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FABRICATION MODULE


design INITIAL DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Our design process has begun by attempting to integrate inflation and panel and fold systems into one design. We decided to begin with Jonathon’s concept of the ‘doppelganger’, adressing personal space by creating a proxy structure (the inflation system), which once deployed creates a physical barrier and also acts as a tangible manifestation of the individual’s inner anxiety. This concept however has been integrated with my scarf concept, such that the doppelganger proxy is able to be worn and carried on the body. My initial sketch ideas consist of an over-the-shoulder panel and fold system which contains an inflation system, able to be deployed by the wearer. At this stage the systems remained quite separate, with one acting as a container for the other.


design INTEGRATING SYSTEMS Developing our idea, we decided to create a system which was far more flexible and integrate the transfor mability of folding systems with the more obvious transfor mability of inflation. Therefore our object consists of 3 layers: a top ‘skin’ of transfor mable folds, the interior inflation system which would lay dor mant until inflated, and an underneath rigid layer which allows the piece to sit fir mly against the body. Also, the ‘scar f’ became far more of a ‘cape’ concept, covering more of the body, though also maintaining the asymmetry as can be seen on the next page. The asymmetry responds directly to our parameters which we then set for our design, also discussed on the following page.


design FURTHER DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION DESIGN PARAMETERS

The object is designed to specifically respond to the invasion of side-on personal space, in particular, when seated. In order to prevent someone from occupying the adjacent seat, the object is designed to sit flush to the body, containg an inflation fan again the flat of the upper back and a clear deployment method which will allow the inner inflation to balloon outwards.


design INFLATION SYSTEM: DESIGN DETAILS

INFLATION SYSTEM AS METAPHOR Our inflation system will demonstrate a strong contrast with our fitted penal and fold cape system. We are exploring the dichotomy between the ordered and structured exterior skin, and the chaotic, bulging anxieties felt within the individual, represented by the internal inflation system. Thus the object itself contains several skins representing and responding to both the physical concerns of personal space violation (i.e. the desire for separate space) and the emotional response to violation (i.e. anxiety).

PHYSICAL SIGNS OF ANXIETY • Increased heart beat/palpitations • Sweating • Breathlessness • Muscle tension • Fear Anxiety occurs when personal space is violated. Discomfort from the invasion can quickly turn to anxiety depending on the proximity and extent of the violation, as well as the context of the occurence. The inflation system in our project will come to represent the fear associated with anxiety, by morphing the exterior form.


design TECHNIQUE RESEARCH

Researching different fold techniques, we have created several miura fold prototypes, including this curved form above. We see huge potential for this fold and have proceeded to create a version of the pattern in Rhino with which to experiment and see how much we can change the pattern and still create a successful transformable fold.

The standard flat Miura fold above (centre) illustrates another principle discovered with protoyping: the Miura requires two points of push or pull to expand or retract the surface. The two points can also be warped or pinned to create shapes which add deflection in the expansion trajectory. On the far right, the Resch pattern modelled illustrates what may be a useful series of folds later for containing and covering our fan system - Resch’s folds concentrate primary of creating strong self supporting structures, which may prove useful for the less transformable aspects of our design, particularly in the back area.


design RUDIMENTARY PROTOTYPE

MY BASIC PROTOTYPE The preliminary prototype I created is very simplistic, but designed to test whether inflation of a system within the panel and fold exterior will be strong enough to push the folds open. In this case, plastic is placed within two pieces of miura-folded paper. The results of this test have shown that the direction of the folding must be altered if we are to create an entirely closed top layer - in this prototype, the end had to remain open, exposing the inside. We have to work out a way to create a closing geometry made of folds. Also, our original idea to create a slit or panel to encourage the inflation out of the folding system may in fact not work, as the inflation is more likely to push open at the weak connecting points, as was the case in this test. Therefore a closed geometry may solve both problems In our next test, we must try several types of openings and a proper inflation system.


design FURTHER PROTOTYPING: DORMANT

These images show the uninflated form of the prototype I made by hand. In this prototype a series of new issues for the design emerged: 1. Securing the top to the bottom layer: the transformanility of the top layer cannot be compromised byt he rigidity of the bottom layer. Further connection methods will need to be tested, though the method used here was effective - the curvature of the fold is used such that the flat edge of the folded form can be secured flat to the underside layer. 2. Power of inflation: For a more dramatic effect, a stronger pressure will be required. Options for this will be researched.

