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De
Maeyer
Christel
 
  

Vrije Universiteit Brussel 

Faculteit Letteren en Wijsbegeerte 

Vakgroep Communicatiewetenschappen  Prof. Jo Pierson/Prof. Leo Van Audenhove  Prof. Jean‐Claude Burgelman  Begeleidster: Prof.An Jacobs  Werkcollege IS&G  Thema: Sleeping with Technology  The relation between sleeping behavior and daily performance with  ‘Always‐on’ technology  



 
 
 
 Academiejaar
2011‐2012



THANKS
TO:
 


Colleagues
who
joined
this
experiment
and
gave
their
trust
 Dr.
An
Jacobs
for
critical
review
and
mentoring

 Dr.
BJ
Fogg
for
introducing
me
to
Persuasive
Technology
and
being
a
mentor
ever
since
 Heather
Rae
Petersen
for
proofreading
my
paper
 Marit
Ginevro
for
the
constructive
feedback
 Brent
Wilkey
for
believing
in
my
topic
and
always
being
a
sport
and
listening
 In
general
all
my
friends
for
listening
to
my
2
year
sleep
obsession,
and
probably
 thinking
I
was
from
outer
space
once
in
while
 


 

Academiejaar
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SLEEPING WITH TECHNOLOGY ..................................................................................... 6  The relation between sleeping behavior and daily performance with ‘Always‐on’ technology .. 6 

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... 6  The ‘Always‐On’ Phenomenon ............................................................................................................................ 6 

1.  INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 8  2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................................................................... 11  1.  The big shift ................................................................................................................................................... 11  2.  Connected ...................................................................................................................................................... 13  3.  The Self ........................................................................................................................................................... 15  4.  Self monitoring ............................................................................................................................................ 17  5.  Disconnectedness and Digital Diet ........................................................................................................ 18  6.  Sleep monitoring ......................................................................................................................................... 19  7.  Why is sleep so important and how is this related to the ‘Always‐on’ phenomenon ........... 21  8.  Design for Persuasion ................................................................................................................................ 22 

2. RESEARCH METHOD ............................................................................................... 25  1.  Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 25  2.  Qualitative versus quantitative research ........................................................................................... 25  3.  Qualitative research ................................................................................................................................... 26  4.  The selection of the respondents ........................................................................................................... 27  6.  In depth interviews .................................................................................................................................... 29  7.  The topic list ................................................................................................................................................. 31  8.  Analysis The Grounded Theory .............................................................................................................. 31  8.1.  Transcript .................................................................................................................................................. 31  8.2.  Open coding ............................................................................................................................................... 31  8.3.  Axial coding ............................................................................................................................................... 31  8.4.  Selective coding ........................................................................................................................................ 32 

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9.  The pitfalls in qualitative research ....................................................................................................... 32  9.1.  Validity ........................................................................................................................................................ 32  9.2.  Trustworthy .............................................................................................................................................. 32  9.3.  Generalizability ........................................................................................................................................ 33  10.  Short survey ............................................................................................................................................... 33  11.  Visuals of the bedroom ........................................................................................................................... 33  12.  Self reflection on the research ............................................................................................................. 34  13.  Restraints and limitations ..................................................................................................................... 34 

3. THE RESULTS AND FINDINGS REPORTING ............................................................... 36  The interview Questions ................................................................................................................................... 36  Daily patterns during week and weekend days ........................................................................................ 36  1.  Weekdays ....................................................................................................................................................... 36  2.  Weekend patterns ...................................................................................................................................... 37  3.  The work environment ............................................................................................................................. 37  4.  The personality ............................................................................................................................................ 38  5.  ‘Always‐on’ .................................................................................................................................................... 39  6.  The monitoring device – The Quantified self ..................................................................................... 40  How ‘Always‐on’ has changed sleep habits, how has it changed sleep? ............................................ 42  Gender difference? .............................................................................................................................................. 42 

4. CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................... 43  5. REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 47  Sleep monitoring devices .................................................................................................................................. 49  Media exposure .................................................................................................................................................... 49 

6. ATTACHMENTS ...................................................................................................... 51  7. FIGURES ................................................................................................................. 52 

 

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Academiejaar
2011‐2012
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Sleeping with technology  The relation between sleeping behavior and daily performance with ‘Always‐on’  technology 

Abstract  The ‘Always‐On’ Phenomenon 


 Nowadays
we
are
always
connected,
with
the
development
of
the
online
infrastructure,
 the
availability
of
WIFI
and
data
mobility
infrastructure,
the
smartphone
and
tablet
 devices
which
give
us
access
to
all
sorts
of
information
for
either
social
or
professional
 use
anytime,
anywhere.
We
live
in
a
global,
networked
world
within
different
time
 zones.
The global reach of connectivity can make the most isolated outpost into a center  of learning and economic activity,
Turkle,
(2010,
p152‐153).
Our
life
is
spread
all
over
 the
world
and
we
are
connected
to
people
in
different
time
zones
and
continents.
 Hence,
the
‘Always‐on’
phenomenon
and
urge
to
connect
might
lead
to
different
habits,
 especially
when
it
comes
to
sleep.

 There
is
always
something
to
do
on
Facebook,
even
in
the
middle
of
the
night.
Emails
 are
coming
in
throughout
the
entire
day
and
night.
Media
consumption
is
not
limited
to
 radio
and
TV.
Yet
device
and
time
shifting
are
really
happening
by
building
our
own
 radio
stations
with
platforms
like
Spotify.

Downloading
TV
series,
movies
and
 documentaries
are
all
within
a
mouse
click
or
finger
swipe
away
on
tablet
or
other
 mobile
device.
All
of
these
factors
and
digital
distractions
play
a
large
role
in
disrupting
 sleep.
 In
addition
to
the
impact
this
has
on
the
way
we
work,
live
and
behave,
there
are
many
 other
disruptive
elements
in
sleep
patterns.
This
research
will
focus
on
the
‘Always‐on’
 aspect
of
sleep
disruption.
Research
method:
experimental
and
qualitative
research,
10
 employees
from
a
higher
educational
institute
tracked
their
sleep
for
10
month
with
a
 sleep
monitoring
device
in
addition
there
were
in‐depth
interviews
and
a
short
survey.


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This
research
paper
will
examine
more
in
depth
the
following
underlying
questions:
 
 1. In
which
way
‘Always‐on’
affects
people
in
their
sleep
habits.
 2. For
whom
it
effects
change
 3. How
‘Always‐on’
has
changed
sleep
habits
 4. Who
is
‘not’
changed,
conclusion
for
further
research.
 
 
 a. ‘How
can
we
use
persuasive
technology
and
persuasive
devices
to
 mitigate
the
disruptive
aspects
of
an
‘Always‐on’
lifestyle?
 b. 
How
can
we
optimize
sleep
quality
by
creating
awareness
and
using
a
 personal
sleep
coach
to
change
behavior?
 
 Keywords:
always‐on,
digital
life,
sleep
behavior,
persuasive
technology,
motivation.



 


 

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1. Introduction  
 The
impact
of
portable
devices
such
as
mobile
devices,
smartphones,
tablets
and
 laptops
are
changing
peoples
live
in
a
significant
way.
Especially
smartphone
and
tablets
 create
‘check
in’
habits
with
the
user,
Olulasvirta
et
al
(2011).
These
check
in’s
can
go
 both
ways,
they
create
new
habits
with
users
and
give
a
lot
of
opportunity
to
create
life
 changers
in
a
positive
way.

Think
for
example
about
mobile
health
applications,
as
we
 can
put
hot
triggers
into
peoples
paths
there
would
be
a
continuous
loop
of
stimulation
 if
the
user
want
to
have
these.
On
the
flip
side,
these
new
habits
might
get
compulsive,
 disrupt
our
daily
lives,
blur
the
balance
between
private
and
professional
lives
and
get
 an
impact
on
our
sleep
patterns
as
a
consequence.

We
go
to
bed
later,
checking
mails
 and
other
information
channels
stimulating
cognitive
arousal
in
a
positive
or
negative
 way
and
prevent
us
to
unwind
before
we
sleep.
Resulting
in
longer
wake
times
before
 sleep
and
make
our
sleep
maybe
more
restless.
 The
combination
of
being
connected
all
the
time
and
upcoming
sensor‐based
devices,
 which
give
us
the
ability
to
track
our
behavior
and
are
either
wireless
or
blue
tooth
 technologies,
can
help
to
make
us
aware
of
our
‘Always‐on’
behavior
and
allow
us
to
 make
better
use
of
it.
There
are
clearly
disadvantages
but
also
many
advantages
of
 being
‘Always‐on’
in
sleeping
with
technology.
The
habit
creation
that
comes
with
the
 ‘Always‐on’
technology
can
have
negative
influences
in
terms
of
losing
or
wasting
time.
 Losing
focus,
create
short
concentration
spans.
At
the
same
time
we
can
create
positive
 habits
in
stimulating
behavior
change
with
the
‘Always‐on’
user.

Never
before
we
were
 able
to
have
such
an
impact
on
people
in
this
connected
world.
People
need
continuous
 stimulation
and
discipline
to
create
certain
routines
and
rituals
in
their
lives.
These
 wearable
devices
can
monitor
anything
anytime
and
give
us
feedback
and
create
 awareness
on
our
behavior,
give
us
the
ability
to
act
on
it,
these
are
very
strong
triggers
 to
work
with!

