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Transboundary Aquifers of the World - Update 2012 -

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© IGRAC, 2012 Released under the Creative Commons licence Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike.

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Special Edition

for the 6 th World Water Forum, Marseille, March 2012

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THE DRAFT ARTICLES ON THE LAW OF TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFERS ...Conscious of the importance for humankind of life supporting groundwater resources in all regions of the world, Bearing in mind Article 13, paragraph 1 (a), of the Charter of the United Nations, which provides that the General Assembly shall initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification, Recalling General Assembly resolution 1803 (XVII) of 14 December 1962 on permanent sovereignty over natural resources, Reaffirming the principles and recommendations adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development of 1992 in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21, Taking into account increasing demands for freshwater and the need to protect groundwater resources, Mindful of the particular problems posed by the vulnerability of aquifers to pollution, Convinced of the need to ensure the development, utilization, conservation, management and protection of groundwater resources in the context of the promotion of the optimal and sustainable development of water resources for present and future generations, Affirming the importance of international cooperation and good neighbourliness in this field, Emphasizing the need to take into account the special situation of developing countries, Recognizing the necessity to promote international cooperation,….

- UPDATE 2012 1 : 50 000 000

PART ONE: INTRODUCTION Article 1: Scope The present draft articles apply to: (a) utilization of transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems; (b) other activities that have or are likely to have an impact upon such aquifers or aquifer systems; and (c) measures for the protection, preservation and management of such aquifers or aquifer systems.

Special Edition for the 6th World Water Forum, Marseille

March 2012

ABOUT THIS MAP This map is about Transboundary Aquifers (TBAs). It shows the state of information presently available on the occurrence and extent of TBAs world-wide. The intention of the map is to provide a global overview of these important shared water resources and to encourage further assessment thereof. The map is based on the most recent inventory results of many active working groups around the world; details on the procedures preparing this map are available in the section ‘Map compilation and labelling”. The assessments and inventories of TBAs across the world, followed by information exchange among aquifer-sharing States are considered prerequisites for appropriate TBA management. This map is assumed to contribute to awareness raising on the importance on the management of shared aquifer resources and build the needed global knowledge base. Since its establishment IGRAC has been involved in TBA management activities within the frameworks of the UNECE Transboundary waters assessment, GEF International Waters (IW) Focal Area and the International Shared Aquifer Resources Management (ISARM) initiative led by UNESCO-IHP and IAH. The back side of this map is dedicated to an equally important instrument in the management of TBAs: the draft articles on the law of transboundary aquifers. These contain a number of principles that are essential in guiding countries to formalise international cooperation managing transboundary aquifers.

THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND AGREEMENTS In 2008, the UN International Law Commission (ILC) adopted a set of draft articles on the law of transboundary aquifers, including a preamble and the commentaries. The draft articles were then transmitted to the UN General Assembly (GA), which adopted the same year Resolution A/ RES/63/124 on the law of transboundary aquifers including in its annex the draft articles. The Resolution “Encourages the States concerned to make appropriate bilateral or regional arrangements for the proper management of their transboundary aquifers, taking into account the provisions of these draft articles”, meaning that States can already refer to the draft articles on the law of transboundary aquifers in the development of cooperation over their transboundary aquifers. The ILC and the GA have thus filled a gap that existed in international law regarding transboundary aquifers. A resolution of the GA is a non-binding text, however it has a moral authority. The Resolution on the law of transboundary aquifers is until now the only global instrument on this topic. It can already be considered by States as a reference and as guidelines. The draft articles on the law of transboundary aquifers apply to the utilisation of transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems; and to the measures for the protection, preservation and manage-

www.un-

.org

ment of such aquifers or aquifer systems. In addition, the draft articles apply to “other activities that have or are likely to have an impact upon such aquifers or aquifer systems”. The draft articles codify the two core principles of international water law: equitable and reasonable use, and the obligation not to cause significant harm. According to the equitable and reasonable utilisation principle aquifer States “shall utilise transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems in a manner that is consistent with the equitable and reasonable accrual of benefits”. Aquifer States “shall [also] aim at maximizing the long- term benefits derived from the use of water”, alluding more specifically to the case of non-recharging aquifers. The establishment of a comprehensive utilisation plan by the aquifer States is required and has to take into account present and future needs, as well as available alternative water resources. Finally the utilisation level of a transboundary aquifer should not prevent continuance of its effective functioning. The equitable and reasonable utilisation principle requires the consideration of ‘relevant’ factors for its implementation. An indicative list of factors is provided. The agreement on the factors and their respective weight are determined by the negotiations among the concerned States. The no harm rule addresses here significant harm caused by an aquifer State and due to the utilisation of the transboundary aquifer, and/or also due to other activities that have, or are likely to have, an impact on that transboundary aquifer. The significant harm could be caused also to States in whose territory a discharge zone is located. Aquifer States are obliged “to take all appropriate measures to prevent the causing of significant harm”. The draft articles include a provision on the regular exchange of data and information which is a first implementation of the general obligation to cooperate. Finally aquifer States are encouraged to enter into bilateral or regional agreements for the proper management of a transboundary aquifer, which could concern a defined part of the transboundary aquifer or part of the aquifer States with the express condition of not affecting the remaining aquifer State(s). Under the Part on Protection, Preservation and Management, the draft articles include technical provisions related to the protection and preservation of ecosystems, recharge and discharge zones, the prevention, reduction and control of pollution, monitoring and management and encourages States to establish joint mechanisms. Agreements related to transboundary aquifers are still very few. The only treaty dealing completely with the joint management of a transboundary aquifer is the Convention on the protection, utilization, recharge and monitoring of the Franco-Swiss Genevese aquifer (1st January 2008). The three others concern: - Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) (Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan) - The North Western Sahara Aquifer System (Algeria, Libya and Tunisia) - Guarani Aquifer System (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) In 2011, the UN GA adopted Resolution 66/104 on the law of transboundary aquifers encouraging again the States concerned to consider the provisions of the draft articles which “to make appropriate bilateral or regional arrangements for the proper management of their transboundary aquifers”. The two Resolutions have raised the topic of transboundary aquifers at the highest level in the international arena, and brought to States awareness about their importance, and the necessity of regulating them in view of their sound management and preservation.

