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Turner Contemporary Precedent Study Š David Chipperfield 2010

AR3019: Integrating Technology Christopher Kelly Asrina Miah Mark McGlynn John Kemp 6 December 2012

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION STRUCTURE 1.1 :: Overall Strategy STRUCTURE 1.2 :: Load Bearing Elements STRUCTURE 1.3 :: Primary and Secondary Components ENVELOPE 2.1 :: From Facade To Gallery Wall ENVELOPE 2.2 :: From Roof To Ceiling ENVELOPE 2.3 :: Elevation Meets Roof ENVELOPE 2.4 :: Where Floor Meets Envelope ENVELOPE 2.5 :: Where Building Meets The Ground ENVELOPE 2.6 :: Insulation

SERVICES 3.1 :: Humidifier SERVICES 3.2 :: Heat SERVICES 3.3 :: Ground Source Heat Pump SERVICES 3.4 :: Electricity Lighting SERVICES 3.5 :: Electricity Ground SERVICES 3.6 :: Hot And Cold Water Supply SERVICES 3.7 :: Ventilation SERVICES 3.8 :: Drainage

LIGHT 4.1 :: Natural Light LIGHT 4.2 :: Daylight Control LIGHT 4.3 :: Light Sensitivity LIGHT 4.4 :: Entrance LIGHT 4.5 :: Electric Lighting

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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INTRODUCTION

TURNER CONTEMPORARY :: MARGATE

The following document is precedent study of the Turner Contemporary Art Gallery in Margate, Kent. David Chipperfield Architects were responsible for the design, completed in 2011.

INTRODUCTION

TURNER CONTEMPORARY :: MARGATE

Tuner Contemporary Site plan showing context.* not to scale. MARGATE

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INTRODUCTION

The Site sits facing the north sea. This location was a strong influence on the design, the materials used and the construction which our outline in the preceding chapters.

INTRODUCTION

THE SITE

Turner Contemporary

Site plan. Chipperfield Architects* not to scale. AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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The idea for a Turner Gallery in Margate was first mooted in 1998 by Kent County Council as a means of delivering a “culture-led regeneration”. Several years later in 2001, Turner Contemporary was officially launched and hosted within Droit House on Margate’s stone pier.

In response to a competition the architects Snøhetta + Spence proposed an almost wave break type scheme a the end of the pier. As cost estimates spiralled from £7m to nearer £50m, the proposal was cancelled.

David Chipperfield Architects won a subsequent competition and the new Turner Contemporary was open in April of last year (2011).

Instead of being situated at the end of the pier, the gallery is located next to the sea on the site of the guest house that Turner used to stay in when he visited Margate and his lover.

Stephen Spence Associates

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Architectural Intention

The six mono pitched glass clad shed like

boxes deliver an iconic skyline and presence to the Margate sea front. Each box contributing

function to the gallery interlinked by means of a core circulation space. The low-iron glass clad

gallery, situated so prominently on the sea front acts as light house and landmark to traffic both on and off the sea. The symbolism of light being the focus of Turner’s masterful paintings is ingrained in the structure. The location of the

gallery, on the site of where Turner used to stay when he visited Margate, further ties him into

of the supporting wall being removed for these

square looks very good given the quality of

must have been made elsewhere to counter

opinion on the final cost but £[5,500] per metre the final result [and in comparison with other

galleries]. Throughout the submission we draw

structure limited to the concrete beams only in

elaborated in the rest of this submission.

made and are likely to include use of revealed

the main entrance with other construction detail board and the use of galvanised steel. The

regular pattern of the structure most likely also

contributed to the managing the overall cost of the build.

ability rating. Kent County Council is requir-

it in a different location. Certainly, the light-

house affect ties it into the sea and the glass

makes it an ideal material for being so close to waves that sometimes break the sea wall. Its anti graffiti coating at the lower levels reflects

has received a BREEAM “Very Good” sustaining new builds to achieve this rating. This

would have added an additional layer of cost

to the scheme, but nonetheless was achieved

through a package of measures including high

insulation values, double and triple glazing rain

guard and windows respectively and the installation of a ground source heat pump.

local concern about its possible treatment. But

Gallery environment: the environment in the

occupies a hinterland between the sea and the

other galleries are to lend their collections. It

it does little or nothing to speak of Margate. It town, not really being a part of either. It has

landed as a gift from the architect, sent ahead

of his own arrival at the opening of the gallery. Key issues

galleries needs to be of the highest quality if also has to be fail safe. This is particularly important for the Turner given that it does

not have its own collection. This has been

achieved by developing a closed system, not exposed to the exterior elements.

