CHRISTIAN BROOKLAND MARCH2
CONTENTS 4-17 18-23
ENVIRONMENT/SERVICES 46-48 49
INTROVERSION VS EXTROVERSION Gradience and Transparency through Architecture
Oxford boasts the oldest University of Great Britain, which has given the city its famous reputation based around the college system and its accompanying history of academia. A further, less celebrated aspect of Oxford is the research some of the departments are involved in, such as animal testing. The controversy and uncertainty revolving around the laboratories is the reverse side to the story, the dark face of Oxford. This state of imbalance between the colleges and the labs I have differentiated between as Extroverted VS Introverted.
ANALSIS OF OXFORD
In order to gain an understanding of the varying gradation ranging from Oxfords tourist image (displayed) and its more exclusive or hidden destinations (inward looking), I conduced the analysis depicted in the map on the right hand side. According to several paramaters such as entrance fee or seasonal opening patterns to institutions and colleges alike I evaluated the varying levels of accessibility throughout the city centre and the sci4 ence campus.
Parameters: _Entrance Fee _Prioritisation _Blue Badge Guide _Opening Times _Group Restrictions
MOST INTROVERT/ INACCESSIBLE
1_Christ Church 2_Radcliffe Camera 3_Ashmolean Museum 4_Pitt Rivers Museum
MOST EXTROVERT/ ACCESSIBLE
ACCESS The site is adjacent to Oxfords high street and is linked to several important walking routes passing through the various college gardens. The site mainly attracts pedestrian activity, as parking in Oxford is very limited. However a Park&Ride service brings you close to the Botanic Gardens.
WALKING PATH 6
GRADATION OF ACCESSIBILITY
To support the architectural strategy in relation to the existing buildings and gardens situated on the site, the varying levels of accessibility were studied. This took into account the high courtyard wall, the varying levels, the potential for movement and routes etc.
MOST PRIVATE/ INACCESSIBLE
MOST PUBLIC/ ACCESSIBLE
In the context of its longstanding tradition Oxford University has a unique college system, whereby several colleges feed into peer faculties and departments. The diagram below explains their interrelationship.
Department of Plant Sciences: 28 academic staff 60 postdoctoral researchers 40 technicians and admin staff
Provision: - Teaching space for 50 postgraduate students - Lecture theatre - Professors accomodation
Department of Zoology: 70 academic staff 100 postdoctoral researchers
-public spaces / cafe etc -main research spaces / laboratories -new greenhouses/test spaces for botany
Whilst experimenting with model making and materials for the Primer, I developed a theme of transparency and layers of exposure early on. This has eventually translated through into my tectonic strategy in the use of membrane and structure.
BIOMES The idea of offering more than just new greenhouses, but to create artificial environments which house species of a particular region by mimicing the natural conditions of the climate they are associated with. This establishes entire environments within which the academics can perform hands on, state of the art research on botany, and the public can be directly involved in the different atmospheres and qualitites of several biomes, encouraging their education through interaction with the biomes characteristics, rather than being presented with an exclusive exhibit. BIOSPHERE 2 // ARIZONA
Their location within the site as well as the form are derived from further analysis in terms of suitability for climatic opportunities.
EDEN PROJECT // CORNWALL
HIERARCHY IN BIOMES CRITERIA
The following study determines what environmental criteria applies most for each region. This can then be directly translated into design decisions.
BIRD OF PARADISE HELICONIA
CONSISTENTY IN TEMPERATURE
COFFEE BEAN TREE
SOFT TOUCH BROM.
BORAGE HERB PLANT
PLANT GROWTH CRITERIA
JADE CACTUS FINGER CAC. SAGUARO CAC.
SUN PATH AND SHADOW ANALSIS using ecotect
This established appropriate locations for each biome within the site, for example the tropical biome being most exposed and linking with the river to make the most of humidity - whereas the desert biome relates more closely to the stony courtyard wall.
STEEL FRAME STRUCTURALLY INSULATED PANELS (SIP)
FOUNDATION STRATEGY // Steel Frame
Fixed Base columns:
Each column is fixed securely to the ground with little to no movement at base level. The frames junctions however, (where the ETFE cushions meet the structure) allow for some cantilever in the frame, providing scope for some movement and bending under wind loads.
