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A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa A special tabulation for AfricaSan based on preliminary data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation

AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene Durban, South Africa 18-20 February 2008

Š WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2008


© World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2008 All rights reserved. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization or UNICEF concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.1 The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization or UNICEF in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. The World Health Organization and UNICEF do not warrant that the information contained in this document is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. This is a working document. It has been prepared to facilitate the exchange of knowledge and to stimulate discussion. The text has not been edited to official publication standards and WHO and UNICEF accept no responsibility for errors. Data used in this document are subject to revision

Printed in the United States of America

1

Due to differences in resolution, dotted lines in this document may appear solid.


A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

1

A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Introduction This tabulation has been prepared by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and 2 Sanitation (JMP ) as its contribution to the Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene, held in Durban, South Africa in February 2008. It contains a new set of sanitation coverage estimates for Africa for the year 2006 based on preliminary JMP estimates. The estimates presented in this document originate from data collected by national statistics offices along with other relevant institutions through national censuses and nationally representative household surveys, including Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and World Health Surveys among others. The JMP analyses presented here provide a snapshot of the proportion of population in Africa that, in 2006, used an improved sanitation facility. It also shows the proportion of the population, in Africa as a whole and in various regions, using shared or unimproved sanitation facilities in addition to those practising open defecation.

In 16 of the 54 countries in Africa sanitation coverage is less than 25 per cent

Percentage of population using an improved sanitation facility, 2006 0 - 25% 26 - 50% 51 - 75% 76 - 100% No data

Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Figure 1: Coverage with improved sanitation facilities, Africa, 2006 2

The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme is the official UN mechanism charged with monitoring progress towards the MDG drinking water and sanitation targets.


A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

2

A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Definitions of access to sanitation The Millennium Development Goal 7, Target 7C calls on countries to “Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation”. The indicator used in this document to assess the proportion of people with access to basic sanitation is the official MDG indicator: The proportion of the population that uses an improved sanitation facility, urban and rural. An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. To allow for international comparability of estimates, JMP uses the following classification to differentiate between improved and unimproved types of sanitation facilities. Note that JMP considers only users of 'improved’ sanitation facilities as having 'access to sanitation’. 3

Improved sanitation facilities Flush or pour-flush to: - piped sewer system - septic tank - pit latrine Ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP) Pit latrine with slab Composting toilet

Unimproved sanitation facilities 4 Flush or pour-flush to elsewhere Pit latrine without slab or open pit Bucket Hanging toilet or hanging latrine No facilities or bush or field (open defecation)

The population estimates presented here and the urban/rural distribution by country are those estimated by the United Nations Population Division (2006 revision). The regional analyses presented here follow five geographical sub-regions according to the UN Population Division’s classification. Due to differences in definitions of access, and population estimates, used by countries and JMP respectively, the sanitation coverage estimates presented here may differ from those used nationally, even though drawn from the same original data sources.

Basic Facts and Figures: All Africa Population using improved sanitation

Total

Total

Population practising open defecation

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

1990

52%

23%

33%

24%

8%

13%

16%

25%

22%

8%

44%

32%

2000

52%

26%

36%

27%

9%

16%

13%

25%

21%

8%

40%

28%

2006

52%

28%

38%

28%

10%

17%

12%

26%

21%

7%

36%

25%

-

-

66%*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2015

Total

Population using 5 unimproved sanitation

Population using shared sanitation

Urban

Rural

Total

* MDG target

Main findings In 2006, 38 per cent of the population in Africa used an improved sanitation facility - an increase from 33 per cent in 1990. Less than a third of the African rural population, and just over half of the urban population used improved 5 sanitation. In 16 of the 54 African countries less than 25 per cent of the population uses an improved sanitation facility. Africa as a continent is not on track for meeting the MDG sanitation target. Only five of the 54 countries are on track. It is encouraging to note that the proportion of the population practising open defection has dropped from 32 per cent in 1990 to 25 per cent in 2006. 3

Only facilities which are not shared or public are considered improved. Excreta are flushed to the street, yard or plot, open sewer, a ditch, a drainage way or other location. 5 Excluding shared sanitation and open defecation 4


A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

3

A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Over half the population in Africa use an improved or shared sanitation facility; but one in four practises open defecation Figure 2: Trends in the proportion of population using either an improved, or shared, or unimproved sanitation facility, or practising open defecation, by sub-regions, 1990 – 2006