Article 2: Use of terms For the purposes of the present draft articles: (a) “aquifer” means a permeable water-bearing geological formation underlain by a less permeable layer and the water contained in the saturated zone of the formation; (b) “aquifer system” means a series of two or more aquifers that are hydraulically connected; (c) “transboundary aquifer” or “transboundary aquifer system” means respectively, an aquifer or aquifer system, parts of which are situated in different States; (d) “aquifer State” means a State in whose territory any part of a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system is situated; (e) “utilization of transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems” includes extraction of water, heat and minerals, and storage and disposal of any substance; (f) “recharging aquifer” means an aquifer that receives a non-negligible amount of contemporary water recharge; (g) “recharge zone” means the zone which contributes water to an aquifer, consisting of the catchment area of rainfall water and the area where such water flows to an aquifer by runoff on the ground and infiltration through soil;

(h) “discharge zone” means the zone where water originating from an aquifer flows to its outlets, such as a watercourse, a lake, an oasis, a wetland or an ocean. PART TWO: GENERAL PRINCIPLES Article 3: Sovereignty of aquifer States Each aquifer State has sovereignty over the portion of a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system located within its territory. It shall exercise its sovereignty in accordance with international law and the present draft articles. Article 4: Equitable and reasonable utilization Aquifer States shall utilize transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems according to the principle of equitable and reasonable utilization, as follows: (a) they shall utilize transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems in a manner that is consistent with the equitable and reasonable accrual of benefits therefrom to the aquifer States concerned; (b) they shall aim at maximizing the long-term benefits derived from the use of water contained therein; (c) they shall establish individually or jointly a comprehensive utilization plan, taking into account present and future needs of, and alternative water sources for, the aquifer States; and (d) they shall not utilize a recharging transboundary aquifer or aquifer system at a level that would prevent continuance of its effective functioning. Article 5: Factors relevant to equitable and reasonable utilization 1. Utilization of a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system in an equitable and reasonable manner within the meaning of draft article 4 requires taking into account all relevant factors, including: (a) the population dependent on the aquifer or aquifer system in each aquifer State; (b) the social, economic and other needs, present and future, of the aquifer States concerned; (c) the natural characteristics of the aquifer or aquifer system; (d) the contribution to the formation and recharge of the aquifer or aquifer system; (e) the existing and potential utilization of the aquifer or aquifer system; (f) the actual and potential effects of the utilization of the aquifer or aquifer system in one aquifer State on other aquifer States concerned; (g) the availability of alternatives to a particular existing and planned utilization of the aquifer or aquifer system; (h) the development, protection and conservation of the aquifer or aquifer system and the costs of measures to be taken to that effect; (i) the role of the aquifer or aquifer system in the related ecosystem. 2. The weight to be given to each factor is to be determined by its importance with regard to a specific transboundary aquifer or aquifer system in comparison with that of other relevant factors. In determining what is equitable and reasonable utilization, all relevant factors are to be considered together and a conclusion reached on the basis of all the factors. However, in weighing different kinds of utilization of a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system, special regard shall be given to vital human needs.

other aquifer States of the water in that aquifer or aquifer system, without their express consent. PART THREE: PROTECTION PRESERVATION AND MANAGMENT Article 10 Protection and preservation of ecosystems Aquifer States shall take all appropriate measures to protect and preserve ecosystems within, or dependent upon, their transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems, including measures to ensure that the quality and quantity of water retained in an aquifer or aquifer system, as well as that released through its discharge zones, are sufficient to protect and preserve such ecosystems. Article 11: Recharge and discharge zones 1. Aquifer States shall identify the recharge and discharge zones of transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems that exist within their territory. They shall take appropriate measures to prevent and minimize detrimental impacts on the recharge and discharge processes. 2. All States in whose territory a recharge or discharge zone is located, in whole or in part, and which are not aquifer States with regard to that aquifer or aquifer system, shall cooperate with the aquifer States to protect the aquifer or aquifer system and related ecosystems. Article 12: Prevention, reduction and control of pollution Aquifer States shall, individually and, where appropriate, jointly, prevent, reduce and control pollution of their transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems, including through the recharge process, that may cause significant harm to other aquifer States. Aquifer States shall take a precautionary approach in view of uncertainty about the nature and extent of a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system and of its vulnerability to pollution. Article 13: Monitoring 1. Aquifer States shall monitor their transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems. They shall, wherever possible, carry out these monitoring activities jointly with other aquifer States concerned and, where appropriate, in collaboration with competent international organizations. Where monitoring activities cannot be carried out jointly, the aquifer States shall exchange the monitored data among themselves 2. Aquifer States shall use agreed or harmonized standards and methodology for monitoring their transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems. They should identify key parameters that they will monitor based on an agreed conceptual model of the aquifers or aquifer systems. These parameters should include parameters on the condition of the aquifer or aquifer system as listed in draft article 8, paragraph 1, and also on the utilization of the aquifers or aquifer systems. Article 14: Management Aquifer States shall establish and implement plans for the proper management of their transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems. They shall, at the request of any of them, enter into consultations concerning the management of a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system. A joint management mechanism shall be established, wherever appropriate. Article 15: Planned activities 1. When a State has reasonable grounds for believing that a particular planned activity in its territory may affect a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system and thereby may have a significant adverse effect upon another State, it shall, as far as practicable, assess the possible effects of such activity.

2. Before a State implements or permits the implementation of planned activities which may affect a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system and thereby may have a significant adverse effect upon another State, it shall provide that State with timely notification thereof. Such notification shall be accompanied by available technical data and information, including any environmental impact assessment, in order to enable the notified State to evaluate the possible effects of the planned activities. 3. If the notifying and the notified States disagree on the possible effect of the planned activities, they shall enter into consultations and, if necessary, negotiations with a view to arriving at an equitable resolution of the situation. They may utilize an independent fact-finding body to make an impartial assessment of the effect of the planned activities. PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS PROVISION Article 16: Technical cooperation with developing States States shall, directly or through competent international organizations, promote scientific, educational, legal and other cooperation with developing States for the protection and management of transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems, including, inter alia: (a) strengthening their capacity-building in scientific, technical and legal fields; (b) facilitating their participation in relevant international programmes; (c) supplying them with necessary equipment and facilities; (d) enhancing their capacity to manufacture such equipment; (e) providing advice on and developing facilities for research, monitoring, educational and other programmes; (f) providing advice on and developing facilities for minimizing the detrimental effects of major activities affecting their transboundary aquifer or aquifer system; (g) providing advice in the preparation of environmental impact assessments; (h) supporting the exchange of technical knowledge and experience among developing States with a view to strengthening cooperation among them in managing the transboundary aquifer or aquifer system. Article 17: Emergency situations 1. For the purpose of the present draft article, “emergency” means a situation, resulting suddenly from natural causes or from human conduct, that affects a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system and poses an imminent threat of causing serious harm to aquifer States or other States. 2. The State within whose territory the emergency originates shall: (a) without delay and by the most expeditious means available, notify other potentially affected States and competent international organizations of the emergency; (b) in cooperation with potentially affected States and, where appropriate, competent international organizations, immediately take all practicable measures necessitated by the circumstances to prevent, mitigate and eliminate any harmful effect of the emergency. 3. Where an emergency poses a threat to vital human needs, aquifer States, notwithstanding draft articles 4 and 6, may take measures that are strictly necessary to meet such needs. 4. States shall provide scientific, technical, logistical and other cooperation to other States experiencing an emergency. Cooperation may include coordination of international emergency actions and communications, making available emergency response personnel, emergency response equipment and supplies, scientific and technical expertise and humanitarian assistance.

Article 6: Obligation not to cause significant harm 1. Aquifer States shall, in utilizing transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems in their territories, take

all appropriate measures to prevent the causing of significant harm to other aquifer States or other States in whose territory a discharge zone is located. 2. Aquifer States shall, in undertaking activities other than utilization of a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system that have, or are likely to have, an impact upon that transboundary aquifer or aquifer system, take all appropriate measures to prevent the causing of significant harm through that aquifer or aquifer system to other aquifer States or other States in whose territory a discharge zone is located. 3. Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another aquifer State or a State in whose territory a discharge zone is located, the aquifer State whose activities cause such harm shall take, in consultation with the affected State, all appropriate response measures to eliminate or mitigate such harm, having due regard for the provisions of draft articles 4 and 5.