Base detail [Academic use only]
The panels rest on 300mm trench strip foundations. In all situations there are no more than one story loads being carried, allowing for smaller foundations
FOUNDATION STRATEGY // SIPâ€™s units
STRUCTUREâ€™ Looking at the tropical biome in detail, as its relative height and slenderness calls for a structural response concerning lateral and vertical wind loads.
acts like a hangar structure
weight of cantilver is distributed to an anchor in the ground via tension rods
TECTONIC SITUATION ON SITE
The gardens are flanked by a large stone wall listed as grade 1. This demands a senstive approach to the existing situation, both in design and tectonic approach.
TECTONIC AMBITION / APPROACH In reaction to the existing stone wall and classical buildings, it was decided to mirror the existing buildings roughly in scale so as not to try and overpower them, but to complement their mutual views and profiles. Many of the chosen precedents express a clarity in structure and succesfully portray a deep layering of structure, foliage, screens etc. In the light of this something similar seemed to be appropriate, however also adding something slightly more contemporary in technology and aesthetic quality. Combining ETFE and steel would allow for a lot of flexibility and freedom in sizing and design, but more importantly, given the nature of the ETFE being comparable to an inflated lung, it manages to convey a sense of the living organism which doesnâ€™t become stagnant but is contiuously in operation. This needed to be combined with user interaction and atmospheric response.
ETFE is used as the main cladding material instead of glass - some of the characteristics opposite speak in favour of this chosen tectonic approach.
U - Value of 1.95
-little need for maintenance -very low water vapour permeability -high light translucency - up tp 90 percent -extreme resistance to weathering -very high resistance to tearing -linear elastic behaviour and a high elongation -able to deal with large deformation -prior to breakage -cushion sizes can reach up to 25 m by 3 m with minimum joints in the construction -extremely light weight compared to glass
Experiment testing different levels of gradation for a facade combined with a light source hidden behind.
‘The veiled organism of labour’ …
VALVE OPEN system inflates
VALVE OPEN system inflated
VALVE OPEN system stays inflated
VALVE OPEN system exhausts
In response to the various exploration into levels of transparency and veiiled vs unveiled facades or spaces, the main cladding material for the biomes received an additional layer. Layers of plastic with imprints between the ETFE cushions are to be controlled to either overlap or sit independantly. As a result lighting levels and visual links can be controlled if required. It will also offer a rich interplay of dappled light and shodows, avoiding potential glare on the south facing aspect of each biome.
Cushion pattern derived from plant cell geometries
PHASE 3 // SIP’s Units to fit in between steel column grid; partitions; roof.
PHASE 2 // Steel Frame - 1 Biome at a time
PHASE 1 // Basement and foundations CONSTRUCTION
SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION / / TROPICAL BIOME
PHASE 4 // Fit outs, stairs etc.
DRIVING CONSTRUCTION CONCEPT
3 Layers of Construction: 1.: ALLOWING FOR FLEXIBILITY Prefab-units - SIP panels with the accasional customization to allow for openings. This zone essentially defines the interior spaces of the project and makes up an airtight envelope for the laboratories etc.
2.: FIXED Steel Frame - This zone marks the overall grid, providing a rythm and guidance for the separate structure of the SIPâ€™s units but structurally and spatially makes up the volumes of the biomes and all buffer zones.
3. VERY FLEXIBLE This layer is the skin or the panel facade which constitutes the envelope for the project, clipped to the steel frame. There is a kit of parts of various options in terms of cladding to respond to the different spaces/needs/environmental requirements. The resulting effect is a collage of various skins and textures wrapping themselves around the spaces and zones, creating a tapestry of delight. All 3 Zones ineract and complement each other in order to harmoize and geometry and detail design.
Irrigation drip-line LIVING WALLS The option of the living panels has been used on those laboratory facades which are situated within the environment of the biomes. This way the labs seem more â€˜embeddedâ€™ within their environments, and providing vertical vegetation offer a further dimension of growing, responsive matter. Living walls are also a further source of fresh air through photosynsthesis, enhancing the immediate environment.
ic use only]
Layer 3 // Variation 1
Layer 3 // Variation 2
Criteria: PERFORATED ZINC PANELS
In terms of general characteristics I first had copper sheets in mind for the exterior lab walls. However the statistics of zinc proved to be more suitable in the light of the particular environmental conditions.
