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Architectural Technology Design Technology 2 BE 1340 Module Tutor: Kevin Elliot Student: 14025311 Word Count: 7868

Contents Entrance West. External West Elevation Existing Provision Possible Solutions Solution

Entrance South East Corner (Main) Existing Provision Possible Solutions Solution

Glazing Junction Ground Floor / Curtain Wall Existing Provison Possible Solutions Solution

Internal Transportation Existing Provison Possible Solution Solution

Finishes Existing Provison Possible Solution Solution

This study is a report on Newcastle City Library. The report will consist of visual assumptions of the the current provision. In addition wth a variety of possible and concluded remedies

Newcastle City Library Entrances The library consists of a total of 8 external doors. 3 of which are accessible to the public and are located on two different levels. The main entrance on the ground floor located on the south-east corner. The remaining two are located on the 1st floor west of the building. Relationships with the surrounding areas have been taken into consideration with the positioning of the accessible entrances. External routes (including disabled) have been identified in compliance with the surrounding city and car parks. Along with the internal routes through to other exits, stairs and lifts. This section will be an attempt to identify all of the issues these entrances has with appropriate technical solutions for amendment.

(Figure 1, Author)

Entrances Level 2 West. External Existing Provision Figures 3,4,5 Author, 2018

Figure 2 Author, 2018

Issues: Deign Appearance WInd Issues Security Barriers

The western Door at Princess Square is comprised as a PIR double leaf automated door with an internal lobby. The doors are made from glazing and aluminium

Design Intent Approved Document A


Approved Document B

Fire Protection

Approved Document C


Approved Document E


Approved Document M


Design Appearence The door type used on Newcastle city library west entrance is an automated PIR double leaf sliding door flush with the curtain walling system. Looking at the figure 2-5, we can see the door has a variety of similarities in appearance to the elements of curtain walling, no significant entrance sign to clearly read from afar and no vibrant contrasts on the entrance or upon ground of the forecourt. Building entrances must be easy to locate and be distinguishable from the rest of the building. According to Part M2 2.22 people with visual impairment should be able to clearly identify the whereabouts of glazed doors, especially when they are upon a glazed screen.

Structural elements of the curtain wall are present upon the west entrance, however most of the structural loads are distributed upon the free standing steel frame throughout the floor of the library The door has been used for a fire exit however this has not been thought of successfully as issues occur with the general use of the doors. The door and whole façade is flush with the ground built upon a gradient to rely on rainfall to natural flow away. In situation of Chevy rainfall it is apparent that standing water is an issue that it visually causing damage to external elements on this façade. Please Refer to Cladding/ Glazing Seciton The use of a lobby is used do help with sound penetration from the reasonably busy area. Doors and wheelchair accessible complying with BS8300 Referring to figure’s 1-4, we can see the west entrance doesn’t comply as the glazing is of the same tone as that from the curtain walling. In addition to this, the aluminium elements of the doors are the same as the transom’s and mullions of the curtain walling system. The combination of the two further decreases the finding of the western entrance. Document M obliges that a high contrast strip should be present on the parameters of the door to create a colour contrast to support the visually impaired. This is not present upon the west elevation entrances. To help the differentiation between these elements. Manifestation or framing of glazing should be used and the detailed design should have been accurately followed in BS 8300, Parts K & M.

Entrances West. External West Elevation Existing Provision

Issue: Wind

Conducting a few site visits to the library it has been mentioned mostly about the issues that the western automated doors have with wind. Due to the orientation of the building along with and the positioning of western surrounding buildings, this forms channeled wind upon the western elevation. Ryder Architecture didn’t consider the potential impact wind has on the design and as a result it has created a variety of problems ion the functionality and also the safety. Figure 6 shows the dirrection of the channeld wind along with the downwards wind

Figure 6 Author, 2018

Figure 7 Author, 2018

Figure 8 Author, 2018

At times of potential the western entrance are forced to be locked making it inaccessible. See Figure 9

The result of the wind limiting access goes against the 1974 Fire precautions Act. “All Doors on escape routes leading towards a final exit should be quick and easy to open without the need for a key� (Approved Doc B).

Figure 9 Author, 2018

Wind entering the building also has an effect within the internal space. Once the doors are open wind enters the building having an effect on the temperature and internal air flow. An employee at the city library has stated that the wind has broken the motor on the doors a variety of times, and the current door is the 4th since opening in 2012.

Figure 10 Author, 2018

This entrance has a wind curtain, this has been incorrectly implies that they form a barrier to the incoming air. They work by blowing warmed air down across the entrance, to warm the colder air coming into the building. The colder and harder the wind is blowing in, the hotter and harder the door heater needs to be, to be effective. On its own, this can lead to the door heater causing more discomfort to the people walking under it, and high energy wastage.

Figure 11, Author, 2018

Figure 12 Author, 2018

Entrances West. External West Elevation Existing Provision Security Barriers Looking at Figure 13 the security barrier has been placed apart shorter than the width of the automatic double doors. This limits the access to people when congested and also restricts double pram users from entering or exited via the west doors.

Figure 13 Author, 2018

In-effective Lobby Matting Security Barriers Mirroring the lobby matting issues of the main entrance. The use of the additional carpet causes the same amount of hazards as it would without using it.

