime Liverpool, in J Belchem (ed), Liverpool 800, Culture, Character, and History, Liverpool’ 257-310, 2006 North West Regional Assembly (NWRA), The North West of England Plan Regional Spatial Strategy to 2021, Norwich, 2008 Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM), PPS1 Delivering Sustainable Development, Norwich, 2005 OA North, Liverpool Canal Link: Archaeological Evaluation Report, Unpublished Report, 2006 OA North, Liverpool Canal Link, Pier Head, Unpublished Report, 2008 OA North, Mann Island Canal Link, Unpublished Report, 2008 OA North, Central Docks, Unpublished Report, 2008 OA North, Chavasse Park Post Excavation Assessment, Unpublished Report, 2008 Peveley, S E and Adams, M, An Archaeological Watching Brief on Land at Princes Half Tide Dock, Liverpool, Unpublished Report, 2007 Sharples, J, Liverpool, Pevsner Architectural Guides, London, 2004 Stammers, M, Images of England: Liverpool Docks, Stroud, 1999 Stammers, M, The Industrial Archaeology of Docks and Harbours, Liverpool, 2007 UNESCO, Vienna Memorandum, Paris, 2005 UNESCO, Declaration on the Conservation of the Historic Urban Landscape, Paris, 2005

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•

UNESCO, Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, Paris, 2008

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9.0

PLANS

FIGURE 1:

PLAN OF WORLD HERITAGE SITE WITH LIVERPOOL WATERS SITE

FIGURE 2:

PLAN OF LIVERPOOL WATERS SITE SHOWING LOCATION OF HERITAGE ASSETS DESCRIBED IN

FIGURE 3:

DEVELOPMENT PARCEL PHASING PLAN

FIGURE 4:

DEVELOPMENT PARCELS

SECTION 3.4

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FIGURE 1: PLAN OF WORLD HERITAGE SITE WITH LIVERPOOL WATERS SITE

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FIGURE 2: PLAN OF LIVERPOOL WATERS SITE SHOWING LOCATION OF HERITAGE ASSETS DESCRIBED IN SECTION 3.4

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FIGURE 3: DEVELOPMENT PARCEL PHASING PLAN

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FIGURE 4: DEVELOPMENT PARCELS

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APPENDIX 1: STATEMENT OF OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE This section provides a definition the OUV of the WHS as approved by the World Heritage Committee in 2010: Brief Description

The Maritime Mercantile City of Liverpool became one of the centres of world trade in the 18th and 19th centuries. It had an important role in the growth of the British Empire and became the major port for the mass movement of people, especially enslaved Africans and European emigrants. Liverpool pioneered the development of modern dock technology, transport systems, port management, and building construction. A series of significant commercial, civic and public buildings lie within selected areas in the historic docklands and the centre of the city. These areas include: the Pier Head, with its three principal waterfront buildings – the Royal Liver Building, the Cunard Building and the Port of Liverpool Building; the Dock area with their warehouses, dock walls, docks and other facilities related to port activities from the 18th and 19th centuries; the mercantile area, with its shipping offices, produce exchanges, marine insurance offices, banks, inland warehouses and merchants houses; and the William Brown Street Cultural Quarter, including St George’s Plateau, with its monumental cultural and civic buildings. Statement of Significance

Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City reflects the role of Liverpool as the supreme example of a commercial port at the time of Britain’s greatest global influence. Liverpool grew into a major commercial port in the 18th century, when it was also crucial for the organisation of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, Liverpool became a world mercantile centre for general cargo and mass European emigration to the New World. It had major significance on world trade being one of the principal ports of the British Commonwealth. Its innovative techniques and types of construction of dock facilities became an important reference worldwide. Liverpool Liverpool Waters Conservation Management Plan – November 2011

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also became instrumental in the development of industrial canals in the British Isles in the 18th century, as well as of railway transport in the 19th century. All through this period, and particularly in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Liverpool gave attention to the quality and innovation of its architecture and cultural activities. To this stand as testimony its outstanding public buildings, such as St George’s Hall and its museums. Even in the 20th century, Liverpool has given a lasting contribution, which is remembered in the success of The Beatles. Criteria for Inscription

Criterion (ii): Liverpool was a major centre generating innovative technologies and methods in dock construction and port management in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. It thus contributed to the building up of the international mercantile systems throughout the British Commonwealth. Criterion (iii): the city and the port of Liverpool are an exceptional testimony to the development of maritime mercantile culture in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, contributing to the building up of the British Empire. It was a centre for the slave trade, until its abolition in 1807, and for emigration from northern Europe to America. Criterion (iv): Liverpool is an outstanding example of a world mercantile port city, which represents the early development of global trading and cultural connections throughout the British Empire. Assessment of the Conditions of Authenticity and Integrity, and of the Requirements for Protection and Management in Force

Integrity The existing urban fabric of the World Heritage Site dates from the 18th to the 20th centuries, with an emphasis on the 19th and early 20th centuries. The city has suffered from the Second World War destruction as well as from the long economic decline after the war.

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The historic evolution of the Liverpool street pattern is still readable representing the different periods. There have been some alterations after the war destruction in 1941. Judging in the overall, though, the protected area has well retained its historic integrity. Not only are the buildings in good state but every effort has been made to preserve the minor detailing of architecture such as the original pulleys of the docks and various other cast iron features. Authenticity In the World Heritage property, the main historic buildings have retained their authenticity to a high degree. There are a small number of areas, especially in the buffer zone, where the damages from the war period still exist. There are also new constructions from the second half of the 20th century, of which not all are to high standard. The main docks survive as water-filled basins within the World Heritage property and the buffer zone. They are not any more operational, though one dock area is operated by Merseyside Maritime Museum, and another is used for ship repairs. The warehouses are being converted to new uses. Here attention is given to keep changes to the minimum. Protection and Management The World Heritage Site is within the boundary of Liverpool City Council. The property is protected through the planning system and through the designation of over 260 buildings. The whole property is protected by Conservation Areas. The World Heritage Site is subject to different plans and policies, including the Liverpool Unitary Development Plan (2002), the Strategic Regeneration Framework (July 2001) and the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City World Heritage Site SPD (2009). There are several detailed master plans for specified areas, and conservation plans for the individual buildings. A full Management Plan has been prepared for the World Heritage Site. Its implementation is overseen by a Liverpool World Heritage Site Steering Group, which includes most public bodies involved in the property.

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Liverpool Waters - Conservation management plan