13

16

20

20

25

28 33

8

15

12

31 35

32

44

21

Unimproved facilities

17

Shared facilities

7

18

Coverage (percentage)

21 20

36

5

23 23

22

27

45 18

Open Defecation

11

13

12

16

22

68

13 17

57

57

52

5

29 25

22

Northern Africa 19 9 0

2 0 0 6 19 9 0

Southern Africa 2 0 0 6 19 9 0

24 21

Central Africa 2 0 0 6 19 9 0

Eastern Africa 2 0 0 6 19 9 0

Western Africa 2006

Improved facilities

38 33

33

All Africa 19 9 0

20 06 19 9 0

2006

The proportion of the population using an improved sanitation facility throughout Africa was 38 per cent in 2006. The largest proportion is in Northern Africa, at 68 per cent, and lowest in Western Africa at 24 per cent. In Western and Southern Africa the proportion sharing sanitation facilities is largest - 22 and 21 per cent respectively. Open defecation is highest in Eastern Africa where 33 per cent of the population does not use any type of sanitation facility. Eastern Africa however saw a 25 per cent decline in open defecation since 1990 - from 44 to 33 per cent. One in four people in Africa still practise open defection.


A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

4

A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Five countries in Africa are on track to meet the MDG sanitation target Figure 3: Progress towards the MDG sanitation target, by country, 2006

Progress towards the MDG Sanitation target, 2006 On track

Coverage in 2006 was less than 5 per cent below the rate it needed to be for the country to reach the MDG target, or coverage was higher than 95%

Progress but insufficient

Coverage in 2006 was 5 per cent to 10 per cent below the rate it needed to be for the country to reach the MDG target

Not on track

Coverage in 2006 was more than 10 per cent below the rate it needed to be for the country to reach the MDG target, or the 1990 - 2006 trend shows unchanged or decreasing coverage

Insufficient or no data

Data were unavailable or insufficient to estimate trends

Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Efforts need to increase alm ost five-fold to m eet the MDG sanitation target in Africa

2006 - 2015

45.3

1990 - 2006

9.2

0

10

20 30 People (m illions)

40

Meeting the MDG sanitation target in Africa requires at least a quadrupling in the average number of people served over the past 16 years. In the nine years from 2006 to 2015 just over 400 million African people need to gain access to improved sanitation - more than the 354 million people in Africa that had access by 2006.

50

Average number of people that gained or need t o gain access to improved sanitat ion, 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015

Figure 4: Average number of people per year who have gained access or need to gain access to improved sanitation, 1990 – 2006 and 2006 – 2015.


A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

5

A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Trends in population without access to sanitation Over the period 1990 – 2006, 146 million people in Africa gained access to sanitation. However, due largely to population growth, the number of people without sanitation increased by 159 million, from 430 million in 1990 to 589 million people in 2006. Since 1990, the num ber of people w ithout im proved sanitation in Africa increased by 159 m illion

700

Population (millions)

600 500 400 300 200 100

fr ic a A

fr ic a

ll

A A

th er n So u

en

tr al A

fr ic a

fri ca A C

or th er n

n

N

W es te r

Ea st er n

A

Af ric a

fr ic a

0

1990

2000

2006

Figure 5: Population without access to improved sanitation by sub-region and Africa 1990, 2000, 2006 (millions)

234 million people in Africa practise open defecation Population using improved sanitation (millions)

Population using 6 unimproved sanitation (millions)

Total

Total

Population practising open defecation (millions)

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

1990

106

102

208

47

33

80

34

110

144

17

189

206

2000

155

137

292

77

47

124

43

132

175

23

207

230

2006

190

164

354

100

54

154

50

150

201

26

209

234

-

-

762*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2015

Total

Population using shared sanitation (millions)

Urban

Rural

Total

* MDG target

In 2006, 354 million people in Africa used an improved sanitation facility. Of the 589 million people without access, 154 million shared, and 201 million used an unimproved sanitation 6 facility. Some 234 million practised open defecation. . In order to meet the MDG sanitation target the current number of people in Africa with improved sanitation needs to more than double - from 354 million in 2006 to 762 million in 2015.