TOP CENTRE + LOWER LEFT The three layers which work together to form our system; rigid underside, inflatable bladder and transformable top layer.


design FURTHER PROTOTYPING: INFLATED

TOP LEFT + RIGHT These illustrate the potential for transformation, possible with additional folds being containted in the space. This will add to the overall weight of the object and therefore require more air to push out the folds. However it also allows us the opportunity to create something as dramatic as our design concept requires. LOWER LEFT An image of the underside of the prototype reveals the simplicity at this stage of the bottom layer - here is the potential for something more sculptured, though the feasibility of our top layer working will directly influence to what extent we can experiment with this bottom layer further. At this stage, the top layer is a greater priority and has been developed in more detail.


design RHINO MODEL OF DESIGN: DORMANT

FRONT

LEFT SIDE

OVER SHOULDER

RIGHT SIDE

The fully enclosed design is based off the observations made in prototyping, such that an inflation system which exists the panelling system is no viable as a design option. Therefore the ‘cape’ structure will depend on fully enclosed geometries of folding, as illustrated above. We hope to concentrate folds over the shoulder to allow for greater sideways transformability, maintaining our original aim of creating an object which operates as a side-on block to protect personal space from people who might sit next to the wearer.


design RHINO MODEL OF DESIGN: INFLATED

FRONT

LEFT SIDE

OVER SHOULDER

RIGHT SIDE

Inflated, we hope the object will be most transformable over the shoulder. As discovered int eh reading ‘Lost in Parameter Space’, this model serves as an abstraction, to the extent that the principles we aim to explore are represented in order to describe only the most necessary properties. With all the extreme angles having been mapped, the solution within these extremities will require further detailing, though the general overlay of folds over the extruded space demonstrates the overall effect of the design.


fabrication INITIAL MIURA PATTERN EXPERIMENTATION

OTHER MIURA MANIPULATION ATTEMPTS In order to create new shapes, we experimented with the base miura pattern, manipulating lines and measurements, and also cutting into the pattern itself in order to create a different product. In the case of the first pattern, the result simply did not work well. Single lines of fold became less effective and it was clear that to make the miura come to a point more nicely, it was preferable to make a whole square and pin the folds together at one end. Manipulation of the miura lines was somewhat more successful, but once we modelled our form on Rhino, the exact application of this was unclear at this stage.


fabrication CREATING A PROTOTYPE

DIVISION OF SECTIONS

MY COMPLETED RHINO MODEL OF THE SHOULDER PORTION

The process of creating an initial complete prototype has been complex; the following issues and requirements came to light in our first week of fabrication: 1. Creating connections with the miura folds - ensuring geometries align correctly 2. The need to explore tools such as kangaroo and grasshopper 3. The placement of the fan 4. Connection between the rigid and expandable sections

We decided to divide up the sections of the prototype into a series of geometric shapes to work with, panelise and experiment with. This resulted in my taking the over the shoulder portion and rigid back and Jonathon taking the front overlap sections. However after completing my model it became clear that Jonathon was not actually working with viable sections, and I therefore took over the bulk of the prototype to work on. Therefore Jonathon began work on the rigid right shoulder section and I continued to work with the shoulder expandable section.

With these issues in mind I began some simple modelling on rhino in order to realise the overall shape more tangibly, beyond the conceptual rhino model presented for the Design Module Presentation.