Fogg
(2010)
 


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In
2010
I
had
the
opportunity
to
monitor
my
sleep
with
‘Zeo’
personal
sleep
coaching
 device.
The
idea
of
the
experiment
was
to
explore
the
persuasive
design
of
this
device
 and
to
determine
if
it
would
change
my
behavior
by
tracking
my
sleep
patterns.
In
this
 experiment,
I
worked
together
with
ZEO
Inc.
and
Dr.
BJ
Fogg
using
Fogg‘s
Purple
Path
 behavior,
which
focuses
on
increasing
or
intensifying
a
familiar
behavior.
(Purple
Path
 Behavior
Guide
©Stanford
Persuasive
Tech
Lab
(alpha
version
0.50
December
2010))
 Fogg’s
‘Behavior
Wizard’,
is
a
method
for
matching
target
behaviors
with
solutions
for
 achieving
those
behaviors.
Basically,
a
purple
path
behavior
involves
adding
hot
triggers
 to
what
people
already
do
to
establish
the
increase
of
a
certain
behavior.
This
is
not
 limited
or
constrained
to
one
domain.
For
example,
take
someone
who
is
already
 running
3
times
a
week
for
30
minutes.
By
putting
alerts
and
triggers
in
his
routine,
‘he
 can
be
influenced
to
run
an
extra
5
minutes’.
The
person
might
consider
doing
this,
and
 after
a
series
of
doing
this
will
run
35
minutes
and
even
more
later
on.
 In
the
case
of
ZEO,
the
goal
is
to
stimulate
people
to
sleep
better
and
optimize
their
 sleep
quality,
which
also
might
mean
changing
their
daily
patterns
and
rituals
or
 routines.
 One
might
think
that
sleep
is
a
very
personal
experience,
and
to
some
extent
it
is,
which
 I
will
come
back
to
later.
But
people
do
like
to
share
their
sleep
results,
especially
within
 a
group
experiment
like
the
one
I
have
set
up
in
Howest
University
College.
There
are
 exceptions
and
restraints
that
will
reveal
this
openness
is
not
always
the
case.
But
since
I
 started
talking
about
the
experiment
at
colleges,
universities
and
conferences,
people
 have
freely
started
opening
up
about
their
sleep
behavior
and
the
so
called
problems
 they
have.
This
goes
for
CEO’s
to
labor
workers;
To
all
kinds
of
people,
sleep
is
an
ever‐ present,
everyday
topic
and
social
connector.
Its
importance
should
not
be
 underestimated.
 This
personal
sleep
monitoring
taught
me
a
lot
about
my
sleeping
patterns,
and
how
the
 quality
of
my
sleep
influences
my
daily
habits.



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In
2011,
after
a
year
of
gathering
my
own
personal
sleep
data,
I
reorganized
my
daily
life
 and
succeeded
in
performing
better,
handling
stress
better,
being
more
relaxed
while
 managing
my
team
and
getting
things
done
in
a
more
effective
and
non‐stressful
way.
 
 
 


 

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2. Theoretical framework  


1. The big shift 


 In
the
early
90’s
there
were
still
a
lot
of
questions
on
how
computer
mediated
 communications
would
impact
our
society.
The
scene
at
that
time
was
for
the
early
 adopter,
the
computer
geek.
The
vision
of
a
wide
applicability
of
internet
as
a
household
 object
was
far
a
way.
Bakardjieva
(2005)
.
By
the
end
of
the
90’s
we
saw
the
rise
of
the
 internet
as
a
tool
for
everyday
life,
but
it
was
in
early
2000
that
the
evolution
of
Internet
 as
a
broadband
platform
coupled
with
the
cheaper
connection
price
was
one
of
the
 most
significant
steps
in
connecting
people
more
and
more
in
a
electronic
and
virtual
 way.
Broadband
platforms
made
connecting
a
mainstream
technology
as
a
 communication
system.
At
the
end
of
the
90’s
mobile
phones
entered
in
the
picture
as
 well
with
a
rather
primitive
model
of
communication
known
as
SMS,
which
showed
the
 first
signs
of
mobile
connectivity
with
no
limits
to
a
place
or
time
and
knowing
a
fast
 adaptation
Bauer
H.
et
al
(2005).
Smartphones
and
tablets
making
use
of
wireless
 technology
and
mobile
data
transfer,
make
us
connect
even
more
because
there
are
 almost
no
constraints
and
people’s
curiosity
for
the
new
make
us
check
in
on
a
regular
 basis,
Turkle
(2011),
Verkasalo,
et
al
(2009).

Such
technology
acts
as
a
social
connector
 as
well
and
does
not
limit
us
to
only
messaging.
It
gives
us
a
series
of
possibilities
to
 enhance
our
business
and
social
activities.

 
 Today
we
can
say
that
email
communication
and
mobile
communication
systems,
such
 as
mobile
phones,
smartphones
and
tablets,
the
latter
to
a
less
extent
at
this
time,
are
 well
integrated
into
people’s
lives
for
both
business
and
social
purposes.
Boundaries
 between
work
and
social
context
are
getting
blurred
and
mobile
devices
are
becoming
 devices
for
all
sorts
of
purposes.
They
also
represent
a
way
of
living
in
relation
to
image
 building,
status
and
so
forth
Katz
(2006).
 


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The
mobile
phone
as
most
prominent
example
of
mobile
personal
communication
 technology
has
become,
as
Wei
(2001)
stated,
‘‘more
than
just
a
talking
device
on
the
 move’’.
 Research
of
conventional
phone
use
shows
a
distinction
between
intrinsic
(social)
and
 instrumental
(task‐oriented)
phone
use
(e.g.
Keller,
1977;
Noble
1987).
Intrinsic
phone
 use
refers
to
use
of
the
phone
for
social
purposes
(e.g.
for
O.
Peters,
S.
ben
Allouch),
 while
instrumental
phone
use
refers
to
utility
(e.g.
information
seeking
or
making

 appointments).
Besides
the
intrinsic
and
instrumental
phone
use,
Williams
et
al.
(1985)
 found
that
the
gratifications
fun
and
entertainment
also
applied
to
the
use
of
the
 conventional
phone.

 
 “Dimmick and Sikand (1994) report three gratifications obtained from the household  phone: sociability, instrumentality, and reassurance. O’Keefe and Sulanowski (1995)  examined gratifications sought from phone use and found sociability, entertainment,  acquisition, and time management as dimensions of phone use.”    Uses and gratifications of conventional versus mobile phones Leung, Wei (2000)  Fixed phones –household phones 

Mobile phones‐devices 

Intrinsic use (Social) 

Intrinsic use 

Instrumental (Job related) 

Instrumental use 

Gratifications: sociability, entertainment, 

Gratifications: sociability, entertainment, 

acquisition, time management 

acquisition, time management 

Call arrives in a fixed location 

No limits in time and space, different  demographics characteristics of users and  cellular telephoning behavior 

 

Gratifications dimensions of mobility,  immediacy, and instrumentality are  stronger in usage 

Fig 1 Uses and gratifications 

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The
above
research
is
still
valid
for
the
‘Always‐on’
phenomenon,
wireless
 communication,
it
differs
in
that
we
didn’t
bring
our
household
phones
into
the
 bedroom,
although
it
was
possible
if
an
extra
plug
was
provided,
and
an
incoming
call
 from
a
fixed
phone
was
in
a
certain
place.
The
infrastructure
is
very
different
the
 anytime,
anywhere
has
changed
the
social
behavior
of
people
a
lot,
and
as
said
before
 the
spectrum
of
usage
especially
on
the
smartphones
is
much
broader
then
it
was
ever
 before.

The
extrinsic
factors
such
as
price
and
data
mobility
models
offered
by
the
 different
operators
makes
it
more
accessible
and
available.
In 2002 the number of  mobile subscribers succeeded the number of fixed lines on a global scale, L.Srivastava,
 (2005), thus
mobile
phones
became
dominant
technology
for
voice
communication.
All
 these
characteristics
changed
the
interpersonal
communication.
Make
us
connect
and
 check
in
more
on
our
mobile
device.
Why
are
people
so
driven
to
connect
all
the
time?



 2. Connected  
 Is
it
a
dream
and
a
nightmare
at
the
same
time?

The
ability
to
be
connected
all
the
time
 is
one
thing.
But
what
makes
people
want
to
connect
all
the
time?
What
is
behind
the
 drive,
the
urge
and,
sometimes,
the
obsession?
How
is
this
positively
and
negatively
 influencing
our
lives
and
changing
our
behavior.
 
 Initial
reasons
to
acquire
a
mobile
phone
were
organized
around
instrumental
use
like
 business
of
job‐related
reasons
and
intrinsic
use,
like
safety
and
security
(Palen
et.
 al.
,2001).

Leung
and
Wei
(2000)
found
that
instumental
uses
of
the
mobile
phone
are
 more
frequent
and
instrumental
motives
are
much
stronger,
than
the
social
or
intrinsic
 uses
of
the
mobile
phone.
This
also
came
up
in
my
own
research
group
of
Sleeping
With
 Technology.
   Another
study
on
‘Habits
make
smartphone
use
more
pervasive’,
Oulasvirta,
et
al
(2011)
 studied
habit
formation
on
Smartphones
stating
that
the
main
motivation
for
habits
 Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 13



were
killing
time,
entertainment
and
awareness.   
 ‘Always‐on’
gives
a
lot
of
freedom,
social
connectivity,
creativity
and
flexibility:
 ‐

Freedom:
to
be
anywhere
and
still
be
able
to
connect
to
social,
personal
or
 business
connections


Creativity:
one
has
more
opportunities
to
expose
himself
by
reaching
out
 through
creativity
projects
or
creative
endeavors
‐
the
“15‐minutes
of
fame”
 idea


Flexibility:
one
can
connect
anywhere,
anytime
at
his
own
convenience


Social
connectivity:
one
can
connect
to
friends,
family
and
other
relationships
 in
the
virtual
world
much
more
easily.
 


Recent
research
tells
us
that
apart
from
all
these
possibilities,
our
brains
can
experience
 pleasure,
but
also
disappointment
in
connecting
in
our
digital
life.
 ‐

An article in Slate, Emile Yoffe, reviews the relationship between our digital  lives and how the brain experience pleasure (Alone together, Sherry Turkle,  2010, p337). She says: Actually all our electronic communication devices—e‐ mail, Facebook feeds, texts, Twitter—are feeding the same drive as our  searches. Since we're restless, easily bored creatures, our gadgets give us in  abundance qualities the seeking/wanting system finds particularly exciting.  Novelty is one. 

Panksepp (, 1998, p 480.) says the dopamine system is activated by finding  something unexpected or by the anticipation of something new. If the  rewards come unpredictably—as e‐mail, texts, updates do—we get even  more carried away. No wonder we call it a "CrackBerry." 

People talk about digital life as ‘the place for hope’, the place where  something new will come to them (Turkle 2010).  

Technology is seductive when what it offers meets our human vulnerabilities.  (Sherry Turkle, 2010) 

Academiejaar
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 14



Not
everybody
is
reacting
in
the
same
way
on
all
these
possibilities
and
temptations.
 Depending
on
personalities,
gender
and
culture
there
is
different
motivation
in
terms
of
 usage.
Which
brings
us
to
the
more
personal
motivation
and
application
of
being
 connected.
     3. The Self  
 Most
people
spend
a
lot
of
time
alone,
in
front
of
a
screen,
television
or
computer,
or
 other
screen
devices.
We
are
in
the
“screen‐age”,
yet
we
want
to
connect
to
our
tribe
or
 “retribalize”
McLuhan,

(1962).
Computer
and
mobile
devices
are
playing
a
central
role
 in
this.
Turkle,
(1995,
p;
178,
p
347)
 
 As
shown
in
the
research
of
Verkasalo,
et
al
(2009),
several
variables
will
come
in
play
 when
using
‘Always‐on’
devices
and
their
applications:
 
 1. Barriers:
difficulties
in
finding
and
installing
applications
 2. Behavioral
control:
using
the
service
without
help
 3. Perceived
enjoyment:
it
is
fun
to
use
the
service
 4. Perceived
usefulness:
the
service
is
useful
in
work/studies
 5. Social
norm:
use
the
service
because
my
friends
and
family
are
using
it
to.
 