6

Excluding shared sanitation and open defecation


A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

6

A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

All Africa: Slow overall progress, urban progress stagnating

Africa: 589 million people without improved sanitation

100

Coverage (%)

80 60

Western Africa 211 mln

Eastern Africa 213 mln

52 52 38

40 23

28

33

20 Southern Africa 24 mln

0 Urban

Rural 1990 2006

Total

Northern Africa 62 mln

Figure 6: Coverage with improved sanitation, urban, rural, total, 1990 and 2006 (%)

Figure 7: Population without improved sanitation, among sub-regions (millions)

Rural Africa: 62 m illion people gained access to im proved sanitation; over 200 m illion practised open defecation

Urban Africa: 190 m illion people used an im proved sanitation facility; another 100 m illion shared a sanitation facility 600

600

500

500

400

400

300

300

200

200

100

100

0 1990 Impro ved

Urban Shared

Unimpro ved

2006 Open defecatio n

Figure 8: Distribution of urban population in Africa using different sanitation options 1990-2006

Central Africa 79 mln

0 1990 Impro ved

Rural Shared

Unimpro ved

2006 Open defecatio n

Figure 9: Distribution of rural population in Africa using different sanitation options 1990 - 2006


A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

7

A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Africa is not on track to meet the MDG sanitation target

Africa: Sanitation coverage trend 100

Coverage (%)

80 66 60 40

38

33

41

20 0 1990

2006

2015

Sanitatio n trend Trend required fo r M DG target

Figure 10 :Sanitation coverage trend 1990 – 2015 and coverage trend required to meet the MDG sanitation target, 2006 -2015

But some countries have made good progress Countries making rapid progress in sanitation Sanitation Coverage (%) % increase Country Central African Republic Benin Comoros Guinea Morocco Namibia Egypt Cameroon Malawi Mali

1990

2006 11 12 18 13 52 26 50 39 46 35

31 30 35 19 72 35 66 51 60 45

1990-2006 182 150 94 46 38 35 32 31 30 29

Figure 11: Countries that increased coverage by at least 25% between 1990 and 2006 and that had at least 10% coverage in 1990. Table includes only countries for which data were sufficient to estimate trends

Some countries have made better progress in urban than in rural areas and vice versa.


A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

8

A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene Figure 12: Coverage with improved sanitation by country in 2006

Sanitation coverage in Africa, 2006 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Mauritius Algeria Tunisia Morocco Djibouti Egypt Malaw i South Africa Zambia Gambia Equatorial Guinea Cameroon Sw aziland Botsw ana Zimbabw e Mali Kenya Burundi Angola Lesotho Gabon Sudan Namibia Comoros Tanzania, United Republic Uganda Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mozambique Democratic Republic of the Congo Central African Republic Benin Senegal Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Mauritania C么te d'Ivoire Somalia Rw anda Congo Guinea Burkina Faso Togo Madagascar Sierra Leone Ethiopia Ghana Chad Niger Eritrea

97 94 94 85 72 67 66 60 59 52 52 51 51 50 47 46 45 42 41 38 36 36 35 35 35 33 33 33 32 31 31 31 30 28 28 24 24 24 23 23 20 19 13 12 12 11 11 10 9 7 5 0

10

20

30

40

50 Coverage (%)

60

70

80

90

100


Central Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006 WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008 ---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----

Data sources JMP based its 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for the nine countries that make up this region:, Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe; Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data points. The sanitation coverage estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures % Population using improved sanitation

% Population using shared sanitation

Total

% Population using unimproved sanitation

Total

% Population practising open defecation

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

1990

50

9

22

9

3

5

30

52

Total 45

Urban 11

Rural 36

Total 28

2000

46

18

29

17

6

10

29

45

39

8

30

22

2006

46

24

33

18

7

12

29

40

36

7

29

20

2015

-

-

61*

-

-

-

*MDG target

Sanitation practices

Trends in coverage C e n tr al Afr ica: T o tal co ve r ag e in cr e as e d b y 50 p e r ce n t b u t u r b an co ve r ag e d r o p p e d

Sanitation coverage in Central Africa increased by 50 per cent between 1990 and 2006

100

Open defecation

Coverage (%)

80

20

28

60 50

46

40

33 24

22

20 9

0 Rural 1990 2006

Total

Central Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006

36 10 0

45

12

Coverage (%)

Unimproved 80 60

51 40 20

51 38

36

31

31

24

20

Shared

9

33

Improved 22

1990

Central Africa

2006

ha d C

5

am Eq er ua oo to n ria lG ui ne a An go C la D en em tra oc G lA ra ab fri tic on ca Re n R pu ep bl ub ic Sa l ic of o th To e C m on e go an d P ri n ci p e Co ng o

