DATA, ANALYSIS, & DESIGN INTENT
MICAH MCKELVEY CHRIS SCHOENLEIN 1
WASHIINGTON, D.C MIXED USE OFFICE BLDG INTEGRATED DESIGN COMPETITION / FOURTH YEAR / SPRING 2011 KENT STATE UNIVERSITY CAED / PROFESSOR JOE FERUT
MICAH MCKELVEY CHRIS SCHOENLEIN
PROJECT OVERVIEW Design intent. The design strategy of The Yards Mixed-Use development takes direction from the stimuli and complex embedded systems of the site and turns them into an adjustable and reactive response. A building that at once passively navigates its context, but gently adjusts its active systems to breathe with the city and the waterfront.
As a response to its physical surroundings and situated between two large public green spaces, the building is split in two allowing for uninterrupted pedestrian access. Creating a continuous flow of activity from the city at the northwest, to the park at the southeast, this splice takes that urban activity and brings it up through the offices into an urban neighborhood of break rooms and exterior balconies. Thus, this cut strategically and physically opens the city to its lost waterfront, but also allocates heat-gain exposures of the building skin primarily to the south and west facades. For this environmental concern the building reacts in two ways: by sloping the south exposure to create a self-shading wall (which reacts with a water-catching light well keeping lease spans consistent for day-lighting) and implementing the use of self-adjusting ETFE pillows on the west that create variable sun shading dependent on need. These strategies together with day-lighting sensors for the interior and rain collection on the exterior bring life to a building that continuously reacts to the environmental and social input of the context and develops an imperative response necessary in the architectural design of today.
TABLE OF CONTENTS MASTER PLAN
Neighborhoods 6 Public spaces
Transportation 10 Environment 12 Culture 14 CLIMATE 16 Temperature 17 Solar studies
ENERGY 20 CODE CONSIDERATIONS
Height and area limitations
Mixed use and occupancy
Travel distance + remoteness of exits
Area of refuge + minimum stair width
CONSTRUCTION 30 Substructure, Superstructure, Design
Bottom Up Construction
Bjarke ingles group
ZONING 40 PROGRAM 40 Concepts 42 RESULTS 44 RESOURCES 45
MASTER PLAN The proposed site housing the new office and mixed use building is being developed by Forrest City and is named The Yards, after the Navy Yards which used to occupy the site. The Yards, consisting of a number of city blocks, is part of a much larger scheme to revitalize an entire district which has set forth a series of goals to create a cohesive and healthy community named the Anacostia Waterfront Initiative. The initiative encompasses a broad vision to revitalize the environmental, cultural, and economic aspects of the District of Columbiaâ€™s waterfront to bring life to a historically missed opportunity. The ultimate goal: transform Washingtonâ€™s waterfronts to achieve a vibrant mix of natural and neighborhood assets along a clean river and preserve natural resources for the benefit and enjoyment of residents and visitors.
The initiativeâ€™s goals encompass a wholistic approach to regenerating the riverfront and includes provisions for the environment, transportation, public space, destinations, and neighborhoods to restore, connect, play, celebrate, and live.
the DC metro area 6
OUR GOALS •Create a strong waterfront connection in order to reconnect the city to the river and the waterfront park system. • Promote sustainable and environmentally conscious systems as imperative for new development. • Invest in existing neighborhood amenities to improve the local lives of building occupants. • Create dynamic public spaces and connect the new office building to these social interactions in a vital way that makes them amenities to the neighborhood.
NEIGHBORHOODS / LIVE
PUBLIC SPACES / PLAY
As is evident by the map to the right, the selected site in The Yards development will be surrounded by existing and planned public spaces. According to the master plan, these spaces should create a sense of interconnectivity and community.
OUR GOALS • The new office building should become a link within a series of interconnected and continuous waterfront spaces that attract residents and visitors to gather and play. • Create a public space design that will improve circulation to and between waterfront open spaces and connect the building with public realm.
Diamond Teague Park, named after a young member of the Earth Conservation Corps who was murdered months before he was scheduled to leave for college on an environmental conservation scholarship, is located at the foot of the stadium offering a water-taxi service, an environmental pier for non-motor boats, and floating wetlands that are reflective of Teague’s commitment to the environment. The piers at Diamond Teague are the first fixed piers built in the District since the Urban Renewal in the 1960s.
The Yards Park is a beautifully designed, well-detailed urban park with tremendous versatility. It is a wonderful example of the public benefits provided by successful public/private partnerships and will certainly prove to be a quality of life asset in this area for years to come.
waterfront parks / overview
Canal Park is a three-block park along 3rd Street SE between I and M Streets SE. Its name references the Washington Canal, which once connected the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers.
virgina avenue community garden
canal park joy evans day care tingey plaza
tingey square the yards waterfront park anacostia riverwalk trail diamond teague park
The Anacostia Riverwalk Trail, a 20-mile pedestrian and bicycle trail, serves as both a recreational amenity and commuting alternative for Washington-area
The District has made an effort to integrate alternative forms of mobility into its projects in order to create a multi-modal transportation network, including specific focus on: • Streetcar • Water Taxi • Metro • Pedestrian • Bicycle
OUR GOALS • Provide pedestrian bicycle accommodation by installing public bike racks on site and private indoor bicycle rack for building occupants. • Provide shower rooms for office workers commuting by bike. • Reflect the master plan’s vision of the urban boulevard with mixed uses, landscaping and great civic spaces. • Engage the city street grid to civic realm. • Promote the use of alternative transportation choices and public transit.