In studying the design and construction of the

Quality of lighting: extensive use has been

number of key issues. These are:

tions on the site to create evenly warm lit gal-

Turner Contemporary we have identified a

Cost management: because of the cost issues

made of the North and South lighting condilery space.

associated with the previous scheme, we are

Slot windows: the extensive use of slot win-

was a very real concern in constructing the

teresting set of structural issues. With so much

getting the impression that cost management

dressed with the design and construction is

covered up using false ceilings and plaster-

However, the gallery will not necessarily house

much, if any, of the design would change were

act this feature.

Each of these issues and how they are ad-

Energy management: the Turner Contemporary

more iconic than sensitive. It is not clear how

windows means that structural compensation

out where we think the cost savings have been

this modern and structural reincarnation.

any of Turner’s collection and its presence is

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

gallery. There seems to be some difference of

dows throughout the gallery has created an in-

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1. Gallery 1 2. Gallery 2 3. Gallery 3 4. Gallery 4 5. Admin Area 6. Cafe 7. Reception 8. Multi Function Room 9. Staff Area 10. Staf Area 11. Plant Room

3 5 1

4 2 First Floor

West Facing Elevation

8

10 6

9 7

Ground Floor

11 East Facing Elevation N

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STRUCTURE 1.1 :: OVERALL STRATEGY

The Turner Contemporary is of concrete, glass and steel construction. The super structure is concrete and is designed to provide the primary structural support for the being with 275mm load bearing walls. The concrete is reinforced with steel rods and poured in situ. The building exterior facade is clad in opaque low-iron glass which successfully disguises the concrete. Various different high strength mixes of concrete have been used throughout the build depending on whether they have been used in the ground floor slab, the ring beams and external walls. Due to the views, location and the need for natural light, large slot windows have been used extensively. The position and long horizontal length of these have influenced the structure. Where large parts of load bearing wall have been removed to make way for the slot windows, roof joists that traverse the gallery space and run parallel to the window apertures provide the structural support.

South-East Facing Facade The main entrance is sheltered from the harsh sea breeze but in direct sunlight.

STRUCTURE 1.1 :: OVERALL STRATEGY

THE CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE IS CLAD WITH GLASS

North-west Facing Facade Views out to see and also benefiting from diffused light into the gallery spaces from the north.

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STRUCTURE 1.1 :: OVERALL STRATEGY

Ground Floor Plan - Primary Structure 1:500

Due to the limited budget, cost management was a key consideration in the construction of the gallery. The architect has chosen to use high quality concrete roof beams which can consequently be revealed in the two major circulation spaces - the reception and the multi- function events space. This aesthetic has not been extended to the rest of the internal space of the gallery where cost issues most likely influenced the decision to hide the structural elements. Throughout the rest of the gallery the walls are predominantly dry lined and the ceilings are plastered.

STRUCTURE 1.1 :: OVERALL STRATEGY

TO REVEAL OR NOT REVEAL

First Floor Plan - Primary Structure 1:500

A

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

Roof Plan 1:500

Section A 1.200

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STRUCTURE 1.2 :: LOAD BEARING ELEMENTS

The Turner Contemporary is situated on the seafront at Margate. This exposes it to a range of structural issues arising from the significant wind forces exerted on it due to its exposed position, the instability of the ground due to its proximity to the sea and the force of the sea which occasionally breaks the defences. Possible Live/ Imposed Load

Wind/External Forces

The result of wind on the building will causes two reactions on the building walls: (a) compression on the side of the wind and (b) tension on the side away from the wind.

Possible Live/ Imposed Load

Wind/External Forces Possible Live/ Imposed Load

Dead load from structure

Dead load from structure

Responding Ground Forces

Ground force loads respond to the downward forces of the structure. But the ground near the sea constantly moves around the foundations as a result of the inherent moisture. Moisture in the soil causes the ground to swell up, creating pressure against the ground level structural system. We suspect piled foundations have been used to created a stable footing for the buildings to counter this behaviour.