0

C

Population (percentage)

Urban


Central Africa: Tw o out of seven people in rural areas practise open defecation

Central Africa: More than half of the urban population uses im proved or shared sanitation facilities 80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0 1990

Urban Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

0 1990

2006 Open defecatio n

Rural Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

2006 Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation facility, Central Africa, 2006 78 million people in Central Africa without improved sanitation, 2006 Democratic Republic of the Congo

42.1

Angola

10.3

Chad

9.5

Cameroon

8.9

Congo

3.0

Central African Republic

3.0

Gabon

0.8

0 - 25%

Equatorial Guinea

0.2

26 - 50%

Sao Tome and Principe

0.1

51 - 75% 76 - 100%

Population without improved sanitation in Central African countries, 2006 (millions)

No data

Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Central Africa is not on track to m eet the MDG sanitation target

6 m illion people per year need to gain access to im proved sanitation in Central Africa

100

Coverage (%)

80

2006 - 2015 61

60 40 20

5.9

33

39

1990 - 2006

1.3

22

0 0 1990

2006

1

2

3 4 5 People (m illions)

6

7

2015

Sanitatio n trend Trend required to meet M DG target

A verage number of peo ple that gained o r need to gain access to impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015


Eastern Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006 WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008 ---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----

Data sources JMP based the 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for the 16 countries that make up this region: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data points. The sanitation coverage estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures % Population using improved sanitation

% Population using shared sanitation

Total

Total

% Population using unimproved* sanitation

% Population practising open defecation Urban

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

1990

31

24

25

33

9

13

18

18

Total 18

18

Rural 49

Total 44

2000

36

25

27

34

10

15

17

20

19

13

46

39

2006

37

27

29

36

10

16

20

23

23

8

40

33

2015

-

-

63**

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

* Excludes shared sanitation and open defecation **MDG target Sanitation practices

Trends in coverage Eastern Africa: Three out of 10 people in Eastern Africa use an im proved sanitation facility

Open defecation in Eastern Africa reduced by 25 per cent from 44 percent in 1990, to 33 per cent in 2006

100

44

Open defecation

Coverage (%)

80

33

60 40

31

37 24 27

25

29

20 0

10 0

Shared 13

Coverage (%)

Unimproved

16

Total

Eastern Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006

23

18

Rural 1990 2006

80 60 40 20

94 67

60

52

46

42 41

33 33 33

31

23 23 12

11

0

25

1990

Improved

29

Eastern Africa 2006

M au ri D tius ji b o M uti al a Z w Zi am i m b b a ia bw Ke e U ni n te Bu ya d r u R C n ep om d i ub l ic U oro of ga s n M Tan da oz z am an b ia R i qu w e an M So da ad m a g ali as a Et c ar hi o Er pi a it r ea

Coverage (percentage)

Urban

5


Eastern Africa is predom inantly rural w ith 93 m illion people still practising open defecation

Eastern Africa; 23 m illion urban dw ellers use an im proved sanitation facility, w hile 24 m illion share a sanitation facility 240

240

180

180

120

120

60

60

0 1990

Urban

Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

0 1990

2006 Open defecatio n

213 million people in Eastern Africa without improved sanitation, 2006 Ethiopia

72.0

United Republic of Tanzania

26.3

Kenya

21.2

Uganda

19.9

Madagascar

16.8

Mozambique

14.5

Rwanda

7.3

Zimbabwe

7.1

Somalia

6.5

Zambia

5.6

Malawi

5.4

Burundi

4.8

Eritrea

4.4

Comoros

0.5

Djibouti

0.3

Mauritius

0.1

Rural

Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

2006 Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation facility, Eastern Africa, 2006

0 - 25% 26 - 50% 51 - 75% 76 - 100% No data

Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Population without improved sanitation in Eastern African countries, 2006 (millions)

Eastern Africa is not on track to meet the MDG sanitation target 100

Efforts need to increase at least seven-fold to m eet the MDG sanitation target in Eastern Africa

Coverage (%)

80 63

60

40

2006 - 2015

15.0

1990 - 2006 25

29

1.9

31

20

0

5

10 People (m illions)

15

20

0 1990

2006

2015

Sanitation trend Trend required to meet MDG target

Average number o f peo ple that gained o r need to gain access to impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015


Northern Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006 WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008 ---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----