 Scaling of the smartphones and the tablets:  According to Feenberg (2005), ‘technology is not ‘rational’ in the old positivist sense of  the term but socially relative; the outcome of technical choices is a world that supports  the way of life of one or another influential social group’.  Apple
being
a
cult
brand
and
together
with
the
user
friendliness
of
the
Iphone
in
specific
 made
the
smartphone
a
success
and
made
it
scale
very
fast
globally.
Furthermore
the
 availability
of
the
apps
trough
the
I‐tunes
shopping
model,
gave
trust
and
easy
 acceptance
to
the
user.

In
addition
to
that,
the
micropayments
that
made
these
apps
 Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 15



very
cheap,
an
ecosystem
was
build
very
fast
for
this
new
phenomenon
and
there
was
a
 marketplace.

 
 In
Belgium
11,9
%
owns
a
smartphone
the
usage
of
these
smartphones
goes
mainly
to:
 1. Taking
pictures
(30%)
 2. Calendar
consult
and
synchronizing
(15,3%)
 3. Listening
to
MP3ʼs

(14,1%)
 4. Gaming
(11,6%)
 5. Internet
access
(10,3%)
 6. E‐mail
(9,2%)
 7. Social
networks
access
(6,3%)
 http://www.digimeter.be,

(2010)
 
 Different behavior in smartphone usage on the horizon – tracking yourself – next  evolution.  As
smartphones
have
diverse
sensing
capabilities.
The
smartphone
as
a
mobile
personal
 computer
and
the
integrated
applications
can
use
multi‐sensory
data
to
gather
 information
of
the
user.
Ganti
et
al
(2010)
Numerous
apps
are
available
at
this
time
to
 track
your
fitness
efforts,
calorie
burning,
sleep,
movements
like
in
travel,
how
many
 miles
you
travel
in
a
month
or
a
year…
in
other
words
a
personal
daily
living
pattern
 journal.

 In
order
to
make
these
apps
successful,
one
will
have
to
think
more
clearly
about
the
 user.

Persuasive
technology
might
be
a
methodology
to
explore
more
in
depth
to
make
 this
happen.
In
the
experiment
we
use
in
our
research,
I
will
go
more
in
depth
on
the
 findings
and
methodologies
used
based
on
different
research
that
has
been
done
by
DR.
 BJ
Fogg.
 
 
 


Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 16



Fig 2  


4. Self monitoring 

Wearable
Sensors:
Opportunities
and
Challenges
for
Low‐Cost
Health
Care,
Richard
R.
Fletcher,
Member,
 IEEE,
Ming‐Zher
Poh,
Student
Member,
IEEE
and
Hoda
Eydgahi
 


Numerous
monitor
devices
are
coming
in
the
market,
above
you
find
a
model
how
the
 architecture
for
these
models
work.
We
find
this
monitoring
in
the
health
care
sector,
 preventive
health
care
sector
but
also
in
the
leisure
environment.
The
whole
movement
 of
the
quantified
self
is
a
clear
proof
of
that
area.
There
will
be
different
domains
and
 the
applications
have
a
huge
range
of
potential
in
different
markets,
in
this
paper
we
 will
focus
on
sleep
monitoring
as
part
of
the
experimental
research.
We
could
classify
 sleep
monitoring
in
behavioral
therapy.
From
a
cost
perspective
the
primary
goal
is
to
 save
money
in
the
health
care
industry,
and
react
as
a
more
preventive
measure
and
 monitor
our
lives
during
certain
periods
and
track
several
stages
and
progress
in
our
 lives.

 As health monitoring becomes part of the fabric of everyday life, there is a need for  technologies that are comfortable, simple to use, unobtrusive, and also provide privacy 

Academiejaar
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and security. Wearable sensors, mobile phones, web cameras, and online social  networks are all part of the future health support system. (Richard R. Fletcher et al,2010)
 According
to
Chistakis
and
Fowler
social
networks
are
becoming
very
important:
‘There
 are
two
fundamental
aspects
in
social
networks
no
matter
how
the
network
is
formed.
 First
is
the
connection
and
second
contagion
which
pertains
to
what,
if
anything,
that
 flows
across
the
ties
Christakis,
Fowler(
2009),
one
fundamental
determent
of
flow
is
 the
tendency
of
human
beings
influencing
and
copying
one
another’.
(Christakis
and
 Fowler
2009)

 So
far
the
illustration
of
the
‘Always‐on’
and
its
usage
and
possibilities,
if
one
would
like
 to
he
or
she
could
be
connected
24/7
having
all
sorts
of
activities.
Do
people
want
to
 still
spend
time
off
line?
Going
back
to
disconnected
world,
get
quality
downtime
with
 friends
and
family.

Or
just
get
focused
or
find
a
kind
of
different
peace
of
mind?
 
 5. Disconnectedness and Digital Diet  
 After
the
excitement
and
the
stress
of
the
‘new’,
people
will
look
for
windows
of
 disconnecting,
Storr
(1988),
or
going
back
to
a
Walden
Zone
Thoreau
(1937),
a
place
 where
everything
is
silent
and
the
mind
can
wander
freely
with
no
distraction.
At
the
 same
time,
we
know
that
people
do
not
change
their
habits
very
easily.
Technology
can
 keep
us
from
healthy
behavior
but
can
also
make
us
have
more
insight.
It
can
push
us
 towards
better
health
behavior
via
calming
technology,
monitoring
ourselves
and
 becoming
aware
of
our
compulsive,
connected
behavior.
This
sort
of
awareness
can
lead
 to
positive
change
Fogg
(2000).
 Recently
we
see
more
and
more
popular
media
talking
about
digital
diets,
Harvard
 Business
Press,
Prof.
Leslie
A.
Perlow
will
release
a
book
on
‘Sleeping
with
your
 smartphone’
how
to
break
the
24/7
habit
and
change
the
way
you
work,
a
case
study
on
 how
you
can
disconnect
and
become
more
productive
in
the
process.
Other
journalists
 and
writers
talking
about
the
digital
diet
and
how
to
disconnect
in
your
life
to
be
able
to
 focus
again,
sleep
better
and
have
a
greater
peace
of
mind.

As
we
will
see
in
the
 research,
the
behavior
of
checking
mails
before
going
to
bed,
and
consuming
news
or
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2011‐2012
 18



other
information,
is
cognitive
arousal
leading
to
the
problem
of
not
being
able
to
turn
 off
your
mind
and
fall
asleep.

 
 


6. Sleep monitoring 

Sleep
monitoring
might
be
one
new
way
of
creating
awareness
about
sleeping
patterns
 and
getting
people
to
take
action
and
change
behaviors
as
a
result.
A
lot
of
new
 monitoring
device
are
appearing
on
the
market
along
with
various
sleep
apps.
Most
of
 these
devices
have
been
developed
due
to
the
widespread
desire
in
people
to
wake
up
 calmly,
feeling
ready
for
the
day.
Too
many
people
are
too
familiar
with
feeling
drowsy
 and
being
in
a
bad
mood
after
being
woken
up
by
a
loud
alarm
clock
at
the
wrong
time
 in
the
sleep
cycle,
according
to
various
app
developers
and
product
designers
like
Lark
 Inc.,
Zeo
Inc.,
MDLabs
whom
I
talked
to.
 
 People
spend
about
one
third
of
their
lives
sleeping,
and
many
are
keenly
aware
of
the
 need
for
sleep.

But
getting
adequate
sleep
remains
a
challenge
for
many
Belgians.

Four
 to
ten
Belgians
don’t
sleep
very
well
(gezondheid.be,
2004)

   The Zeo device and Zeo Personal Sleep Coach is a new educational tool and motivational  program that is designed to:   •
Help
people
understand
how
they
are
sleeping

 •
Reveal
habits
and
behaviors
that
may
be
helping
or
hindering
their
sleep

 •
Teach
them
new
ways
to
get
a
better
night’s
rest
   The
ZEO
experiment
is
part
of
my
empiric
research.
It
is
important
to
note
that
ZEO
is
 not
a
medical
device.

It
is
an
awareness
device,
which
exposes
you
to
information
that
 can
help
make
you
think
clearly
about
your
lifestyle.

 Although
there
are
a
lot
of
other
apps
and
devices
out
there,
in
this
stage
we
will
use
 the
ZEO
device.
Compared
to
other
similar
devices
or
apps
like
Lark
and
Sleepcycle
app


Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 19



(these
are
based
on
movements),
the
Zeo
(based
on
measuring
brainwaves)
gives
the
 most
details
on
a
nightly
analysis
about
your
sleep
cycles,
including:
 ‐

“Time
To
Z”
(Z
stands
for
sleep)


REM


Deep


Light
sleep


Wake
time
and
the
amount
of
wake‐ups


This
information
generates
an
average
ZQ
score
in
the
morning.
The
information
is
 gathered
on
an
SD
Card
with
which
you
can
upload
your
sleep
data
to
the
ZEO
website
 which
allows
you
to
store
and
analyze
your
data
over
time.
The
longer
you
gather
 information,
the
more
patterns
and
new
material
you
have
to
work
with.
The
scores
 vary
among
age
groups,
as
sleep
and
sleep
patterns
change
with
age.

 The
Zeo
community
compares
results
with
your
peers
from
the
same
age
group
and
 gender.


  Fig 3. One of the data screens generated by ZEO device.  


Zeo
works
with
these
principles:
 1. Track
your
sleep
 2. Manage
your
sleep
stealers
 3. Sleep
better
and
do
more,
perform
better
 
 Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 20



Zeo
personal
sleeping
coach
is
based
on
mass
interpersonal
persuasion
Fogg
(2008)
and
 ‘The
Hidden
influence
of
social
networks’
Christakis
et
al
(2009).
 ZEO
is
not
only
creating
connections
within
its
own
community
on
the
myzeo.com
 website,
but
also
has
the
ability
to
connect
on
Facebook
and
share
with
communities
 there,
which
are
most
probably
different
from
the
one
you
have
in
ZEO.
Through
these
 communities,
you
can
attract
new
users
for
the
ZEO
system
and
influence
others
to
 make
their
lives
better
by
stimulating
them
to
use
the
ZEO
to
get
more
awareness
about
 their
lifestyle.
 


