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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN Centre for Modern Architecture Studies in Southeast Asia (MASSA) Bachelor of Science (Honours) (Architecture)

THEORIES OF ARCHITECTURE & URBANISM [ARC61303]

PROJECT 2 : COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ESSAY

JALAN BESAR, KLANG YIZHONG STREET, TAICHUNG, TAIWAN

NAME : LEE YET YEE ( CHRISTINE ) STUDENT ID : 0322328 TUTOR : MR.PRINCE FAVIS ISIP WORD COUNT : 3,210


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TABLES OF CONTENT : 1.0 FOREWORD

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2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 Introduction of Streets

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2.2 Morphological Development

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3.0 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 3.1 Contact Points of Jalan Besar

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3.2 Contact Points of Yizhong, Taichung

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3.3 Contact Point Comparative Analysis

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Contact Point 1 Contact Point 2 Contact Point 3 Contact Point 4 Contact Point 5

3.4 Social Activities

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4.0 CONCLUSION

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5.0 REFERENCES

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1.0 FOREWORD

Figure 1: Jalan Besar, Klang ( Day )

Figure 2: Yizhong, Taichung ( Day )

Figure 3: Jalan Besar, Klang ( Night )

Figure 4: Yizhong, Taichung ( Night )

Cities, unique on its own which contains an extensive range of culture, origin, morphological development and planning that influence the built environment. Looking into a micro scale, streets are the veins of a city that allows both vehicular and pedestrian circulation which creates a potential of activities , allowing contact points with diverse human behavioural patterns. Different type of activities at a street acts as a social catalyst where people are brought together where interaction and communication takes place, creating “live” along the street.

In this comparative analysis essay, two streets from different countries are being interpreted and analysed - Jalan Besar, Klang, Malaysia and Yizhong Street, Taichung , Taiwan. Similarities and dissimilarities in terms of contact points, contact intensity and activities are being studied and analysed accordingly in reference to Jan Gehl’s, Life Between Buildings.


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2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 Introduction of Streets - Jalan Besar, Klang, Malaysia

Figure 5: Perspective view of Jalan Besar, Klang - Street parallel to OCBC Bank

Figure 6: Perspective view of Jalan Besar, Klang - Street parallel to KTM

Jalan Besar ( Jalan - Road ) ( Besar - Big ), Klang is located within the state of Selangor where the street is in the midst of a commercial zone. Neo-classical shophouses are the main built environment along the street which gives the street a heritage sense of place. The street holds a few major public services like the OCBC bank and post office which causes both vehicular and human traffic along the street. There is a KTM located at the t-junction of street where there is a dense human flow at the area.  


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- Yizhong Street, Taichung , Taiwan

Figure 7: Perspective view of Yizhong street

Figure 8: Night market stalls selling Taiwan street food

Yizhong, meaning “First Senior High School”, is named after the famous “National Taichung First Senior High School” in Taichung city which is located right next to the street. The street is located within a mix-used area which includes commercial, residential and institutional. There are a few educational buildings within the context of the street, thus, causing the street to be packed with youngsters. Food and fashion are the main business along the street. One of the highlight of the street is , during night, the street is flooded with night market stalls where people gather to enjoy the food as well of fellowship purposes. It is also a tourist attraction of Taichung city.



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2.2 Morphological Development - Jalan Besar, Klang, Malaysia

Diagram 1: Railway built - 1886

Diagram 2: Kota Bridge built - 1961

Diagram 3: Federal Highway built - 1991

Jalan Besar

Infrastructure is the major factor that brings development to the area. The railway built allows the tin mining industry to flourish as tins are able to be transported to various places. Following with the construction of Kota Bridge which bridges the Klang River and connect North Klang and South Klang and finally the federal highway which provides easy accessibility to the site.

- Yizhong Street, Taichung , Taiwan

Diagram 4: Morphological development around Yizhong street, education as the major factor.

