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Embracing  failure:   diagnosing  the  causes   of  water  insecurity  to   improve  future   interven9ons

 

Nick  Hepworth   Declan  Conway   Bruce  Lankford  


Diagnosing  water  security  status  and  determinants   •  Hydrometric  measurements   •  Water  Quality  analysis   •  Document  analysis     •  Field  observa9ons   •  Transect  walks   •  Par9cipatory  Appraisal   •  Interviews  

1.  Mul9ple   case  study   research     (Yin  2004)   4.   Ques9onnaire   survey  &  key   informant   interviews  

•  82  water   resource   managers    

2.  Picture   aided     discussion   (PAD)  

3.  External   valida9on   visits  

•  Kenya   •  Uganda   •  Tanzania   2  


Example:  Gomba  Estates  -­‐  irrigated  export  agriculture  

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Example:  Pastoralists,  Mbulu  District  

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Determinants  of  ins9tu9onal  performance  

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Explicit   constraints  

•  Difficult  contexts  (climate,  poverty,   history)   •  Resources,  finance  and  capacity   •  Data  and  management  systems  

Tacit   constraints  

•  Ambiguous  authority/sovereignty   •  Corrup9on  and  capture   •  Weak  ins9tu9onal  incen9ves   •  Low  prac99oner  mo9va9on  


Ins$tu$onal  personality:  in  addi9on  to  capacity  -­‐  people,   organisa9ons  and  ins9tu9ons  -­‐  require  incen9ves,  mo9va9on  and   intent  in  order  to  deliver  ‘public  good’  outcomes  on  water  security.    

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Ins9tu9onal  personality:    prac99oner  mo9va9on   Ins9tu9onal   environment   •  Turf  wars   •  Corrup9on  and   interference   •  Failure  of  gov-­‐ on-­‐gov  and  gov-­‐ on-­‐donor   safeguards  

Management  and   workplace   • Few    or  no               examples  of   success   • Pay  and   condi9ons   • Top  down   management  

Inappropriate   interven9ons   •   Overreliance  on   well  paid  TA   cripples   mo9va9on,   ownership  &   learning   •     Brain-­‐drain  out   of  public  sector   •   The  tyranny  of   workshop  culture  

Mo9va9on  tested  using  ‘self-­‐determina9on  theory’  (Deci  &  Ryan)   7  


Ins9tu9onal  personality:  social  accountability  &  organisa9onal  incen9ves   Deliberated  in  the  public  domain  by  ci9zens,  prac99oners,     stakeholders     &  financiers  

1.  Who  is  responsible?  

Water  security  duty  bearers  and  resources   available?

 

4.  Integrity  and   oversight   Reflec9on  on  performance  and   opportuni9es  for    construc9ve  change  

Stronger   ins9tu9onal     incen9ves  and   improved   performance  

2.  Who  is  affected?     Water  security  rights  holders  and   impacts?    

3.  Performance   monitoring   How  are  duty  bearers  performing,  what  are   the  social  and  economic  implica9ons?   8  


Signpos$ng  progress…       1.  Be6er  governance:  help  rights  holders  to  hold   duty  bearers  to  account   2.  Be6er  research:  trace  and  test  links  between   interven9ons,  ins9tu9onal  performance  and   outcomes     3.  Be6er  aid:  address  root  causes  of  systemic   issues    /  genuine,  sustainable  capacity   mobilisa9on   4.  New  approaches:  e.g.  explore  wins  and   advocacy  poten9al  provided  by  corporate   engagement  (and  manage  the  risks)     9  


Diagnosing the causes of water insecurity in East Africa