TRANSPORTATION / CONNECT
BICYCLE Commuting to work by bicycle is a excellent way to beat Washington DCâ€™s infamous rush hour congestion. Bike commuting also provides many other side benefits which make it a very attractive alternative to more typical commuting options. Since 2002, more than 13 miles of new bike lanes have been constructed. This includes new trails on North Carolina, New Jersey, Alabama and Potomac Avenues, and First, 11th, 14th, 15th and 25th Streets SE.
STREETCAR SERVICE The ongoing Anacostia Initial Line Segment (AILS) is the first segment in the streetcar program. It has been designed to connect the underdeveloped southeast section of the city to the rest of Washington, and will be a critical element in the Districtâ€™s multi-modal transportation network. The streetcar system will make it easier for residents to move between neighborhoods and ultimately spur economic development.
WATER TAXI Water Taxi Service Water taxi service began in 2009 between Nationals Ballpark and destinations in Virginia and Maryland by way of a public pier at Diamond Teague Park. Local charter companies operate approximately one dozen different vessels to the pier for home games at the park and other special events.
METRO Metro ridership has skyrocketed in the Anacostia waterfront area in recent years. Ridership at the Anacostia, Navy Yard and Southwest Waterfront stations has increased by more than 1 million riders (a 40% increase) between 2003 and 2008. The D.C. Metro is a reliable and effective transit system which covers most of the Washington metropolitan area. The five lines all center round the National mall which lies only a mile from the Yards and the Anacostia Waterfront, easily accessible by the Navy Yards stop on the green line which is located to the North on M Street. The hours of operation for the metro during the week are 5 a.m to midnight and on weekends from 7 a.m to 3 a.m.
BUS AND CIRCULATOR There are several bus stops and bus lines running through the Riverfront, connecting the site with the D.C. metropolitan area. It is among the fastest modes of transportation in D.C. due to the magnitude of routes and stops. New to D.C., the Circulator service between Union Station and the Navy Yard was initiated in 2009 and saw an increase in ridership by 26% over its first year of service. More than 37,000 trips are taken on the Circulator each month.
PEDESTRIAN MOBILITY Walking is a very popular mode of transportation in the D.C. area since residents within the District have access to many forms of public transportation and with the National Mall only a mile away, there is the potential for a large volume of pedestrian traffic around our site within The Yards. Foot traffic from baseball fans visiting Nationals Park and the close proximity to the Navy Yards Metro stops on the green line make the Waterfront an easily accessible destination for pedestrians.
THE ANACOSTIA RIVERWALK TRAILS / development plan. The solid yellow depicts currently constructed portions of the walks, dashed lines depict planned trails. 11
ENVIRONMENT / RESTORE
OUR GOALS • Create plans to contribute to environmental healing and rejuvenation of water-dependent activities. • Eliminate pollution and control water run-off in order to restore streams and wetlands. • Collect rainwater to use in supplemental gray water system. • Promote water-based recreational activities. • Increase environmental education on the river’s watershed.
A leading goal for the Anacostia Riverfront Initiative is to restore the river and surrounding area back to its natural state. The Anacostia watershed (an extent or area of land where surface water from precipitation converges to a single point, where the waters join another water body) encompasses 176 square miles. The new office development will aid in the goal of significant and lasting environmental progress. WATER QUALITY The Anacostia River had a depth of 20 to 35 feet in 1790. That depth decreased to only 18 feet in 1890 due to increased soil erosion and the discharge of sewage into the river. Over the next 60 years efforts were made to deepen the channel by dredging material from the river’s bottom. This material was deposited on the river’s banks to reclaim the wetlands. The floodplains in 1985 covered a much larger portion of Washington D.C. than present day. The change in floodplains occurred from receding river depths and natural changes in the land and natural surroundings The area was once a thriving natural and commercial resource with abundant wildlife and clean unpolluted water. The Anacostia River once flowed with strength until it was damaged by sewage and other pollution that came with the progress in technology. The depth of the Anacostia River is currently between 10 and 14 feet. The river is now one of the region’s most polluted rivers due to the leakage of raw sewage from antiquated sewer systems. The water is unsafe for swimming and for wildlife. The floodplains (a flat area of land adjacent to a stream or river that floods during periods
of high discharge) of the Washington, D.C. area affect mostly the western part of the region, however one of the main channels runs right through the center of the Navy Yards site. The Anacostia Waterfront Initiative hopes to transform the river into an active one, with the Anacostia 2032 plan making it swimmable by 2025. They also hope to increase the maritime activity and thus the depth of the river will need to increase to accommodate watercraft and water traffic.
Ward 6 has a tree coverage of 12%, impervious surfaces 69%, and the last 19% by other surfaces. The urban forest provides air quality benefits by removing nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide ozone and particulate matter of 10 microns or less. The Metro DC areaâ€™s urban forest removes 20 million pounds of pollutants from the air each year, a benefit worth $49.8 million annually.