The arising of educational buildings is the major factor that incites development around Yizhong street. With all the major cram schools occupying the nearby buildings, Yizhong Street which is originally known as a business district has transformed into a commercial district due to the increasing business of fashion clothing, accessories, gadgets, food and beverages. This is due to the high user demand of students studying in the contextual educational institutes. Hence, a distinct difference can be seen through the aspect which incites development around both of the streets. For Jalan Besar, it is the development of infrastructure that brings people to the area whereas Yizhong Street, it is the increasing of people due to educational buildings which brings further development to the area.


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3.0 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 3.1 Contact Points of Jalan Besar, Klang

Jalan Besar

Contact Point

Diagram 5: Five Contact Points of Jalan Besar, Klang being mapped out

Five contact points are being mapped out which includes : 1. Five Foot Walkway 2. Cross Junction ( Branches to : Jalan Istana & Jalan Dato Hamzah ) 3. Post Office and OCBC bank 4. KTM station 5. Open Green Area ( Public Realm )


7 CONTACT POINT

CONTACT INTENSITY

ACTIVITIES

CONTACT POINT 1 FIVE FOOT WALKWAY

MODERATE - Passive contact to close relationship

NECESSARY ACTIVITY - People walking through the five foot walkway to get to their destination OPTIONAL ACTIVITY - People stop by at the “mamak” to have a drink

CONTACT POINT 2 CROSS JUNCTION

MODERATE - Passive contact to chance contact

NECESSARY ACTIVITY - People driving through the junction RESULTANT ACTIVITY - Seeing the pedestrian pass by while waiting for the traffic light ( Passive )

CONTACT POINT 3 POST OFFICE & OCBC BANK

MODERATE TO HIGH - Passive contact to close relationship

NECESSARY ACTIVITY - People running errands - Work RESULTANT ACTIVITY - Observing and seeing other people while waiting ( passive )

CONTACT POINT 4 KTM STATION

HIGH - Passive contact to close relationship

NECESSARY ACTIVITY - Travelling to destinations - Work RESULTANT ACTIVITY - Taxi drivers observing people get on and off the train - Traveling with friends or family

CONTACT POINT 5 OPEN GREEN AREA

LOW TO MODERATE - Passive contact to Friends

NECESSARY ACTIVITIES - People walking pass or through the open area OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES - Sit down on the grass and relax


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3.2 Contact Points of Yizhong, Taichung

YiZhong Street

Contact Point

Diagram 6: Five Contact Points of YiZhong, Taichung being mapped out

Five contact points are being mapped out which includes : 1. Shop frontages 2. Cross Junction ( Branches to : Yuchai Street ) 3. Famous Commercial Building - Optical shop & Sports 4. Bus Stop 5. Open Seating Area ( Public Realm )


9 CONTACT POINT

CONTACT INTENSITY

ACTIVITIES

CONTACT POINT 1 SHOP FRONTAGES

HIGH - Passive contact to close relationship

NECESSARY ACTIVITY - People walking through the five foot walkway to get to their destination OPTIONAL ACTIVITY - People stop by at the “mamak” to have a drink

CONTACT POINT 2 CROSS JUNCTION

CONTACT POINT 3 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

MODERATE TO HIGH - High passive contact - Chance contact - Passive contact to close friendship

NECESSARY ACTIVITY - People driving through the junction

HIGH - Passive contact to close relationship

NECESSARY ACTIVITY - People running errands - Work

RESULTANT ACTIVITY - Seeing the pedestrian pass by while waiting for the traffic light ( Passive )

RESULTANT ACTIVITY - Observing and seeing other people while waiting ( passive )

CONTACT POINT 4 BUS STOP

HIGH - Passive contact to close relationship

NECESSARY ACTIVITY - Travelling to destination RESULTANT ACTIVITY - Observing while waiting - Take the bus with close friends

CONTACT POINT 5 OPEN SEATING AREA

HIGH - Passive contact to Friends

NECESSARY ACTIVITIES - People walking pass or through the open area OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES - Sit down and enjoy the food RESULTANT ACTIVITIES - Fellowship with friends - Observing passer-bys


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3.3 Contact Points - Comparative Analysis Contact Point 1 : The Built Environment
 - Street Typology In terms of street typology, Jalan Besar reflects the name of the street itself which means “A Wide Road”. The street consist of 3 elements which is the main road for vehicular circulation, side parkings, and the five foot walkway.