Figure 14 Author, 2018



Approved Docs/Standards

Possible Solutions

Design Appearance

Hard to locate

Part K2

Not clearly distinguishable from rest of building:

BS 8300

Position of entrance can be improved with features such as a canopy or door recess?

Materials and shading used for enPart M2 Part trance same as cur- 2.22 tain walling system.

Differentiate with surface texture and/or pavement/ forecourt?

Absence of high contrast strip Wind

In accessible Doors Damage and expense on replacing door

1974 Fire Pre- Re-locate door from prevailcautions Act ing winds? Used Recessed entrance? Change door type: Revolving Door? Adopt side panels to entrance for side wind tunnel? Add canopy for downward wind?

Security Barriers Width shorter than door, Restricting Access to users with double prams or of similar width



Entrances West. External West Elevation Possible Solutions Expanding on the problems outlined and the possible solutions stated in the table. This section will display a variety of solutions that will address the current 3 main issues within the west entrance of the Newcastle city library. (Drainage to be addressed in Section 2)

Tackling the wind issue, we have identified the regional and macro regional geography with the previous case study by taking into account the prevailing winds, surrounding buildings layout, the western faรงade surface area (as wind is deflected downwards). The chosen solution must address the issue and be most feasible for the library.

Given the surrounding elements of the disabled accessible walkway, it would be best to keep the on the west to maximise access for all users. Not only this relocating an entrance on another faรงade would make it very hard to distinguish where the other entrances were from another surrounding elements. Changing the way of escape on different facades will also make the travel distance too great for non-domestic buildings in accordance with Approved Document Part B2

Re locate Entrance?

Figure 15 Author, 2018

Protect Entrance? There are a variety of methods that can be used to protect entrances from wind issues. Adding a canopy and/or side panels to the western entrance upon the curtain walling will decrease the amount of wind form entering the building face on and around, whilst protecting the amount of wind from naturally reflecting downwards from the tall western faรงade. See figures 16-1

Figure 16 SheffieldEntrances, 2018

It can be noted that using this protection method can add to distinguishing the entrance for the visually impaired. This method could decrease the amount of wind entering the building potentially prevent the need to change door types.

Figure 17 SheffieldEntrances, 2018

Figure 19, Author. 2018

Figure 18, Author. 2018

Entrances West. External West Elevation Possible Solutions Changing door type? Revolving doors are an effective style of door for preventing draughts. It moves pockets of air in and out of the building without allowing the air to blow through. At no time is there a direct route for the air, except through the brush seals. (Southampton Entrance Design Guide, 2009)

Here is an example of a retrofit extension of an external lobby, protected with an aluminium cantilevered canopy with supporting columns and steel framework. Here we can see the forward faรงade has an automatic revolving door and alternative electric hinged door adjacent. (Glasstecsystems, 2017)

This would clearly distinguish the entrance from the curtain wall system addressing the design issue. However, this would be reasonably pricey for the insertion of this and demolishing the internal automated door as there would be no need for 2 separate lobbies. The door is also only suitable for unencumbered able bodied people, and a by-pass door is always required which can be effect by the wind. The volume of people is also restricted, so the peak load has to be assessed as to the appropriateness of the door. Attaching such a design to the existing faรงade can be difficult as well. enterprise-glass-canopy/

Figure 20, Glasstexsystems 2015

โ€ข Published-Articles/Automatic-Doors-Sensors/The-Ins-Outs-of-Automatic-Door-Operation.aspx

Introducing revolving doors may help tackle with the wind issues. Replacing the outer leaf, western entrance with a typical power resisted revolving door could be potentially ideal for the wind issues, however, access for the disabled has to apparent with automated sliding or hinged doors adjacent.

According to Approved Doc M Part 2.20 and (Entrances) “Revolving doors should be avoided wherever possible as they are inaccessible to many people and hazardous to others. Even the largest, slowest moving, power- operated revolving door is unlikely to serve as a universal means of access and, in new buildings, the alternative of automatic sliding doors or powered hinged doors should be chosen. “

Change Door Arrangment? Existing


Figure 20-21, Author. 2018

/ Currently the west entrance door is apprised of paralleled double leafed automated doors with a lobby between. Changing the arraignment of this could benefit and help reduce the amount of wind entering the building, help reduce cost and be a more feasible approach.

Similar to the arrangement of the main entrance of the of the new extension to Northumbria library, having a lobby with the inner leaf door being adjacent to the exterior door will further reduce the amount of direct channelled wind from entering the building.

Change Door System Given that the current door system is top, and the wind has already caused damage to the framing a consideration to rectify this would be to change the door system and the damaged elements. This way a more durable systems and mechanisms can be considered in order to help work in the windy environment.

