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living systems

a portfolio by chris mackey

BA in Architecture from Yale University Applying to MARCH I First semester


Chris Mackey BA in Architecture from Yale University Applying to MARCH I First semester (3 1/2 years)

chris@mackeyarchitecture.com 516-509-0165 www.mackeyarchitecture.com All content Š 2010


contents architectural designs 2008

house for a filmmaker welcome pavilion community forum theater atlantic city holocaust memorial

formal exercises

2009

de young museum analysis designing a building from a section working with the grid sketches from the shanghai world expo assorted charcoal drawings

websites and blogs

2010

dean sakamoto architects website redhot & blue website yale sustainable development journal website mackey architecture website an american in copenhagen blog video blog against sustainability misconceptions

5 9 11 13

19 22 23 24 25

29 30 31 32 33 34

sustainability initiatives cycle system proposal for rockville centre analysis of chicago urban heat island policies

2011

37 39


architectural

designs


inspiration

house for a filmmaker

inspiration Exit to the open private outdoors

Exit to public urban life

Front Entrance

Roof Terrace Bathr oom

Project Type:

Entrance Hall/ Gallery

Casual way to greet guests

Academic

Living Room

Contimuous Pa rty Space

Additional Gathering/ Lounge Space

Role:

Designer (the only one)

Impress Employers before talking

Alleviate Traffic f rom Large Pr esentations

Feed Guests

Location:

16th Street, Manhattan, NY

Client:

An Obsessive Filmmaker (fictional)

Duration:

Contimuous Party Space

Relieve Guests

Getting Fresh Air During Work

Office

Feed Guests

Working on finance to workng on film

4 Weeks

Date:

Studi o

Spring 2009

Bringing in Groceries

Food Delivery

Primary Critics: Dean Sakamoto Joyce Hsiang

Concept:

The house is a web of circulation and program that manages the space between the filmmaker’s internal studio and his/her external sources of inspiration.

Moving inside when it rains

Kitchen

Getting Fresh Air During Work Food Delivery

Moving fr om Bed to Br eakfast

Back Porch

Backyard Exit to the enclosed private outdoors

inspiration 5

Dining Room

Bedroom

Moving fr om Bed to Shower

Bathr oom

Bed

Exit to dreams

inspiration

Initial Diagram


Studio

Circulation

Program

External Inspiration Sources

6


7


In the bedroom

In the studio

From the street 8


Exterior

welcome pavilion

Project Type: Academic

Role:

Co-Desinger (all images here are by me)

Location:

Kampong Botanical Gardens, Miami, FL

Client:

Kampong Botanical Gardens

Duration:

6 Weeks

Date:

Spring 2009

Co-Designer: Kyle Briscoe

Primary Critics:

Dean Sakamoto Joyce Hsiang

Concept:

The moveable wooden fin is used to control the wind and sun entering the pavilion, thereby stabilizing the indoor micro-climate year-round.

9

Interior


NO

RT

H

50

/h

km

EA

/h

40

km

ST N

O

R

S

T

° 20

km

° 30

/h

20

EA ° 10

/h

30

TH

km

/h

10

Wind Rose

km

Sun Plot

° 40

° 50

° 60

° 70

M

8A

° 80

M

9A 1

M 0A

AM

PM

11

12 M

1P M

2P M

3P

E

ST

SO

W

Winter

UT

H W

Early Spring

Late Spring

ES

M

4P

T M

5P

S

O

U

TH

Summer Primary Wind Direction Primary Sun Direction

Cool air pooling ventilation maximized in summer Solar gain maximized in winter 10


Spectrum of Theater Politics

community forum theater Project Type: Academic

Role:

Designer (the only one)

Executive Declaration

Democratic

Location:

Red Hook, Brooklyn, NY

Client:

Falconworks Theater Group

Duration:

10 Weeks

Date:

Fall 2009

Primary Critics:

Owners of Falconworks Theater Company Adam Hopfner Turner Brooks

Concept:

The theater is a democratic forum space that gives all users equal access to the means of expression. The “fourth wall” that privileges actors with attention is broken down with a more equal distribution of performance space, theater program, and visual access to “behind the scenes.”

11

Final Plan Reflects Democratic Discussion Ideal

Discussion


Democratic Discussion in Final Section

Model Shots 12


atlantic city holocaust memorial

Holocaust Badges

Jew

Political Prisoner

Ethnic Foreigner

Asocial

Habitual Criminal

Homosexual

Gypsy

Project Type: Academic

Role:

Designer (the only one)

Location:

Atlantic City, NJ

Client:

The Atlantic City Holocaust Memorial Design Competition

Duration:

20 Weeks

Date:

Spring 2010

Primary Critics:

Steven Harris + Thomas Zook

Concept:

The boardwalk is covered in a pattern of reflective tile holocaust badges. Individually, each badge represents a victim but, collectively, they form a tapestry honoring the beauty in human differences. The memorial also minimizes the need for electric lighting on the boardwalk by reflecting the light of existing street lamps and billboards.