5’ Walkway

5’ Walkway

Side Parking Side Parking

Main Road

Figure 9: Street Typology of Jalan, Besar, Klang

Due to the wide width of road which is constantly in heavy vehicular traffic, people tend to walk along the narrow five foot walkway, thus causing a high pedestrian circulation along the walkway. A high intensity of contact can be observed along the walkway as the intimacy level is high in reference to proxemics - the human spatial bubble by Edward T.Hall.

Diagram 7: Proxemics - Human Spatial Bubble by Edwards T.Hall


11 Side Parking 5’ Walkway

Low contact intensity

Main Road

High contact intensity

Diagram 8: Sectional cut of Jalan Besar, showing the street typology and contact intensity

Thus, forming a linear circulation pattern of the pedestrian along the walkway where there is high chances of contact. With a intimate distance to the shops while walking along the five foot walkway, it increases the potential for optional activities as pedestrian will be more visually engaged to the activities in the shops. Thus, attracting the attention of pedestrians and creating an opportunity for contact.

Similarly to Jalan Besar, the circulation pedestrian circulation of Yizhong Street is in a linear manner. This is due to the spilling of stalls beyond the pedestrian walkway where people are forced to walk on the street road itself.

  Extended Stalls

Main Road Figure 10: Street Typology of Yizhong Street, Taichung


12 Unlike Jalan Besar, pedestrian circulation take place on the main road at Yizhong Street due to the extended stalls being set up along the street. The original setback line for the shops are being violated where shop owners display their products along the pedestrian walkway. Hence, resulting in a narrower road which increases the intimacy level of people and the built environment.

Main Road

Extended Stalls

High contact intensity

Diagram 9: Sectional cut of Yizhong Street, showing the street typology and contact intensity

Due to the extended stalls, people are physically and visually engage to the activities along the street where it has a higher intimacy level compared to Jalan Besar. The possibility of Interaction and communication is also higher.

To sum up the finding and observations on both streets, Jalan Besar has a different street typology compared to Yizhong Street. Despite the differences, the circulation patterns of human flow is similar where pedestrian travels in a linear manner. The level of intimacy and engagement to the shops are also the same.


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Contact Point 2 : Safety and Walkability

- Zebra Crossing & Pedestrian Walkway

Kerb

Zebra Crossing

Figure 11: Zebra Crossing at Cross Junction of Jalan Besar to Jalan Dato Hamzah

Zebra Crossing Figure 11: Zebra Crossing at Cross Junction of Yizhong Street to Yucai Street.


14 Safety and walkability are one of the most important aspect of a well planned city. Both Jalan Besar and Yizhong street are equipped with zebra crossing which ensures the safety of pedestrian when walking through the street.

However, the walkability at the cross junction of both streets are different where Jalan Besar has a better walkability. The zebra crossing at Jalan Besar is linked to a raised kerb where it is a proper pedestrian walkway which ascends along the street. On the contrary, zebra crossings at Yizhong street is directly linked to the shop frontage where there is no proper pedestrian walkway to continue the circulation flow. The placement of zebra crossing at Jalan Besar is located at the end of junction instead of having a centralised circulation ( middle of the cross junction ) like Yizhong Street where it more prone to danger.

Diagram 10: Placement of Zebra Crossing at Cross Junction of Jalan Besar with circulation pattern and contact intensity Circulation Pattern

Diagram 11: Placement of Zebra Crossing at Cross Junction of Yizhong Street with circulation pattern and contact intensity

Pedestrians

Range of contact intensity

The contact intensity at the cross junction of Jalan Besar is lower compared to Yizhong Street due to the placement of zebra crossing. Visual engagement is lower at Jalan Besar as the pedestrian circulation is distant, on the other hand, Yizhong street, having a centralised circulation focuses the human flow together which has a higher level of intimacy. Thus, portraying a more lively scene at the junction.