The Long Term Control Plan is in place to replace antiquated sewer systems with miles of new underground wastewater tunnels to continue to reduce the amount of sewer overflow into the river. The concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen and sulfur will also continue to decrease as the rest of the pollution is removed, resulting in the removal of acid from the water, eventually making the river swimmable. New wetlands have been created all throughout the Anacostia Watershed and will be an integral part in restoring the former natural glory of the area. The wetlands will also help to reintroduce those ecosystems that disappeared with the rise of pollution. Environmental Education is integral to the success of environmental restoration. In order to make a difference guaranteed to last, educational materials on the river and its watershed will need to be provided so citizens are aware of how much of an impact their everyday life has on the river. Residents of the nearby neighborhoods need to be aware of what contributions they can make, including conserving energy in their homes to minimize the amount of toxic output that currently ends up in the river. Once citizens are informed of the efforts already in place, the rates of pollution should decrease and the river can be better restored to its original splendor.
VEGETATION Heavy tree cover in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area has declined by more than 30 percent since 1972, while low canopy forestation has increased by more than 20 percent. This trend was even more pronounced within the District of Columbia. Tree cover varies from a high 72 percent canopy density in rural Mantua to a low 9 percent canopy in the very urbanized Friendship Village. The region is comprised of 187,767 acres of tree canopy (46%), 110,300 acres of impervious surfaces (27%), 70,747 acres of open space (17%), 27,072 acres of bare soil area (7%), and 11,036 acres of water (3%). The total stormwater retention capacity of the urban forest on these lands is 949 million cubic feet in avoided storage of water and is valued at $4.7 billion (based on construction costs estimated at $5 per cubic foot to build equivalent retention facilities).
Trees reduce stormwater flow by intercepting rainwater on leaves, branches, and trunks. Some of the intercepted water evaporates back into the atmosphere, and some soaks into the ground reducing the total amount of runoff that must be managed in urban areas.
AIR QUALITY Depending on the type of air pollutant, pollutant levels have been reduced by approximately 20% to 50% in the District overall since 2000. The major impact was on water quality because it had a 50% decrease in concentrations of nitrogen oxides and sulfur that lead to acidification of water bodies. Finally, under the 2009 Urban Tree Canopy Goal, Mayor Fenty established a 40% canopy cover goal for 2035. Approximately 6,000 trees were planted annually in the city, which has improved both air quality and stormwater management. Transportation is one-third to one-half the amount of pollution in Washington D.C. This makes public transportation very important. D.C. was able to keep a flat rate for miles traveled between 2005 and 2010.
NATIVE/COMMON PLANT SPECIES
Sourwood, Purple passionflower, Apricot vine, Eastern gray beardtongue, Mississippi penstemon, Smooth white beardtongue, Eastern beardtongue, Wild blue phlox, Atlantic ninebark, Shortleaf pine, Pitch pine, Red spruce, Weymouth pine, Jersey pine, American sycamore Sycamore, Greek valerian, Jacobâ€™s Ladder, American plum, Chokecherry, Wafer ash, White oak, Scarlet oak, Red oak 13
CULTURE / CELEBRATE
Several distinct waterfront destinations have emerged during the past decade throughout the Washington area. With new waterfront investments in Georgetown, Alexandria, Prince George’s County and other District waterfronts, the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers are poised to offer unparalleled cultural and entertainment experiences for residents and visitors alike.
OUR GOALS • Create a building that visually enriches the cityscape. • Design working spaces for building occupants that create a sense of place and belonging. • Attract and house building tenants that provide cultural enrichment to the neighborhood. Plans currently include the design of a public art gallery and sculpture garden. • Give priority to building tenants which provide a locally based service or product.
In 2010 the Capitol Riverfront witnessed continued residential growth, significant office and retail leasing activity, the completion of the iconic 5½-acre riverfront Yards Park, and the ground breaking of Canal Park. As Washington, DC continues to exhibit residential and employment growth, the height-constrained nature of the District of Columbia coupled with the build-out of Downtown DC will continue to push development into Downtown-adjacent neighborhoods such as the Capitol Riverfront. The Front remains well positioned directly in the path of growth to capture new residents and businesses in the neighborhoods on the river. The Anacostia Waterfront Initiative Framework Plan’s destinations agenda established the goals of protecting and enhancing the District’s cultural heritage and creating attractions to draw visitors to the waterfront. To date, several important investments in destinations have been or are being made. AWI’s destination agenda clearly establishes the goal of attracting and developing world-class destinations along the District’s waterfronts that honor and celebrate local heritage and cultural assets.
Anacostia riverfront at The Yards was a bustling wharf with ships delivering lumber and other raw building materials to the growing city. North of the wharves, the area now known as The Yards was home to a successful pottery factory, sugar refinery, brewery, and other light industrial businesses.