7. Why is sleep so important and how is this related to the ‘Always‐on’  phenomenon 


 As
mentioned
in
an
earlier
paragraph,
and
also
stated
in
The
European
Research
Sleep
 Center,
insomnia
affects
15
%
of
the
population,
predicts
depression
and
causes
 dramatic
health
costs.
Insomnia
is
one
of
the
most
frequent
subjective
complaints,
 chronically
affecting
10‐15
%
of
the
population.
Edinger
et
al
(2005)
 Sleep
deprivation
is
something
we
build
up,
which
can
be
linked
to
our
lifestyle.
One
 only
starts
to
think
about
it
when
one
gets
seriously
ill
or
tired
and
does
not
feel
 refreshed
in
the
morning
and
finds
oneself
sleepy
or
yawning
all
day.
Furthermore,
the
 change
in
our
eating
habits,
which
is
creating
more
and
more
obesity
and
diabetes
 problems,
also
has
an
impact
on
our
sleep.
As
mentioned
before,
the
always‐being‐ connected
trend
and
having
our
devices
with
us
all
the
time
have
been
significant
life
 changers
as
well
(cfr
Connected).
 
Sleep
monitoring
apps
and
devices
bring
the
analysis
to
the
home,
people
don’t
have
to
 go
immediately
to
a
sleep
center
(although
if
you
have
a
real
problem
you
should
still
do
 this!),
but
home
monitoring
could
help
already
a
lot
of
people
in
checking
what
is
going
 on
in
their
sleep.
Clearly
time
perception
plays
a
big
role
during
the
night,
everything
is
 different
in
the
dark,
Dement
(2000)
one
thinks
he
or
she
wakes
up
all
the
time
or
 doesn’t
have
wake
ups
at
all,
the
wake
ups
are
long
or
not,
different
things
go
on
in
the
 mind,
and
knowing
about
it
will
make
people
feel
better.

These
sleep
monitoring
device
 Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 21



for
the
home
are
in
very
early
stage
and
the
design
of
them
are
very
important
for
the
 usage
and
their
success
rate
of
them.
As
mentioned
in
Feenberg
‘critical
theory
of
 technology’
there
are
different
aspects
that
we
need
to
consider
in
designing
and
 developing
these
devices.
In
addition
these
devices
need
to
be
accepted
by
the
medical
 community
as
kind
of
preventive
health
care
tool.
Politics
need
to
be
convinced
that
this
 might
lower
the
medical
costs
by
making
this
more
familiar
with
the
population.
But
 more
over
the
companies
who
engage
in
making
these
devices
or
apps
need
to
think
 clearly
about
their
audience
for
whom
they
manufacture
these
device,
the
psychology
in
 design
and
developing
plays
an
important
role
in
this.
In
the
next
chapter
we
will
talk
 more
about
how,
in
my
research
we
will
show
what
is
good
and
bad
in
the
model
of
ZEO
 device.
 
 
 


8. Design for Persuasion  



 
 


Design
for
 Persuasion


Design
with
 Intent



 


Behavior
design



 Fig 4: Own model to Behavior Design    When
applying
Design
for
Persuasion
one
is
facilitating
a
motivation
or
a
desire
to
 change
certain
behavior.
In
order
to
do
this
we
can
apply
Fogg’s
behavior
model,
where
 3
components
need
to
come
together
at
the
SAME
time!
 ‐

Trigger:
call
to
action


Motivation:
people
have
to
be
motivated


Ability:
people
have
to
have
the
ability
to
take
a
certain
action


These
are
the
basics
in
Design
for
Persuasion.



Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 22



Fig 5 Fogg Behavior model    In
case
of
the
ZEO
device


       

1. Trigger:
The
Zeo
device
is
sitting
on
your
bedside,
and
displays
the
ZQ
score
 2. Motivation:
Curiosity
in
sleep
cycle
 3. Ability:The
headband
+
device
giving
the
ability
to
track
your
sleep
 In
my
research
findings
more
on
this
model
and
the
Zeo
case!
 In
addition
to
this
model
and
in
designing
coaching
programs
that
goes
with
monitoring
 devices,
one
might
think
about
the
potential
of
Mass
Interpersonal
Persuasion
as
an
 additional
trigger
to
facilitate
behavior
change.
 
 As
mentioned
before
ZEO
online

community
is
based
on
Mass Interpersonal  Persuasion
Fogg,
(2008):
 MIP
has
6
components:
 1. Persuasive Experience: An experience that is created to change attitudes,  behaviors, or both  2. Automated Structure: Digital technology structures the persuasive experience 

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3. Social Distribution: The persuasive experience is shared from one friend to  another.   4. Rapid Cycle: The persuasive experience can be distributed quickly from one  person to another.    5. Huge Social Graph: The persuasive experience can potentially reach millions of  people connected through social ties or structured interactions.  6. Measured Impact: The effect of the persuasive experience is observable by users  and creators.    Design
with
Intent
Lockton
(2010),

‘as the design of systems becomes increasingly  focused on people, modeling behavior has become more important for designers.   Lockton designed a toolkit to think more clearly about designing all sorts of products,  online applications and so forth.   Design with Intent and Design for Persuasion are two methodologies that can help in  behavior design.
 


 

Academiejaar
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2. Research Method  1. Introduction  
 The
method
used
in
Sleeping
with
Technology
was
mainly
qualitative
research,
in
the
 form
of
observations
and
in‐depth
interviews
with
the
respondents.
Qualitative
research
 seemed
to
be
the
best
way
to
get
more
in
depth
insights
towards
the
sleep
data
that
 was
gathered
by
the
Zeo
device.
In
addition
as
researcher
I
was
working
in
the
same
 context
and
environment
and
had
occasional
and
spontaneous
encounters
with
the
 respondents
as
well.
This
gave
an
added
value
in
the
research.
 
 2. Qualitative versus quantitative research  
 Qualitative methods facilitate study of issues in depth and detail. Approaching fieldwork  without being constrained by predetermined categories of analysis contributes to the  depth, openness and detail of qualitative inquiry. Quantitative��methods, on the other  hand, require the use of standardized measures so that the varying perspectives and  experiences of people can be fit into a limited number of predetermined response  categories to which numbers are assigned.  The advantage of a quantitative approach is that it’s possible to measure the reactions  of a great many people to a limited set of questions, thus facilitating comparison and  statistical aggregation of the data. This gives a broad generalizable set of findings  presented succinctly and parsimoniously. By contrast, qualitative methods typically  produce a wealth of detailed information about a much smaller number of people and  cases this increases the depth of understanding of the cases and situations studied but  reduces generalizability. (Patton, 2002, p14)  


The
research
on
‘Always‐On’
consisted
of
10
month
sleep
monitoring
(March
2011‐ January
2012)
with
a
group
of
10
people
from
a
higher
educational
institute
with
 different
positions
within
that
institution.
Apart
from
the
collected
sleep
monitoring
 data
there
were
in‐depth
interviews,
and
in
between
mail
conversations
and


Academiejaar
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personal
conversations,
a
more
observation
technic
during
the
process.
A
survey
on
 sns
(Linkedin,
Facebook
and
Quora)
confirmed
the
answers
on
one
question
‘What
is
 the
first
thing
you
do
when
you
wake
up?’


10 month self monitoring  with Zeo device 

Monthly meetings,  reporting, observation  In depth interviews at the  end of the monitoring  period  Visuals of the bedroom 

Short survey via SNS  


Fig 6 Research phases    3. Qualitative research  
 Qualitative
research
seemed
to
be
the
best
method
for
this
research
to
understand
 more
in
depth
the
sleep
data
that
was
gathered
by
the
ZEO
device
the
respondents
 were
using
during
a
10
month
experiment.
Qualitative
research
gave
the
opportunity
to
 understand
the
day
patterns
the
respondents
had
and
how
that
possibly
related
to
their
 sleep
patterns.
 
 This
method
is
also
in
close
relation
with
The
Grounded
Theory.
Qualitative
research
is
 about
the
‘How
and
Why’,
and
not
about
the
‘Quantity’,
it
is
about
meaning
and
 interpretation.
The
subjects
are
usually
individuals
who
are
subject
of
an
interview.
The
 data
gathered
in
this
method
undergoes
a
cycle
of
analyses,
based
on
theoretical
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sampling,
with
open
interviews.
The
Grounded
Theory
is
based
on
induction,
deduction
 and
verification,
which
allow
a
constant
comparison
where
the
theory
from
the
 interviews
is
central.
Glaser
&
Strauss,
(1967)
   In
this
research
different
angles
were
used
to
understand
the
relation
and
social
context
 of
the
respondents.
 
 1. Quantitative
research,
gathered
by
the
ZEO
device
every
night
by
wearing
the
 headband
which
transfers
sleep
data
to
a
SD
card.
That
data
was
then
 synchronized
to
the
website,
where
all
the
data
came
together
and
gives
a
view
 on
sleep
patterns
overtime,
which
enables
to
discover
different
patterns.
 2. Qualitative
research,
in‐depth
interviews
to
understand
the
data
generated
by
 the
ZEO
device
and
to
understand
the
social
context
on
how
the
respondents
live
 their
life.
 3. Qualitative
research,
participant
observation.
As
researcher
I
joined
the
group
in
 tracking
my
sleep,
and
working
in
the
same
environment,
which
enabled
me
to
 understand
and
to
follow
the
social
aspects
of
the
research
experiment.
 Mortlemans
(2007),
De
Waele
(1992)
 
 4. The selection of the respondents  
 A
mailing
went
out
to
introduce
the
research
topic
and
the
ZEO
sleep
tracking
device
to
 400
employees.
The
target
group
for
the
research
were
five
women
and
five
men
from
a
 different
age
group,
different
functions
and
respondents
who
thought
they
were
not
 sleeping
very
well,
as
part
of
the
research
was
also
to
see
if
self
tracking
would
induce
 behavior
change.
 When
I
started
this
research
I
already
used
the
ZEO
for
quite
a
while.
I
found
that
the
 device
could
help
to
organize
and
structure
your
life
in
a
better
and
optimized
way.
In
 doing
so
I
succeed
in
a
less
stressful
life
and
a
more
structured
professional
and
private