This section is the most difficult as it involves different curvatures and the expandable functionality, however having made all the previous prototypes of this section I felt we could reuse some of the methods I previously employed in the creation of this first full scale prototype.


fabrication FURTHER MIURA PATTERN EXPERIMENTATION INITIAL ATTEMPTS TO REALISE THE MODEL Shown on left is one of the initial attempts to create patterns which would combine curving and straight miura patterns. The alignment of angles is very detailed process, and this first attempt did not work (It was simply unfoldable). Subsequent manipulation in Rhino however was far more successful. As illustrated below, once a module dimension was decided upon, manipulation of angles within this became more simple, and we could be certain of the alignment of additional different folds, as long as the module remained consistent. However before settling on this method, we did attempt to experiment with templates, as shown on the next page.


fabrication INITIAL METHODOLOGY - FAILED PROTOTYPE 1

TEMPLATES I initially attempted to create flattened template pices from the first rhino model I created of the shoulder portion. This resulted in a series of pieces which would be folded and then fit together in shape. However, this method was highly inaccurate and the pieces did not fold up into usable pieces. The manipulation of the pattern became highly difficult and the sizes of pieces made folding very difficult and far less neat. As seen on the right, the pieces resisted folding, were largely torn up by the card cutter machine (an issue of paper weight) and became easily cirnkled rather than crisply folded. By attempting to make the folds fit to the pattern we envisaged, there also emerged several problems with the geometries, and we could not accurately fix this. Therefore we changed methodology, in line with the small prototype I made for presentation in the design unit - by packing folds neatly over each other and beside each other, we could create much larger pieces and more accurate alignments. In order to be more accurate, we were encouraged to explore Kangaroo and Grasshopper.


fabrication PROBLEMS WITH PROTOTYPING It was quickly apparent that Grasshopper and Kangaroo would be far too difficult to master within the limitations of this course. therefore efforts were refocused on Rhino modelling and using tools such as the card cutter to facilitate quick prototype creation (though much of our assembly will still be driven by hand work due to the nature of folding). The card cutter has become an important tool to our process, however it poses a series of factors which must be controlled and experimented with in order to efficiently cut patterns for folding. Issues include the blade dullness on the machine which takes to tearing the paper fibres, the hardness with which we must score the paper (we will have to create tougher score lines), the removal of dotted line cuts (these only create a messy overall effect) and ensuring we select appropriate paper weights for the expandable section. The paper has become a key issue: with 160+gsm, the folding became extremely difficult and lost crispness in the overall effect. 100gsm is too light weight, and lacks a solid feel. Therefore we are currently working with 120gsm paper in the hopes of finding the perfect balance between thinness and strength.


fabrication FULL PROTOTYPE 2

MAKING PROGRESS At last we figured out a few steps in the right direction: 1. Our prototype worked effectively using the methodology I came up with for our design presentation prototype. This was essentially the idea of using 3 discernible layers (the folded layer, internal bladder and rigid base). 2. Our fan was able to power and effectively inflate the object. Though this prototype was never fully completed, it was clear that our hypotheses were at this stage working. 3. We finally found a better paper weight at 110gsm. We also eliminated the cut lines and simply scored the entire pattern, which created a much neater finish.


fabrication FULL PROTOTYPE 2

LUCKY NO.3: OUR FINAL USABLE MIURA PATTERN


fabrication GENERAL MODEL PROGRESS

CHANGES TO THE MODELLING CONCEPT At the design stage, our model was very fluid and represented more of a scarf-like quality. As our understanding progressed, we have come to envisage the product as more of an armour-like quality, which tapers uniformly in order to reduce impossible curvatures.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

1. CREATING THE BASE By simplifying the base geometries of the body, I created a simple base pattern which could wrap around the dimensions of my shoulders and form a simple underside shape on which to house our folds. This was drawn up in Rhino by Jonathon, emphasising our continual dialogue between hand making and digital techniques. Once drawn in Rhino, we began to assess how to best lay out our folds to achieve the desired end result.