All in all, both of the streets have taken safe considerations with the zebra crossing. However, the location of zebra crossing creates different circulation patterns which results in a variation of contact intensity.


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Contact Point 3 : Functionality & User Group

- Function of Building & The User Group In the book “Life Between Buildings”, it is stated that people attracts people. But what attracts people in the first place ? It is again stated by Jan Gehl where activity is the source of attraction. This has a close relationship to the function of the built environment where it serves a certain purpose which contributes to common interest or needs.

Figure 12 & 13: Post Office and OCBC Bank along Jalan Besar, Klang

Figure 14 & 15: Trendy Optical Fashion Shop & Adidas Sports Outlet at Yizhong Street, Taichung

One of the huge distinction between both of the street is the function of buildings which attracts different user groups. Public service buildings like OCBC bank and post office are the main reason that causes vehicular and human traffic along the street, hence, most of the users are adults and elderlies. As for Yizhong street, buildings like the fashion optical shop and adidas are trendy aspects that attraction the youngsters studying at the contextual universities. Thus, at Jalan Besar, people are gathered for necessary activities instead of the crowd, whereas Yizhong street showcases the ideology of people attracts people as when the shops are crowded with youngsters, pedestrian would be curious and interested to explore the activities in the shop which creates an opportunity for optional activities to occur.



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Contact Point 4 : Public Transportation Public transportation is the key to accessibility of the street which brings in people and eventually, brings life to the street. Both of the streets has public transportation which are the KTM and bus stop at Jalan Besar, and the bus stop at Yizhong Street.

Figure 16 & 17: KTM Station & Bus Stand along Jalan Besar, Klang

Figure 18: Bus Stop at Yizhong Street, Taichung

Both of the streets has a bus stop, however, the bus stop at Jalan Besar is informal where it comprises of a bus stand and a bus lot. This is due to the existence of KTM station where majority of the people uses it to travel to the site. On the contrary, the bus stop at Yizhong street is more complete where it has a bus shelter equipped with seatings. The chance of contact is higher at the Yizhong street’s bus stop as people are in a more intimate distant when waiting for the bus arrival. People do not wait at the bus stand at Jalan Besar as it is exposed to the hot sun. They usually wait at the opposite shops and hop on the bus when it arrives. In addition, the KTM is very spacious, and people do not stop at the KTM as it is only a transit point. Passive contacts are most likely to be seen at the public transportation at Jalan Besar.  


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Contact Point 5 : Public Realm 


- Quality of Outdoor Space According to Jan Gehl, activities take place only when the exterior condition are favourable. He then further state that with a good quality of outdoor space, necessary activities and a wide range of optional activities will occur as the situation invites people to stop, sit , eat, play and etc.

 

Figure 19: Green Open Space - Jalan Besar, Klang

Figure 20: Open Seating Area - Yizhong Street, Taichung


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Diagram 12: Exposed green open space - hot environment , Jalan Besar, Klang

Diagram 13: Dark at night with minimal street lights, Jalan Besar, Klang

Pedestrian Bridge

Tall Buildings

Tall Buildings

Figure 21: Favourable outdoor seating sandwich between 2 opposing rows of tall buildings, Yizhong, Taichung


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Figure 22: Outdoor space is lit with shop signages which illuminates the area with dynamic lightings. Yizhong Street, Taichung

As shown from the diagrams and figures above, the green open area of Jalan Besar acts as a transit point instead of a platform for social activities due to its unfavourable outdoor environment during the day and night. In comparison with Yizhong street, the condition of space at the open seating area is favourable at all times as it is a pocket space sandwich between two rows of buildings. Thus, creating a hight contact intensity where passive and active contacts are abundantly seen.