Data sources JMP based its 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for the six countries that make up this region: Algeria, Egypt, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia. Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data points. The sanitation coverage estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures % Population using improved sanitation

% Population using shared sanitation

Total

Total

% Population using unimproved* sanitation

% Population practising open defecation Urban

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

1990

79

40

57

6

5

5

13

21

Total 18

3

Rural 35

Total 20

2000

82

47

64

6

7

6

9

22

16

3

25

14

2006

84

51

68

6

7

7

8

23

14

3

19

11

2015

-

-

79**

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

* Excludes shared sanitation and open defecation **MDG target Trends in coverage

Sanitation practices

Northern Africa: Urban residents are one-and-a-half tim es m ore likely to have sanitation than rural residents

Almost 7 out of 10 people in Northern Africa use an improved sanitation facility

100 80

11

Coverage (%)

20

Open defecation

14

Unimproved

68

60

57

51 40

40

0

Shared

Urban 5

Rural 1990 2006

Total

Northern Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006 97

10 0

68

Improved 57

94

85

80

Coverage (%)

72

66

60 35

40 20

Ar ab 1990 Northern Africa

2006

Su da n

Eg yp t

M or oc co

Tu ni si a

Al ge ria

Ja m

ah iri y

a

0

Li by an

Coverage (percentage)

84

20

7

18

79


Northern Africa: Population practising open defecation in rural areas decreased from 27 m ln in 1990 to 18 m ln in 2006

Northern Africa: 89 of the 99 m illion urban dw ellers use im proved sanitation facilities 100

100

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0 1990

Urban

Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

0 1990

2006 Open defecatio n

Rural

Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

2006 Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation facility, Northern Africa, 2006

62 million people in Northern Africa without improved sanitation, 2006 Egypt

25.1

Sudan

24.6

Morocco

8.5

Algeria

2.0

Tunisia

1.5

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

0.2

Western Sahara

-

Population without improved sanitation in Northern African countries, 2006 (millions)

0 - 25% 26 - 50% 51 - 75% 76 - 100% No data Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Northern Africa is just on track to m eet the MDG sanitation target

Though just on track in 2006, increased efforts are required to m eet the 79 per cent MDG coverage target

100

Coverage (%)

80 68

79 74

2006 - 2015

4.9

60 57 40

1990 - 2006

3.0

20

0 0

1990

2006

2015

Sanitatio n trend Trend required to meet M DG target

1

2 3 4 People (m illions)

5

6

A verage number o f peo ple that gained o r need to gain access to impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015


Southern Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006 WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008 ---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----

Data sources JMP based its 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for the five countries that make up this region: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data points. The sanitation coverage estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures % Population using improved sanitation

% Population using shared sanitation

Total

Total

% Population using unimproved* sanitation

% Population practising open defecation Urban

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

1990

64

41

52

24

16

20

10

14

Total 12

1

Rural 29

Total 16

2000

65

44

55

25

17

21

8

12

10

2

27

14

2006

66

46

57

25

17

21

6

11

8

3

26

13

2015

-

-

76**

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

* Excludes shared sanitation and open defecation **MDG target Sanitation practices

Trends in coverage Southern Africa: Only m odest increase in coverage although m any people gained access

78 percent of the population in Southern Africa use improved or shared sanitation 100 80 13

Coverage (%)

16

Open defecation

8 12

Unimproved

64 66

60

52 41

40

57

46

20

20

0 Urban

Rural 1990 2006

Total

Southern Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006 10 0

80

Improved 52

57

Coverage (%)

Coverage (percentage)

21

Shared

60

59 50

47 36

40

35

20

0

1990 Southern Africa

2006

South Africa

Sw aziland Botsw ana

Lesotho

Namibia


Southern Africa: Nine out of ten people in urban areas use im proved or shared sanitation facilities

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0 1990

Urban Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

Southern Africa: Just over a quarter of the rural population practises open defecation

0 1990

2006 Open defecatio n

Rural Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

2006 Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation facility, Southern Africa, 2006

24 million people in Southern Africa without improved sanitation, 2006 South Africa

19.7

Namibia

1.3

Lesotho

1.3

Botswana

1.0

Swaziland

0.6

Population without improved sanitation, in Southern African countries, 2006 (millions)

0 - 25% 26 - 50% 51 - 75% 76 - 100% No data Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Southern Africa is not on track to m eet the MDG sanitation target

Southern Africa needs to m ore than double its efforts to m eet the MDG sanitation target