Following the Spanish-American War in 1898, the Washington Navy Yard required additional land to fulfill its expanding mission. So, Congress looked westward and a silted inlet of the Anacostia River was filled. This area included the easternmost portion of what is today The Yards. The Washington Navy Yard’s shipbuilding capacities were diminishing as the principal product of its numerous factory buildings on site had become ordnance. The area became known as the Naval Gun Factory and industrial activity there flourished
In reaction to World War I, in 1916 Congress passed the Naval Appropriation Act aiming to make the United States Navy “Second to None” in the world. Additional land was claimed by the Navy Yard westward to 2nd Street to accommodate increased ordnance manufacturing efforts. By 1929, more than 4,000 workers were employed on site for the manufacture of advanced machinery used to outfit Naval warships. Most of the workers lived just blocks away; a neighborhood of hardworking skilled African-American and Eastern European families existed in the northwestern portion of the site until the 1940’s. By the early 1940’s, with the threat of a second World War looming, the Navy Yard Annex grew again to include land west to 1st Street-the current western boundary of The Yards--including some of the homes formerly occupied by Navy Yard laborers.
After WWII, with the development of electronic missile technology occurring at privately-contracted companies and decentralized locations, the Washington Navy Yard became principally an administrative and ceremonial center. During the 20th century the river deteriorated. The pollution of the river diminished its value as an asset to the city. After World War II, the Navy Yard consolidated its operations to a smaller campus, which slowed the economic and neighborhood activity of the area. Around this same time, the elevated portion of Interstate 395 was completed, creating a physical barrier for access to the river. The combination of these and several other factors led to the river and the riverfront neighborhoods becoming neglected and overrun with crime. For many years, the neighborhood was home to eight LGBT bars and nightclubs that have since been displaced.
In 2003, at the urging of D.C. Congressional Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton, the GSA conducted a nationwide request for proposals among private sector real estate developers to determine interest in acquiring the former Navy Yard Annex site for redevelopment, including its several remaining historically protected former industrial buildings. The remaining 42-acre riverfront property site, including several historically protected, former industrial buildings was awarded for redevelopment by the GSA to Forest City Washington, a nationally recognized developer and manager of major urban mixed-used projects, based upon its impressive proposal to redevelop the site as an exciting new urban mixed-use, riverfront redevelopment including 2,800 residential units, 1.8 million SF of office space and up to 400,000 SF of retail space, not to mention a significant riverfront public park to be collectively known as The Yards.
DEMOGRAPHICS Washington D.C. (Total Population- 599,5657) white- 40.6% black- 54% american indian- .4% asian- 3.2% hawaiian- .1% 2 or more races- 1.6% hispanic- 8.8%
male- 47.2% female- 52.8% under 5- 6.2% under 18- 19% 65 and older - 11.7% Mean travel time to work in minutes29.7 Median Household Income- $58,553 Persons Below Poverty Level- 16.9% 2,000 People Per Square Mile
High School Graduates- 77.8% Bachelors Degree or Higher- 39.1%
The Yards (Total Population: 1825) Above 18: 1260 17 and under: 565 Married: 76 Married w/ Children: 25 Married w/o Children: 51
Black: 1721 White: 56 Hispanic: 22 Asian: 7 American Indian: 2 Other: 17
Buildings in the Washington D.C. area typically are primarily concerned with cooling loads, but from mid-April through October the temperatures are considerably above the comfort level and the building will have a larger cooling load for the summer months. Due to this, techniques to reduce heat gain from the summer sun will most likely have to be used. It is also possible that passive heating techniques can help to reduce the heating load from November to mid-April when the building is under-heated.
5PM SUMMER SOLSTICE WINTER SOLSTICE
WIND STUDIES SUMMER
As the world evolves, demand for energy continues to rise while conventional energy sources continue to disappear and often cause adverse effects to natural habitats and environmental systems. For this it is imperative to invest in alternative energy sources as well as combat the causes of energy over consumption. As is evident in the data provided, office buildingsâ€™ major energy loads stem from lighting usuage of electricity. In addition to other concerns, we propose a system of exterior cladding and energy generation that works together to try and eliminate the use of electricity for lighting needs.
TOTAL MAJOR FUEL CONSUMPTION trillion btu
SITE ENERGY USE IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS
source: Energy Information Administration, 1995 Commercial Buildings Consumption Survey
BUILDINGS AGGREGATE ENERGY EXPENDITURES recorded
source: 2006 Buildings Energy Data Book, US Dept of Energy
COMMERCIAL PRIMARY ENERGY USE
source: 2009 Buildings Energy Data Book, US Dept of Energy, Table 3.14 20
OUR GOALS • Eliminate the need for electicity for lighting purposes. • Impliment technologies that work together in a comprehensive and conditionally responsive system. • Generate on-site energy through the use of a photovoltaic array on the roof. • Limit office space lease spans to 35 feet in order to eliminate the need for general lighting during the day. • Implement the use of an ETFE cladding system to reduce cooling loads by responsively reacting to changing heat-gain conditions. • Design a natural ventilation system to provide fresh air and reduce depency on mechanical systems.
ETFE + GLAZING ENVELOPE APPLICATION
Nanogel Nanogel, a form of silica aerogel, is 95% air and offers high performance thermal insulation when placed between glass panes on exterior glazing systems, reaching R-Values as high as R-17. Nanogel is a Silver Cradle to Cradle certified material and creates full spectrum but soft museum quality day lighting conditions.