-lighter than copper -lower thermal conductivity (116 compared to 305 -forms a protective oxide layer -doesâ€™t discolour from contact with run-off water
In order to highlight the strong circulation axis adjacent to the wall, the zinc perforation wraps around to form a canopy to be covered by glass. This will continue the material theme, encourage subtle light and shadow filtering and eliminate any association with the monotony of a corridor.
Layer 3 // Variation 3 ETFE JUNCTION DETAIL
STACK VENTLATION WITH AUTOMATIC VENTS
During periods of excess solar gains during summer, the weather station will automatically open the vents near the top of the tropical biome so that stale, warm air can leave the space.
This image shows the first signs of the ambition for a holistic environmental strategy, responding to the site and the biomes requirements - such as the incorporation of the river to link with the tropic house, the use of living walls and the exposure of the dry, stony courtyard wall to suit the arid, dessert biome.
PRECEDENT // GLASSHOUSE AT THE RHS WISLEY
The visual feel of the scheme should express the atmospheric conditions of the biomes in terms of vapor, humidity and transparency. This should suggest an initial sense of curiosity for these new spaces, which on closer encounter are to be extrovert and inviting.
An installation style experience of lighting combined with mist (OMA).
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL METHODS The water is then , at times of low humididty levels in particular, released into the space via high pressure nozzles attached to a misting system
Water is fed up through a pipe within the hollow steel section
The water is then heated The water receives ph - adjustment Water stored in pond /collected in pond and water storage tanks
WEATHER STATION Collects data from station on roof taking into account levels of temperature, rainfall, light, wind speed and direction. The automatic system then translates that information into functions such as the opening of vents or the use of mist spray.
STRIP RADIATORS Used as a back up method in winter, to increase the amount of heat produced on top of the ceiling coils. They are located at base level around the buildings perimeter.
HEAT COILS Supplied with hot water the coils can be heated and then distributed down into the space with the help of fans fixed above the coils. In summer, the fans can be employed to cool the space should there be a need for temperature control.
Serices + Ducts
GSHP - Groundsource Heat Pump Piles are driven down to bring energy to the level of the basement - a hot water tank and a heat pump per laboratory. - providing underloor heating -mechanical ventilation -heating and cooling with heat recovery system
Ducts for Ventilation, Heating and Cooling. Airtight envelope provided by SIPâ€™s, with limited solar gain suggests 4 air changes per hour. Capacity of 30 people at 8 l/s = 240 l/s = 0.24 m3/s Generous basement space below each lab Rough footprint of a lab is 10m x 15m x 4m= 600m3 With 4 air changes per hour: 2400m3/hour 600/3600 (sec. in an hour) = 0.17m3/s 2400m3/hour = 0.17m3/s x 4 = 0.68m3/s air changes per hour
To accodomate for: Plant rooms, Storage, Environmental Services
Calculating duct sizing: MAIN DUCTS: 0.68/5 = 0.136 m2 cross section BRANCH DUCTS: 0.68/2 = 0.34 m2 cross section
DIFFUSERS 0.68/1.7 = 0.4 m2 cross section
Ground source heat pump [Academic use only]
LIGHTING - biome
Ecotect Daylight Analysis showing peak lux levels at high points in section
The printed pattern within the EFTE cushion has been introduced to allow for the control of solar gain. This reduces glare, introduces a richer interplay of light and shadow and increases the gradation of lighting possibilities to acentuate the spatial qualities.
Shadows - Winter
Shadows - Summer
LIGHTING - labs Interior shadows in the labs - April 12pm
FIRE REGULATIONS AND ACCESS Fire:
all three biomes are separated from the other spaces via intermediate lobbies and buffer spaces there is a sensitive boundary between exisitng building and new build there is an adundance of intermediate outdoor spaces, so that in the event of fire and neccessary escape there are no bottlenecks. Instead the process of escape can go smooth, allowing to be self explanotory in orientation ETFE foil has low flammabiliy and is self extinguishing as the cushions vent in the event of fire. ETFE also eliminates the need for smoke extraction. Access: Any space above the ground floor can be reached by lifts and stairs. The main route includes a long ramp which adheres to regulations (see long section)
FIRE / ACCESS
there are no distances to reach fire exits beyond 17m
A document summarizing the technology work as part of my March Thesis at the Welsh School of Architecture