100

Coverage (%)

80

76

1.4

2006 - 2015 60

52

57

60

40

0.6

1990 - 2006 20

0.0

0 1990

2006

2015

Sanitatio n trend Trend required to meet M DG target

0.5 1.0 People (m illions)

1.5

A verage number o f peo ple that gained o r need to gain access to impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015


Western Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006 WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008 ---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----

Data sources JMP based its 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for 15 of the 16 countries that make up this region: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo. Data for Cape Verde were insufficient to derive a 2006 estimate. Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data points. The sanitation coverage estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures % Population using improved sanitation

% Population using shared sanitation

% Population using unimproved* sanitation

% Population practising open defecating

1990

Urban 32

Rural 15

Total 21

Urban 34

Rural 8

Total 17

Urban 23

Rural 29

Total 27

Urban 10

Rural 48

Total 35

2000

33

16

23

37

9

20

19

29

25

11

46

32

2006

34

17

24

38

10

22

17

28

23

12

45

31

2015

-

-

60**

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

* Excludes shared sanitation and open defecation **MDG target Sanitation practices

Trends in coverage Western Africa: Rural sanitation coverage is low est in Africa

31 per cent of the population in Western Africa still practise open defecation 100

35

Open defecation

Coverage (%)

80

31

60 40

32 34 21

15 17

20

24

Urban

Rural 1990 2006

Total

23

Unimproved 27

Western Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006 10 0 80

Shared

22

17

Coverage (%)

60

20

24

Western Africa

2006

28 28

24

24

19

13

12

11

10

7

am bi ui a ne a - Ma B li iss a Li u be ri Be a ni N n ig S er C en i a ôt e e ga d l M ' Ivo au i r ri t e a Bu Gu nia rk in in ea a Fa so Si er To ra go Le on G e ha na N ig er

1990

33 32 30

0

G

21

Improved

52 45

40

G

Coverage (percentage)

0


Western Africa: 72 m illion people in rural areas practise open defecation

Western Africa: 78 m illion in urban areas use im proved or shared sanitation facilities 160

160

120

120

80

80

40

40

0 1990

Urban

Impro ved

Shared

2006

Unimpro ved

Open defecatio n

211 million people in Western Africa without improved sanitation, 2006 104.3 20.6 14.4 12.8 12.6 8.7 7.4 6.6 6.1 5.7 5.1 2.4 2.3 1.1 0.8

Nigeria Ghana C么te d'Ivoire Niger Burkina Faso Senegal Guinea Mali Benin Togo Sierra Leone Liberia Mauritania Guinea-Bissau Gambia

0 1990 Impro ved

Shared

Unimpro ved

2006 Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation facility, Western Africa, 2006

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation facility, 2006 0 - 25% 26 - 50% 51 - 75% 76 - 100%

-

Cape Verde

Population without improved sanitation in Western African countries, 2006 (millions)

Rural

No data Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Western Africa is not on track to m eet the MDG sanitation target 100

Efforts need to increase at least eight-fold to m eet the MDG sanitation target in Western Africa

Coverage (%)

80 60

60 40 20

2006 - 2015

15.6

1990 - 2006 21

24

1.9

26

0 0 1990

2006

2015

Sanitatio n trend Trend required to meet M DG target

5

10 People (m illions)

15

20

A verage number o f peo ple that gained access o r need to gain access to impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015


Sanitation coverage: Country and regional estimates by type of sanitation facility (1990 and 2006)

Congo C么te d'Ivoire Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Madagascar Malawi Mali

Open Defecation

Comoros

Unimproved

Chad

Shared

Central African Republic

Improved

Cape Verde

Open Defecation

Cameroon

52.1 64 37.1 54 34.5 40.5 41.9 58.2 13.8 18.7 6.3 10.3 40.7 55.5 44.1 58.1 36.8 38.2 20.8 25.7 28.2 37.7 54.3 60.6 39.7 45.4 27.8 32.7 76 86.6 43.5 42.9 34.8 39 15.8 19.8 12.6 16.2 69.1 84.2 38.3 54.8 36.5 48.6 28 33.4 28.1 29.6 18.2 21 17.2 18.9 45.3 58.8 78.6 85.1 23.6 27 11.6 17.6 23.3 31