ETFE Insulated Structures Unlike conventional glazing, ETFE foil offers some levels of insulation. Since the ETFE membrane creates an air cushion, the insulation value increases with every additional layer of foil. # of foils U Value
2 3 4 5
1.9 F0/Btu/h Ft2 2.9 F0/Btu/h Ft2 3.8 F0/Btu/h Ft2 4.8 F0/Btu/h Ft2
2.94 Wm-2K 1.96 Wm-2K 1.47 Wm-2K 1.18 Wm-2K
Preliminary natural ventilation design
ETFE solar control strategy
CODE CONSIDERATIONS USE GROUPS
HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS
Height and area limitation may be found in chapter five of the Ohio Building Code. The restrictions are given in terms of stories and area. Because we are working primarily with concrete structure, it is likely that both the amount of stories and the area per story will remain unlimited, when referencing only code restrictions. The area and height restrictions also depend on use group. In this specific circumstance, though, the construction type overrides the effect of use groups. The natural fire resistivity of a concrete structure is what makes these height and area limitations unrestricted regardless of use group.
A-1 - Assemly uses with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of the performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to : Motion picture theaters, Symphony and concert halls, Television and radio studios admitting an audience, Theaters A-2 - Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but limited to: Banquet halls, Night Clubs. Restaurants, Taverns and bars A-3 - Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A including, but not limited to: Amusement arcades, Art galleries, Bowling alleys, Places of religious worship, Community halls, Courtrooms, Dance halls (not including food or drink consumptions), Exhibition halls, Funeral parlors, Gymnasiums (without spectator seating), Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating), Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating), Lecture halls, Libraries, Museums, Waiting areas in transportation terminals, Pools and billiard parlors A-4 - Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to: Arena, Skating rinks, Swimming pools, Tennis court A-5 - Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing our door activities including, but not limited to: Amusement park structures, Bleachers, Grandstands, Stadiums
MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY Mixed use occupancy may be found in chapter five of the Ohio building code and specifically in section 508. This information is used where a building or portion thereof contains two or more occupancies or uses. The building or portion thereof shall comply with the applicable provisions. Within mixed occupancies, each portion of a building shall be individually classified in accordance with the previously listed use groups. Depending on occupancy, percentage of total building area, location and construction, each of these areas will require a certain amount of fire protection. Based on the layout of the occupancy groups, separation may be required vertically and/or horizontally. The amount of fire protection not only depends on this layout but also on the type of construction and existence of sprinklers.
Business B - Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: Airport traffic control towers, Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds, Banks, Barber and beauty shops, Car wash, Civic administration, Clinic - outpatient when staff is adequate to assure the safe evacuation of patients in an emergency, Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service, Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade, Electronic data processing, Laboratories: testing and research, Motor vehicle showrooms, Post offices, Print shops, Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.), Radio and television stations, Telephone exchanges, Training and skill development not within a school or academic program. Mercantile M - Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, buildings and structures or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: Department stores, Drug stores, Markets, Motor fuel-dispensing facilities, Retail or wholesale stores, Sales rooms
EXIT ACCESS Exit Access may be found in chapter ten of the Ohio building code, specifically in section 1014. Generally, this section states the exit access arrangement regulations. These regulations include the inability of egress to pass through particular areas including but not limited to kitchens, storage rooms and closets. In regards to multiple tenants in any building, each unit must have direct access to required exits. There are also a minimum number of exits for each floor based on occupancy. In order for a single means of egress to be acceptable in assembly, business or mercantile use groups, there must be no more than 49 occupants in that space, and the maximum travel distance cannot exceed 75 feet. According to section 1018 of the OBC, buildings must have at least one exit which is an exterior door. Examples of this requirement are shown in the upper sequence of diagrams. 24
TRAVEL DISTANCE + REMOTENESS OF EXITS The common path of egress travel (shown below) shall not exceed 75 feet. The maximum length of exit access travel is measured from the most remote point within a story to the exit along the natural and unobstructed path. This maximum length of exit access travel is 200 feet in assembly, mercantile and business use groups without a sprinkler system. With a sprinkler system, assembly and mercantile exit access travel distance increases to 250â€™ and business to 300â€™. These distances do not apply to the single exit circumstances referenced previously in which the travel distance cannot exceed 75 feet. These distances must be true for fully enclosed stairs. If there are unenclosed stairs, they will not meet the code. Required exits should be unobstructed; they must be located in a manner which makes their availability obvious.
Exit access travel is measured from the most remote point in a building along the natural unobstructed path of travel to an exit.
ALLOWABLE CONDITIONS The typical restrictions into passageway diagram shows that doors opening into the path of egress travel shall not reduce the required width to less than one-half during the course of the swing. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches into the required width. In stairways, doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one half the required width. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches into a landing. The sequence of diagrams on the left provides the requirements for exit access doorway arrangement. With 2 exits, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to, not less than 1/2 the length of the minimum overall diagonal dimension.
diagonal dimension = 134’-0” minimum separation of exits = 134/3 = 44’ - 8”
Remoteness of exits in a building with an automatic sprinkler system
AREA OF REFUGE + MINIMUM STAIR WIDTHS The area of refuge requirements may be found in chapter 10 of the Ohio Building Code, specifically in section 1007.6. This section states that every required area of refuge shall not exceed the travel distance permitted for the occupancy and must have direct access to an enclosed stairway or code complying elevator lobby. Each area of refuge shall be sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 30â€? x 48â€? for each 200 occupants. The required means of egress and access to them must not be reduced by wheelchair spaces. The width of stairway landings shall not be less than the width of the stairways they serve. The minimum dimension of the landing in the direction of travel must be equal to the width of the stairway. Stairway landing restrictions may be referenced in section 1009.4 in the OBC. (The graphic representation of vertical restrictions for landings are included on the next page.) Regarding curved stairs, the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the required width of the stairway, as it is written in section 1009.7.
