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Looking At The Restrictions Of Planning Policy Leeds Metropolitan University - MArch Architecture - Year Two Chris Lazenby - C3226670

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Opposite page - Helmsley Castle

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Manifesto This project looks at the limits of planning policy and how these affect development in National Parks. A proposal is then made to tackle current issues that meets but challenges current planning policies.

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Contents 1.0 Policy ................ 6 2.0 National Parks ................ 22 3.0

North York Moors

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4.0 Helmsley ................ 32 5.0 Brief ................ 50 6.0

Form Development

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7.0 Drawings ................ 80 8.0 Strategies ................ 94 ........... Environment This portfolio has been printed on recycled paper and bound with natural hemp string.

Opposite page - Over looking Duncombe Park, Helmsley, on a frosty November morning.

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Policy

“In order to fulfil its purpose of helping achieve sustainable development, planning must not simply be about scrutiny. Planning must be a creative exercise in finding ways to enhance and improve the places in which we live our lives.�

Opposite page - The rear of the buildings that form Helmsley market square.

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National Planning Policy Framework introduction.


History

In London, blocked light, thin party walls and badly sited privies were just some issues arising from dense housing. In the 13 century, complaints about building nuisances could be brought by one neighbour against another. The mayor and aldermen settled such cases in a court called the Assize of Nuisance.

The London Building Act of 1667 was used as a model for other cities across the British Isles. Building Acts were later passed for Bristol in 1778 & 1840 and Liverpool in 1825 & 1842.

The Fire Great Fire of London in 1666 led to London Building Act of 1667. This was the first building act that enabled it’s surveyors to enforce its regulations. One of its regulations laid out that all buildings were to be built from brick or stone.

The Housing, Town Planning, &c. Act 1909 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which prevented the building of “back-to-back” houses. The act also meant local authorities must introduce systems of town planning and meant homes had to be built to certain standards.

In early Victorian times a government inquiry identified problems of overcrowding, lack of water poor sanitation. Home Secretary Lord Normanby proposed the first national building act in 1841 to apply to all borough councils in the British Isles. The bill failed.

Scotland was the first country in the United Kingdom to adopt national regulations. The first set of Building regulations was published in 1963 and came into force in 1964. England and Wales quickly followed suit.

Between 1919 and 1939 over 4,000,000 new homes were built, the majority on green fields, and advertising hoardings sprang up unregulated across the landscape. In response to this threat, there was a recognition for planning controls to be extended to cover the countryside as well as towns. In 1926 the Council for the Preservation of Rural England was formed (later renamed the Campaign to Protect Rural England).

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The Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 made substantial changes to the English Development Plan system. It did away with both Structure Plans and Local Plans, in favour of Local Development Frameworks (LDFs), which are made up a number of Local Development Documents (LDDs) and

The 1947 Act introduced a requirement, which still exists, on local authorities to develop Local Plans or Unitary Development Plans to outline what kind of development is permitted where, and to mark special areas on Local Plan Maps.

On 27 March 2012 the National Planning Policy Framework (the ‘Framework’) was published. The Framework was produced following an extensive consultation with Parliament and the public.


Macro

The National Policy Framework is a document set out by government that summarises how regional authorities should adopt the policy.

Hierarchy

Miso

Micro

Core Strategies and Development Polices are local interpretations of national planning policy. Each authority can interpret the national framework in a way that best suits the local area.

The purpose of the Design Guides are to help protect the intrinsic qualities of the Park but not to the extent that it unreasonably restricts the development process that is vital to the future viability and prosperity of the communities. There are 5 design guides for the North Yorkshire Moors: Part 1, General Principles; Part 2, Extensions and Alterations to Dwellings; Part 3, Trees and Landscape; Part 4, The Re-use of Traditional Rural Buildings; Part 5, New Agricultural Buildings.

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National Planning Policy Framework

North York Moors Core Strategy

Local Design Guides

The National Planning Policy Framework acts as the roots to the planning system. It is this document that underpins ever other document that follows it.

The Core Strategy builds on the NPPF, it takes these rules and guidelines and interprets them in a way that pertains to the local area for which the strategy serves.

The Local Design Guides provide information that dictates how buildings should appear once built. It details what areas of design are important in certain areas of the landscape.