Article 18: Protection in time of armed conflict Transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems and related installations, facilities and other works shall enjoy the protection accorded by the principles and rules of international law applicable in international and non-international armed conflict and shall not be used in violation of those principles and rules.

Article 7: General obligation to cooperate 1. Aquifer States shall cooperate on the basis of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, sustainable development, mutual benefit and good faith in order to attain equitable and reasonable utilization and appropriate protection of their transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems.

MAP COMPILATION AND LABELLING

2. For the purpose of paragraph 1, aquifer States should establish joint mechanisms of cooperation. Article 8: Regular exchange of data and information 1. Pursuant to draft article 7, aquifer States shall, on a regular basis, exchange readily available data and information on the condition of their transboundary aquifers or aquifer systems, in particular of a geological, hydrogeological, hydrological, meteorological and ecological nature and related to the hydrochemistry of the aquifers or aquifer systems, as well as related forecasts. 2. Where knowledge about the nature and extent of a transboundary aquifer or aquifer system is inadequate, aquifer States concerned shall employ their best efforts to collect and generate more complete data and information relating to such aquifer or aquifer system, taking into account current practices and standards. They shall take such action individually or jointly and, where appropriate, together with or through international organizations. 3. If an aquifer State is requested by another aquifer State to provide data and information relating to an aquifer or aquifer system that are not readily available, it shall employ its best efforts to comply with the request. The requested State may condition its compliance upon payment by the requesting State of the reasonable costs of collecting and, where appropriate, processing such data or information. 4. Aquifer States shall, where appropriate, employ their best efforts to collect and process data and information in a manner that facilitates their utilization by the other aquifer States to which such data and information are communicated. Article 9 Bilateral and regional agreements and arrangements For the purpose of managing a particular transboundary aquifer or aquifer system, aquifer States are encouraged to enter into bilateral or regional agreements or arrangements among themselves. Such agreements or arrangements may be entered into with respect to an entire aquifer or aquifer system or any part thereof or a particular project, programme or utilization except insofar as an agreement or arrangement adversely affects, to a significant extent, the utilization, by one or more

Article 19: Data and information vital to national defense or security Nothing in the present draft articles obliges a State to provide data or information vital to its national defense or security. Nevertheless, that State shall cooperate in good faith with other States with a view to providing as much information as possible under the circumstances

For EU countries (plus Switzerland and Norway), this global map also displays transboundary Groundwater Bodies (GWB) as adopted by the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Within this framework, EU Member States are obliged to delineate groundwater bodies (managerial units) to identify the risk of failing to achieve ‘good status’ by 2015. In many cases, aquifers are subdivided into groundwater bodies while occasionally groundwater bodies may contain multiple aquifers. Mapping of TBAs and transboundary GWBs must be seen as a technical step in a wider and often political process between countries towards shared natural resources management. The map contains a number of aquifers and groundwater bodies that are not politically recognised by all countries (some examples can be found in Central Asia). Additionally, this map shows transboundary aquifers where insufficient hydrogeological information results in different/non-conform delineations across borders. This is among others the case for some of the TBAs at the Russian/Kazakhstan border and for several groundwater bodies transgressing the border between Austria and Hungary. Solid red borders indicate that the aquifers’ boundaries are known and confirmed by all sharing countries. If boundaries are only approximately known, it is highlighted by dashed red lines. Limited information is available on the extent of TBAs in some parts of Africa and Asia. In these cases, the transboundary aquifers are presented by circular or elliptical shapes. The size and position of these shapes indicate the assumed size and position of the actual aquifers. Examples can be found in West and Central Africa; under the umbrella of ISARM TBA-identification and mapping only recently started here. Transboundary aquifers and groundwater bodies smaller than 6,000 km 2 are represented by symbols instead of exact delineations (even if delineations are well-known). For more detailed delineations of these smaller aquifers in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, please refer to the 2nd UNECE assessment (UNECE, 2011 and www.unece.org). Small TBAs with unknown extent are presented by crosses. In the Americas and Europe, various transboundary aquifers and groundwater bodies are identified as overlapping or superimposing each other. For the larger TBAs and transboundary GWBs, the map differentiates between TBAs overlapping each other and transboundary GWBs and TBAs overlapping each other. For smaller overlapping TBAs and groundwater bodies, this differentiation has not been made. All TBAs and transboundary GWBs on this map are labelled. Currently, various inconsistent versions of numbering coming from various regional and global sources exist. Due to overlaps between labels from the various sources, new labels were adopted specific to this map. For the aquifers of the Americas, labels are exactly the same as used by the Organization of American States (OAS). For the other regions, a code was created comprised of two letters to identify the continent or region and a number to identify the individual aquifer. The labels serve as an identifier, with more information (such as name etc.) given accordingly in the table on the right hand side. The knowledge on transboundary aquifers is still limited. Accordingly, individuals and organisations (national and international, governmental and non-governmental) are welcome to provide comments and suggestions about this map.

www.isarm.org REFERENCES Braune E. and Y. Xu (2011). Transboundary Aquifer Utilization and Management in Southern Africa, ISARM-SADC since 2005, A Position Paper for the UNESCO Cluster Office, Harare, UNESCO Chair in Groundwater, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa Falkenmark, M. (1990). Global Water Issues Confronting Humanity, Journal of Peace Res., vol. 27(2) IAEA/ UNDP/ GEF (2007). Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) Technical Baseline Meeting, IAEA RAF/8/036, p.10 (43 pages) – Vienna IEMED/ CIDOB (2008). Groundwater Resources in the Mediterranean Region: Importance, Uses and Sharing, In Mediterranean Yearbook Med, p. 96–106 IGRAC (2009). Transboundary Aquifers of the World, Update 2009, 1:50 000 000, Special edition for the 5th World Water Forum, Istanbul INWEB (2011). Inventory of Internationally shared Aquifers, International Network of WaterEnvironment Centers for the Balkans, Available from: http://www.inweb.gr/index.php? option=com_aquifers_db [Accessed 30 Dec 2011] ISARM- Africa/ UNESCO (2004). Managing Shared Aquifer Resources in Africa, IHP-VI, Series on Groundwater No. 8, ISARM – Africa Kukuric N., Gun van der J. and S. Vasak (2008). Towards a Methodology for the Assessment of Internationally Shared Groundwaters, 4th International Symposium on Transboundary Waters Management - Thessaloniki, 2008. OSS/ UNEP/ GEF (2008a). Iullemeden Boundary limits, Managing hydrological risk in the Iullemeden Aquifer system, http://iullemeden.iwlearn.org/gis/boundary.jpg/view [Accessed 30 Dec 2011] OSS/ UNEP/ GEF (2008b). The Aquifer System (Main Basins Aquifers) - Connaissance du Système Aquifère, North-Western Sahara Aquifer project documents, p. 2 Puri, S. and A. Aureli (2005). Transboundary aquifers: A Global Program to Assess, Evaluate and Develop Policy, Groundwater, Vol. 43 (5), pp 661-668 ISARM-SADC (2007). Terms of reference for Establishment of a TBA NETWORK in SADC, ISARM-SADC meeting, Pretoria SADC (2011). Explanatory Brochure for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Hydrogeological Map & Atlas, Technical Assistance to the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) - “SADC Hydrogeological Mapping Project”, A report to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and Cooperating Partners: European Union and GTZ Stephan R. M (2011), The Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers: The Process at the UN ILC, International Community Law Review, vol.11, p.223-235. UNECE (1999). Inventory of Transboundary Groundwater, UN/ECE Task Force on Monitoring and Assessment Volume 1, Lelystad UNECE (2007). Our Waters: Joining Hands Across Borders, First Assessment of Transboundary Rivers, Lakes and Groundwaters, Part 3 Section II, New York/ Geneva UNECE (2011). Second Assessment of Transboundary Rivers, Lakes and Groundwaters, Economic Commission for Europe, Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, ISBN 978-92-1-117052-8 UNESCO (2006). Transboundary Aquifers in Asia With Special Emphasis to China (44 pages) UNESCO (2007). Sistemas Acuíferos Transfronterizos en la Américas – Evaluación Preliminar, Serie ISARM Américas N°1, Montevideo/ Washington DC UNESCO/ACSAD (1988). Hydrogeological Map of the Arab Region and Adjacent Areas, 1:5 000 000 UNESCO/BGR (2004). WHYMAP, Groundwater Resources of the World 1:50 000 000, Special Edition for the 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence/Italy - Paris/ Hannover UNESCO/BGR (2006). WHYMAP, Groundwater Resources of the World, Transboundary Aquifer Systems 1:50 000 000 Special Edition for the World Water Forum in Mexico City – Paris/ Hannover