Academiejaar
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life,
which
created
a
healthy
balance
between
the
two
parts
of
our
lives
in
a
hectic
and
 ‘Always‐on’
environment.
 The
respondents
their
identity
is
listed
below,
however
because
of
privacy
reasons
they
 are
just
numbered.
 The
table
below
illustrates
their
Zeo
results
in
average
of
the
month
November
2011.
 The
ZQ
score
is
varying
in
age
group
as
people
tend
to
sleep
different
in
different
age
 phases.
 ZQ average, REM, DEEP and wake time per age group (documentation within ZEO  package)  Age
30
to
39
=

ZQ
average
80
–
REM
1H50
–
DEEP
–
69
Min
–
Wake
Time
21
Min
 Age
40
to
49
=
ZQ
average
74
‐
REM
1H40
–
DEEP
–
56
Min
–
Wake
Time
28
Min
 Age
50
to
59
=
ZQ
average
67
‐
REM
1H30
–
DEEP
–
44
Min
–
Wake
Time
38
Min
 Age
60
to
69
=
ZQ
average
62
‐
REM
1H20
–
DEEP
–
36
Min
–
Wake
Time
52
Min
 
 


Age
 Gender
 Why
join


ZQ


Total


REM


DEEP


Score
 Z


Wake


Wake


Time


ups


R1


52


Male


Sleep
problems
 65


6H22


1H54
 0H37


0H34


5


R2


30


Male


Curiosity


81


7H20


2h09


1H01


0H24


3


R3


52


Male


Technical


61


6H19


1H41
 0H33


0H58


6


problems
with
 Zeo
 R4


44


Male


Problems


R5


50


Male


Never
reported
 


R6


40


Female
 Sleep
problems
 76


7H21


0H52
 1H01


0H16


1


R7


29


Female
 Sleep
problems
 80


6H55


1H40
 1H13


0H14


3


R8


50


Female
 Sleep
problems
 68


6H39


1H46
 0H47


0H36


5


R9


30+
 Female
 Sleep
problems
 


Technical
ZEO
 problem


Academiejaar
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R10
 60+
 Female
 Curiosity
never
 


reported
 Fig 7 Respondents overview    2
Zeo
devices
had
technical
problems,
and
one
respondent
never
did
a
monthly
report,
 although
he
claimed
to
have
serious
sleeping
problems.
 2
of
the
10
respondents
also
went
to
a
sleep
clinic,
in
that
analysis
there
were
no
special
 detections
of
sleep
problems.
 


5. Self sleep monitoring 


 The
sleep
monitoring
is
a
very
good
way
to
analyze
sleep
pattern,
however
using
this
 daily
for
10
month
was
for
some
respondents
a
very
hard
job
to
do,
as
it
asks
a
lot
of
 discipline
and
interest
in
the
subject
that
is
researched.
Several
obstacles
surfaced
when
 using
the
monitoring
device.
Technology
failure
Feenberg,
(2005),
Verkasalo
(2010)
is
an
 immediate
turn
off,
in
a
few
devices
there
was
a
problem
connecting
to
the
device
 through
the
sensor
pad
that
is
in
the
headband,
the
SD
card
that
is
in
the
device
and
the
 data
collector
for
the
data
didn’t
work
in
one
of
the
devices,
so
the
respondent
could
 not
upload
the
data,
and
got
frustrated
because
there
was
only
like
a
week
view
 available
on
the
device
itself.
 One
of
the
respondents
felt
controlled
by
the
machine
and
got
more
stressed
because
 of
that,
resulting
in
a
bad
sleep
experience
(Hawthorne
effect).
The
headband
that
 respondents
had
to
wear
during
the
night
slipped
off
with
people
who
had
less
hair
or
 who
were
bald.
In
general
wearing
the
headband
was
not
perceived
as
uncomfortable
 and
something
you
get
used
to
fairly
easily.
 


6. In‐depth interviews  



 The
in‐depth
interviews
supplied
additional
information
for
interpretation
of
the
sleep
 data
information
more
clearly.
The
sleep
data
shows
differences
in
seasons
and
vacation


Academiejaar
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periods
and
while
talking
to
the
interviewee
the
weekend
data
compared
to
working
 days
was
also
different
with
most
of
them.

 The
six
questions
asked
during
the
interview
gave
a
good
overview
on
the
different
 personalities
and
how
they
manage
their
days
within
a
higher
education
institute.
Most
 of
the
participants
have
a
main
job
like
teaching,
researching
or
managing
projects
or
a
 department
but
it
was
apparent
that
there
is
a
lot
of
meeting
culture,
and
a
lot
of
 preparation
for
the
lectures
and
administration
that
comes
with
the
job.
Most
of
the
 respondents
have
regular
lives,
although
we
see
differences
within
different
generations.
 The
interviews
were
really
an
add‐on
to
the
monitoring
and
the
monthly
log
reports
 asked
to
the
respondents.
The
respondents
were
very
open
about
the
whole
 experiment
even
though
they
were
colleagues.
It
gave
extensive
insight
on
the
subject
 matter,
and
made
it
all
very
human
and
insightful
on
how
people
live
their
lives
in
a
 rather
hectic
‘Always‐on’
world.
I
will
document
on
this
later.
 
 The eminent American investigative social researcher Jack Douglas maintains that ‘when  one’s concern is the experience of people, the way that they think, feel and act, the most  truthful, reliable, complete and simple way of getting that information is to share their  experience’ Jack Douglas, (1976; p112) (Catherine Cassell, Gillian Symon, 2004, pp154‐ 155)    As Taylor and Bogdan explain, ‘Getting into a setting involves a process of managing  your identity; projecting an image of yourself that will maximize your chances of gaining  access…you want to convince gatekeepers that you are a non‐threatening person who  will not harm their organization in any way’ Taylor and Bogdan (1984). These authors  advocate an initial approach which confined to any one particular setting or group of  people, and gives a ‘ truthful, but vague and imprecise’ summary of the research  procedures and objectives to reduce the risk of eliciting defensive or self‐conscious  behavior. (Catherine Cassell,Gillian Symon, 2004, pp154‐155)   

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7. The topic list  
 In
order
to
have
a
smooth
in‐depth
interview,
topic
questions
were
listed
based
on
 previous
literature
studies
to
get
more
in
the
subject
of
the
research.
This
also
helps
to
 have
a
consistent
and
structured
interview
but
with
the
flexibility
to
have
a
natural
 conversation
with
the
respondents.
Mortelmans
(2007)
At
the
same
time
some
 respondents
reacted
differently
on
certain
topics,
which
resulted
in
different
and
 sometimes
more
in‐depth
insights
on
certain
subjects,
which
also
illustrated
the
 different
personalities
during
research.
 
 8. Analysis The Grounded Theory  
 8.1.

Transcript 

The
interviews
were
done
through
Skype
with
video
or
face
to
face
and
taped
with
 Iphone.
The
interviews
were
noted
in
verbatim
style
Mortelmans,
(2007),
all
details,
 dialects,
and
pauses
were
transcribed.
Each
interview
took
30
to
45
minutes.
 
 8.2.

Open coding 

The
open
coding
process
was
identifying
anchors
that
allowed
the
key
points
of
the
data
 to
be
gathered.
Cutting
the
transcript
into
smaller
items
linked
to
keywords
and
 categorized
the
text
to
get
a
better
view
on
the
transcript.
Mortelmans,
(2007)
 
 8.3.

Axial coding 

Grouping
of
the
content,
made
collections
of
codes.
There
are
different
ways
to
visualize
 these
concepts,
for
example
in
a
three
structure,
tables
and
so
forth.
In
this
research
 tables
were
used
in
order
to
gain
more
insight
in
the
respondent’s
comparisons.
 Mortelmans,
(2007)
 
 
 
 Academiejaar
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8.4.

Selective coding 


 In
the
last
phase,
these
concepts
are
the
basis
of
the
theory
that
is
formed
in
the
 research.
The
concepts
are
put
together
or
mapped
to
gain
a
global
view
and
answer
on
 the
topic
of
this
research
question.
 
 9. The pitfalls in qualitative research  
 Quality
of
scientific
research
in
a
(post)
positivist
science
is
defined
as
objective
and
 universal.
This
means
that
the
subjectivity
of
the
researcher
cannot
come
into
play
with
 gathering
the
data
and
analyzing
the
data
and
the
results
need
to
be
universal.

To
come
 to
the
quality
criteria
the
research
needs
to
be
objective
and
generalizability.
Objectivity
 shows
the
absence
of
subjectivity
from
the
researcher,
generalizability
shows
reliability
 or
reproducibility
of
measurement
under
specific
conditions.

 
 9.1.

Validity 


 Validity
is
described
as
the
truth
(Silverman,
2000),
are
the
results
correct,
precise.
The
 research
of
sleeping
with
technology
is
fairly
new,
but
it
is
based
on
previous
research
in
 the
same
field
and
therefore
strengthens
the
correctness
of
the
results.
   9.2.

Trustworthy 


 Trustworthy,
are
the
results
consistent
and
replicable?
If
the
research
would
be
done
 again
would
it
give
the
same
results?
Doing
the
research
again
by
other
people
or
in

 another
timeframe.
In
the
first
we
check
the
stability
of
the
respondents,
in
the
second
 the
stability
of
time.
 However
people
change
and
human
behavior
and
attitudes
might
change
overtime.
 Results
might
differ
after
a
certain
period
of
time.

 
 
 Academiejaar
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9.3.

Generalizability 


 Or
external
validity,
the
results
of
the
research
are
transferable
to
the
population
at
 large.
The
second
condition
is
that
the
research
results
are
transferable
to
a
different
 setting,
place
or
time.


 Probably
this
research
might
have
a
slight
different
outcome
with
different
generations,
 or
different
layers
of
society.

 
 10. Short survey  
 After
doing
the
interviews
research
showed
that
most
of
the
respondents
checked
their
 email
and
had
some
sort
of
online
activity
from
the
moment
when
they
woke
up.
It
was
 usually
during
breakfast,
but
for
those
who
had
the
devices
in
their
bedroom,
it
was
 from
the
moment
they
open
their
eyes.
In
order
to
check
if
this
was
something
that
was
 going
on
with
other
people
I
did
one
question
survey
on
LinkedIn,
Facebook
and
Quora
–
 ‘What
is
the
first
thing
you
do
when
you
wake
up?’.
This
survey
ran
for
one
month,
in
a
 large
network
of
700
connections,
and
broader
on
Quora,
I
only
had
70
answers
 gathered
on
the
three
platforms.
One
could
argue
that
this
group
is
very
connected
and
 ‘Always
–on’
anyway,
but
from
the
70
respondents
only
half
of
them
checks
their
email
 from
the
moment
they
wake
up.
In
this
respect,
we
cannot
perhaps
generalize
this
email
 checking
effect.
One
would
think
that
in
asking
only
one
question
the
response
rate
 would
be
much
higher
but
alas….
 