Helping To Provide Sustainable Transport Promoting Good Design

Promoting Healthy Communities

Building A Strong Economy

Protecting Green Belt Land

Ensuring Town Centre Vitality

Delivering A Choice Of Quality Homes

Conserving & Enhancing Historic Environment

Meeting The Challenges Of Climate Change

Spatial Strategy Spatial Portrait

Strategic Approach Spatial Vision

Protecting/Enhancing Historical Assets

Protecting/Enhancing Natural Environment

Promoting Healthy & Sustainable Communities

Supporting Rural Economy

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Settlement Pattern Landscape Character

Approaching Design Building Characteristics

Settlement Form Promoting Accessibility

Landscape Setting

Sustainable Design Built Form

Conservation Areas


Local Design Guides

Built Form - Layout

Infill Development

Helmsley - Nucleated Settlement

Small Street-side Plots

Mainly Terraced Development

The pattern or arrangement of buildings on a site or an individual plot. Design Guidelines: • Many settlements are characterised by a certain pattern, linear, dispersed, nucleated, etc. Is this a dominant feature? (See top left). •Look at surrounding plot sizes – are they large, small or infill? Do they have front or rear gardens? In many settlements within the National Park, plots tend to be small and frequent (fine grain) rather then large and infrequent (coarse grain) (See top middle). • Consider how the surrounding dwellings are arranged – are they terraced or detached or a mix of both? (See top right). • Consider the existing building line of surrounding buildings – are they hard against the footpath/road or set to the rear of the plot? (See bottom left). •Look at adjoining buildings – are the frontages flat, protruding, simple or detailed? (See bottom middle). • Consider locating garages/parking areas to the rear or side of dwellings or within courtyards to limit their visual impact. (See bottom right).

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Mainly Terraced Development

Very Strong Pavement Edge Building Line

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Built Form - Landscape

Built Form - Appearance (Materials & Details)

Built Form - Scale, Height & Massing

Scale is the size of a building in relation to its surroundings (particularly neighbouring buildings). Scale is a product of both the height and bulk of a building. Design Guidelines: • Ensure that the development respects the existing overall scale of the settlement

The character and appearance of land, including its shape, form, ecology, natural features, colours, and elements, and the way in which these components combine.

• Building heights including eaves and ridge heights should be determined by the character and function of the individual buildings and their relationship to the street or public spaces. Buildings are, for the most part, one or two storey in height, although three storey dwellings are more common in the coastal settlements of the Park

The texture, colour, pattern and durability of materials.

• Where appropriate, buildings should be arranged to assist in the variation of building height, creating visual interest and breaking up the overall mass of the development

Design Guidelines: Design Guidelines: • Through appropriate siting and landscaping techniques such as planting, new development should blend into the surrounding landscape • Development should respond to or take account of the physical features of a site i.e. the contours; landforms, ridges, screening and shelter opportunities.

• consider the quality, fixing methods, colour, texture and profile which should reflect the local vernacular.

• Building silhouettes and profiles are also important so careful consideration should be given to secondary elements such as chimneys

• original stone or brick should not be rendered, clad or painted, this changes the character of the building.

• Look at the roof form, in particular its pitch (which is dependent on the use of available roofing materials) – is it consistent with others in the area?

• match or complement the range of materials that are characteristic of the area.

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“.196 - In assessing and determining development proposals, local planning authorities should apply the presumption in favour of sustainable development.” - National Planning Policy Framework

Siting and Design

Dining Room

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de

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Kitchen

Sustainable Design

Re-using existing buildings

Old buildings should be reused if possible

Sitting Room

• Existing buildings and previously used land should be re-used (in the context of current planning policies) or incorporated into the scheme where possible.

Building orientation and design that aims to maximise the benefit of solar gain and daylight is known as Passive Solar Design. For domestic buildings this can contribute as much as 15% of the energy required for heating and lighting.

• Re-use existing materials from the site wherever possible.

• To make the best use of natural light buildings should, where possible, be orientated with the windows of the main habitable rooms, usually on the longest side, within 30 degrees of south (See right).

• Where the materials from existing buildings cannot be re-used they should be disposed of to a recognised salvage operator. • Buildings should be flexible and adaptable for future alternative uses.