UNESCO/ISARM-IGAD (2010 &2011). Outputs of the 1st ISARM-IGAD workshop on 23-25 February 2010 - Addis Ababa Ethiopia and the 2nd workshop on 26 - 27 April 2011, in Nairobi, Kenya UNESCO/ISARM West and Central Africa (2011). Workshop and meeting Minutes of ISARM West and Central Africa ,Atelier Régional, “Gestion des aquifères transfrontaliers en Afrique de l’Ouest et du centre”, 2eme Réunion ISARM Afrique de l’Ouest, 1ere Reunion ISARM Afrique central, Serena Hotel, Douala, Cameroun, 16-19 Mai 2011, Available from: http://www.isarm.org/dynamics/ modules/SFIL0100/view.php?fil_Id=326 [Accessed 30 Dec 2011] UN GA Resolution 63/124 on the law of transboundary aquifers available at http://www.isarm.org/ dynamics/modules/SFIL0100/view.php?fil_Id=227 [Accessed 30 Dec 2011]

DISCLAIMER

The map presented, encapsulates information provided by various organisations and projects dealing with transboundary aquifer assessments and/or management at regional and continental scales (information sources are given in the table below). It is an update of the 2009 ‘Transboundary Aquifers of the World Map’ (IGRAC 2009). The guiding principle during the compilation of this 2012 map was to stay as close as possible to the information provided by the individual sources, while presenting the information as appropriately as possible for the chosen scale of the map (1 : 50,000,000). In a few cases where aquifers coming from different sources were overlapping and non -congruent, delineations with the highest level of certainty were chosen.

Any designation employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IGRAC, UNESCO, WMO or the Government of the Netherlands concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, nor of its authorities and sovereignty on its territory and natural resources, and delineation of its frontiers or boundaries. Furthermore, the location and boundaries of several transboundary aquifers have not yet been confirmed by representatives of all countries involved. In such cases, an effort was made to indicate on the map the corresponding provisional status.

COLOPHON Region

Source

World The Americas Europe South Eastern Europe Caucasus Asia

UNESCO/BGR (2006) UNESCO (2007) UNECE (1999, 2011) INWEB (2011), UNECE (1999, 2007, 2011) UNECE (2007, 2011) UNESCO/ISARM-Asia (2006), UNECE (2011)

Arabian Peninsula Africa Southern Africa

UNESCO/ACSAD (1988) UNESCO/BGR (2004) ISARM-SADC (2007), Braune and Xu (2011), SADC (2011)

AS AF AF

OSS/UNEP/GEF (2008a) OSS/UNEP/GEF (2008b) IAEA/UNDP/GEF (2007) IEMED/ CIDOB (2008) UNESCO/ ISARM- West and Central Africa (2011) UNESCO/ISARM-IGAD (2010, 2011)

AF AF AF AF AF

Northern Africa - Iullemeden - North-Western Sahara - Nubian Sandstone - Mediterranean Africa Western and Central Africa Eastern Africa

Region Code in aquifer labels n/a N, C, CB & S EU EB AS AS

AF

The mission of the International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC) is to facilitate and promote global sharing of information and knowledge required for sustainable groundwater resources development and management. As an independent and non-profit centre, IGRAC operates under auspices of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). IGRAC is an in-house partner of UNESCO-IHE in Delft, the Netherlands, and receives financial support from the Government of the Netherlands.

Visit address Westvest 7,2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands Phone: +31 15 215 2325 , www.un-igrac.org / www.isarm.org

Table annotation Aquifer types1 as mentioned on WHYMAP: 1. Large aquifer basins 2. Complex hydrogeological structures 3. Local and shallow aquifers Aq = aquifer, Bol. = Bolivia, Br. = Brazil, Col.= Colombia, Eq. = Ecuador, GWB = groundwater body

Label AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 AF8 AF9 AF10 AF11 AF12 AF13 AF14 AF15 AF16 AF17

Aquifer name Karoo Sedimentary Aquifer Coastal Sedimentary Basin V Coastal Sedimentary Basin VI Rhyolite-Breccia Aquifer SE Kalahri Karoo Basin Khakhea/Bray Dolomite Romotswa Dolomite Basin Limpopo Basin Tuli Karoo sub-basin Northern Kalahari / Karoo Basin Save Aluvial Eastern KalahariKaroo Basin Cuvelai and Ethosa Basin Nata Karoo Sub-basin Coastal Sedimentary Basin IV Medium Zambesi Aquifer Shire Valley Alluvial Aquifer

AF18 AF19 AF20 AF21 AF22 AF23 AF24 AF25 AF26 AF27 AF28 AF29 AF30 AF31 AF32 AF33 AF34 AF35 AF36 AF37 AF38 AF39 AF40 AF41 AF42 AF43 AF44 AF45 AF46 AF47 AF48 AF49 AF50 AF51 AF52 AF53 AF54 AF55 AF56 AF57 AF58 AF59 AF60 AF61 AF62 AF63 AF64 AF65 AF66 AF67 AF68 AF69 AF70 AF71 AS1 AS2 AS3 AS4 AS5 AS6

Arangua Alluvial Sand and Gravel Aquifer Coastal Sedimentary Basin III Karoo Sandstone Aquifer Kalahari/Katangian Basin Congo Intra-cratonic Basin Weathered basement Karoo-Carbonate Tanganyika Dolomitic Basin Coastal Sedimentary Basin II Cuvette Centrale