STRUCTURE 1.2 :: LOAD BEARING ELEMENTS

THE BUILDING IS SITUATED IN A HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT

Each main structural beam has art hanging points along its length, which are designed to take a one tonne load from suspended art works. There are approximately 12 such points in each gallery so that Turner Contemporary provides maximum flexibility for the exhibition programmes.

Responding Ground Forces

Load forces section 1:200

N

Primary Structural Components Secondary Structural Components

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

Live load: The added weight of possible occupants, furnishings and art work. Dead load: the intrinsic weight of a structure or excluding the weight of occupants and furnishings.

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STRUCTURE 1.3 :: PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COMPONENTS

Secondary Roof Structure

Secondary Floor Structure

STRUCTURE 1.3 :: PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COMPONENTS

The primary structural support is provided by steel reinforced concrete which was poured in situ The secondary structural support is provided by steel I-beams and concrete beams.

Primary Concrete Structure

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STRUCTURE 1.3 :: PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COMPONENTS

Horizontal steel I-beams that are set into the concrete walls support the roof. They are 385mm by 375mm and on average span a width of 19m. The roof beams are essential to facilitating the slot windows located throughout the gallery.

N

Roof Joists 1:500

Roof Beams in Gallery 2

Concrete floor joists support the first floor. In the reception area and main multifunction space they are revealed for aesthetic reasons. The beams are 250mm by 500mm thick and generally span the shortest distance possible. However, in the reception area the floor beams traverse the gallery space in parallel with the facade. This approach enabled the architect to remove all supporting walls and create a unified open plan space. A suspended ceiling in between the beams hides the services.

STRUCTURE 1.3 :: PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COMPONENTS

SECONDARY COMPONENTS

N

Floor Joists in the Reception Area

Floor Joists 1:500

Floor Joists Section 1.50 AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

385

500

375

250

Roof Beams Section 1:50 12


ENVELOPE 2.1 :: FROM FACADE TO GALLERY WALL

At the heart of the envelope is a 275mm concrete wall. This is the main structural component of the entire build. To it is hung the architectural components required to create an air tight, dry and warm interior.

Mullions fixed at 1 metre intervals 1m

A Schuco (most likely at 50+) curtain wall comprises a grid of upright mullions that traverse the facade from bottom to top where they meet with the roof. Bridging these mullions across the building are a series of transoms. This curtain wall is the anchor point for patchwork of glass panels that provide the main rain protection and the first layer of protection across the window apertures.

Plan 1:100

Plan cut

The outer layer of glass comprises 2 x 8 mm laminated panels. This glass is acid etched which offers greater transparency when compared with sand blasting. It is low-iron glass which makes it extra clear. These are held in pace by the curtain wall and supported by gravity clips. Structural silicone has been used where two sides of the facade meet.

Dry lining plasterboard

275mm concrete wall

Kingspan rainscreen insulation with black cover taped joints

Black anodised aluminium bracket with taped joints

Mullion

Rail Guard 2 x 8mm laminated acid etched (outer face) low-iron glass

Mullion cap

The curtain wall allows space for the insertion of the insulation. The Turner Contemporary uses Kingspan rain screen insulation which is a specialised type of insulation used in these very situations. Features that make it particularly suitable in this situations include its resistance to water vapour, it is unaffected by air infiltration and a Class 0 fire rating (source: manufacturers notes).

ENVELOPE 2.1 :: LAYERS BETWEEN EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR

CURTAIN WALL

The combination of the glass panels and the insulation act to give this building a very high level of energy efficiency and contribute to the buildings overall Very Good BREEAM rating. On the inside of the gallery the walls are dry lined with plasterboard.

Section 1:10 From exterior to interior AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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ENVELOPE 2.2 :: FROM ROOF TO CEILING

Zinc roofing lip of roof where it meets the side wall super structure

Zinc roofing Waterproof membrane

Roof insulation Trapezoid section sheetFigure: Zinc roofing forms the final barrier to the elements. Credit: Turner Contemporary

Load bearing plywood sheeting

Roof beam

The roof composition is a sandwich of a zinc outer membrane down and an internal suspended ceiling hanging below the roof beam. It is not designed to bear any particular weight with only plywood sheeting bridging the roof beams that traverse the gallery space below. Trapezoid section sheeting provides the base for the roof insulation. A waterproof membrane seals the roof and sits between the insulation and the zinc roofing.