Entrances West. External West Elevation Possible Solutions Wind Break (Shelterbelt) A windbreak (shelterbelt) is normally made from plantation that is usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs, planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind. (Wikipedia, 2013). It is also possible for a wind break to be mad from man made materials such as thick glazed panels (see figures 22&23) In the case of the library, this may have a beneficial factor in decreasing the amount of westerly wind hitting the western entrance. The walkway that connects princess square to northumberland street is large enough to add a wind break without causing disturbances to flow of the pedestrian walkway. There is evidence of greenery towards the main entrance on John Dobsn Street that can. Incorperating a series of trees towards forecourt go the west entrance would not only match the opposing side, decrease the amount of chanelled wind, but it will make the area stand out from afar, which is one concern mentioned later in this report. Figure 24 diagram of where the trees would be added in order to reduce the amount of wind.

Figure 22, Glasstechsystems. 2018

Figure 23, Glasstechsystems 2018

Figure 24, Author. 2018

Figure 25 Author. 2018

Entrances West. External West Elevation Solution Given from the possible design solutions, it is apparent that the most feasible approach to recifiy the current issues are as follows

Protect the current entrance with canopy and side panels. The channel of wind that is currently forced against the west entrance will be considerably decreased. The adoption of sheltering the entrance with the canopy and side panels will deflect wind that travels downwards and from the sides. This design would tackle the issue of distinguishing the entrance from the curtain walling making it apparent to the visually impaired complying with part M2. The protected entrance will be made from solid aluminium to be sturdy and durable against the environment whilst blending with aluminium frame of curtain walling and cladding. The fixing of the shelter won’t be able to connect to the curtain wall as the mullions are not of the sufficient size to fix to. It would be best to be attached to the floor through bolting and/or or casted in concrete. Having looked for a manufacturer for the new protected entrance I could not find anything over the internet that i could refer to.

Having looked for a manufacturer for the new protected entrance I couldn’t not find any over the internet however The protected entrance will be made from solid aluminium to be sturdy and durable against the environment whilst blending with aluminium frame of curtain walling and cladding. The fixing of the shelter won’t be able to connect to the curtain wall as the mullions are not of the sufficient size to fix to. It would be best to be attached to the floor through bolting and/or casted in concrete. Having looked for a manufacturer for the new protected entrance I couldn’t not find anything over he internet that I could refer to

Changing the door arrangement


Even though the revolving door was a consideration. I felt as though this would of still created issues. The the arrangement of the internal lobby and the adjacent automated door will significantly help tackle wind that finds its way into the lobby. Further this the wind breaks of plantation = of trees will further contribute in lessening the amount of channelled wind.

If lobby side is too small, then lobby itself will either be demolished and re built in accordance with the door arrangement.

Figure 26, Author. 2018

If there is enough room in the lobby then disassembling the fixing of the internal lobby door and the adjacent set of glazing. Closing of the exiting door location with glazing and re assembling the door in the proposed location. The protected entrance will be made from solid aluminium to be sturdy and durable against the environment whilst blending with aluminium frame of curtain walling and cladding. The fixing of the shelter won’t be able to connect to the curtain wall as the mullions are not of the sufficient size to fix to. It would be best to be attached to the floor through bolting and/or or casted in concrete.

Figure 27, Author. 2018

Entrances South East Corner (Main) Existing Provision

Figure 28, Author. 2018

Figure 31, Author.

Figure 30, Author. 2018

Figure 29, Author. 2018

Issues: Draingage Tone of Glazing Air Curtain In Effective us of Lobby Carpet The main entrance the library is located on the south east corner upon New Bridge Street and Princess Square, directly below the “box” overhang. The entrance itself is comprised of a double leaf automated doors that provides direct access to the main lobby/ atrium

The entrance uses a blue translucent curtain walling panels that vary in size (1000mm/3400mm wide and 2100mm in height). The dimensions of the lobby measure 3300mm deep x 4200mm wide. Between the two leafs of doors exists of an air curtain. This is used in multiple ways mostly to tackle any wind, unwanted cold air and to prevent any unwanted bugs, dust or unwanted fumes entering the building.

Approved Document A2


Structural elements are present upon the main entrance, however most of the structural loads are distributed upon the steel frame throughout amongst the floor of the library -

Approved Document B2

Fire Protection

Approved Document C2


Effort has been made in trying to keep moisture from entering the lobby, however there are a few design issues that need addressing in terms of drainage systems, and the choice ground materials inside and out

Approved Document E2


Approved Document M2


The use of a lobby has been used for a variety of uses one being to dampen the sound of the heavily built up passing traffic. This hasn’t been optimised to the best of its ability. Entrance has been measure to comply with BS8300 to fit wheelchair access. Manifestation apparent upon entrance glazing. The main entrance also requires a system to allow cherry pickers to enter the building for maintenance

Entrances South East Corner (Main) Existing Provision Draingage The main issue with the Main Entrance is water penetrating the building through poor drainage systems. The Main entrance sits at a slightly lower level than John Dobson St. This gradient forces rainwater to flow directly towards the failed guttering art the doors threshold. The failed drainage system is due to an excessive amount of rainwater and other elements forcing to block the drain. The “BOX� overhang has a substantial amount of surface area for rain to fall on and inevitably falling of directly below on to the gradient towards the main doors. This causes a number of issues for the city library and the public using it.