fabrication MODELLING THE BASE

IMAGINING THE BASE GEOMETRIES


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS 2. CONFIRMING THE FOLD PATTERN After having produced a great variety of base patterns, we settled on the use of miura no.3, a straight miura pattern, as the basis of most of our design. We would also integrate curved pieces as necessary over the shoulders.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

3. FABRICATING THE TABBING + ATTACHING PIECES We digitally drew up and cut tabs for the side of the fold pieces. These were manual only because of the curving complexity of the final shape. However, because they were cut to specifically fit into the miura module, the effect was still quite neat and looked finished. A problem area which emerged was the top of the shouder: the curved folds had to come together somehow and this was something we struggled with solving. If we pinned the pieces together to create a neat closed shape, the object became very rigid and expansion was limited. Without pinning there is an open top.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

4. ATTACHING FOLDED PIECES TOGETHER AND TO THE BASE Each folded piece was attached togeher by simply overlapping a portion f the edge and gluing down. After attaching the tabbing around the perimeter, we began to place down the folding system onto the base and attaching it as neatly as possible. This left us with the issue of the connection on the top (over the shoulder), which we could only solve by gradually pinning together the folds to form a closed circle shape.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

5. CREATING THE BLADDER Our initial shape ideas for the bladder resulted in completely failed bladders. They were unusable for several reasons: the shape requires the air to turn a corner, something our fan does not have the pressure capacity for. Also, the bladders were too small to have an effect on the folds. This step therefore provided a few obstacles, overcome by remaking the bladder and experimenting with what fit well into the outer shape.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

7. THE INFLATABLE BLADDER SYSTEM Having settled on the fan after our 2nd prototype, I set about creating a box to house the fan on the back and hold it neatly, leaving part of the fan also visible. We had initially though to place the fan on its side, but had since decided to lay the fan flat against the back, raised slightly to allow air flow beneath into the bladder. Thus I created a box-within-a-box, one to hold the fan up from the back and another over the top to hold the entire system firmly down onto the backing. A gap was left to allow the cabling to run outside the box and be more accessible by the wearer of the object.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

8. CREATING THE RIGID RIGHT SIDE Creating the right shoulder involved using the miuras in a rigid capacity, which was achieved with tight pinning and a slightly different geometry; as can be seen, the folds come to a long point on the front, curve over the shoulder and then gently flow into the same pattern as the previous miura fold pieces. As shown on the right, the miura therefore comes to a straight section to sit over the shoulder before curving back down the back.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

9. PUTTING THE PIECES TOGETHER (FOLDS) The completed fold sections appear very effective when placed altogether. Coming together in the back, the fan would then be placed in between the two sections, pushing the shoulder folds together and creating greater compression for potential expandsion. The folds are therefore not glued down in the centre to allow for this placement. However, testing at this stage illustrated a big problem: After placing all the heavy folds in compression and pushing our bladder into the space, the expansion did not occur when we turned on the fan. With limited options left to us, we decided to swap out the small fan for the larger fan - we were able to test our object with the more heavy0duty fan of our peers, and this was successful. Therefore we concluded that air pressure was the issue, as well as the bladder shape which was becoming twisted inside.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

10. REMAKING THE BLADDER (AGAIN) We remade and reattached the bladder once again with the larger fan this time. The pressure is far better now and creates at least a little bit of expansion in the product.


fabrication FINAL WORK PROCESS

11. REATTACHING THE PIECES (WITH THE LARGER FAN) Final position of the fan on the product.


fabrication FINAL PRODUCT

THE FINAL WORK - DORMANT


fabrication FINAL PRODUCT

THE FINAL WORK - DORMANT


fabrication FINAL MODELS

UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM AND ASSEMLBY This model illustrates the way in which the pieces were assembled and their relationship to each other.


fabrication FINAL MODELS


fabrication FINAL MODEL

FINAL MODEL RENDER This final model shows our last design changes and the product as it finally exists. The fan change is the key difference here between earlier models and the final model.

FABRICATION MODULE  
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