ENVELOPE 2.2 :: LAYERS BETWEEN EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR

ROOF COMPOSITION

Figure: Trapezoid section sheeting provides the base for the roof insulation. Credit: Turner Contemporary Suspended ceiling

Section 1:10 From roof to ceiling

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ENVELOPE 2.3 :: ELEVATION MEETS ROOF

The elevation meets at an edge with the mono pitch roof of the building. The glass facade extends from the ground up to the roof and meets with the roof in a clean cut edge.

Facade. Glass extends to a point creating an edge with the roof.

Z-ed beam ties the mullion, roof plywood and the roof beam toIf the roof section met, in full, with the facade this depth of the roof would be evident from the elevation.

Upright window mullion is retrained by galvanised steel connected to the roof beam.

Plywood cantilevers over the roof beam to meet with the window mullion

The roof section, despite containing the insulation and final finish is not evident from the elevation. This has been achieved by cantilevering the roof from a roof beam set back from the facade. This immediately removes the I beam section from making its presence felt within the facade. Further steps then to reduce the insulation profile once it meets with the upright mullion of the curtain wall further limits the amount that the glass facade has to bridge to meet the corner pitch of the roof. Plywood sheet resting on the roof beam extends up to the window mullion. A z-ed beam connects the plywood sheet to the top of the mullion. The window mullion is braced by means of a restraint connected to the roof beam.

ENVELOPE 2.3 :: ELEVATION MEETS ROOF

ROOF HIDING BEHIND ELEVATION

Roof beam set back from the facade Section 1:10

Elevation - where elevation meets roof

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ENVELOPE 2.4 :: WHERE FLOOR MEETS ENVELOPE Due to the extensive use of slot windows in the north facing elevation the supporting structure for the floors traverses the gallery space running parallel to this elevation.

Poured concrete floor with under floor heating

Trapezoid steel sections bridge the support steel I-beams and act as the contained for the poured concrete flooring. Trapezoid steel section

Supporting I Beam

Concrete super structure

An insulation buffer sites between the flooring and the external concrete superstructure to prevent cold conductivity between the two.

Section 1:5

Figure: Under floor heating runs through the poured concrete floor. Credit Turner Contemporary

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

ENVELOPE 2.4 :: WHERE FLOOR MEETS ENVELOPE

FLOOR SUPPORTS TRAVERSE THE ELEVATION

Figure: Photo illustration of a section at the point where the floor meets the envelope demonstrating the junction between the two and how the lighting and ventilation services run above and below a false ceiling and floor respectively. Credit: One Bryant Park, New York, Cook+ Fox 16


STEEL REINFORCED CONCRETE The concrete structure is underpinned by a steel reinforced concrete slab. In addition the walls [most likely] have piled foundations. A step up from ground level and a membrane at ground level serve to protect the building from its watery environment.

ENVELOPE 2.5 :: WHERE BUILDING MEETS GROUND

ENVELOPE 2.5 :: WHERE BUILDING MEETS GROUND

Figure: Pouring the steel reinforced ground slab, section by section. Credit: Turner Contemporary

Figure Section 1:200 - a concrete slab forms the platform for the Turner Contemporary. We suspect that the main walls have piled foundations.

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ENVELOPE 2.6 :: INSULATION

The envelope and how it is insulated is critical to the energy efficiency of the building. In respect of the Turner Contemporary the insulation is provided in three key areas around the envelope.

3. Roof insulation

Firstly, insulation is provided for in the curtain wall between the rain screen and the concrete superstructure. Secondly, the windows are effectively triple glazed with an air gap between the outer and inner walls. Thirdly, foam glass insulation is used in the roof.

ENVELOPE 2.6 :: INSULATION

INSULATION IS KEY TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY

This insulating approach, together with the on site renewable energy generation, has contributed to the Very Good BREEAM rating given to the building. Kent County Council now demand this standard in all their new builds.

2. Triple glazing with air gap

1. Insulation embedded in the curtain wall

Shortened section 1:15

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SERVICES 3.1 :: HUMIDIFIER HUMIDIFICATION Air enters the building possibly from the roof.

The air contains moisture, salt and sand which is removed by two dehumidifiers.