Figure 32, Author. 2018

Figure 33, Author. 2018

Figure 34, Author. 2018

This forces the staff to lay an alternative carpet to be let down, this carpet similar to the west entrance does not sit flush with the ground, becomes damp and therefor causes a huge trip hazard. The current lobby carpet is permanently attached to the floor. This goes against the requirements in Approved Documents M Part 2.29.E with “floor surface materials within the lobby do not impede the movement of wheelchairs, e.g. not coir matting, and changes in floor materials do not create a potential trip hazard; This makes maintenance impossible to rectify any issues without having to replace the carpet system. This will be further analyzed a rectified in the finishes section.

Figure 35, Author. 2018

In Effective Lobby Matting A Member of staff has indicated the matting isn’t long enough, still water ingress from people shoes. This causes to marble tiles of the ground floor near the lobby to be slippy an in need of extra matting to further help with water ingress this will be further identified in the finishes section

Figure 36, Author. 2018

One of the main problems with using glass on buildings is the chance of it cracking or smashing from a variety of possibilities. During the visit over a variety of weeks it has been clear that the replacement of a glazed panel near the main entrance has been smashed and boarded up with chip board. One of the members of staff has indicated that this happens quite regularly and takes a very long process to rectify and replace.

Entrances South East Corner (Main) Existing Provision Figure 37, Author. 2018

Figure 38, Author. 2018

Visability The Blue box entrance has been designed to be a fundamental part of the coloured design scheme of the city library. The dark blue tone has also been used to identify from the colour of the curtain wall the entrance sits on. It can be argued that it does create a better effect in differentiation compared to the west entrance. However the use of such a dark tone for a two leafed entrance, this causes visibility issues.Figures (37 & 38) we can see that this dramatically reduces the brightness of light to penetrate through the glazing, making it difficult to see inside and outside the building. When the sun is present on the glass the adds to the issues as it causes hazardous reflections and goes against Approved Documents Part M2.29D. Users may not be able to be able to prepare to manoeuvre away safley from anything that be coming in their way.

Figure 39, Author. 2018 Inefficient Air Curtain Inside the lobby of the main entrance there of a single air curtain that is floor mounted. This purpose of an air curtain in this circumstance is to prevent contaminated and cold air from entering passing the lobby and entering the building. This contributed towards pest and insect control, and is intended to act as a barrier against dust, pollution fumes and unwanted odours. From an entry standpoint the air curtain Is designed to reduce C02 emissions. The Library has decided to discontinue the use of the air curtain. This will be down to the in-efficiencies the air curtain has in operation. To the point in where it would be costed the library more than it got out of it. Refering to figure produced by (airtechnics,2012) Shows how a successful and unsuccessful air curtain should operate. The thermal diagram shows an efficient air curtain system by keeping the majority of the warms air within the building.

Figure 40, 2014

Entrances South East Corner (Main) Possible Solutions

Change Colour of Glazing As mentioned previously, The current tone of the glazing is too dark and gives off too many reflections. In order to resolve this would be to change the tones of the glazing to a lighter and more appropriate glazing that meets the requirement of Approved Document Part M2.29D. Change Air Curtain For efficiency reasons it would be best to replace the current air curtain system with a system that works efficiently. If the current floor mounted air curtain was left it would continue to work inefficiently and take up unnecessary floor space. Change Lobby Matting In order to address the issue with having to provide additional matting to the lobby it would be best to change the material of the matting. There also may be a consideration of changing the finish of the internal floor space around the main entrance area. There are too many hazards that need to be addressed as there is a serious risk of an accident with or without the additional matting. Change material of Entrance Currently there is a chip board panel that is used to replace one of the glazed panels due to vandalism. It could be a possibility to incorporate some protection to the glazing or to replace the glazing with a polymer that cannot crack or shatter. However this needs to keep within current standards and regulations of Both M2 and L2of the Approved Documents and may not be a feasible solution

Add Guttering to Bottom of “BOX� Although it is the job of the mullions to drain the collection of rainwater it may be best to add a guttering system to the bottom of the overhang. Even though it might be unsightly and not a common approach, I feel as though this would be a very effective way of catching the water before it falls onto the gradient into the main entrance. Even though the replaced ACO drainage system would be sufficient enough to catch the water. I fell as though over time, and the absence of maintenance of the existing drain was poor. The new ACO drain may clog up inevitably to the mass amount of water coming from the curtain wall. Change Drainage System Although this will be mentioned in the curtain wall junction section. The idea of changing the current channel drain to that exists at the main entrance needs to be replaced. A new system needs to be put into place in order to address the mass amount of rainwater that flows into the main entrance.

Entrances South East Corner (Main) Solutions Taking into account the variety of issues with the main entrance I have decided to Incorporate 3 different solutions to help tackle the issues

Change Guttering Introducing a more effective drainage solution to replace the existing. I have decided to replace with a multi-drain system from ACO Drains. This drainage will replace all of the current drains that are not just located at the main entrance but that are wrapped around the full building. This drain will connect to the current pipes that run to the sewers around the city of Newcastle. Please See appendix for PDF and Brochure of ACO Multi Drain. (Please see next page for detail drawing) (Please refer to Figure 41 for ACO Multi-drain 200D spec)

Add appropriate Air Curtain As mentioned it would be best to change the failed air curtain system with a system that efficiently works. It is hard to say the exact air curtain system that can be chosen but it needs to be of the same ground mounted stature and needs to successfully blow enough air in order for it to work efficiently.