• Consider locating ancillary accommodation such as bathrooms, toilets, stairways and storage areas to the north of the building. • Shadowing of windows of existing and neighbouring properties should be avoided or minimised. • Garages and storage buildings should be used as thermal barriers and placed on the edge of the northern elevations of the building (See right). Landscaping can also act as a thermal barrier. Garage Utility Room

Recycle existing material where possible. This not only minimises energy expenditure but also retains character.

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Materials

Energy Efficiency

Over-sailing roof has to reach compromise between shading and blocking out light.

• If there are no suitable materials on-site use reclaimed items from a local source where possible. Use of local materials not only reduces the effects of transport but also helps to sustain local businesses and skills. • Materials should be considered in terms of their whole life cost, can they be re-used or recycled, do they require low levels of maintenance and that have a long life. • Consider the level of embodied energy (i.e. energy required in production) in materials. Wood, lime, stone, sheep’s wool and straw have a low level of embodied energy, whereas uPVC, cement, steel, concrete and bricks have a high level of embodied energy.

You should consider from the outset how energy will be used. Energy efficiency helps to reduce carbon emissions and save on energy costs. • Reduce the need for energy by making the most of the sun’s heat and light. • Install rooflights or sun pipes where possible/viable. • Ensure the building is well insulated. • Reduce the need for cooling through the use of natural ventilation.

consider materials in terms of whole life cost

Large atrium spaces allow warm/stale air to rise through the building. This can then be vented.

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Roof lights allow much more Sun pipes add light into light in over regular windows. dark spaces like landings


Water and Drainage

Over-sailing roof has to reach compromise between shading and blocking out light.

Waste

Site

Waste

Recycle

The process of supplying water to homes and businesses uses significant amounts of energy. Furthermore, a lot of rainwater is unnecessarily wasted and much of this can contribute to the problems of flooding.

Construction

The design of the development should make good use of water by:

• For larger schemes, you may be asked to produce a waste management plan (see below left).

• Incorporating methods of collecting rain water, such as water butts, for use on site.

Operation

• Waste produced during the construction process should be re-used or recycled (see left).

There should be adequate space for the storage of recycling and waste bins, including compost bins. This applies equally to residential and commercial developments (see below).

• Consider the use of greywater recycling systems which take used water for use elsewhere (for example, using bathwater to water the garden). • Incorporate installations which reduce the use of water (the Building Control department of your local Council will be able to advise). Sustainable drainage can be presented as a hierarchy: Prevention (reduce the need for drainage) Drain water within site (avoid run-off from the site) Drain water off site

Taps can be included that use less water.

Large Site

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Waste Management Plan

Waste/Refuse at rear

Dedicated bin storage required


Solar Panels - Photovoltaic + Water Heating

Biomass Installations

Because of their particularly modern, industrial look solar installations may not be suitable on Listed Buildings or within Conservation Areas.

Generating energy from biomass or processing fuel for biomass requires a building and therefore visual impact is an issue.

- Where possible, use non-shiny materials that integrate well with the existing roof.

- Use an existing building where possible. - Where new building is involved, use materials that are traditional to the area.

- Try to avoid installations which extend above the roofline.

- Locate the fuel storage in existing buildings, or below ground.

- Site the installation to match the position of windows or other similar features on the existing building or surrounding buildings.

- Consider undergrounding any new grid connection.

Panels to be installed facing away from public access areas.

Large Chimney may become visual intrusion in National Park/conservation area.

Nearby trees may cause overshadowing issues. This must be investigated before installation.

Roof slope must be facing within 40 degrees of South.

Storage facility needed for biomass before being burnt. Potential new buildings would need to be constructed in sympathy with surroundings.

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Large amount of equipment would take up valuable space either in existing building or require new construction.


Hydro-electric

Ground Source Heat Pumps

Hydro schemes will be located on rivers or at reservoirs which by their very nature are often popular amenity locations in the National Park.

Ground Source Heat Pumps in the curtilage of a dwelling house do not require planning permission (but may still require Listed Building consent).

- Consider locating hydro schemes in wooded areas or close to trees where these exist to help to conceal them.

- Underfloor heating is often used in conjunction with heat pumps, however in the case of Listed Buildings this may not be appropriate and other heat emitters may need to be considered.