AS7 AS8 AS9 AS10 AS11 AS12 AS13 AS14 AS15 AS16 AS17 AS18 AS19 AS20 AS21 AS22 AS23 AS24 AS25 AS26 AS27 AS28 AS29 AS30 AS31 AS32 AS33 AS34 AS35 AS36 AS37 AS38 AS40 AS41 AS42 AS43 AS44 AS45 AS46 AS47 AS48 AS49 AS50 AS51 AS52 AS53 AS54 AS55 AS56 AS57 AS58 AS59 AS60 AS61 AS62 AS63 AS64 AS65 AS66 AS67 AS68 AS69 AS70 AS71 AS72 AS73 AS74 AS75 AS76 AS77 AS78 AS79

Sharing countries Lesotho, South Africa Namibia, South Africa Mozambique, South Africa Mozambique, Swaziland Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Botswana, South Africa Botswana, South Africa Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia Mozambique, Zambia Botswana, Zimbabwe Angola, Namibia Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe Angola, Namibia Zambia, Zimbabwe Malawi, Mozambique

Mozambique, Zambia Malawi, Zambia Mozambique, Tanzania Mozambique, Tanzania Zambia,DR Congo Angola,DR Congo Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia CAR, Congo, South Sudan Burundi, DR Congo, Tanzania, Rwanda Angola, Congo, DR Congo Angola, DR Congo Congo, DR Congo Congo, Gabon Coastal Sedimentary Basin I Kenya, Tanzania Kilimanjaro Aquifer Kenya, Tanzania Congo, Gabon Congo, Gabon Mgahinga DR Congo, Rwanda, Uganda Kagera Aquifer Tanzania, Uganda Western Rift valley Sediments DR Congo, South Sudan, Uganda Merti Aquifer Kenya, Somalia Mount Elgon Aquifer Kenya, Uganda Congo, Gabon Cameroon, CAR, Gabon Rio DelRey Cameroon, Nigeria Dawa Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia Jubba Ethiopia, Somalia Shabelle Ethiopia, Somalia Sudd Basin Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan Tano Basin Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia Cameroon, CAR, Chad, Sudan Cameroon, Nigeria Lake Chad Basin Chad, Niger, CAR, Nigeria, Cameroon Baggara Basin CAR, South Sudan, Sudan Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo Guinea, Mali, Senegal Irhazer-Iullemeden Basin Algeria, Benin, Mali, Niger, Nigeria Liptako-Gourma Aquifer Burkina Faso, Niger Senegalo-Mauretanian Basin Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, W-Sahara African Rift Valley Aquifer Djibouti, Ethiopia Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger Gedaref Ethiopia, Sudan Disa Chad, Sudan Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan Taoudeni Basin Algeria, Mali, Mauritania Tin-Séririne Basin Algeria, Niger l'Air Crystalline Aquifer Algeria, Mali, Niger Mourzouk-Djado Basin Chad, Lybia, Tunesia Tindouf Aquifer Algeria, Morocco Northwest Sahara Aquifer System Algeria, Libya, Tunisia Errachidia Basin Algeria, Morocco Merti Aquifer Kenya, Somalia Western Aquifer Egypt, Israel, Palestinian Territory Coastal Aquifer Israel, Palestinian Territory Northeastern Aquifer Israel, Palestinian Territory Nahr el Kabir (Cenemonian-Turonian) Israel, Lebanon, Syria Paleogene and Cretaceous aquifers Jordan, Saudi Arabia Paleogene Aquifer Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Bazalt-Azraq Jordan, Syria Psou aquifer Russia, Georgia RU3 Russia, Kazakhstan, Russia Eocene-Helvtian Iraq, Syria, Turkey RU2 Kazakhstan, Russia Leninak-Shiraks aquifer Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, Turkey Terek aquifer Georgia, Russia Leninak-Shiraks aquifer Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, Turkey Debet aquifer Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia Ktsia-Khrami aquifer Azerbaijan, Georgia Agslev–Akstafa/Tavush–Tovuz aquifer Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, Armenia Alazan-Agrichay aquifer Azerbaijan, Georgia Pre-Caspian aquifer Kazakhstan, Russia Sulak Aquifer Georgia, Russia Nakhichevan/Larijan and Djebrail aqs Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Turkey, Russia Herher, Malishkin and Jermuk aquifers Armenia, Azerbaijan Vorotan-Akora aquifer Armenia, Azerbaijan Nakhichevan/Larijan and Djebrail aq Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Turkey, Russia Iori/Gabirri aquifer Azerbaijan, Russia Lenkoran/Astara Azerbaijan, Iran Samur aquifer Azerbaijan, Russia Syrt aquifer Kazakhstan, Russia as above Kazakhstan, Russia RU4 Kazakhstan, Russia Ural Kazakhstan, Russia South-Pred-Ural aquifer Kazakhstan, Russia RU1 Kazakhstan, Russia North-Kazakhstan aquifer Kazakhstan, Russia Amu-Darya Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan Syr-Darya 1 Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Xorezm Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan Sarakhs Aquifers Iran, Turkmenistan Sherabad Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan Amudaryia Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Kofarnihon aquifer Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Karatag/North-Surhandarya aquifer Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Zeravshan aquifer Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Dustlik Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Havost Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Pretashkent aquifer Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Zafarobod aquifer Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Syr-Darya 3 Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Kokaral Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Dalverzin aquifer Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Ahangaran Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Sulyukta-Batken-Nau-Isfara aquifer Tajikistan, Uzbekistan South Talas aquifer Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan North Talas aquifer Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Chust-Pap aquifer Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Shorsu aquifer Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Sokh aquifer Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Syr-Darya 2 Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Almos-Vorzik aquifer Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Kasansay aquifer Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Nanay Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Iskovat-Pishkaran aquifer Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Naryn aquifer Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Yarmazar Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Chimion-Aval Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Maylusu aquifer Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Karaungur Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Osh-Aravan aquifer Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Vakhsh aquifer Afghanistan, Tajikistan Chu/Shu aquifer Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Zharkent aquifer China, Kazakhstan Tekes aquifer China, Kazakhstan Tacheng Basin/Alakol China, Kazakhstan Preirtysh aquifer Kazakhstan, Russia Zaisk aquifer China, Kazakhstan Yenisei upstream Mongolia, Russia India River plain India, Pakistan Southern of Himalayas India, Nepal

Type1 Area [km2] 2, 3 165,900 3 1 11,700 1, 3 1 85,100 1, 2 29,700 3 600 2, 3 20,000 1 14,300 1, 3 144,400 1, 3 11,500 1 39,600 1, 2 202,400 1, 3 91,000 3 1, 3 10,700 1, 3 6,200 1, 3 3 1 1 3 1 1, 2, 3 1, 3 2, 3 3 1 1 1, 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 1, 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 1, 2, 3 1, 3 1, 3 3 1, 3 1, 3 1, 3 1, 3 3 1, 3 1 1, 3 1 1 1, 3 2, 3 3 1, 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1, 2, 3 2 1, 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1, 3 1, 2, 3 1, 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1, 2, 3 3 1 1, 3 3 1, 3 1, 3 3 1, 2 1 2 1 2, 3 3 2, 3 1, 2 2 2, 3 2 2 2 1, 2 3 3 1 1, 2 1 1 1 1 1, 2 1 1 1 1, 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1, 3 1, 3 1, 3 1, 3 1, 2, 3 1, 2, 3