Multi-drain 220D

Figure 40, Revit, Author. 2018

Glazing Junction Ground Floor / Curtain Wall Existing Provison This section will be an attempt to visually identify all of the issues with the curtain wall/ground floor junction with appropriate technical solutions for amendments. The drainage issue has been highlighted in the previous section in regards to the drainage issue west of the building.

Figure 42, Author. 2018

The library curtain walls consist of prefabricated unitised systems, these where chosen in order to have higher quality, considerable less time assembly time and to reserve storage space on site. These are located on the south east and west of the library. (See Figure 42) The south & east starts are upon the ground floor and the west starts on the first floor of the library. As specified in the case study the most apparent curtain walling system is manufactured with Shucco technology and Down Corning. This style of curtain walling is a thermally insulated mullion/transom system, Silicon insulating glass and structural binding by dow corning.

Figure 43, Author. 2018

Figure 44, Author. 2018

Glazing Junction Ground Floor / Curtain Wall Existing Provison Existing South East Curtain Wall/Ground Floor Junction

Investigating the junction between the ground and the cladding I have decided to propose a detail from a visual assumption. Here we can the the curtain wall is flush to both the internal and external ground.

Figure 45, Revit, Author. 2018

According to a member of staff, the there is a real problem with water penetrating into the building.

According to CWCT, 2012 there are six basic ways that water can penetrate a curtain wall. -

Gravity Wind Pressure Air Borne Kinetic Energy Surface Tension Capillary Action

Incorrect installation can allow water to enter by any of these mechanisms even if the wall is designed to prevent water penetration. The outer layer may be impermeable such as an aluminium or glass panel or it may be porous such as brick or terracotta. Failure to lap components such as flashings, wrongly fitted gaskets and poor sealant joints will all create openings that allow water to flow into the wall under gravity. If drainage paths are blocked water will pond and overflow (often into the wall) under the effect of gravity. To find if water penetrated through the curtain wall, a 1pipe test can be used. This test can be described in the CWCT ‘Standard and guide to good practice for curtain walls’.

With the exception of front sealed construction, all framing members and cavities behind rain-screen panels should be designed to be drained. This means that water passing the outer seal has to drain out through drainage openings to the outer face. This is not effective upon the box of the curtain wall as previously mentioned Failure to seal openings that should be sealed and the incorrect fitting of gaskets leaves openings through which the wind can force water. Drainage may occur at open joints between panels or through drainage paths in the framing members. Failure to install air seals correctly allows air to pass through the wall and this may carry water into the wall.

Glazing Junction Ground Floor / Curtain Wall Existing Provision According to a member of staff the main issue with water penetration within the library is due to the ineffective DPC It has been mentioned that the first 6 years since opening of the library there has been many alterations to elements damaged or things that needed to be changed due to the placement of the DPC. As most of the cladding junctions are flush to the external and internal floors there is no way for the DPC to run effectively. See figure (46). This creates damage not only to internal areas, but even to external elements like the external fire door. (Figure 47)shows the corrosion of water that has seeded its way into a f ire escape door.

Figure 46 Approved Documents Author. 2015 It is apparent that the majority of the ground floor has not been designed well enough for rainwater to fall away from the building. This fire escape for example, the threshold run to the guttering system just outside of the door has been designed to stop water entering. Yet this has not worked effectively. A member of staff has mentioned when in really bad weather a mass amount of water can enter a door such as this one and even travel further into different rooms further causing further damage.

Figure 47, Author. 2018

Glazing Junction External Level 1 / Curtain Wall Existing Provision The construction of the west elevation included the use of both curtain walling and aluminium rainscreen cladding

Figure 48, Author. 2018

Figure 49 Author. 2018

Glazing Junction External Level 1 / Curtain Wall Existing Provision The curtain Walling system that is based upon the Newcastle City Library NBS Spec is SHUCO International KG (FW60+) Type: Stick System Ventilated, mullion drained and pressure equalized. Face Width: 60mm Material: Aluminium Finish: Powder Coated External Cover Cap Material: Aluminium Finish: Powder Coated & Curtain Wall Glazing 30mm Double Glazed Skin Outer: 6mm SGG Security Planilux HST and Toughened Cavity: 16mm Air Filled Inner: 8mm SGG Security HST and Toughened Panel/Facing Type: Composite Infil Panels Low E Coating supplied to glazing

This Low E Coating allows the passage of heat and light top enter and exit the building quite easily. This creates the Issue of solar gain. This contributed to excessive temperatures on hot days that can be uncomfortable for users.

Glazing Junction Ground Floor / Curtain Wall Possible Solutions

Permeable Paving One way of reducing the amount of water entering the un protected junctions would be to introduce permeable paving. This would allow water to pass downwards through the material. Previously mentioned in the entrance section. The best way to tackle this issue to rectify the problem with the existing drainage systems. Highlighted on Figure I have demonstrated the use of creating a more effective drainage system. (Please refer back to Figure 45) Add External Guttering on Curtain Wall The other problem with the amount of water entering the south east side of the building is the excessive amount of rain fall that it falling from the “BOX�. It is the job of the mullions to drain this water but I t looks as though some additional drainage systems may be a feasible solution.