 11. Visuals of the bedroom  
 During
the
experimental
research
visuals
from
the
bedroom
were
asked
in
order
to
get
a
 view
on
any
sleep
stealers
in
the
bedroom.
However
most
of
the
bedrooms
were
very
 lean
and
simple,
hardly
no
screens
or
other
distractions
were
there.
 Visual
material
can
be
used
in
different
ways
in
qualitative
research
(Pink
2004).
The
 researcher
can
research
existent
material,
in
this
case
the
interior
of
bedroom
on
photos.


Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 33



12. Self reflection on the research  
 My
motivation
in
starting
this
research
was
my
interest
in
sleep
and
how
one
can
 optimize
sleep
and
what
are
sleep
stealers.
I
started
monitoring
myself
in
September
 2010,
and
tested
a
lot
of
different
situations.
But
most
of
all
it
was
a
very
hectic
time
 professionally,
and
I
learned
to
manage
my
time
more
effecient
to
stay
fresh
and
alert.
 The
more
regular
I
lived
and
structured
my
online
behavior
was,
the
more
refreshed
and
 sharp
I
felt
in
the
morning.
I
slept
very
profoundly
and
awoke
up
completely
refreshed.
 Different
little
changes
to
my
life,
made
it
all
that
more
pleasant.
This
triggered
me
to
 see
if
these
results
would
be
the
same
with
other
colleagues
as
well.
If
they
would
 monitor
their
sleep,
if
they
also
would
be
as
enthusiastic
as
I
was.
Experience
it
as
a
 small
life
changer.
Research
showed
however
that
controlling
sleep
or
your
life
for
that
 matter
is
not
so
easy,
and
a
lot
of
different
lifestyle
situations
play
a
role
as
a
whole
in
 the
happiness
of
people,
good
sleep
is
certainly
one
of
them,
but
there
is
a
lot
more,
we
 will
go
deeper
into
this
in
the
findings
of
the
research.
 
 13. Restraints and limitations  
 Initially
the
respondents
were
very
enthusiast
to
start
this
experimental
research.
But
a
 10
month
engagement
showed
that
a
lot
of
discipline
was
needed
and
perseverance
to
 continue
to
report
monthly
and
be
motivated
to
wear
the
headband
for
10
month.
This
 also
shows
that
while
monitoring
yourself
in
this
case
the
sleep
has
to
have
a
goal
or
 there
has
to
be
a
need
to
do
this,
because
curiosity
alone
will
not
cut
it
in
the
long
run.
 And
in
order
to
really
see
patterns
form,
a
long
term
of
self‐tracking
is
needed.
In
the
 beginning
of
the
experiment,
during
the
first
4
months,
monthly
meetings
were
 organized,
but
after
a
while
respondents
didn’t
show
up
or
had
excuses
to
not
have
to
 attend
the
meeting.
There
was
also
a
significant
difference
between
the
attitudes
of
 men
and
women.
The
women
tend
to
be
more
consciously
occupied
with
their
health
 than
men.
They
also
used
the
diary
function
on
the
myzeo
website
to
follow
up
 Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 34



themselves.
Only
five
respondents
tracked
their
sleep
and
reported
monthly
for
10
 month.
Other
respondents
took
over
from
those
who
gave
up.
So
this
research
is
a
 result
of
10
people,
5
of
them
with
a
track
record
of
10
months,
others
with
a
track
 record
of
4
to
6
months.
In
the
beginning
during
the
meetings,
people
were
eager
to
talk
 about
their
ZQ
score,
and
one
could
feel
the
competition
aspect,
this
was
a
trigger
for
 some
to
start
behaving
differently
and
do
tiny
behavior
changes.
But
after
the
new
and
 the
excitement
of
the
device
was
gone,
the
respondents
just
reported
and
exchanged
 experiences
about
the
ZEO.
Another
important
issue
was
that
if
technology
fails
the
 respondents
get
turned
off
immediately.
This
happened
with
two
respondents,
and
 because
of
a
lack
of
being
able
to
archive
the
results
or
that
the
sensors

were
not
 transferring
the
information
was
a
big
disappointment
for
them.
For
men
with
not
 enough
hair
or
bald
the
headband
moved
around
or
fell
off
resulting
in
bad
connection
 to
the
device,
and
a
low
ZQ
score.
 Even
though
this
project
was
setup
with
colleagues,
the
respondents
were
very
open
 and
transparent
in
the
reporting.
During
the
interviews
they
were
very
honest
in
their
 opinions
and
reporting
on
their
professional
and
private
life
and
way
of
living.
 Even
though
not
all
the
people
were
tech
savvy,
none
of
them
had
problems
in
using
the
 ZEO,
although
not
everyone
used
all
the
functionalities
of
the
device,
I
will
talk
about
 this
later
in
detail.
 
 In
general
I
learned
a
lot
on
the
behavior
and
attitudes
of
these
10
respondents,
and
the
 myth
that
educational
institutes
are
an
easy
going
environment
cannot
really
be
stated,
 which
will
be
more
clear
when
reading
the
results
of
this
research.
The
research
also
 showed
me
that
there
is
a
lot
at
play
between
private
and
professional
life
and
that
the
 whole
picture
is
not
simple
to
regulate
or
to
structure
to
have
a
peaceful
and
less
 stressful
life.
The
‘Always‐on’
aspect
is
just
an
extra
layer,
but
important
one
to
make
it
 even
more
complex.
 
 


  Academiejaar
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 35



3. The results and findings reporting   

The interview Questions  During
the
interview
several
questions
were
asked
to
get
a
view
on
the
daily
patterns
of
 the
respondents.
We
can
divide
these
questions
in
6
subjects.
 
 Daily patterns during week and weekend days  1. Weekdays  
 During
research
and
additional
interviews
came
clear
that
the
respondents
have
a
very
 regular
lifestyle.
Most
of
them
have
a
regular
schedule
during
the
week
in
terms
of
time,
 they
get
up
between
7‐8
AM
and
go
to
bed
between
10.00‐12.00PM.
Working
day
starts
 between
8.30‐9.00
AM
and
usually
finishes
at
the
work
place
around
17.30‐19.00PM.
 Most
of
the
respondents
then
have
a
window
of
time
they
spend
on
making
dinner
and
 have
time
with
the
children
or
relaxing.
Usually
after
dinner
they
return
to
their
PC,
 tablets
to
spend
time
online
again.
For
some
this
is
work
related,
for
others
this
is
more
 to
spend
time
on
social
network
systems)
or
to
connect
with
friends
on
Skype.
For
those
 who
still
work
throughout
the
evening
and
checking
mails
just
before
bed,
it
can
mean
a
 sleep
stealer
depending
on
the
content
of
the
mails
and
from
whom
they
receive
them.
 This
can
be
a
positive
mail
and
they
get
excited
or
it
can
be
a
negative
mail
and
they
 worry.
 
 The
day
in
itself
depending
on
the
function
the
respondent
has,
is
controlled
by
 agenda’s
that
can
be
filled
in
by
other
colleagues
or
by
themselves,
there
is
a
strong
 need
on
structuring
the
agenda
and
block
out
days
to
work
more
concentrated.
The
 ‘Always‐on’
during
the
day
and
at
work
makes
that
concentrating
or
focus
on
one
topic
 seems
hard
to
do.
In
addition
it
is
a
time
consuming
business
that
for
most
of
the
 respondents
is
not
so
positively
evaluated,
although
some
of
them
don’t
realize
it
yet.

 The
mail
client
is
always
open,
according
to
one
respondent:
‘Office communicator gives  a lot of stress, smartphone a lot of waste of time ‘.
Some
respondents
were
just
 Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 36



switched
from
dumb
phone
to
smart
phone,
and
already
feel
the
pressure
and
change
 that
is
going
on
in
their
life,
as
previous
research
showed
the
urge
to
go
on
line
to
check
 if
there
is
something
new
or
interesting,
the
curiosity
is
high
and
a
hot
trigger
to
connect
 all
the
time
and
being
in
someway
actively
involved.
 
 2. Weekend patterns  
 Weekend
patterns
look
different
for
most
of
the
respondents,
except
for
a
few.
Most
of
 them
sleep
longer
getting
up
at
8.30
or
later,
and
some
of
them
also
went
to
bed
later.
 One
big
difference
in
the
weekends
was
that
online
activity
was
much
less.
Respondent:
 ‘Weekends are different but no fundamental behavior change’.
 On
Sundays
most
of
them
start
thinking
about
work
or
actually
start
working
already.
 They
claim
to
sleep
less
or
with
interruptions
and
have
more
difficulty
to
fall
asleep.

The
 workday
routine
starts
slowly,
with
more
activity
online,
checking
mails
and
answering
 them,
hence
the
sleep
stealer.
Because
of
the
different
sleep
pattern
during
the
 weekend,
‐
longer
in
the
morning
and
later
in
the
evening
‐
was
upsetting
the
sleep
 routine
that
followed
during
the
week
it
leads
to
a
more
difficult
Monday
start
of
the
 work
week.
Throughout
the
day,
they
felt
tired
and
yawned
during
the
day.
 
 3. The work environment  
 As
mentioned
before
this
research
is
done
at
a
higher
educational
institute,
where
most
 of
the
respondents
combine
different
activities
or
manage
several
projects.
Most
of
the
 respondents
don’t
have
much
control
of
regulating
their
time
during
the
weekdays,
and
 being
‘Always‐on’
even
when
they
are
not
at
work
make
the
lines
between

work
and
 private
completely
blurred
and
intertwined.
Evenings
are
no
longer
filled
with
just
 watching
television,
reading,
doing
other
leisure
activities,
but
are
somehow
always
 subjected
to
work‐related
data
with
the
‘Always‐on’.
Some
respondents
have
planned
 activities
out
of
the
house
‐
running,
fitness,
yoga
‐
which
is
their
only
off
or


Academiejaar
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 37



disconnected
time
during
the
day.
While
watching
television
most
of
them
also
have
a
 laptop
in
their
lap
or
other
devices
near
by.
The
combination
of
different
activities
 within
the
institute
makes
people
juggle
with
their
agendas.
Most
of
them
really
want
to
 structure
their
days
and
especially
their
online
activity
much
more
but
somehow
its
 mismanaged.
One
respondent
says:
‘I’m preparing my lessons, and then I hear that ping  of an incoming mail, and immediately I check my mail. While to my students I tell them  to check mails on fixed hours, but I don’t practice it myself’.
During
the
interviews
many
 people
had
the
same
comment,
they
know
what
to
do
but
are
not
yet
tempted
enough
 or
triggered
enough
to
apply
that
structure
and
discipline
in
their
‘Always‐on’
behavior.

