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CHRISTINE CARDOSO

TYPOGRAPHY

2009

SPRING


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W H O A R E Y O U

REINFORCEMENT OF MEANING

TEXT TYPOGRAPHY

R E A D I N G

EXTENDED T E X T S

Meet Bell

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ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQR STUVWXYZ abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 !@#$%^&* Bell Gothic, Bold, 24 pt


The following are compositions of characters from the Bell typeface that explore the abstract, formal qualities of typographic form. These compositions test the limit of how far each letterform can be enlarged before they lose their legibility while highlighting the unique features of the letterforms. The positive and negative space creates a dynamic composition.

REINFORCEMENT OF MEANING

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REINFORCEMENT OF MEANING

Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, 1651 Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them withall. In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of

Words were chosen to create examples of type reinforcing meaning.

the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no

Size, weight and placement of characters were considered to create

Instruments of moving, and removing

these typographic solutions.

such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short. Adobe Garamond, Regular, 9/15 pt

Time for careful, clear and concise typography—


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TEXT TYPOGRAPHY

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Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, 1651 Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them withall. In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.

Adobe Garamond, Regular, 14/14 pt

These compositions study four of the most basic parameters of type: size, line length, leading, and position, as applied to the complete paragraph. Attention was given to the finer details such as placement on the page and rags.

Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, 1651 Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them withall. In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.

Meta, Roman, 7/13 pt


TEXT TYPOGRAPHY

Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, 1651 Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them withall. In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And

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Warre, where every man is solitary poore nasty brutish short.

Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, man is solitary where every man is Enemy to ever y man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other poore security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them with all. In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof nasty is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no brutish Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the short. Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short. Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, 1651

the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.

Meta, Italic, 9/27 pt

These compositions study four of the most basic parameters of type: size, line length, leading, and position, as applied to the complete paragraph. Attention was given to the finer details such as placement on the page and rags.


TEXT TYPOGRAPHY

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Clean Energy Economy

Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and conseque­ntly no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use

the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them with all.

of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent

Clean Thousands of new companies, millions of new jobs, and billions in revenue generated by solutions to the climate crisis —

Energy

death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short. Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, 1651

Economy Adobe Garamond was used in the experimentation of the four most basic type parameters: size, line length, leading, and position of both of these. Univers, 47 Light Condensed, 8/8 pts

this is the clean energy economy we can adopt with today's technologies, resources, know-how, and leadership from our elected officials. Although our reliance on fossil fuels has created global warming, we now have the opportunity and obligation to begin a transformation towards a robust clean energy economy -- one that is supported by highly efficient industries, fueled by clean, renewable resources (like wind, solar and geothermal energy), and based on modern infrastructure and smart transportation planning. A clean energy economy is a win for American jobs. A recent report showed that investment in a clean and efficient economy would "lead to over 3 million new green-collar jobs, stimulate $1.4 trillion in new GDP, add billions in personal income and retail sales, produce $284 billion in net energy savings, all while generating sufficient returns to the U.S. treasury to pay for itself over ten years."


Clean Energy Economy

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John Stuart Mill

If we invest in clean energy over fossil fuels, we will create more American jobs

Even without strong U.S. leadership, clean energy is catching on around the world. Global investment in renewable energy climbed 25% in 2006 (from $80 billion to $100 billion). Three clean-energy industries biofuels, wind, and solar photovoltaics each surpassed $20 billion in revenue in 2007. Just last year, clean energy received $2.7 billion in US venture capital investment. In order to fully transition to a clean energy economy, we need elected officials to take action. Absent policies from government, the private sector may continue to invest in oldfashioned, polluting technologies. More than 70 coal plants without technology to capture carbon pollution are now being considered. If these projects go ahead, this will be billions of dollars invested in technology that is outdated and not clean coal. We need the policies that unleash American ingenuity innovation to propel growing clean energy industries forward.

America is up for the challenge. In the past two decades, the United States took the lead in the high-tech revolution, exporting trillions of dollars worth of products around the world and employing millions of American workers. We can do it again, this time with clean energy technologies, from solar panels to hybrid vehicles.