The location of the building means there is a high exposure to salt and sand in the air. Air is brought in to the building via a series of dehumidifiers and then passed through humidifiers in order to control the humidity in each room. In the two learning studios 23°C with 55% relative humidity is maintained by two Vapac LR close control resistance humidifier humidifiers

Humidified air is then recycled through the shadow gaps between wall and floor. Used air is possibly dispersed through a ventilation system in the roof.

dehumidified air is distributed throughout the building.

Humidification for the four first floor galleries and art store are provided via 5 Vapac LR05P close control resistance systems. This maintains temperatures between 20°C -23°C with 45%-55% relative humidity. The main reception area and ground floor gallery, shop and multi-function events space, toilets and café are air conditioned only

Humidifiers in key areas of the building where humidity levels need to be controlled provide specific amounts of moisture to the galleries and learning rooms. It is assumed that the humidified air is released through the gaps in ceiling.

Gaps between wall and floor and in the ceiling.

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SERVICES 3.2 :: HEAT The sensitivity of the art works loaned to the building require the heating to be accurately controlled. In-floor heating is used and powered by the ground source heat pumps and gas boilers.

500mm

2. SIMLCLIP 3. UFH Pipe 4. DPM Layer 5. Insulation 6. Floor Slab 7. Edge Insulation

Traditional Sand/Cement 65-75mm depth. Flowing screed 55-65mm depth. Long pipe staple to hold pipe in place. Staples can be hand pushed into place or used with the Simpleheat Staple Gun. Simpleheat UFH pipe clipped every 0.5m with pipe staples. DPM used to prevent screed slipping between joints in the insulation We recommend min 50mm high density insulation board (Celotex / Kingspan equivalent)

200mm

1. Screed

The heating is assumed to be set in all the gallery floors in a similar manner to the diagram on the left

SERVICES 3.2 :: HEAT

IN-FLOOR HEATING

To reduce heat loss through walls and absorb screed expansion.

1

200mm

2 3 4 5 6

Detail - a typical in-floor heating set up. *Not the actual system used in the Turner Contemporary.

Actual in floor heating being install Š Turner Contemporary AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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SERVICES 3.3 :: GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP The year round low grade heat contained in the earth has a temperature range between 8 - 12 ËšC. \ Heat Pump (refrigerant system)

High Pressure side

A cold water anti-freeze mix is pumped through energy absorbing pipes known as ground arrays. Due to the natural transfer of heat the liquid is constantly warm as it is circulated through the pipes.

Low Pressure side

Having increased in temperature the anti-freeze mixture is fed in to a heat exchanger called the evaporator. In-floor heating output.

In the exchanger a refrigerant acts as a heat transfer fluid. This refrigerant never comes in to contact with the anti-freeze mixture.

Compressor

Heat Exchanger (Evaporator)

The energy absorbed from the ground in the anti-freeze is transferred to the refrigerant which begins to boils and turn in to a gas

SERVICES 3.3 :: GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP

HOW A GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP WORKS

The gas is fed in to the compressor under pressure which increases the temperature.

Condenser

Expansion Valve Liquid condensed refrigerant

The hot gas goes in to the second heat exchanger called the condenser. Heat is then transferred to a closed circuit system which is pumped around the building delivering hot water warm enough to heat the space required. The hot gas returns to a liquid once the heat is transferred. This liquid is passed through a condenser valve to reduce the pressure and completes the cycle.

Ground array

A typical domestic scale ground source heat pump system.

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SERVICES 3.3 :: GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP

In addition to the back-up gas boiler the heat pump and exchangers/ condensers are located in the separate small services building.

Installation of ground array pipes. Š Energy Vanguard

SERVICES 3.3 :: GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP

The ground source heat pump in the Turner contemporary is a closed loop vertical scheme.

A typical commercial scale ground source heat pump system.

The Turner Contemporary Plant Room

Plant room located off site. Possible scheme of ground source heat pump heating the in floor pipes AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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SERVICES 3.4 :: ELECTRICITY LIGHTING

First Floor Lighting Ceiling Plan 1:500

Despite the extensive and generous use of natural light throughout the gallery, really exploiting its North and Sea facing condition, electric light is required to illuminate the gallery at the beginning and end of the day particularly between Autumn and Spring. To stabilise the lighting conditions, the electric lights have been placed on dimmer switches that automatically react to the prevailing light conditions in the gallery at any given time. As an Autumn day, for example, draws to a close, so the electric light is feathered on to compensate for the fading natural light.