Glazing Junction External Level 1 / Curtain Wall Possible Solutions

As mentioned previously due to the low E coating on the curtain wall west of the building. Solar Gain Option 1 Leave Existing The situation is a common problem around most of un protected glazed areas of the library. There is evidence of the powder coated brise-soleil that provide protection of solar gain. However due to the glazing only going up to a low level 2) on the west side. The choice of a this protection wouldn’t not be an appropriate technology choice. Option 2 Internal Shading Another form of shelter could be the use of internal shading. Either the use of curtain or blinds could be installed to the effected internal areas. This may be a cheaper and quicker solution to the problem however it doesn’t mean it would be the most effective. Option 3 External Shading The addition of external blinds through the use of tensioned fabrics, or the use of a solid metallic or glazed canopy to the top of the curtain wall glazing. These options would help reduce the amount of direct sunlight from entering the building but need to be carefully specified in order to tackle windy environment.

Glazing Junction Ground Floor / Curtain Wall Solutions

Evaluating the different options I have it seems as though the most feasible would be to install external shading on the top of the curtain walling west of the library. Internal shading would block visibility to the inside of the library which was one of the main requirements in the designing of the library. I have decide to chose Levolux Tensioned Fabric Blinds. These offer visually pleasing and automatic features for staff to control the amount of sunlight entering the building. Whilst being aerodynamic to support the wind issues. (See figures 50-52)

Figure 50, Levoliux. 2016 Figure 51, Levoliux. 2016

Figure 52, Levoliux. 2016

Figure 53, Levoliux. 2016

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Figure 54, Priora. 2017

Internal Transport Existing Provision

This Section will be a review on the internal uses of internal transport through the elevators that are used in the Newcastle City Library. Within the lobby of the library consists of two elevators that go from the ground floor to the top floor. The design choice of the elevators was to achieve a system that could provide internal vertical transport and be “room-less�. KONE manufacturers revolutionised the industry for this function, and from 1996 this was popular in commercial, residential and medical buildings, and this one the specification choice made for the use of the city library in 2008.

Approved Document M Aesthetically using this glazed room-less certain set of elevators within the mass spanned, steel framed library adds to the openness of the internal area. The choice of the transparent materials allows users to see the mechanisms that operate the building and its obstructing in finding the location of the car at any time.

Figure 55 Author. 2018

Current Standards Given that the age of the KONE lifts within the library are from 2008 there would of been designed and manufactured by the out-dated 1998 standards EN81-1 and EN81-2. Introduced in August 2014 two new European standards was set for lift design and manufacture EN 8120:2014 and EN 81-50:2014. These provide additional benefits in terms of accessibility and safety measures for both passengers and service engineers. Below provides an outline of the safety changes that have been introduced for both passenger and service engineers According to Kone, 2014

Safety Requirements for passengers

Figure 55 - 71 KONE. 2017 Requirements related to Unintended Car Movement (UCM) and ascending car

Door Detection Systems

Lift car door mechanism

These materials must meet stricter re classification requirements according to EN 13501-1. The minimum classifications are as follows, where C and C refer to the ‘reaction to re’ classification, and Fire classification of car s and d refer to the classification of materials with regard to smoke lift materials and the formation of among droplets/particles, respectively. Flooring: C s2 • Walls: C s2, d1 Ceiling: C s2, d0 Car and shaft lighting

Car and landing door and wall strength

Internal Transport Existing Provision Safety Requirements for service engineers

Pit and machine-room access, and control-station location

Access, inspection, and rescue doors, and counterweight safety gear

Car roof and pit refuge spaces

Car roof balustrades

Horizontal projection into the shaft

Current Condition As mentioned before the current set of KONE elevators was manufactured in 2008. Based on this there are a number of elements that are visible that don’t correspond to the new European standards mentioned in the previous tables. However, in addition to lift being out dated there are still a few issues that occur. The volume within the cart states that it allows a maximum capacity of 13 people and a weight of 1000kg. Having used the elevator, it seems as though it would be a squeeze to fir in more than 5-6 people. There is just enough room to fit a wheelchair user in. However the spec within doesn’t allow for manoeuvrability of wheel chairs 180 degrees. Still meeting current standards and approved regulations, this forces disabled users to face the same way and entering and existing. The issue here is there is an absence or a mirror that Disabled users should be dependent on for visual aid in guiding them when in need to reverse to exit.

Mounting The mounting of a lift is genuinely done in two different ways, this being structure supported or wall mounted. Looking at the structural elements of the lift it is clear to see that the lift is wall mounted supported with steel framework to make the lift shaft. However, it looks as though there a variety of both the wall mounted and supported as there seems to be rails that run on both sides of the carting that suggest that is wall mounted.


Figure 72 Author. 2018

There had been reports of the use of the clear glazing for the elevator breaching people modesty. Proving a clear site for looking under women’s skirts under, however there has been a addition of manifestation coverings for both visibility reasons and to tackle modesty issues, which is now located against the glass to block the view.