As continued from the previous page, the vertical limitations for stairway landings are shown here. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise greater than 12 feet between floor levels or landings. Section 1012 in chapter ten of the OBC addresses handrail requirements. Handrail height should be 34-38”. Handrail should be continuous and return to a wall or extend at least 12 inches beyond the top riser/one tread beyond bottom riser. The handrail must be at least 1.5 inches from the wall. Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. Riser heights shall be 7 inches maximum and 4 inches minimum. Tread depths shall be 11 inches minimum. The leading edge of this tread shall not exceed 1/2”. The minimum headroom for stairways is 80” and is measured from a line which connects the edge of the nosings. This headroom space shall be continuous and maintained throughout the entire width of the stairway.
CONSTRUCTION SUBSTRUCTURE The type of construction that is commonly used when the soil conditions are less than desirable or where the footprint of the construction project is limited is sometimes referred as upside down construction or bottom up construction. One uses this method to stabilize the construction area when the soil is unstable it is difficult to make the necessary cuts in the soil without the walls caving in due to things such as a high water table. It is not less expensive then conventional construction however, it is commonly used method within the industry for specialized cases.
SUPERSTRUCTURE SYSTEM COMPONENTS: VERTICAL SUPPORTS • Columns • Beams • Load Bearing Walls • Horizontal Spanning Systems ROOF • Slabs on Beams/Trusses • Vaults • Domes FLOORS • Slabs • Flat Plate [12-30ʼ span] • Flat Slabs [20-36ʼ span] • One Way Slab & Beam [6-18ʼ span] • Two-Way Slab & Beam [16-30ʼ span] • Waffle Slabs [24-42ʼ span] LATERAL BRACING SYSTEMS
DESIGN LEASE SPAN • distance form core to exterior wall • column free space • low 30s to upper 40s (pinch points min 18’+) ELEVATORS • 10’ or less for single loaded passenger elevator (b/t elevator door and wall for waiting lobby) • 10’ for double loaded elevators • lobby for freight elevator MATERIAL • Reinforced Concrete • Precast Concrete • Pre or Post-Tensioned Concrete • Concrete Thin-Shells
BATHROOMS • common plumbing wall with janitors closet • enter bathroom off own corridor not facing eleva tor • 150’-200’ max travel from end to end to bathroom TELEPHONE AND ELECTRICAL • 150ʼ radius max run from closets MECHANICAL SHAFTS • get smaller as goes down if equipment on room • attach to other core component ENVELOPE • Depend on Building Design Principles [building diagrams] • ETFE Skin - Media-Tic
CONSTRUCTION DESIGN PRINCIPLES
SS WE EA
Avoid the development of inappropriate sites and reduce the environmental impact from the location of a building on a site by minimizing its footprint. from LEED SS-Credit 1 (1 point)
Select an urban site with pedestrian access to a variety of services and in an area with existing infrastructure in an attempt to aid in the development of a dense urban environment. from LEED SS Credit 2 (5 points) Develop and rehabilitate a brownfield site. from LEED SS Credit 3 (1 point)
Increase water efficiency by installing water efficient fixtures and fixture fittings. from LEED WE Prerequisite 1
Landscape with plant species that do not require a permanent landscape irrigation system. from LEED WE Credit 1 (4 points) Use captured rainwater, recycled gray water, or municipally treated wastewater for sewage conveyance. from LEED WE Credit 2 (2 points)
Simulate whole building energy use to determine energy use reduction. from LEED EA Credit 1 (1-19 points)
Promote bicycle transportation by providing secure bicycle racks, storage, and welcoming shower facilities for an estimated 5% or more of all building users. from LEED SS Credit 4.2 (1 point)
Implement on-site energy production technologies such as solar, wind, geothermal, low-impact hydro, biomass and bio-gas strategies. from LEED EA Credit 2 (1-7 points)
Install alternative-fuel electric charging stations for at least 3% of the total vehicle parking capacity of the site and make these stations publicly accessible. from LEED SS Credit 4.3 (3 points)
Conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas to provide habitat and promote biodiversity by vegetating with native plant life. from LEED SS Credit 5.1 (1 point) Promote biodiversity by providing a high ratio of open space to development footprint. Provide vegetated open space equal to 20% of the project site area. from LEED SS Credit 5.2 (1 point) Design the project site to maintain natural storm water flows by promoting infiltration. from LEED SS Credit 6.1 (1 point) Install a vegetated roof that covers at least 50% of the roof area. from LEED SS Credit 7.2 (1 point)
23 total points 34
Improve whole building energy performance by at least 10% compared to the baseline building performance standard. from LEED EA Prerequisite 2 Protect the atmospheric ozone layer from depletion by abolishing the use of chlorofluorocarbonbased refrigerants in base building systems. from LEED EA Prerequisite 3
Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use. The project is located within walking distance of the Navy Yards Metro stop and on the Metro Bus line. from LEED SS Credit 4.1 (6 points)
Provide no new parking. Consider sharing parking facilities with adjacent buildings. Consider alternatives that will limit the use of single occupancy vehicles. from LEED SS Credit 4.4 (2 points)
To verify that the projectâ€™s energy-related systems are installed and calibrated to perform according to the project requirements, designate an individual as the commissioning authority who will oversee the commissioning process activities. from LEED EA Prerequisite 1