 
 4. The personality  
 Most
of
the
respondents
seem
to
be
high
achievers
and
are
passionate
with
their
work
 and
life.
The
work
activity
demand
time
investment
outside
the
workplace,
and
is
more
 than
a
nine
to
five
job
according
to
the
hours
they
spend
on
work.
Or
is
this
a
result
of
 having
less
time
to
concentrate
and
to
focus
because
of
disruptive
technologies
which
is
 part
of
their
daily
life?
In
this
perspective
this
sleep
monitoring
experiment
showed
that
 people
can
only
show
the
discipline
when
there
is
a
real
need
to
change
behavior.
The
 need
can
be
on
different
levels,
health
wise,
decrease
stress
levels,
one
respondent
 changed
function
in
the
institute
after
using
ZEO
for
six
months,
ZEO
was
not
the
trigger,
 but
at
the
same
time
made
the
respondent
conscious
of
the
stress
level
and
their
way
of
 living.
Respondent:
‘I made some major decision in work and now I feel much more  relaxed and less stress more positive’.   During
research
it
also
became
clear
that
women
in
general
are
more
conscious
about
 their
health
than
men.
They
seem
to
have
much
more
attention
to
it,
and
are
also
more
 triggered
to
do
something
about
their
lifestyle
if
needed.

 
 
 


Academiejaar
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5. ‘Always‐on’  
 Most
of
the
respondents
are
really
‘Always‐on’.
While
monitoring
their
sleep
we
could
 almost
say
that
they
are
‘Always‐on’
24/7,
and
the
title
‘Sleeping
with
technology’
is
 really
a
reflective
on
the
group
of
respondents.
Several
quotes
during
the
interview
 made
this
evident.
 
 Respondent
7:
‘Being ‘Always‐on’ is part of my life, I have my smartphone for 5 years, I  can’t live without it. It’s a habit and routine’.
 Respondent
4:
‘I always have my Ipod with me, I’m checking mails all the time. It just  grew on me’.  Respondent
2:
‘The tablet or smartphone is always within reach, only when I sleep I  leave it alone’.
 Respondent
9:
‘I’m more online now, now that I have my smartphone’.  Respondent
6:
‘I’m the perfect subject for all these social media things.  And there I can see the addictiveaspect, you can hop around, get bored on one subject  and go to another subject, a bit of dream and a nightmare’.  ‘I have an Iphone now but I didn’t take it out of the box from fear, there is no  subscription yet, so there is no trigger, I’m afraid of 3G, I’m already making this rule for  myself to go on a digital diet, the minute I have 3g turn me into detox place, I have to  make rules’.    While
a
lot
of
online
activity
is
around
mails
Versakalis,
(2010),
social
networks
take
a
lot
 of
time
as
well,
as
does
news
consumption,
apart
from
a
few
(mostly
men),
most
of
the
 respondents
are
really
online
consumers
in
news
and
connecting
to
friends.
The
online
 activity
is
for
most
of
the
respondents
connected
to
their
professional
world,
to
stay
up
 to
date
gather
other
insights
in
their
profession,
following
forums
and
so
forth.
‘Always‐ on’
has
a
lot
of
impact
on
their
lives
and
for
some
it
is
an
extra
stress
factor
especially
in
 their
professional
environment.
The
urge
to
answer
mails,
the
pressure
they
feel
from


Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 39



colleagues,
compulsive
behavior,
the
feeling
of
missing
out
when
they
don’t
check
mails
 or
when
they
are
not
connected.
The
overload
of
mails
and
the
pressure
to
answer
 them
and
to
be
online,
to
tweet
and
be
active
online,
and
go
in
that
flow
of
marketing
 their
curriculum,
the
connections
with
the
students,
an
extra
fulfillment
for
work,
to
be
 part
of
that
group,
and
social
acceptance
are
all
different
reasons
for
them
to
be
in
the
 connected
world.

 But
some
of
them
don’t
get
caught
up
in
that
rat
race,
and
are
really
not
interested
in
 the
social
media
hype.
They
think
it
is
a
waste
of
time,
a
form
of
exhibitionism
they
 don’t
really
feel
like
joining.
They
are
more
the
lurkers
of
that
environment,
they
are
 there
but
in
very
passive
way.
For
them
‘Always‐on’
is
purely
functional.
   6. The monitoring device – The Quantified self  
 In
order
to
measure
the
sleep
patterns
the
respondents
used
a
ZEO
device,
and
for
 some
one
of
the
first
experiences
in
quantifying
themselves
using
wireless
technology.
 Some
of
the
respondents
registered
for
this
experiment
out
of
science
interest
and
 others
because
they
thought
to
have
sleep
problems.

 
 While
interviewing
the
respondents,
they
were
all
convinced
of
the
awareness
this
 creates
and
seeing
the
ZQ
Score
(coefficient
of
your
sleep),
and
detail
of
their
sleep
 pattern
made
them
more
peaceful
resulting
in
better
sleep.
So
the
slogan
the
more
you
 know
the
better
you
sleep
is
a
good
one!
At
the
same
time
measuring
the
sleep
and
 monitoring
each
activity
(deep,
rem,
wake
time
and
wake
ups)
was
also
a
stress
factor
 for
some,
the
subject
felt
controlled
(Hawthorne
effect).
In
general
the
monthly
 averages
were
more
or
less
the
same,
but
the
daily
reporting
according
to
the
 respondents
was
a
variety
between
weekends
and
weekdays.
In
the
monthly
result
we
 could
also
see
that
during
holidays
better
results
were
achieved
due
to
experiencing
a
 more
relaxed
life
than
during
work
time
which
included
less
online
activity
and
making
 up
for
sleep
deprivation.
Overall
the
user
perceived
the
device
user
friendly,
this
is


Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 40



important
in
the
usage
of
course.
Although
ZEO
has
a
lot
of
extra
features,
like
a
smart
 wake
(smart
wake
is
function
that
checks
when
is
the
best
time
to
wake
you
up),
this
 was
not
so
much
used,
only
by
50%
of
the
respondents.
The
sleep
coaching
was
also
 underutilized;
this
correlates
with
the
need
of
follow
up
mentioned
in
point
3
 personality.
The
device
did
not
really
change
the
respondents
their
behavior
in
a
 fundamental
way.
Only
little
tiny
new
habits
were
created,
like
going
to
bed
earlier.
 Another
respondent
went
to
bed
an
hour
later
because
the
respondent
did
not
feel
 tired
and
was
awake
for
a
long
time.
Now
she
falls
asleep
within
10
minutes
most
of
the
 time.
Other
respondents
started
doing
sports
and
stopped
drinking
coffee
during
the
 day;
little
changes
they
felt
had
an
impact
on
their
sleep.
 
 Is Zeo a persuasive device?    The
Zeo
device
to
a
certain
extent
is
a
well
designed
persuasive
device.
It
might
be
 stronger
in
the
follow
up
system
in
the
web
application
–
sleep
coach
program.
At
the
 same
time
the
user
really
need
to
have
a
need!
This
is
crucial
in
the
usage
of
the
Zeo,
 ones
people
know
their
results,
the
device
has
not
much
use
anymore
and
the
trigger
 will
be
gone
to
use
it.
In
order
to
have
good
results
it
is
also
is
time
demanding
and
asks
 discipline.
Referring
to
the
diary
function,
follow
up
on
your
day
activities
in
order
to
 compare
the
sleep
results
in
a
correct
way.
For
example,
my
average
deep
sleep
is
 around
45
minutes,
and
in
a
certain
month
I
had
1H30
and
even
more
deep
sleep,
this
 attracted
my
attention
because
I
still
felt
tired
in
the
morning
and
it
was
an
 extraordinary
result
after
monitoring
myself
already
for
10
month
I
never
had
such
a
 result.

After
taking
a
blood
sample
it
seemed
that
my
white
blood
cells
raised
and
were
 pointing
to
an
infection,
hence
the
rise
of
deep
sleep.

 
      

Academiejaar
2011‐2012
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Has ‘Always‐on’ changed their sleep patterns?

 
 It
is
hard
to
tell
whether
this
impacts
the
quality
of
sleep,
but
results
in
their
graphs
 shows
that
are
changes
exist
in
quality
of
sleep
during
vacation
breaks,
especially
during
 the
long
summer
holiday.
In
these
periods
the
respondents
are
off
work
and
as
a
result,
 are
less
online
and
receive
less
if
any
work‐related
emails..
Of
course
longer
monitoring
 is
needed
if
this
is
just
a
happening
or
recurrent
state.
 
 How ‘Always‐on’ has changed sleep habits, how has it changed sleep?  
 For
some
the
preparation
before
going
to
sleep
has
somewhat
changed,
but
not
with
all
 of
them.
We
all
know
that
we
need
to
prepare
before
sleep
in
order
to
have
well‐rested
 sleep.
‘Always‐on’
is
not
the
best
sleep
relaxer
but
more
a
disruptive
element;
people
 need
to
come
in
a
relaxed
drowsy
state
to
fall
a
sleep
easily.
But
most
of
the
 respondents
fall
asleep
within
10
minutes
or
faster,
which
is
very
good
result
Dement,
 (1999).

 
 Gender difference?  
 The
men
in
this
group
have
a
different
attitude
towards
the
‘Always‐on’,
for
most
of
 them
this
is
a
pure
functional
tool
and
not
an
enabler
for
social
expression
or
sharing,
 the
majority
of
them
checked
mail
when
either
at
work
or
after
10.00
o’clock.
They
are
 more
or
less
oblivious
to
the
whole
social
media
phenomenan.
With
the
women
in
the
 group

this
was
very
different
they
were
much
more
engaged
and
using
‘Always‐on’
for
 both
purposes
social
and
professional.
 