21,200 25,300 23,100 40,000 15,700 257,000 25,800 941,100 457,200 21,300 2,300 814,800 23,000 16,800 14,600 23,500 7,200 4,400 29,500 13,600 5,400 19,700 85,000 23,900 24,000 34,600 31,000 331,700 73,400 70,900 47,300 155,400 38,400 1,300,500 239,300 47,800 185,500 545,400 159,500 331,400 50,700 36,500 38,700 1,500 2,608,000 936,100 73,700 28,400 350,900 159,500 1,189,500 64,100 14,400 3,600 1,600 12,500 2,097,700 37,300 28,900 171,700 9,700 177,000 1,500 3,700 400 7,100 8,500 198,300 3,200

4,500 5,700 6,400 2,900 600 10,700 120,500 13,800 2,781,200 220,700 166,900 257,700 6,100 200 700 1,500 400 4,600 2,700 1,900 700 1,600 1,200 800 900 2,000 1,300 3,900 1,200 1,100 600 300 2,400 1,600 600 100 100 600 1,900 400 700 500 200 1,700 14,300 40,700 2,500 49,500 143,400 59,600 190,500 772,200 192,100

Label AS80 AS81 AS82 AS83 AS84 AS85 AS86 AS87 AS88 EB1 EB2 EB3 EB4 EB5 EB6 EB8 EB9 EB10 EB11 EB12

Aquifer name Ganges River plain Nu River Valley South Burma Upriver of Zuo River Mekong River plain Beilun River Basin Yalu River Valley Middle Heilongjian-Amur River Basin New Guinea Island Secovlje-Dragonja/Istra aquifer Mirna/Istra aquifer Mirna aquifer Obmocje izvira Rižane aquifer Opatija/Istra aquifer aquifer Notranjska Reka aquifer (part of Bistrica-Snežnik) Rijecina – Zvir aquifer Novokracine aquifer Cerknica/ Kupa aquifer, Kocevje Goteniška gora aquifer, Radovica-Metlika/ Zumberak aquifer

Sharing countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, India Burma, China Burma, Thailand Cina, Vietnam Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam China, Vietnam China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea China, Russia Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia

Type1 Area [km2] 1, 2, 3 411,300 2, 3 40,300 1, 2, 3 230,700 2, 3 59,800 1, 3 302,200 2, 3 47,200 3 19,500 1, 3 155,500 1, 2 465,300 2 300 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2

EB13 EB14 EB15 EB16 EB17 EB18 EB19 EB20 EB21 EB22 EB23 EB24 EB25 EB26 EB27 EB28 EB29 EB30 EB31 EB32 EB33 EB34 EB35 EB36 EB37 EB38 EB39 EB40 EB41 EB42 EB43 EB44 EB45 EB46 EB47 EB48 EB49 EB50 EB51 EB52 EB53 EB54 EB55 EB56 EB57 EB58 EB59 EB60 EB61 EB62 EB63 EB64 EB65 EB66 EB67 EB68 EB69 EB70 EB71 EB72 EB73 EB74 EB75 EB76 EB77 EB78 EB79 EB80 EB81 EB82 EB83 EB84 EB85 EB86

Ormoz-Sredisce ob Drava/Drava-Varazdin aq. Bregana aquifer Bregana-Obrezje/Sava- Samobor Bizeljsko/ Sutla aquifer Boc aquifer Rogaška aquifer Atomske toplice aquifer Bohor aquifer Orlica aquifer Dolinsko-Ravensko/ Mura aquifer Kupa aquifer Pleševica/ Una aquifer Krka aquifer Cetina aquifer Neretva Right coast aquifer Trebišnjica/Neretva Left coast aquifer Dinaric Littoral (West Coast aquifer) Bileko Lake aquifer Posavina I/ Sava aquifer Srem-West Srem/ Sava aquifer South Western Backa/Dunav aquifer Mura aquifer Drava/ Drava West aquifer Baranja/Drava East Danube-Tisza-interflowe/Backa aquifer (Northeast) Backa/Danube -Tisza Interfluve Upper Pleistocenesomes alluvial fan Pleist-Hol. Mures/Maros alluvial fan aquifer Körös-valley, Sárrét, shallow/Crisuri aquifer Körös – Crisuri holocene Hortobágy-Nagykunság Bihar Northern Part Skadar/Shkoder Lake, Dinaric east coast aquifer N and S Banat or N and Mid Banat aquifer Nyírség, keleti rész / Nyírség, east margin aquifer Somes/Szamos alluvial fan aquifer Macva-Semberija aquifer Tara Massif Lim aquifer Pester aquifer Metohija aquifer Beli Drim/Drini Bardhe aquifer Tetovo-Gostivar Korab/Bistra – Stogovo aquifer Jablanica/Golobordo aquifer Prespa and Ohrid Lake aquifer SYSTIMA TRIKLARIOU KASTORIAS Mourgana Mountain/ Mali Gjere aquifer SYSTIMA POGONIANIS Nemechka/Vjosa-Pogoni aquifer Pelagonia- Florina/Bitolsko aquifer Systima Axiou aq Systima Axiou GWB Systima Doiranis aq Systima Doiranis GWB Sandansky-Petrich aquifer Sandansky valley aquifer Petrich valley aquifer FYROM-Central Serbia FYROM-SW Serbia Zemen Stara Planina/ Salasha Montana aquifer As above Miroc & Golubac Dacian basin Orvilos-Agistros/Gotze Delchev aquifer Nastan-Trigrad Smolyan Rudozem Erma Reka Evros/Meric Orestiadas System Orestiada/Svilengrad-Stambolo/Edirne aquifer Topolovgrad Massif aquifer Malko Tarnovo kasrt waterbearing massif

Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Croatia, Slovenia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia Croatia, Serbia Croatia, Serbia Croatia, Hungary Croatia, Hungary Croatia, Hungary Hungary, Serbia Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia Hungary, Romania, Serbia Hungary, Romania Hungary, Romania Hungary, Romania Hungary, Romania Albania, Montenegro Hungary, Romania, Serbia Hungary, Romania Hungary, Romania, Ukraine Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia Montenegro, Serbia Montenegro, Serbia Montenegro, Serbia Albania, Serbia Macedonia, Serbia Albania, Macedonia Albania, Macedonia Albania, Greece, Macedonia Albania, Greece Albania, Greece Albania, Greece Albania, Greece Greece, Macedonia Greece, Macedonia Greece, Macedonia Greece, Macedonia Greece, Macedonia Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Macedonia, Serbia Macedonia, Serbia Bulgaria, Serbia Bulgaria, Serbia Bulgaria, Serbia Romania, Serbia Romania, Serbia Bulgaria, Greece Bulgaria, Greece Bulgaria, Greece Bulgaria, Greece Bulgaria, Greece Greece, Turkey Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey Bulgaria, Turkey Bulgaria, Turkey

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1, 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1, 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 1, 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