Do not use refrigerants that contribute to ozone depletion and do not use fire suppression systems that contain HCFCs or halons. from LEED EA Credit 4 (2 points)
LEED ACCRED 73 Points minim 99 Points maxim Provide for the ongoing accountability of building energy consumption over time. from LEED EA Credit 5 (3 points)
6 total points
13 - 37 total points
MR IEQ RP
Implement a building-wide reuse and recycle program with easily accessible collection bins and receptacles. from LEED MR Prerequisite 1
Commit to high indoor air quality standards thus contributing to the comfort and well-being of building occupants. from LEED IEQ Prerequisite 1
Divert unused, non-hazardous construction materials from collection in landfills by recycling at least 75% of discarded materials and practice efficient use of building materials. from LEED MR Credit 2 (2 points)
Provide capacity for ventilation system monitoring to help promote occupant comfort and wellbeing. from LEED IEQ Credit 1 (1 point)
Use salvaged, refurbished, or reused materials where ever possible. from LEED MR Credit 3 (1-2 points) Use recycled materials where ever possible. from LEED MR Credit 4 (1-2 points) Use materials and products that have been harvested and manufactured locally, within 500 miles. from LEED MR Credit 5 (2 points) Use materials and products from rapidly renewable sources where ever possible. from LEED MR Credit 6 (1 point) Use wood products and materials that are in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Councilâ€™s principles and criteria. from LEED MR Credit 7 (1 point)
Design natural ventilation systems for occupied spaces. from LEED IEQ Credit 2 (1 point)
Provide a highly innovative total building experience that improves the quality of life of the building occupants, the local urban environment, the local environment, and the betterment of the world. from LEED ID Credit 1 (5 points) Give priority to regionally based products, services, and materials in the construction and design of the building. from LEED RP Credit 1 (4 points)
Develop and implement an indoor air quality management plan for the construction and preoccupancy phases of the building. from LEED IEQ Credits 3.1-3.2 (2 points) Use only materials and finishes (composite woods, paints, coatings, adhesives, sealants and sealant primers) that are low-VOC (volatile organic compounds) emitting materials. Focus on specifying materials that are healthy for the space and indoor air quality. from LEED IEQ Credits 4.1-4.4 (4 points) Take measures to minimize and control the entry of pollutants into building. from LEED IEQ Credit 5 (1 point) Provide lighting that is highly adaptable and controllable for occupantsâ€™ varying needs. from LEED IEQ Credit 6.1 (1 point)
DITATION mum GOLD mum PLATINUM Provide a high level of control of thermal comfort systems for multiple users. from LEED IEQ Credit 6.2 (1 point) Develop a high performance building envelope that regulates and controls thermal levels. from LEED IEQ Credit 7.1 (1 point)
Maximize interior day lighting to reduce the need for artificial lighting. from LEED IEQ Credit 8.1 (1 point) Provide building occupants with a strong relationship to the outdoors, maximizing pleasing views and improving the overall working experience. from LEED IEQ Credit 8.2 (1 point)
8 - 10 total points
14 total points
9 total points 35
PTW ARCHITECTS (2008) The Watercube uses the idea of leitmotiv to take the concept of a soap bubble and permeate it through the entirety of the building, both thematically and structurally. Instead of creating a structure with giant beams, columns, and girders and applying a facade, the Watercubeâ€™s architectural space, structure, and building skin are fused into one single element: the use of water as a building material.1
Watercube: National Aquatics Center
B + W ARCHITECTS (2007) This commercial office and retail building in the Flon district of Laussane, Switzerland faced unique structural challenges in order to realize its construction on top of an existing four story underground parking garage. The concrete structure was designed as braces placed diagonally to delay the loads of the new construction to four large pillars driven into the older structure below. As well, the architects used a fabriclike air cushion for the outside skin consisting of a top layer of PTFE and three sub layers of ETFE to create a tri-chamber insulation envelope.
Commercial Building, Flon, Lausanne
BJARKE INGLES GROUP (2006) BIGâ€™s plan for this mixed-use project in Copenhagen, Denmark faces similar problems and reacts to them in ways similar our solutions as well. This project creates an interior public cavity - the courtyard as a collective living room - that weaves into and through the private functions of the building.
CLOUD 9 (2007) The Media-TIC is performative architecture and serves as a meeting place for businesses in the communication and information technologies industries. What is most important to the building is not its materials but the connections and networks it creates between the building users, who are faced with an immaterial, electronic world.
For the new mixed use office building in The Yards, the program requirements and The Heights of Buildings Act of 1910 establish that an almost full occupation be interjected with the building site. This inevitably intrusive mass must find a way to strategically influence the area’s embedded patterns and arrange itself in a way that creates a public scene. Taking precedent from the Waterfront Initiative’s master plan, we propose to create a building that fosters a cultural public destination and links Tingey Square directly to the waterfront. We also propose engaging the office space on the upper floors with the pedestrian life on lower levels through horizontal and vertical cuts and volumes that expose and mesh public and private functions.