SERVICES 3.4 :: ELECTRICITY LIGHTING

Electricity is an essential component in delivering the environment needed to deliver a gallery space that will maintain the works of art on display. As we have already mentioned this is critically important for the Turner because it does not have its own permanent collection. It is, therefore, completely dependent on being loaned works of art by other galleries. They will only do so if they can be assured that the collections will be housed in the right conditions.

As far as we are aware the electricity is taken from the mains and no attempt has been made to generate renewably on-site. The electricity cables run through the ceiling and, in addition to the lighting, also power the ventilation and water pump systems. Where possible the cable traverses the gallery parallel to the roof beams. Ground Floor Lighting Ceiling Plan 1:500

Wiring

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SERVICES 3.5 :: ELECTRICITY GROUND SERVICES 3.4 :: ELECTRICITY GROUND

First Floor Lighting Ceiling Plan 1:500

Ground Floor Lighting Ceiling Plan 1:500

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SERVICES 3.5 :: ELECTRICITY GROUND SERVICES 3.4 :: ELECTRICITY GROUND

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SERVICES 3.6 :: HOT & COLD WATER SUPPLY

SERVICES 3.4 :: HOT & COLD WATER SUPPLY

Hot and cold running water is used throughout the building to service the washrooms and the kitchen/ cafe area. A gas fired boiler is required to bring the hot water up to the necessary temperature to meet Health and Safety Standards. Hot water is a necessity to ensure that bacteria does not spread in public places. Unfortunately, unless the gallery were to use a renewable source of heat such as a wood chip fired boiler, then it is dependent on gas to deliver this service. The ground source heat pump only produces temperatures of around 20 degree so can not be used in this instance. The pipes traverse the gallery embedded in the floors and in parallel with the alignment of the floor beams.

First Floor Plan 1:200

Cold Water Hot Water

Ground Floor Plan 1:200

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SERVICES 3.6 :: HOT & COLD WATER SUPPLY SERVICES 3.4 :: HOT & COLD WATER SUPPLY

Sea

Drain Water going downward to Sewer

Plant Room

Toilets

Boiler

Drainage Hot Water Cold Water AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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SERVICES 3.6 :: HOT & COLD WATER SUPPLY SERVICES 3.4 :: HOT & COLD WATER SUPPLY

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SERVICES 3.7 :: VENTILATION

The design for Ventilation Systems for Turner Contemporary is very simple yet productive and purposful. The Vetilation Systems are used for cooling the air for the purpose of comfort for the habitants. For heating David Chipperfield has designed an Underfloor Heating System using Pipes that run through under the floor slabs. The Ventilation Systems are placed on the Roof. There are three systems. All three ventilate different rooms of the building.

SERVICES 3.4 :: VENTILATION

Ventilation

On this diagram the Ventilation Systems are clearly shown ventilating different areas of the building. The Purple System is ventilation the Office Space and Corridors. The Green System ventilates the Cafe Space. The Larger of the two, the Red System ventilates all the Gallery Spaces inside the building. The air comes in and out of the room through 10mm Ventilation Grooves. They are very consistent and runn through every room on the ceiling.

Ventilation System for Cafe Ventilation System for Offices and Corridors Ventilation System for Galleries

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SERVICES 3.7 :: VENTILATION SERVICES 3.4 :: VENTILATION

Ventilation System for Cafe Ventilation System for Offices and Corridors Ventilation System for Galleries

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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SERVICES 3.7 :: VENTILATION

Cold Air Coming IN trhough Ventilation Grooves Hot Air Escaping into the Ventilation System on the Roof

Ventilation Pipe

SERVICES 3.4 :: VENTILATION

Vetilation Grooves (10mm thick)

Hot Air Escaping Through Ventilation Grooves (10mm thick) Hot Air Running Through Vetilation Pipes

Warm Air Escaping from Room into the Ventilation Grooves

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SERVICES 3.8 :: DRAINAGE

There are two types of drainage on the exterior of the building,; slot drainage and channel drainage. The slot drainage is a low maintenance drainage system which is very sanitary. It is built in to the ground in one piece, on a slope, with a slot at the top. It eliminates the need for a grate. Next to the building Channel drainage is used. This allows for easy installation and maintenance. The grating is galvanised.