Unimproved

Burundi

25,283 33,351 10,534 16,557 5,179 8,760 1,367 1,858 8,871 14,359 5,692 8,173 12,239 18,175 355 519 3,008 4,265 6,113 10,468 527 818 2,422 3,689 12,780 18,914 37,942 60,644 561 819 55,137 74,167 340 496 3,158 4,692 51,148 81,021 918 1,311 962 1,663 15,579 23,008 6,033 9,181 1,017 1,646 23,447 36,553 1,601 1,995 2,137 3,579 4,364 6,039 12,033 19,159 9,446 13,571 7,669 11,968

Shared

Burkina Faso

1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006

Total (%)

Improved

Botswana

Population

Rural (%)

Open Defecation

Benin

(millions)

Urban (%)

Unimproved

Angola

Year

% Urban

Total

Shared

Algeria

Population

Improved

Countries Areas & Territories

99 98 61 56 32 59 60 60 23 41 41 44 47 58 21 40 19 23 34 49 19 39 38 53 42 76 68 85 60 60 20 14 19 27 37 50 11 15 19 33 48 18 19 43 59 49 97 97 15 18 50 51 53 59

4 4 7 13 18 20 7 9 12 23 15 19 2 3 45 25 25 6 2 2 24 18 25 35 40 43 47 69 22 39 8 71 77 37 25 28 39 40 4 5

1 1 6 23 17 6 24 36 58 38 40 34 46 32 57 33 39 44 62 48 33 30 33 41 55 15 29 13 40 40 26 25 0 27 21 6 31 8 53 27 41 8 2 11 41 51 3 3 27 37 7 7 40 32

0 1 33 21 51 35 12 0 12 8 1 2 0 1 10 4 27 14 2 0 3 6 4 6 3 3 1 0 30 43 56 11 2 1 11 8 6 1 3 3 2 9 33 17 4 2 3 4

77 87 18 16 2 11 22 30 2 6 44 41 34 42 5 25 1 4 12 26 21 8 12 1 25 11 37 52 46 46 0 3 2 8 30 55 3 6 10 12 26 44 48 30 34 24 7 96 96 6 10 46 62 30 39

4 5 1 3 4 3 4 5 2 13 2 4 1 2 24 8 13 1 5 7 0 0 0 2 24 23 19 34 2 3 1 24 26 4 5 10 16 13 18 3 4

5 2 15 9 4 4 21 31 9 8 49 55 56 39 44 29 3 8 81 72 37 20 24 74 62 12 40 41 54 54 0 2 2 16 41 15 47 28 36 47 26 8 12 15 10 76 93 4 4 7 29 6 7 32 29

18 11 67 75 94 85 53 34 88 83 3 1 6 14 49 33 94 84 6 0 18 64 51 25 13 76 18 0 100 95 96 74 5 7 31 32 52 38 47 24 14 51 51 77 45 35 13 35 28

88 94 34 38 12 30 38 47 5 13 44 41 39 51 11 31 5 9 18 35 20 20 24 15 31 67 50 66 51 51 3 5 4 11 36 52 6 10 13 19 33 39 42 36 40 32 97 97 8 12 46 60 35 45

2 4 1 5 1 5 3 7 4 17 5 8 1 2 37 15 18 5 4 5 4 4 3 7 37 34 29 51 8 15 3 33 37 11 14 19 16 22 3 4

3 1 12 17 8 5 22 34 16 14 48 53 52 35 49 31 10 17 76 63 35 24 28 65 60 15 35 29 49 49 4 7 2 18 24 10 41 18 41 40 30 8 10 10 60 68 3 3 12 31 6 7 34 30

9 5 54 46 79 65 36 14 78 69 3 1 4 7 35 22 80 66 5 0 9 41 30 20 10 13 11 0 89 85 91 64 2 4 24 20 39 26 34 20 11 43 67 37 31 11 28 21


Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Togo Tunisia Uganda United Republic of Tanzania Western Sahara Zambia Zimbabwe

Open Defecation

Sierra Leone

Unimproved

Senegal

Shared

Sao Tome and Principe

Improved

Rwanda

Open Defecation

Nigeria

Unimproved

Niger

39.7 40.6 43.9 42.4 48.4 59.3 21.1 35.3 27.7 35.7 35.7 17 35 49 5.4 20.2 43.7 58.9 39 41.8 30.1 41.4 29.7 35.6 52 59.8 26.6 41.7 22.9 24.3 30.1 40.8 59.6 65.7 11.1 12.7 18.9 24.6 39.4 35.1 29 36.3