13

Jehovah’s Witness


One Badge for Each Victim


11,869,000 Badges 5.76 Miles of Boardwalk


16


formal exercises


de young museum analysis

1

Project Type: Academic

Role:

Researcher (the only one) Drafter (the only one) Model-builder (the only one)

Location:

San Francisco, California

Original Architects:

Herzog and de Meuron

Duration:

2

14 Weeks

Date:

Fall 2008

Primary Critic:

Ariane Harrison

Summary:

The de Young Museum’s form can be abstracted to Herzog and de Meuron’s signature box shape. The more complex form results from a number of dialogues between this box and the landscape and the final experience of the building as a box is further masked by an organic circulation network.

The de Young Museum’s tower and cantilever emerge from the initial box to have a dialogue with the surrounding terrain 19


3

4

Internal voids result from the landscape entering the building as two strips that are pinched to create circulation connections

20


Lobby Café

Gallery Center

Tower

Gallery Intersection

Stair Bottom/Top Entry Court

The de Young’s internal circulation spaces emphasize “nodes” over the general box form. 21

Auditorium Entrance


designing a building from a section Project Type: Academic

Given Section

Role:

Designer (the only one)

Plan

Duration:

3 Weeks

Date:

Fall 2008

Primary Critics:

Bimal Mendis Margaret Deamer

Model

Concept:

Golden ratios between different elements of the section were identified and became the basis of a system to extrude the section into plan.

22


working with the grid Project Type: Academic

Role: Co-designer (model building done jointly; 2 of the 3 drawings are by me)

Duration:

6 Weeks

Date:

Fall 2008

Co-Designer:

Josh Feldman

Exploded Cube

Unit of a Larger System

Primary Critics:

Bimal Mendis Margaret Deamer

Description:

A series of designs working around a cube with a steel cross through it. Each design explores different architectural concepts.

23

Details of Exploded Cube

Light/Heavy Tension/Compression


sketches from the shanghai world expo Project Type: Personal

Role:

Artist (the only one)

Location:

The 2010 World Expo Shanghai, China

Netherlands Pavilion

USA Pavilion

Norway Pavilion

Duration: 2 Days

Date:

Summer 2010

Description:

A series of sketches drawn over two days at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo. Mediums used include drafting pencil, charcoal, and oil pastels.

Expo Axis

Denmark Pavilion

24


assorted charcoal drawings

A Figure Drawing

Project Type: Academic

Role:

Artist (the only one except for the New Haven Skyline in which all 3 drawings were done jointly with another person)

Duration:

Sporadically Over 3 Years but Intensely for 10 Weeks

Date of Intense Study: Spring 2008

Partner (for New Haven Skyline): Faris Montgomery

6:30 PM

Primary Critic:

Sophia Gruzdys

The New Haven skyline over a sunset

8:00 PM

9:30 PM

25


On-site drawing of the industrial Gowanus Canal of Brooklyn, New York. (site of the building on pg. 10)

26


websites and blogs


dean sakamoto architects website Project Type: Office

Role:

Web Designer (the only one) Coder (the only one)

URL:

www.dsarch.net

Client:

Dean Sakamoto Architects LLC

Duration:

5 Weeks

Date:

Fall 2010

Primary Critics:

Dean Sakamoto Co-Workers

Concept:

The website’s aesthetic draws inspiration from Dean Sakamoto’s work, accentuating an underlying grid and following a code of simplicity and clarity. The site also reflects Sakamoto’s emphasis on functionality with a comprehensible means of navigation, a capability of being viewed on mobile devices, pages that load quickly, and html code that is optimized for search engines.