Figure 73 Author. 2018


Within the interior of the lift there is a mixture of glass and aluminium panels. LED lights are located upon the shallow suspended ceiling. Looking at figure the use of glazing and the tones of the carpet beneath really show the messiness of the litter than has fallen down the connection of the cart. This is out of bounds and in accessible for the normal maintenance team and can only be done with services engineers.

Figure 74 Author. 2018

Internal Transport Existing Provision

Door Type The doors used for the lift are panel centre opening doors. After an independent site interview with a staff member who had worked there for a long duration. He had pointed out that the lift mechanisms allow for the doors to open when an object is obstructing it to close. The system allows for three attempts to close and on the last one will be permanently shut. There had been mentioning of a boy who got his fingers trapped on the last attempt. Had this mechanism been updates to the new European shards it would have been avoided. Operation Control The controls are fairly standard, consisting of push buttons for navigation from each floor of the library. However there doesn’t seem to be any Braille for blind people. Audio aid is included for the visual impaired and provides an audio when user arrive and a signal for when the doors are closing.

Internal Transport Possible Solutions

Below is a list of a variety of options that can be taken forward in regard to tackling the issues that have been highlighted in this report. More than one option can potentially be taken and a decision will be made after an analysis Option 1 Keep Existing Lifts Keeping the existing lifts as they are. Even though the age of the lifts have been designed to the previous standards as mentioned in this report. It looks as though the library hasn’t considered the need to change the left as of yet. So, in terms of feasibility, this option may be a contributing one. Options 2 Replace with modern Larger Lift The existing problems with the current lift illustrated that size is one of the main issues. In increasing the volume of the existing lift this can mean more people can enter the lift at a specific time without the need to squeeze. This would allow the possibility for wheelchair users the space to manoeuvre around instead of having to enter and exit in the same direction. Option 3 Add an additional lift cart The addition of another lift would allow for another cart for users. However, would this really be necessary? This disadvantages of this would be taking up more floor space on each of the floors, cost more to install and also cost more to run. Adding a another lift would have to be one that is similar is size. As there would be no point in adding a lift of a greater cart volume whilst having the existing two as the amount of floor space wasted would make the option un feasible. Option 4 Manifest Glazing in Viewing of Pit Covering the glazing, blocking the view of the litter at the bottom of the lift shaft will be a cheap and effective way of resolving the issue wihout having to spend a lot of money in changing any materials.

Possible Solutions

Following fro this analysis I suggest the best options to keep would be either option 1 & 4, or 2 & 4

Preferably it would be beneficial to upgrade the current lift system to one that has re developed to the current standards. This way most of the issues in terms of safety and accessibility will improve Please Refer to Appendix for the chosen replacement of lift given the measurements of the current shaft. Below is a designed KONE lift that can fit into the current shaft

Figure 75 Author. 2018

Finishes (Circulation Areas) Existing Provisions Floors

The floors within Newcastle City library are of varying construction. The majority of the floor finishes are mounted upon a raised access floor system. Raised access flooring can usually be a variety of depths depending on the functionality. The two different types of raised access flooring is classed as semi or fully accessible From a visual inspection of the library it looks as though the access floor is measured between 200-300mm. Below is a labelled diagram of a similar style of raid access (wikiland,2013)

Figure 76 wikiland. 2013

Ref The finishes used for the top of these access floors vary throughout the city library. In total, there 5 different types of flooring used: Carpet Tiles Vinyl Sheeting Marble Tiles Ceramic Tiles Timber Flooring.

Aesthetics From a visual inspection, the majority of the flooring looks well and fits in well with the overall theme of finishes through the interior of the building. It is generally well maintenance and the finishes of the floors are generally in good condition. There are a few wear and tear signs and signs of cracking in some areas due to building movements. But overall for a building that is constantly used by a large amount of people the majority of the floor finishes look reasonably good. Acoustics The noise ambience of the rooms is generally good. This is due to the footfalls on each of the floors. Maintenance As mentioned there is small suggestions of the floor breaking and cracking due to the wear and tear and building movement. Safety Given from a variety of surveys of the city library it seems as though the main issue of the flooring exists at both of the main and west entrances. Looking at figure. There is uses of additional carpeting that needs to be laid next to the entrance lobbies for extra protection of water that enters the building. This is used due to the function of the internal matting of the lobbies fall. There is a need for a lay of carpet and a wet floor sign in cases of rain. Figure shows when lying down the carpets, due to the folding and constant cycle of being wet and dry, this has causes the roll of carpet to dis-shape. This in itself creates a tripping hazard. This was shown first hand when the member of staff demonstrated the use of the roll on the western lobby. A child nearly tripped over during the demonstration. Adding to this the wind problem that has been outlined previously is strong enough to blowing against the carpet and causing it to fold. This created more work and attention to the staff members and this really shows that there are problems that need addressing in regards to tackling these issues. Ceiling The ceiling used throughout the library consists of a unitised suspended ceiling system. This system hangs from the above flooring. Below is a diagram from

Finishes (Circulation Areas) Possible Solutions Floors

Following on from the issues outlined, I have decided to look into a variety of different options that can be analysed to decided on a feasible solution Floors Option 1 Leave existing Finishes as is: It seems as though the majority of the floor issues comes mainly at the marble tiled areas that are situated at both of the entrance lobbies. This would be the areas that would probably been altered, leaving the majority of the floor finishes as is. Option 2 Specify different floor tiles As the marble tiles are the only location where there are issues it could be possible to replace these with an alternative material. Keeping the same texture of the marble it can be feasible to approach this issue by replacing the tiles with non slip tiles. This can help keeping the aesthetics to suit the interior whilst fixing the hazardous issues. By the process of replacing the marble tiled floors this introduced the possibility of resetting and fixing the issues with the raised access flooring issues.