Shared

Namibia

1,945 3,044 1,057 1,252 24,808 30,853 13,544 20,971 1,417 2,047 2,047 13,737 94,454 144,720 7,294 9,464 116 155 7,896 12,072 4,087 5,743 6,717 8,445 36,577 48,282 25,933 37,707 865 1,134 3,961 6,410 8,219 10,215 17,841 29,899 25,494 39,459 8,122 11,696 10,487 13,228

Improved

Mozambique

1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006

Total (%)

Open Defecation

Morocco

Population

Rural (%) Unimproved

Mauritius

(millions)

Urban (%)

Shared

Mauritania

Population

Year

% Urban

Total

Improved

Countries Areas & Territories

33 44 95 95 80 85 53 73 66 16 27 32 32 31 34 29 52 54 20 51 64 66 53 50 64 25 24 95 96 27 29 29 31 49 55 65 63

9 12 5 5 14 15 12 11 17 29 39 39 19 21 4 22 23 44 29 25 26 28 46 44 2 2 27 30 22 24 34 39 34 33

31 26 0 0 1 0 26 5 4 41 25 21 16 47 42 14 17 19 30 16 10 5 37 36 5 5 9 0 2 43 39 46 44 14 3 1 1

27 18 0 0 5 0 21 10 19 26 19 8 13 3 3 53 9 4 6 4 1 3 10 14 3 24 23 3 0 3 2 3 1 3 3 0 3

11 10 94 94 25 54 19 8 18 1 3 22 24 29 20 18 9 9 5 7 45 49 26 24 46 8 3 44 64 29 34 36 34 38 51 35 37

8 7 6 6 3 6 2 4 1 1 8 9 12 8 5 9 9 13 6 18 19 21 16 6 6 8 10 11 9 9 7 9 17 18

45 8 0 0 4 6 18 4 9 3 4 35 35 53 68 9 24 43 40 6 14 11 26 23 8 2 13 4 14 39 40 44 43 10 7 0 6

36 75 0 0 68 34 63 86 69 95 92 35 32 6 4 68 58 39 42 81 23 21 48 53 25 74 78 46 14 22 15 11 14 45 33 48 39

20 24 94 94 52 72 31 26 35 3 7 26 28 29 23 24 26 28 11 23 55 59 33 35 50 13 12 74 85 29 33 35 33 42 52 44 46

8 9 6 6 8 11 5 6 3 6 19 24 12 11 4 14 15 26 14 22 23 23 25 22 4 4 12 13 11 13 18 20 22 23

39 15 0 0 3 2 21 4 7 9 8 30 26 53 63 12 21 33 36 10 12 7 29 28 7 3 11 2 6 39 40 44 43 12 6 0 4

32 52 0 0 38 14 48 65 51 84 80 26 23 6 4 59 39 24 27 54 12 10 38 37 20 59 56 20 5 20 13 9 11 28 22 34 26

(sub-) Regional Sanitation Estimates

Africa Central Africa Eastern Africa Northern Africa Southern Africa Western Africa

1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006 1990 2006

637,421 943,300 73,632 115,760 197,244 300,103 143,963 192,793 41,828 55,316 180,754 279,329

32.0 38.7 32.5 40.4 18.0 22.4 44.8 51.6 49.0 56.8 32.8 43.0

24 28 9 18 33 36 6 6 24 25 34 38

16 12 30 29 18 20 13 8 10 6 23 17

8 7 11 7 18 8 3 3 1 3 10 12

23 28 9 24 24 27 40 51 41 46 15 17

8 10 3 7 9 10 5 7 16 17 8 10

44 36 36 29 49 40 35 19 29 26 48 45

33 38 22 33 25 29 57 68 52 57 21 24

13 17 5 12 13 16 5 7 20 21 17 22

Open Defecation

Unimproved

Shared

Open Defecation

25 26 52 40 18 23 21 23 14 11 29 28

Improved

Total (%) Unimproved

Shared

Shared

52 52 50 46 31 37 79 84 64 66 32 34

Rural (%) Open Defecation

Population

Improved

Urban (%)

% Urban

Unimproved

Year

Improved

Region

Total Population (millions)

22 21 45 36 18 23 18 14 12 8 27 23

32 25 28 20 44 33 20 11 16 13 35 31

A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa.  

World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). 2008 The analyses presented here provide a snapshot of the proport...

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