EB87 EB88 EB89 EB90 EB91 EU1 EU2 EU3 EU4 EU5 EU6 EU7 EU8 EU9 EU10 EU11 EU12 EU13 EU14 EU15 EU16 EU17 EU18

Dobrudja/Dobrogea Neogene – Sarmatian aq Dobrudja/Dobrogea aquifer Danube-Prut Middle Sarmantian Pontian aquifer Prut LOW MIÑO IE_NW_G_082 IEGBNI_NW_G_048 IE_NW_G_082 IEGBNI_NW_G_028 IEGBNI_NW_G_050 IEGBNI_NB_G_007 CIUDAD RODRIGO Moraleja aquifer VEGAS BAJAS Dom. plissé Pyrénées axiales et alluvions IVair Sables du Landien des Flandres Sables du Landien d'Orchies cvs_0160_gwl_1 Zout grondwater in ondiepe zandlagen Calcaires de l'Avesnois Socle du Brabant cks_0200_gwl_1

Bulgaria, Romania Bulgaria, Romania Romania, Moldova, Ukraine Romania, Moldova, Ukraine Romania, Moldova Portugal, Spain Ireland, United Kingdom Ireland, Ireland, United Kingdom Ireland, United Kingdom Ireland, United Kingdom Ireland, United Kingdom Ireland, United Kingdom Portugal, Spain Portugal, Spain Portugal, Spain Andorra, France, Spain Belgium, France, Netherlands France, Belgium Belgium, France, Netherlands Belgium, Netherlands Belgium, France Belgium, France Belgium, Netherlands

1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1, 3 1 1 3 1, 3 1

26,000 40,600 15,500 24,800 4,900 200 2,000 4,900 200 3,300 800 2,700 500 300 700 600 14,200 6,800 3,000 4,600 1,000 2,700 7,800

EU19 EU20 EU21 EU22 EU23 EU24 EU25 EU26 EU27 EU28 EU29 EU30 EU31 EU32

Grès du Lias inférieur d'Hettange Luxembourg Belgium, France, Luxembourg Calcaires et marnes jurassiques chaîne du Jura France, Switzerland Grès vosgien captif non minéralisé France, Germany Calcaires Juras. chaîne du Jura - BV Doubs et France, Switzerland Calcaires Juras. sous couverture du Pays de G France, Switzerland Genevese aquifer France, Switzerland Calcaires jurassiques BV de la Jougnena et Orbe France, Switzerland Grès du Trias inférieur du bassin houiller France, Germany Domaine plissé BV Cenise et Pô France, Italy Grès vosgien en partie libre France, Germany Domaine plissé BV Roya, Bévéra France, Italy DE_GB_3_03 Germany, Netherlands Pliocène de Haguenau et nappe d’Alsace France, Germany, Switzerland DE_GB_Ei22 Denmark, Germany

1 2 1 2, 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 2, 3 1, 2 1 1

2,300 5,100 12,000 6,600 1,600 <100 <100 300 200 3,700 800 20,600 4,600 200

EU33 EU34 EU35 EU36 EU37 EU38

DE_GB_Ei23 Wiedau aquifer Deep GWB – thermal water Fleons-Cimon Massicci carbonatici della catena paleocarnica 1 Catena paleocarnica centrale

Denmark, Germany Denmark, Germany Austria, Germany Austria, Italy Austria, Italy Austria, Italy

1 1 1, 3 2 2 2

200 1,900 8,400 100 <100 100

EU39 EU40 EU41 EU42 EU43 EU44 EU45 EU46 EU47 EU48

Massicci carbonatici della catena paleocarnica 2 Kobariški stol aquifer Catena paleocarnica orientale - Val Canale Cividalese Canin Massicci carbonatici della catena paleocarnica 3 Flysch goriziano Alta pianura isontina Vrtojbensko polje aquifer Rabeljski rudnik aquifer

Austria, Italy Italy, Slovenia Austria, Italy Italy, Slovenia Italy, Slovenia Austria, Italy Italy, Slovenia Italy, Slovenia Italy, Slovenia Italy, Slovenia

2 2 2 1, 2 2 2 1, 2 1, 2 2 2

<100 300 200 600 <100 <100 <100 200 <100 100

EU49

Gail

Italy, Slovenia

2

<100

<100

Sharing countries Italy, Slovenia Italy, Slovenia Italy, Slovenia Italy, Slovenia Austria, Slovenia Austria, Slovenia Austria, Slovenia Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary, Slovenia Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Hungary Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Slovenia Austria, Czech Republic Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia Austria, Hungary, Slovakia Hungary, Slovakia

Type1 Area [km2] 2 300 2 200 2 <100 2 <100 2 300 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1,900 1 100 1 <100 1 1,500 1 <100 1 <101 1 200 1, 3 <100 1 2,400 1, 3 700 1 200 1 3,300 1 200 1 300 1 4,700 1 4,600

Hungary, Slovakia

1

Hungary, Slovakia Hungary, Slovakia Hungary, Slovakia Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine Romania, Ukraine Moldova, Ukraine Belarus, Ukraine Belarus, Ukraine Belarus, Ukraine

1 3 1, 3 1 1 1 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2

EU89 Upper Preterozoic terrigenous aquifer

Belarus, Ukraine

1, 3

EU90 EU91 EU92 EU93 EU94 EU95 EU 96 EU97 EU98 EU99 EU100 EU101 EU102 EU103 EU104 EU105 EU106

Bug aquifer Alluvial Quaternary aquifer Paleogene-Neogene aquifer Oxfordian-Cenomanian aquifer Cenomanian carbonate-terrigenous aquifer Aquifers in Quaternary deposits Oxfordian-cenomanian carbonate-terrigenous aquifer Mazursko-Podlashi region aquifer Upper Cretaceous aquifer Daugava Middle-Lower-Devonian GWB (D2-1) GWB D4/ Upper Devonian Stipinai LT002003400 Upper – Middle Devonian LT001003400 D10/Polotsk & Lansky terrigen. complex of M- U Devonian aq GWB D8 GWB D6 GWB D5

Belarus, Ukraine Belarus, Poland, Ukraine Belarus, Poland, Ukraine Belarus, Poland, Ukraine Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, Russia Latvia, Lithuania Latvia, Lithuania Latvia, Lithuania Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania Estonia, Latvia Estonia, Latvia Estonia, Latvia

1, 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

EU107 EU108 EU109 EU110

Upper Devonian terrigenous-carbonate aquifer Ordovician-Cambrian GWB Cambrian-Vendian Voronka GWB D9/Upper Devonian terrigenous-carbonate complex aq, Cenomanian aq