29


redhot & blue website

Project Type: Personal

Role:

Web Designer (the only one) Coder (the only one) Graphic Designer (for a new logo)

URL:

www.redhotandblue.org

Client:

The Singing Group Redhot & Blue

Duration:

8 Weeks

Date:

Summer 2009

Primary Critics:

The Members of Redhot & Blue

Concept:

The site was designed as a part of a complete remaking of the group’s image to one that better reflects a jazz repertoire. It was designed to accommodate a variety of users including clients, potential members, alumni, friends of the group, and many other parties. When completed with the project, I had designed and coded over 50 pages.


yale sustainable development journal website Project Type: Personal

Role:

Web Designer (the only one) Coder (the only one)

URL:

www.yalewheel.org

Client:

The Yale Wheel: Yale’s Undergraduate Sustainable Development Journal

Duration:

7 Weeks and Continuing

Date:

Fall 2010 - Present

Concept:

The website functions as a database for The Yale Wheel’s articles and, as such, the structure of the site was designed for ease of uploading and organization of news. The overall aesthetics, based off of satellite images and a strict continental grid, highlight the Wheel’s internationally conscious subjects. The debut of this site marked the end of The Wheel’s print publishing and a transition to exclusively broadcasting on this site.

31


mackey architecture website Project Type: Personal

Role:

Web Designer (the only one) Coder (the only one)

URL:

www.mackeyarchitecture.com

Client:

Myself

Duration:

3 Weeks and Continually Updated

Date:

Fall 2009

Concept:

A simple site for web publishing my design work, showcasing my blogs, and enabling interested parties to contact me. As such, simplicity, clarity and honesty were the primary factors that influenced design.


an american in copenhagen blog Project Type: Office

Role:

Blogger (the only one for this series)

URL:

www.sustainablecities.dk/en/blog

Client:

The Danish Architecture Centre

Duration:

7 Weeks

Date:

Summer 2009

Primary Critic: Anna Esbjørn Hess

Description:

A blog published once a week on a website that is owned by the Danish government and run by the Danish Architecture Center. The posts documented experiences from my two months in Copenhagen and presented personal reflections on sustainability in the US and Denmark.

Excerpt from “An American in Copenhagen # 5: The Sustainable City is Also Safe” “One of the things I immediately noticed when I first got to Copenhagen was a feeling of incredible comfort in the public realm. I didn’t quite understand why this was the case at first but, now, I think I’ve found some reasons. I’ll admit part of it is sheer aesthetic value with some of the most beautiful parks, quaint bustling markets, and a number of stunning artworks to see in museums. But this barely scratches the surface. What really makes me comfortable are the people around me: the people casually talking on benches in the squares as they enjoy a bottle of wine. Or the parents playing with their kids, bringing them to the ice cream vendor in bicycle trailers and letting them run freely over the fields in the park. But this really isn’t everything either... Something that I really didn’t expect to make me comfortable here was the minimized use of cars... In 2005, my nation lost 42,636 people to car accidents. This is roughly equivalent to the American losses of fourteen 9/11 attacks or ten Iraq wars. And these aren’t just statistics. I’ve known three people from my high school that have died in car accidents and I’m sure that a lot of Americans can say they’ve been affected by such incidents as well. The truth is, my country has been designed around something with terrible consequences – it kills my fellow citizens; it robs me of a better connection to my community; and it is rapidly compromising the environmental welfare upon which my nation subsides.”

33


video blog against sustainability misconceptions Project Type: Personal

Role:

Blogger Blog Video Actor/Presenter and Editor

URL:

http://climatechange.thinkaboutit.eu/ think4/blogger/mackey

Client:

The European Journalism Centre

Duration:

14 Weeks

Date:

Fall 2009

Primary Critic: Michelle Addington

Video Excerpt from “Analysis of Yale’s Micro Wind Turbines”

Description:

Originally created for a blogging competition hosted by the European Journalism Centre, this blog addresses misconcep-

tions in sustainability by breaking down issues into simple calculations and everyday terms. One of the video posts on micro wind turbines won honors and 300 €.

Hello Everyone. I’m sitting here in a building that’s receiving energy from wind turbines on the roof and today I’m going to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of this system. According to a recent university publication, this system should produce 26 MW-hrs of electricity per year. Now, I’m just going to take this power output in MW-hrs/year and turn it into kilowatts; maybe something that we can understand a bit better. It turns out that this system is producing roughly 3 kilowatts; which is 3,000 Watts; 30 100-Watt light bulbs; or basically the amount of light in this auditorium I’m in right now. Now, typically speaking, this is great. We get 30 light bulbs to run without electrical costs. However, if you do a bit of analysis into the cost of these turbines according to the company that put them up there, it turns out that each turbine is $15,000, making the 10-turbine system up there a good $150,000 investment. If you do a bit of research into how long it will take this system to pay for itself in Connecticut electrical bills, it turns out that you would need 58 years. Now, 58 years is a very long time to re-coup an investment and I know that there are much more sound ventures out there. For example, solar energy in the southwest has been known to pay for itself within 10-15 years and wind turbines often recoup their investment even faster... 34


sustainability initiatives


cycle system proposal for rockville centre Project Type: Personal

Role:

Original Planner (I originally developed the proposal for a class at Yale) NOTE: All images here are by me Primary Campaign Organizer

Location:

Rockville Centre, Long Island, NY

Duration: A Year

Date:

Fall 2009 - Present

Primary Critics:

The Citizens of Rockville Centre

Description:

A comprehensive plan for cycle infrastructure in the village of Rockville Centre, divided into two phases: 1) A phase aimed at increasing cycling to the village’s center that relieves parking demands. 2) A phase that will improve cycle infrastructure within the village center, creating a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere that spurs retail. The proposal was sent to the village mayor and I am presently assembling a team to campaign for it. 37


Photoshop Renderings of Phase 1 Improvements Cycle tracks will be added on targeted streets where there is ample room. These will be accompanied by bicycle signage and special markings at intersections.

Breakdown of Costs for Phase 1 Item Striping Street Symbols Street Signs Bike Racks Bike Event at Recreation Center

Price/Unit Quantity Cost $1/ft 45,107 $45,107 $200 140 $28,000 $250 75 $18,750 $1,000 10 $10,000 $200 4 $800 Total

$102,657

Photoshop Renderings of Phase 2 Improvements After enough community support has been gathered for bicycle use, cycle infrastructure can be used to spur retail and create a more pedestrian friendly atmosphere in the town’s center.

before

Maple Avenue after phase 1

Bicycle share arrows will be added on targeted streets where there is not enough shoulder room. This will alert drivers entering the village of cyclists’ presence.

Hempstead Avenue after phase 1

after

Park Avenue after phase 2 38


Urban Heat Island

analysis of chicago urban heat island policies Project Type:

Academic (originally) Office (when I began receiving pay to continue the project)

The condition where an urban area is a few degrees warmer than the surrounding rural area.

Importance of Combatting Urban Heat Island

1. Global warming threatens to warm urban environments further, making them less liveable. 2. The world is urbanizing and cities must be comfortable although they must also minimize the energy consumed for thermal comfort.

Chicago Urban Heat Island at Night

Role:

-Original Researcher (The project was originally my idea, which I pursued for a research class in my last undergraduate semester) -First Author (for the study’s publication) NOTE: All images presented here were synthesized by me from raw satellite data.

Duration:

Several Months

Date:

Spring 2010 - Present

Other Authors (for publication): Prof. Ronald Smith Prof. Xuhui Lee

Description:

Over the past 15 years, Chicago has arguably had the largest campaign against urban heat island out of any American city. This study uses publicly available satellite data to evaluate which of these campaignsupported efforts have been effective. The research will be submitted for publication in January.

39

The City of Chicago

(the study area)


Since the Great Chicago Heat Wave of 1995, the city has implemented a number of localized efforts to combat its urban heat island, indicated by the blue areas in the image to the right.

Methods of Combatting Urban Heat Island 1. Increase vegetated surfaces, which will evaporate water instead of increasing in temperature. 2. Increase reflective surfaces, which will absorb less solar radiation than dark surfaces.

Image made by subtracting values from the LANDSAT temperature band in two images with similar atmospheric conditions.

40


41


Dense vegetation appears to have the greatest cooling potential of any surface. However, Chicago’s reflective polices were more effective at cooling than its vegetated ones.

However, the increases in Chicago’s reflectivity between 1995 and 2009 corresponded to much greater cooling than its increases in vegetation did.

Vegetation Quantity to Temperature (June 1995)

Vegetation Quantity Increase to Temp. Change (1995-2009)

37

4

correlation = -0.620 Temperature Change (oC)

35

Temperature (oC)

This is probably because the reflective policies produced the most cooling for the smallest amount of money invested.

Within single images of the city, densely vegetated surfaces generally correspond to much cooler temperatures than highly reflective surfaces.

33 31 29 27 25 23 21 0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12

0.8

correlation = -0.117

2

0

Vegetation Quantity (vegetation index)

Temperature Change (oC)

Temperature (oC)

The study reveals a new compelling argument for reflective roof efforts over greenroof and vegtation-based strategies.

4

correlation = -0.082

35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Surface Reflectivity Increase to Temp. Change (1995-2009)

Surface Reflectivity to Temperature (June 1995) 37

0.1

Vegetation Quantity Increase (vegetatoin index)

correlation = -0.364

2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Surface Reflectivity

0.4

0.5

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Reflectivity Increase

0.4

0.5

42


thank you for reading


for more information, visit

www.mackeyarchitecture.com


Living Systems: A Portfolio by Chris Mackey  

Chris Mackey's official portfolio.

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