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3.4 Social Activity CONTACT POINT

JALAN BESAR

YIZHONG STREET

High Intensity - The five foot walkway and 10 metres wide road allows the capacity of high intensity activities

Hight Intensity - The 4m wide street is flooded with human circulation where people have to travel on the street itself due to the extended stalls

NECESSARY ACTIVITIES Heading to destination

OPTIONAL ACTIVITES & RESULTANT ACTIVITIES (Active) Visiting a coffee shop

Moderate Intensity - Least coffee shop along the street - Need to walk and cross the road which doesnt have zebra crossing in order to get to a decent food outlet

Hight Intensity - The long run of along the street causes pedestrian to get into a coffee shop and get some drink

Relaxing at open space

Low Intensity - Unfavourable outdoor condition of the space - Over exposed to hot sun

High Intensity - Favourable outdoor spatial quality with a diverse range of activities

Fellowship with friends

Low Intensity High Intensity - Mainly of services buildings like - Diverse activities along the banks and post office which are street allows more choices of necessary activities places - Activities are unfit for fellowship purposes

RESULTANT ACTIVITIES ( Passive ) Viewing the action of people

High Intensity - Viewing people come and go from the KTM station

High Intensity - The bustling crowd along the entire street


21 There is a higher necessary activities at Jalan Besar due to the land use of the site as well as the function of buildings where people go to the street for a intended purpose or to complete a task. On the other hand, there is a higher range of optional activity at Yizhong Street due to its diverse activities, food and fashion outlets. Resultant activities can be seen at both street but Jalan Besar is more likely towards passive contact. Yizhong street has an interesting frame of passive contact as people are able to enjoy the scenic view of a bustling crowd along a colourful streetscape, especially during the night market when the signages are lit. Intimate social activities between close friends can be seen at both streets where people interact with each other in spaces like the “kopitiam� or while waiting for public transportation.

Figure 23: Crowded with diverse range of necessary, optional and resultant activities , Yizhong Street, Taichung

 

Figure 24: Crowded with vehicular circulation, people are gathered within buildings for necessary activities , Jalan Besar, Klang


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4.0 CONCLUSION In a nutshell, the overall condition of Jalan Besar, Klang is active and fill with necessary activities like going to the bank, travelling to destinations at the KTM and etc during the day. The street is dormant and quiet during the night where there is a least amount of activities happening along the street except for vehicular circulation which are just transiting through the street. This is due to the lack of optional activities along the street where people just drop by for a certain purpose and leave the street when the job is done.

In contrast to Jalan Besar, Yizhong street has a diverse range of necessary, optional and resultant activities during the day and night. One of the major reason is due to the contextual surrounding of the street where it is surrounded by universities which contributed to the wide range of user group which creates a lively and merrier street ambience.

In conclusion, it is clearly proven that the theory of Jan Gehl that activities is a major attraction towards people. And when people gather as a crowd, it attract people as well. In addition, the quality of built environment is also a key towards the occurrence of activity which has a high contact intensity.


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5.0 REFERENCE 1. L. (1970, January 01). Noob Guidance. Retrieved from https://noobguidance.blogspot.com/ 2017/05/yizhong-street-night-market-taichung.html 2. Taichung Yizhong Street / Yizhong Market (臺中⼀一中商圈 / ⼀一中街) @ Taiwan. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cavinteo.blogspot.com/2014/05/taichung-yizhong-street-yizhong-market.html 3. Yizhong Street Business District - Taichung Tourism(TravelKing). (n.d.). Retrieved from https:// www.travelking.com.tw/eng/tourguide/taichung/yizhong-street-business-district.html 4. RoundTAIWANround. (n.d.). Yizhong Street in Taichung City. Retrieved from https:// www.rtaiwanr.com/taichung-city/yizhong-street 5. T. (2014, July 14). Taiwanstreetphoto. Retrieved from http://taiwanstreetphoto.tumblr.com/post/ 91690170158/⼀一中街-yizhong-street-台中taichung-a-night-market 6. “Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space”, Jahn Gehl, (1986) 7. How to Write a Comparative Analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved from https:// writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/how-write-comparative-analysis

THEORIES OF URBANISM - COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ESSAY  

LEE YET YEE 0322328 TAYLOR'S LAKESIDE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS

THEORIES OF URBANISM - COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ESSAY  

LEE YET YEE 0322328 TAYLOR'S LAKESIDE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS

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