SERVICES 3.5 :: DRAINAGE

DRAINAGE

Section of a typical slot drain Š www. slotdrainsystems.com

Slot drains Channel drains

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

Exterior channel drain at Turner Contemporary

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LIGHT 4.1 :: NATURAL LIGHT

Various techniques are in use including natural North and South light, studio spotlights and fluorescent lighting. The sensitivity in how they are implementing sets the Turner Contemporary apart as an important precedent.

Gallery 1 showing sea view and flat naturally lit space.

David Chipperfield Sketch, outlining the orientation of the sun, north light and sea view. Š David Chipperfield 2010

NORTH LIGHT The positioning of the site was unique as North was facing the sea. This allowed the architects to openly glaze the North walls of the building to allow for an ocean view and at the same time invite flat North light in to the gallery rooms. This gave a maritime light’ atmosphere, particularly at the end of the day.

LIGHT 4.1 :: NATURAL LIGHT

The lighting of the Turner Contemporary, as is with most galleries, was a crucial element in the design process of the building.

The quality of the natural light gives a studio feel to the gallery spaces. According to the staff the Gallery is admired by artists who have displayed their work their due to the perfect lighting conditions. The galleries primarily receive daylight through north light. Due to the geometry of the galleries, the north light provides more light on the south wall than the north wall. A gallery lit via a north light alone has asymmetric qualities of illumination. To balance the asymmetry on an annual basis, a smaller skylight has been introduced within the sloping roof of each gallery. The skylight is inclined towards the south, and provides more light to the north wall than the south wall. The skylight is completely diffused to prevent direct sunlight from entering the gallery.

North facing facade showing windows to the galleries and reception. AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

During overcast sky conditions the daylight from the northlight dominates the gallery. However during sunny conditions, diffused sunlight from the smaller skylight is more prevalent in the space. The resulting light variation is asymmetric at any given time. However over the course of a year the cumulative light exposure on the north and south wall is balanced.

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LIGHT 4.2 :: DAYLIGHT CONTROL

Due to season, time of day and weather, daylight availability varies. Chipperfield and ARUP decided that a varying intensity and colour is enjoyable and should be present within the galleries The use of a passive daylight control system rather than a mechanical one was favoured. This results in a slight variation of lighting quality throughout the seasons, time of day and with the weather. Sun plays a huge part in the quality of light. Daylight levels can jump up to five times the amount when the sun emerges from clouds. The size and location of the northlight and skylight helps to reduce the variability caused by the sun.

Section – Gallery

LIGHT 4.2 :: DAYLIGHT CONTROL

GALLERY DAYLIGHT CONTROL

Daylight levels from the sky alone (without sun) are more constant, although overcast skies in summer are typically three times brighter than overcast skies in winter. Variations in light level from the sky alone generally occur more slowly than changes in direct sun illumination. With a passive approach, daylight levels in the galleries vary appreciably throughout the year. Rather than target specific and constant illumination levels for the display of art, a range of light levels and study of the total illumination exposure received by artworks over a given time period as well as instantaneous light levels was undertaken. A system of blinds allow for lower light levels (including blackouts) on a gallery by gallery basis. It is anticipated that these blinds will be set to a particular fixed setting for each exhibition, and will not ‘daylight track’ in any way.

Section – Gallery with blackout blinds.

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

These blind systems block the artwork from unnecessary light. During the summer there are five hours of light in the mornings which can be deemed as unnecessary exposure time to the art work. The blind are used during this period and during any museum closure days

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LIGHT 4.3 :: LIGHT SENSITIVITY Gallery Illuminance - Mar 21, sunny sky

• The sensitivity of the artwork • The level of illumination • The period of time over which the artwork is illuminated • The spectral content of the light Typical museum objects were studied and placed in to categories according to sensitivity: High Sensitivity Textiles Watercolours Paper Photography All organic materials whose surface colour is important.