Proposed Solution Floors

From the analysis of these options it seems as though the most feasible would be to fix two problems in one, by-replacing the current marble tiling with luxury non slip tiling, whilst address the raised access flooring issues.

Figure 77 ployflor 2017 Product Details Full conformance with the requirements of European Safety Flooring Norm EN 13845 Flexible particle enhanced pvc sheet in 2.0mm thickness Use area classification 23/34/43 as defined in EN 685/EN ISO 10874 Fully tested to EN 13501-1 in respect of flamespread Fully HSE compliant - achieving 36+ on the RRL Pendulum wet test Surface roughness Rz 20Âľm + for use in areas with risk of spillage Achieves 50,000 cycles abrasion test to EN 13845 BRE Global Environmental Generic A+ rating in major use areas such as healthcare & education* Tested to international standards for low VOC emissions

Finishes (Circulation Areas) Existing Provisions Ceiling

Ceiling The ceiling used throughout the library consists of a unitised suspended ceiling system. This system hangs from the above flooring. Below is a diagram from of a Typical suspended ceiling.

Figure 78 cizimindir. 2013

According to the NBS Specification of the city library, DUNE MAX Armstrong World Industries was the manufacture of these suspended ceilings. UNIT SUSPENDED CEILING SYSTEM Hygienic-Moisture Resistant Tile Ceiling system manufacturer: Armstrong World Industries Ltd, Building Products Division, Armstrong House, 38 Market Square, Uxbridge, UB8 1NG. Tel: Freephone 0800 371 849. Fax: 01895 274 287. Web: . - Product reference: Parafon Hygien . Ceiling: - Type: Exposed grid. - Ceiling module: 600 x 600 mm. - Soffit above finished floor level: to heights shown on reflected ceiling plans. Grid: - Form: Interlocking-noncorrosive. - Exposure: Exposed. - Spacings: 600 x 600 mm. Access: Infill units fully demountable. Tiles to be clipped in public areas. Accessories: none. Integrated services fittings: by M&E contractor as shown on

Performance and Standards Aesthetics The ceiling has been chosen in such a way to keep with the overall theme of the library. Whilst being able to hide all of the MEP services that run through it. It looks as though Armstrong World Industries have housed most of the coverings for the services. Structural Performance The ceiling has been chosen in order to safety hold the support of the ceiling along with the series fixings and fittings. Acoustic Performance The decision of the suspended ceiling had to support the acoustic requirements of the building. These shape and Size has been taken into account in order to absorb as much of the sound as possible decreasing the amount of sound from reflecting of the surfaces. Maintenance Maintenance of these suspended ceilings are easily accessible on most of the floors. However, the ceiling above the main atrium requires a cherry picker in order for maintenance. The cherry picker is accessed through the main entrance, that has been designed in order for the doors to open wide enough to fir the cherry in. Damaged Areas There is evidence that some of the ceilings have encountered some leakages around the library. Most are rooms that are hidden away from the general public. I sit visit with one of the staff members pointed out that there was a leakage-of grey water from public toilets above an office in the basement, showed stains and deteriorate ceiling panels. This had to be address and an specialist team had to come in to properly dispose of potential bateria/HIV

Finishes (Circulation Areas) Possible Solutions Ceiling

Option 1- Keep Existing Tiles Even though the ceiling finishes are generally all adequate. Given the damages that are still existing an option would be to keep the existing and re touching them with a paint finish. Minor remedial works with the touch of emulsion and re painting over any stains would be satisfactory

Option 2 Change full ceiling system Another option would be to change the new system altogether, which would then create a new and clean appearance. This would be the most costly option and looking at the current condition of the existing ceiling it wouldn’t be most feasible with the damages only being a minor issue Option 3 Change tiles that show staining This option would be considerably cost effective to specifically change the tiles that show damage. Changing this would rectify the problems, however due to natural aging of the existing tiles, the finish on the replaced ones will stick out in contrast compared to the existing ones. The result of which would be the same outcome as option one but be a little more expensive.

Possible Solutions Ceiling Evaluating each of the possible options the most feasible for the library would be option 1. Looking at all of the other possibilities the same outcome will be occur with both option 1 and 3 with option 1 being most cost effective. Even though the wet staining may come back through the new finish it would of still effected the finish from a new set of tiling. The only suggestion of fully removing the problem would be to find the leak rectify the issue and then change the full ceiling system. Making sure that the new ceiling system is not in contact with any leakages for any of the services within the system.

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Newcastle City Library Building Study  
Newcastle City Library Building Study