T

HE SUBJECT of this Essay is not the socalled Liberty of the Will, so unfortunately opposed to the misnamed doctrine of Philosophical Necessity; but Civil, or Social Liberty: the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. A question seldom stated, and hardly ever discussed, in general terms, but which profoundly influences the practical controversies of the age by its latent presence, and is likely soon to make itself recognized as the vital question of the future. It is so far from being new, that, in a certain sense, it has divided mankind, almost from the remotest ages; but in the stage of progress into which the more civilized portions of the species have now entered, it presents itself under new conditions, and requires a different and more fundamental treatment.

On Liberty. 1869

Studies by leading research institutions have shown that if we invest in clean energy over fossil fuels, we will create more American jobs. A report released by the United Steelworkers and the Sierra Club, for example, found that thanks to the growth of wind energy, about 5,200 manufacturing jobs could be created in Iowa alone over the next decade. Additional studies have found that thousands of jobs could be created in other states that suffered industry job losses and that welcome the opportunity to train workers for the new energy economy.

Each of us can play a role in bringing about this much-needed transition. Tell your business and elected leaders that the next generation deserves to grow up in a world powered by clean energy. Tell your mayor that you want city planning that encourages more efficient new buildings and sidewalks and bike paths that make it easy to walk or ride a bike. Tell your state and national officials to invest in energy grids that can deliver renewable energy to everyone. Tell your utility company that instead of old-style coal power you want to buy solar, wind, or geothermal energy. And tell your elected officials that you want national policies that encourage investors to make long-term commitments to clean energy.

The struggle between Liberty and Authority is the most conspicuous feature in the portions of history in which we are earliest familiar, particularly in that of Greece, Rome, and England. But in old times this contest was between subjects, or some classes of subjects, and the Government.

This is the opportunity of our generation to lead the transformation to an economy that is robust without causing environmental harm. Please get involved today.

By liberty, was meant protection against the tyranny of the political rulers. The rulers were conceived except in some of the popular governments of Greece as in a necessarily antagonistic position to the people whom they ruled.

Adobe Caslon, Regular, 7/8 pts


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EXTENDED T E X T S

John Stuart Mill

Chapter I: Introductory They consisted of a governing One, or a governing tribe or caste, who derived their authority f rom inheritance or conquest, who, at all events, did not hold it at the pleasure of the governed, and whose supremacy men did not venture, perhaps did not desire, to contest, whatever precautions might be taken against its oppressive exercise. Their power was regarded as necessary, but also as highly dangerous; as a weapon which they would attempt to use against their subjects, no less than against external enemies.

To prevent the weaker members of the community from being preyed on by innumerable vultures, it was needful that there should be an animal of prey stronger than the rest, commissioned to keep them down. But as the king of the vultures would be no less bent upon preying upon the flock than any of the minor harpies, it was indispensable to be in a perpetual attitude of defence against his beak and claws. The aim, therefore, of patriots was to set limits to the power which the ruler should be suffered to exercise over the community; and this limitation was what they meant by liberty. It was attempted in two ways. First, by obtaining a recognition of certain immunities, called political liberties or rights, which it was to be regarded as a breach of duty in the ruler to infringe, and which, if he did infringe, specific resistance, or general rebellion, was held justifiable.

A second, and generally a later expedient, was the establishment of constitutional checks, by which the consent of the community, or of a body of some sort, supposed to represent its interests, was made a necessary condition to some of the more important acts of the governing power. To the first of these modes of limitation, the ruling power, in most European countries, was compelled, more or less, to submit. It was not so with the second; and, to attain this, or when already in some degree possessed, to attain it more completely, became everywhere the principal object of the lovers of liberty. And so long as mankind were content to combat one enemy by another, and to be ruled by a master, on condition of being guaranteed more or less efficaciously against his tyranny, they did not carry their aspirations beyond this point.

John Stuart Mill


Trade Gothic vs Akizenz Grotesque