Perspective View

Perspective View

LIGHT 4.3 :: LIGHT SENSITIVITY

Gallery Illuminance - Mar 21, overcast sky

Arup analysed the light sensitivity of different types of art work, the results were dependant on:

Moderate Sensitivity Oil Paintings Tempera Paintings Not Sensitive Stones Jewels Metals Ceramics (some ceramics may damage, depending upon the glaze)

North Wall: illuminance (lux) is plotted in the image

North Wall: illuminance (lux) is plotted in the image

International standards for average illumination levels have been developed to limit exposure to sensitive works. Recommended maximum illuminance for works, as categorized above are: High Sensitivity: 50 – 100 lux Moderate Sensitivity: 250 – 350 lux Not Sensitive: none

South Wall: illuminance (lux) is plotted in the image

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

South Wall: illuminance (lux) is plotted in the image

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LIGHT 4.4 :: ENTRANCE

The entrance space is open double height and also acts as an additional gallery on the ground floor. This gallery has a large vertical window in the lower half of the space and a skylight (similar to the other galleries) in the roof. This gallery is intended to provide a nontraditional space for exhibiting works, and therefore is lit differently from the other galleries. The entrance gallery includes a mesh blind to reduce the quantity of light in the gallery if necessary for some installations. In general, it is envisioned that the view be unobstructed as much as possible. Generally the entrance gallery is used to exhibit works that can handle an increased exposure to light.

LIGHT 4.4 :: ENTRANCE

ENTRANCE

Section – Entrance Gallery

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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GALLERY ELECTRIC LIGHTING When daylight levels are low, either at the end of the day or because of heavy cloud, illumination levels are supplemented with electric light. This electric light can be brought on gradually using a dimming system, or can be simply switched on. The advantage of using dimming is that total illumination exposure is lower and the colour transition from cool daylight to warmer electric light happens gradually as daylight fades. A system of dimmed fluorescent lighting are incorporated within the skylight to supplement natural light levels as daylight fades.

LIGHT 4.5 :: ELECTRIC LIGHTING

LIGHT 4.5 :: ELECTRIC LIGHTING

TRACK LIGHTING

Detail – Skylight with blackout blind & fluorescent battens.

All the gallery spaces have a system of flexible track-based object lighting It is likely that the primary light source employed in these fixtures are tungsten halogen. The track fittings are museum grade fittings such as Erco Parscan or Zumtobel Xeno. They have the ability to lock the aim and focus from trackmounted fixtures. LIGHTING CONTROL SYSTEM Electric lighting and motorised shading are controlled by a building wide lighting control system. The lighting control system is fully programmable. The system accommodates user input devices such as multi-button wall stations, an LCD touch screen station, and a PC interface for programming. The blind control strategy requires that the control system is capable of determining the position of the sun (using solar position algorithms). Additionally input from an external photo sensor is implemented.

Section – Electric lighting locations.

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

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GROUND FLOOR ELECTRIC LIGHTING The ceiling in the ground floor spaces is characterized by concrete beams that are 200mm wide and spaced 600mm apart. Surface or pendant mounted linear fluorescent fittings are used to illuminate the ground floor. OFFICE LIGHTING It is assumed that linear fluorescent direct/indirect lighting is used in the office areas. The Luxmate professional lighting control system by Zumtobel Lighting is used. DAYLIGHT CONTROL IN NONGALLERY SPACES The following shades are provided in non-gallery spaces: Section - Surface mounted adjustable down light, surface mounted linear fluorescent, pendant mounted linear fluorescent.

Reception/Shop - Motorised blinds are installed for all vertical glazing to control heat gain and glare. Café – External motorised shade blinds control heat gain and glare. Multifunction Room– Internal motorised blackout blinds allow for the room to be darkened. Offices: South façade - External motorized shade blinds control heat gain. Plus internal screen blinds, manually operated control glare. North façade - Internal screen blinds, manually operated control glare.

Detail - Surface mounted adjustable down light, surface mounted linear fluorescent, pendant mounted linear fluorescent.

AR3019 Integrating Technology, Precedent Study :: Turner Contempo-

EXTERNAL LIGHTING External lighting is provided and positioned within the plinth itself and within all of the ramp. EMERGENCY LIGHTING An M/3 system provides emergency lighting throughout the building in accordance with BS 5266: Part 1 and BS 5499: Part 1 respectively. The system is a central battery system. Illuminated exit signs are found in all escape routes and exhibition spaces.

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Tectonics Final