 

Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 42



4. Conclusion  
 Mobile
communication
has
spread
on
a
very
fast
pace
and
is
integrated
in
most
peoples
 life
these
days.
The
recent
growth
of
smartphones
shows
that
adoptation
is
going
faster
 then
before.
The
switch
from
dumb
to
smartphone
is
clearly
changing
peoples
ways
of
 communication,
the
mobilephone
has
become
something
essential
like
housekeys.
The
 effect
of
the
smartphone
is
comparable
with
the
effect
at
the
end
of
nineties
in
the
early
 stage
of
mobilephones.
People
had
it
always
with
them
and
were
completely
connected
 to
there
mobile
phone.
Once
the
new
and
excitement
was
gone,
the
mobile
phone
 became
a
commodity
like
the
fixed
phone,
people
learned
to
deal
with
the
mobile
 phone
in
a
healthy
way
and
the
frequency
of
usage
got
balanced
out.
With
the
 introduction
of
the
smartphone
we
see
the
same
occuring.
Although
here
the
usage
is
 more
extensive
and
the
‘Always‐on’
makes
it
much
more
socially
engaging
especially
 with
all
the
mobile
apps
that
are
available
and
with
the
idea
that
people
like
to
share
 their
lives.
But
the
smartphone
is
for
the
research
group
here
an
extension
of
their
work
 environment,
and
an
extra
layer
to
be
reachable
at
anytime.
This
makes
the
smartphone
 at
times
a
disruptive
element
in
their
private
life
instead
of
being
a
joy.
The
servant
is
 becoming
the
master,
smartphones
take
control
over
our
lives.
As
explained
in
the
 introduction,
smartphones
are
to
some
extent
addictive
and
can
induce
compulsive
 behavior.
Being
connected
is
more
a
symptom
then
a
cure.
Turkle,
(2010).
 
 This
research
was
aimed
to
get
a
view
on
how
smartphones
and
the
‘Always‐on’
effect
 influences
on
people’s
lives
and
their
sleep
patterns
or
behavior,
and
in
what
way
it
 changes
or
influences
people,
to
what
extent
and
who
would
not
be
affected.
The
 smartphone
and
tablets
are
the
next
evolution
in
the
mobile
connected
world
and
is
still
 in
an
early
stage.
Not
much
research
has
be
done
on
this
latest
evolution
and
how
it
 impacts
peoples
lives,
not
to
mention
their
work
environment.
Do
people
still
have
the
 feeling
they
have
everything
in
control
or
are
these
devices
taking
over?
In
this
research
 we
focused
on
one
topic
the
influence
on
sleep.



Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 43



The
research
methods
used,
using
a
sleep
monitoring
device,
which
was
necessary
to
 get
to
know
more
about
sleep
patterns.
It
was
a
good
method,
but
not
an
easy
one.
The
 10
month
experiment
seemed
to
be
long
for
some
of
the
respondents,
discipline
and
 need
for
tracking
is
a
prerequisite
in
using
this
method.
Besides
this
tracking
method,
 were
the
in‐depth
interviews
on
people’s
lives
a
real
added
value
as
they
gave
a
lot
of
 insight
into
the
habits
and
routines
of
the
respondents,
their
characters
and
 personalities.
Even
though
the
respondents
were
colleagues
this
didn’t
appear
to
be
an
 obstacle;
as
researcher
I
joined
them
in
the
sleep
tracking
and
started
way
before
them.
 This
was
also
a
way
to
make
them
enthusiasitic
for
this
method,
it
gave
confidence
in
 starting
this
experiment.
Exchanging
experience
on
an
individual
basis
was
an
extra
 information
channel,
living
in
the
same
work
environment
of
the
respondents
gave
it
an
 extra
impulse
and
as
researcher
a
better
way
to
place
things
in
context.
Although
one
 could
doubt
the
objectivity
in
doing
research
this
way,
it
gives
a
more
rich
experience
 and
information
you
otherwise
never
get
as
a
researcher.
In
the
beginning
there
were
 monthly
meetings,
this
was
hard
to
continue,
even
though
the
meetings
were
planned
 way
in
advance,
people
started
to
not
show
up
or
came
up
with
excuses.
This
also
 showed
the
discipline
and
needs,
if
there
would
be
acute
problems
they
most
probably
 would
show
up
more.
After
this
experience,
monthly
reports
were
asked
and
email
 reports
were
asked
mentioning
special
observations

or
findings
from
the
respondents.
 Overall
the
research
was
not
so
easy
to
do
giving
the
technology
failure
in
some
cases,
 the
personalities
to
deal
with
and
the
priorities
of
the
respondents.
 
 The
results
were
not
shocking
but
confirmed
the
hypothesis
that
‘Always‐on’
has
an
 impact
on
people’s
lives
and
environment.
The
in‐depth
interviews
showed
clearly

that
 repsondents
were
‘Always‐on’
and
actively
online
participants.
Men
in
the
group
had
a
 different
approach
to
it,
they
are
also
‘Always‐on’
but
in
a
more
functional
way
and
 related
to
work.
While
the
women
in
the
group
are
more
into
the
social
aspect
and
work
 related,
it
is
much
more
intertwined
with
them.




Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 44



The
impact
on
their
sleep
is
unclear.
The
sleep
data
showed
a
difference
between
the
 vacation
periods
especially
in
the
long
summer
holiday
where
the
respondents
claimed
 to
be
less
online,
sleep
results
were
better,���we
could
detect
more
sleephours,
more
 deep
and
REM
the
restoritive
sleep
was
higher.
To
confirm
this,
an
even
longer
period
 would
show
if
this
would
be
a
pattern
or
just
an
occasional
happening.
In
addition
it
 would
be
even
more
interesting
to
track
respondents
day
and
night,
all
their
activities
to
 see
if
there
are
paculiar
things
that
interfear
more
or
less
towards
sleep
habits
and
 routines.
 
 Further
research
could
be
done
on
a
broader
group
of
people
within
a
company
or
other
 institution,
and
at
the
same
time
experiment
with
a
digital
diet
regime
giving
structure
 in
‘Always‐on’
behavior
as
part
of
the
research.
It
would
also
be
interesting
to
check
in
 with
the
current
researchgroup
how
they
are
doing
a
year
later,
if
they
still
pursue
the
 goals
they
had
in
the
early
stage
of
the
research
and
whether
stopping
the
sleep
 tracking
activity
would
let
them
go
back
to
there
old
habits
or
continue
the
new
ones
 they
created.

 This
group
of
respondents
were
not
specifically
very
young,
it
would
be
interesting
to
do
 research
with
a
younger
audience
and
see
if
there
is
the
difference
between
generations
 and
how
they
behave
with
the
new
evolutions,
they
are
the
digital
natvies
and
basically
 don’t
have
a
history
of
not
being
connected,
they
might
surprise
us
in
their
online
 behavior
and
the
way
they
handle
it.  

 The
‘Always‐on’
phenomenan
has
a
clear
impact
on
attitudes
within
the
research
group,
 the
blurring
line
between
private
and
professional
lives
asks
for
more
balance
in
their
 everyday
life.
Once familiar with the new potential of being always connected, people  also experience the disadvantages of being always accessible and adjust their initial  manner of use. O.Peters et al (2005)
 Those
who
are
affected
by
it
know
they
need
to
structure
more
their
attitude
towards
 ‘Always‐on’
and
make
little
changes
in
their
life
to
be
able
to
have
a
more
peaceful
life,


Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 45



being
able
to
concentrate
more
on
one
topic
and
have
a
focus
during
the
day.
Doing
a
 digital
diet
might
make
them
happier,
work
more
efficient
and
even
sleep
better.
 Creating
a
self‐aware
relationship
with
the
devices,
you
create
sacred
places
where
 disconnect
is
the
rule,
and
learn
to
listen
to
one
other.
Technology
can
lead
us
back
to
 our
real
lives.
 
 
 
 


 

Academiejaar
2011‐2012
 46



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we
expect
more
from
technology
and
less
from
each
 other,
2011,
Basic
Books,
A
Member
of
the
Perseus
Books
Group,
New
York
 Hannu
Verkasalo
et
al,
Analysis
of
users
and
non‐users
of
smartphone
applications,
 Telematics
and
Informatics
:
2010
Vol.
27,
num
3.,
pp
242‐256
 The
Zeo
personal
sleep
coach,
information
for
health
care
professionals,
2009
 Scientific
briefing
on
ZEO
device.
 


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Sleep monitoring devices  Zeo
Inc,
US
 http://www.myzeo.com
 Wireless
technology,
detailed
analysis
on
sleep
cycle?
 
 Lark
Inc,
US
 Smart
wake
 http://www.lark.com
 Vibrant
silent
wake,
works
with
Iphone
and
Bluetooth
technology.
Less
in
depth
analysis,
 based
on
movement,
comes
with
wristband
which
tracks
the
movement.
 
 Sleep
cycle
application
on
Iphone
by
mdLabs
Sweden
 Smart
wake
 Sleep
cycle
is
an
Iphone
app,
and
works
also
on
movement.
 
 General
tracking
devices
with
combined
information
about
sleep,
food,
movement
 Jawbone
–
Up,
US
 http://jawbone.com/up
 Fitbit,
US
 http://www.fitbit.com/
 Media exposure  Arianna
Huftington
TED
Talk
 http://www.ted.com/talks/arianna_huffington_how_to_succeed_get_more_sleep.html
 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/arianna‐huffington/sleep‐challenge‐2010‐ wome_b_409973.html
 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/the‐lark‐team/understanding‐sleep_b_928416.html
 
 Authors
of
Connected


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Nicholas
Christakis:The
Hidden
influence
of
social
networks
–
TED
Talk
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2U‐tOghblfE&feature=player_embedded
 James
Fowler
 http://www.colbertnation.com/the‐colbert‐report‐videos/260955/january‐07‐ 2010/james‐fowler
 Sherry
Turkle,
TED
talk
 http://www.ted.com/talks/sherry_turkle_alone_together.html
 
 


 

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6. Attachments  


1. Call
for
sleep
monitoring
to
employees
 2. Information
on
the
10
respondents
 3. Contract
ZEO
Inc.
for
grant
devices
 4. Visuals
of
the
bedrooms
 5. Monthly
reporting
of
the
respondents
(ZEO
tables)
 6. Interviews
of
respondents
 7. Transcripts
of
interviews
 8. Coding
files
(open
coding,
axial
coding,
selective
coding)
 9. Zeo
Data
users
bundled
in
excel
 10. Results
of
short
survey
on
social
network
systems
(Facebook,
LinkedIn,
Quora)
 11. Papers
for
literature
study
 12. Quicktime
video,
announcing
talk
Design
for
persuasion
on
ZEO
device
 13. ZEO
Purple
path
design
paper
 


 

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7. Figures  
 Fig
1:
Table
of
motivation
use
of
fixed
and
mobile
phones
 Fig
2:
Architecture
model
of
sensor
wearable
device
 Fig
3:
Example
of
sleep
data
screen
generated
by
Zeo
device
 Fig
4:
Own
model
to
Behavior
Design
 Fig
5:
Fogg
behavior
model
 Fig
6:
Research
method

 Fig
7:
Respondents
overview

 
 


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Sleeping with technology