The water front is divided into three main districts: W-0, W-2, and CR (mixed use). The W-0 permits open space park, and low-density and low-height waterfront oriented retail and art uses. W-2 allows a medium height and density. CR is mixed use including retail, residential, office, and commercial uses.
All four of our proposed sites fall within the CR (mixed use) zoning district. Uses of the waterfront include but are not limited to: Boat club or marina, community center, office, park or open space, private club/restaurant, public or private theater, public library, public recreation and community center, and retail sales.
MAXIMUM HEIGHT Due to the Heights of Buildings Act of 1910, Buildings in the District of Columbia may reach 20 feet higher than the adjacent right of way. This gives buildings in the yards a maximum height of 110 feet.
FLOOR AREA RATIO In the CR district, the floor area ratio of all buildings and structures on a lot shall not exceed 6.0, not more than 3.0 of which may be used for other than residential purposes.
LOT OCCUPANCY CR: required public space at ground level must equal the area equivalent to then percent of the total lot area. The area for new development shall be located immediately adjacent to the mail entrance to the principle building or structure on the lot and shall serve as a transitional space between the street or pedestrian right-of-way and the building or structure. The area for new development shall be open to the sky or have a minimum vertical clearance of one story or ten feet.
SETBACKS Inland from the bulkhead or the mean high water level, whichever provides the larger setback, of not less than one hundred feet to any building or structure, shall be provided.
COURTYARDS Minimum width of open court - 2.5” per foot of height; minimum 6 feet. Minimum width and area of closed court - 2.5” per foot of height (width) and Area: 2x square of required width; minimum 250
BUILDING SITE PLAN TASKS • • • •
Locate vehicular drop off Locate Building Service, including receiving area, must accommodate room for maneuvering a 38’ box truck to dock. Truck must be completely on the building site when docked. Trash areas, including recycling, dumpsters with necessary access Appropriate area for equipment access and maintenance
BUILDING PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General Program Space List: • Entrance lobby / Atrium as required for varying uses, security as appropriate for the various uses, prime/spec/A3/M/R… • Central Security office at 150 sf • Rest rooms, janitor closets…as required by OBC • Mechanical, Electrical, Fire Protection (including fire command center) et. al. – as required • Receiving Area for two 38’ box truck • Trash room, recycling rooms • General building storage, tenant storage • Vertical circulation as required • Circulation @ 15% +/- net Office Areas Net : 140,000sf Prime 100,000 sf Spec 40,000 sf Third Program Element Speculative Assembly or Mercantile Net: Maximum 40,000sf Net Area: Building 75% efficient minimum.
PROGRAM + ENERGY + CONTEXT = FORM
A complete extrusion of the buildable site allows for a maximum building floor area of 554,232 ft2.
To connect the city to the waterfront and create a continuous flow of circulation between waterfront public spaces, a cut across the building site connects Tingey Square at the north west of the site to The Yards Park and amenities at the south east.
Dividing the two resultant towers into prime office space and spec office space, the spec tower is lowered to match surrounding building heights.
To accomodate the southern facade against solar gain, but keep the views of the river, the wall is tilted to 70 degrees from the ground plane to be self-shading from June through August.
The office spaces are connected to the civic realm and one another by providing extruded break spaces and eroded balcony spaces along the public split and on the southern facades with water views. 42
Lightwell widens to accomodate sloping south facade with respect to a max 35ft lease span depth.
RESOURCES Yards: A New Direction for Southeast Washington D.C. from Forest City (2010): Web. Jan - May 2011. <http://www.dcyards. com/index.php>. “Forest City: Washington.” The Yards (2010): Web. Jan - May 2011. <http://www.forestcity.net/properties/mixed_use/property_ listing/Pages/the_yards.aspx>. “Anacostia River Initiative.” Solid Waste and Emergency Response 22 Jun 2010. Web. Jan - May 2011. <http://www.epa.gov/ oswer/onecleanupprogram/anacostia.htm>. Yeang, Ken. Eco Skyscrapers. IMAGES PUBLISHING GROUP PTY, 2007. 160. Print. Mahl, Ted. “Office Building Design.” Kent State, Kent, Ohio. Jan 2011. Lecture. “Anacostia Waterfront Initiative: 10 Years of Progress. “Government of the District of Columbia. Kent State, Kent, Ohio. Jan 2011. Reading. Vector Foiltec. Project Information: (2011): Web. Jan - May 2011. <http://www.vector-foiltec.com/cms/gb/projects/type.php>. U.S. Green Building Council,. LEED for New Construction or Major Renovations 2009: Web. Jan - May 2011. <http://www. usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=5546>. Baraona Pohl, Ethel. Watercube: the book : Beijing National Aquatics Centre, People’s Republic of China. Barcelona: dpr_editorial, 2008. 58-60. Print. “Commercial building, Lausanne. “Detail Magazine: English Edition. 11/2010: 1194 - 1198. Print. Tojhus Mixed Use. Web. Jan - May 2011. <http://www.big.dk/>. “Media-Tic: Barcelona. “Enric Ruiz Geli. Web. Jan - May 2011. <http://www.ruiz-geli.com/>.