Estonia, Latvia, Russia Estonia, Russia Estonia, Russia Latvia, Belarus, Russia

1

GWB D4/ Upper Devonian Stipinai LT002003400 GWB F3 Aquifer F2/Permian-Upper Devonian Aquifer F1/Permian-Upper Devonian Upper-Devonian GWB (D3) Quaternary sediment aquifer Upper Devonian terrigenous-carbonate aquifer Ordovician Ida-Viru GWB Ordovician Ida-Viru oil-shale basin GWB Kanunkankaat aquifer Aquifer Anarjokka Karasjok aquifer Levajok-Valjok aquifer Tana Nord Neiden aquifer Pasvikeskeren aquifer Grense Jakobselv aquifer Abbotsford-Sumas Okanagan-Osoyoos Grand Forks Poplar Estevan Northern Great Plains Châteauguay San Diego-Tijuana Cuenca Baja del Río Colorado Sonoyta-Pápagos Nogales Sanra Cruz San Pedro Conejos Médanos-Bolsón de la Mesilla Bolsón del Hueco-Valle de Juárez Edwards-Trinity-El Burro Cuenca Baja del Río Bravo / Grande Soconusco-Suchiate/Coatán Chicomuselo-Selequa/Cuilco Ocosingo-Usumacinta-Pocóm-Ixcán Márquez de Comillas-Chixoy/Xaclbal Boca del Cerro-San Pedro La Trinitaria-Nentón Península de Yucatán-Candelaria-Hondo Mopán-Belice Pusila-Moho Sarstún Temash Motagua Chiquimula - Copán Ruinas Esquipulas-Ocotepeque-Citala Ostua-Metapan Río Paz Estero Real Río Negro Sixaola Masacre Artibonito Los Lagos Pedernales El Choco-Darién Tachira Pamplonita La Guajira Grupo Roraima Boa Vista-Serra de Tucano-North Savanna Zanderij Coesewijne A-Sand/B-Sand Costeiro Tulcán-Ipiales Zarumilla Puyango-Tumbes-Chira-Catamayo Amazonas Titicaca Pantanal Agua Dulce Ollagüe-Pastos Grandes

Belarus, Ukraine Belarus, Russia Latvia, Belarus Latvia, Lithuania Latvia, Lithuania Latvia, Lithuania Latvia, Lithuania Latvia, Lithuania Latvia, Lithuania Estonia, Latvia, Russia Estonia, Russia Estonia, Russia Finland, Russia Finland, Norway Finland, Norway Finland, Norway Finland, Norway Finland, Norway Norway, Russia Norway, Russia Canada, United States Canada, United States Canada, United States Canada, United States Canada, United States Canada, United States Canada, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Mexico, United States Guatemala, Mexico Guatemala, Mexico Guatemala, Mexico Guatemala, Mexico Guatemala, Mexico Guatemala, Mexico Belize, Guatemala, Mexico Belize, Guatemala Belize, Guatemala Guatemala, Belize Guatemala, Belize Guatemala, Honduras Guatemala, Honduras El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras El Salvador, Guatemala El Salvador, Guatemala Honduras, Nicaragua Costa Rica, Panama Dominican Republic, Haiti Dominican Republic, Haiti Dominican Republic, Haiti Dominican Republic, Haiti Colombia, Panama Colombia, Venezuela Colombia, Venezuela Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela Brazil, Guyana French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname Guyana, Suriname Guyana, Suriname Brazil, French Guiana Colombia, Ecuador Ecuador, Peru Ecuador, Peru Bol. Br., Col., Ec., Peru, Venezuela Bolivia, Chile, Peru Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay Bolivia, Paraguay Bolivia, Chile

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 2 2 1, 2, 3 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2, 3 1 1, 2 2, 3 2 2, 3 1, 2 2 1, 2 2 2 2 2 1, 2, 3 2, 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 1, 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 2, 3 1, 3 2 1, 3 1 2

18S 19S 20S 21S 22S 23S 24S 25S 26S 27S 28S

Concordia/Escritos-Caplina Aquidauana-Aquidabán Caiuá-Bauru-Acaray Guaraní Serra Geral Literáneo-Chuy Permo-Carbonifero Litoral Cretácico Salto-Salto Chico Puneños Yrendá-Toba-Tarijeño

Chile, Peru Brazil, Paraguay Brazil, Paraguay Argentina, Br., Paraguay, Uruguay Argentina, Br., Paraguay, Uruguay Brazil, Uruguay Brazil, Uruguay Argentina, Uruguay Argentina, Uruguay Argentina, Bolivia Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay

2 1 1 1, 2, 3 1 1 1 1 2 2, 3 1, 2, 3

29S

El Cóndor-Cañadon del Cóndor

Argentina, Chile

1

Label EU50 EU51 EU52 EU54 EU55 EU56 EU57 EU58 EU59 EU60 EU61 EU62 EU63 EU64 EU65 EU66 EU67 EU68 EU69 EU70 EU71 EU72 EU73 EU75 EU76 EU77 EU78 EU79

200 2,000 3,300 3,800 5,000 2,700 1,100 400 1,600 400 2,200 600

5,600 17,600 11,300 6,900 12,600

1,800 21,700 3,900 4,100 1,300 1,700 1,200 1,100 200 4,000 600 400 900 1,500 400 500 500 1,800 1,200 1,700 1,700 400 200

2,000 2,800 1,000 400 4,000 700 2,200 700 700 900 400 300 2,400 900 1,000 1,300 900

EU80 EU81 EU82 EU83 EU84 EU85 EU86 EU87 EU88

EU111 EU112 EU113 EU114 EU115 EU116 EU117 EU118 EU119 EU120 EU121 EU122 EU123 EU124 EU125 EU126 EU127 EU128 EU129 EU130 1N 2N 3N 4N 5N 6N 7N 8N 9N 10N 11N 12N 13N 14N 15N 16N 17N 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C 7C 8C 9C 10C 11C 12C 13C 14C 15C 16C 17C 18C 1CB 2CB 3CB 4CB 1S 2S 3S 4S 5S 6S 7S 8S 9S 10S 11S 12S 13S 14S 15S 16S 17S

Aquifer name Carso classico (isontino e triestino) Brestovica GWB Flysch triestino Osp-Boljunec GWB Karstwasser-Vorkommen Karawanken Cerneško- Libeliško aquifer Kucnica aquifer Raabtal aquifer Raba shallow aquifer, Raba Porous cold and thermal Raba Koezeg mountain fractured aquifer Groundwaterbody Hügelland Raab West Lafnitztal aquifer Stremtal aquifer Groundwaterbody Hügelland RaabOst Pinkatal aquifer Pinkatal 2 aquifer Group of GWBs Günser Gebirge Umland Günstal aquifer Rabnitztal aquifer Group of GWBs Hügelland Rabnitz Heideboden [DUJ] Goricko, Mura–Zala basin/Radgona–Vaš, Kot aquifer CZ_GB_16410 CZ_GB_16520 Szigetköz, Hanság-Rábca/Podunajska basin, Zitny Ostrov Dunántúli középhegység északi rész/Komarnanska Vysoka Kryha Komarnanska Vysoka Kryha / Dunántúli – középhegység északi rész as above Ipoly völgy/ Alúvium Ipla aquifer Slovensky kras / Aggtelek aquifer Bodrog aquifer Siret Dniester Pripyat Paleogene-Neogene terrigenous aquifer Cenomanian terrigenous aquifer

Upper Devonian terrigenous-carbonate aquifer

1 1

400 300 300 1,500 3,100 3,400 27,400

62,900 7,300 9,700 6,900 13,200 12,200 11,500 7,400 17,100 20,600 8,700 5,300

2,900 3,800 4,600 4,500 3,500 600 1,100 3,400 1,900 400 <100 200 <100 400 <100 100 <100 12,000

1,081,800

20,400 19,400 11,500 12,700 15,700 8,600 106,800 18,200 8,800 24,400 17,800 19,500 165,200

14,100

9,700 61,500 23,900 44,700 28,300 37,200

19,200 4,020,400 56,100 218,500 7,800

1,793,700 55,600

18,500 452,800 26,900


Transboundary Aquifers of the World 2012