- Use materials traditional to the area to construct any new buildings.

- In some circumstances it may be inappropriate to disturb the ground due to archaeological concerns or, more occasionally, the presence of valuable habitat.

- Bury the pipeline and restore the ground.

Heat exchanger can be situated inside existing structure, does not require huge amount of space.

Water course may have to be diverted to suit existing building or new building built by current water course.

Large amount of ground works needed for horizontal supply, this may not be suitable for conservation reasons. In this instance vertical supply may suit.

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Air Source Heat Pumps

Water Source Heat Pumps

A heat exchanger will need to be installed on the outside of the building. These are typically industrial in appearance and should therefore be sited on an inconspicuous part of the building.

As a heat exchanger is submerged at the source to absorb the heat from the water this could lead to ecological or environmental impacts. Where water is extracted from the ground, this could affect the local water table.

- For this reason, Air Source Heat Pumps may not be appropriate on Listed Buildings.

- Where possible the pump should be located within an existing building, particularly in the case of Listed Buildings or in Conservation Areas.

- Air Source Heat Pumps should be sited to reduce noise impact as much as possible.

- The pump may need to be housed outside if space does not exist inside and this will need to be sympathetic to the building and the locality in terms of design and materials.

Air source heat pump requires large heat transfer unit, if external installation of entire unit is required, this may have to be completed away from public view to rear of building.

Depending on location of water to building, extensive ground works may be involved. In National Park/conservation area, this may not be suitable.

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Energy From Waste

Energy from waste plants could be accommodated within existing farm buildings. However, new build could be appropriate where farm or industrial uses are typical in the locality such as around the fringes of the Park rather than in the moorland areas.

Wind Turbines

As wind turbine developments are likely to have a greater visual impact than other technologies, the North York Moors Authority have drawn up guidelines as to the suitability of different locations. - Wind turbines may be suitable in open moorland and coastal locations if closely assimilated to nearby buildings.

- Use an existing building where possible. - Locate as much equipment as possible within the building it is to serve, reducing need for new buildings. Where it is needed, use the smallest size flue possible and locate this to minimise visual impact. Colour the flue to blend with the background.

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- In wooded areas wind turbines may be appropriate where they could be set against a backdrop of trees, provided the performance of the turbine is still sufficient.


How Can Sustainability Be Measured?

Economy

Energy

What will the development bring to the local economy? Will it bring tourism into the area from elsewhere or will it provide jobs for local residents?

How much energy will the building require once in use, can this energy usage be minimised? Have renewable energy methods been considered and can they be integrated into the project?

Visitor Numbers

Jobs

Energy To Run The Building

Renewable Energy

If a project is of an industrial nature, does it increase visitor numbers to the area? An increase in visitor numbers to an area is good for the economy.

Most proposals will have an effect on jobs in the local area, in some instances this may only be in the short term, others long term.

Depending on the construction of the building, it will require differing amounts of energy to run it. The more insulation the less energy for example.

If possible, all efforts should be made to produce as much energy as possible from renewable sources. Different options are available in certain areas.

Land use

Materials

How has the plot been used? Redevelopment of previously used land will be looked on favourably. Does the site lie within any conservation zones and will the development disturb any natural habitat?

What materials are used for the construction, where do they come from, do they have to travel far? What are the materials made from, recycled or not?

Conservation

Previous Use

Material Locations

Embedded CO2

Will any areas of tree cover, shrubbery be affected by the development? Any trees in the way of the development should be moved or replaced.

What has the site been used for previously? The re-use of previously developed land is more sustainable than the building on green-belt land.

The further the materials have to travel from manufacture to the site, the more fuel and energy is used. Local materials help the environment.

Different materials have a different amounts of CO2 embedded in them, for example, concrete has more energy contained in it than timber.

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Health & Well Being Buildings need to be comfortable for the people that use them or live in them, what methods will be used to keep them comfortable. Many mechanical tools are available these days to accomplish comfort but what effect are they having on the environment, are natural methods more suitable?

Transport This aims to reduce the need for personal transport and increasing public transport usage. Something else to consider is the required transport need to build the construction in the first instance.

Air Quality

Thermal Comfort

Public Transport

Personal Transport

The air inside a building need to be of a certain quality for the comfort of the inhabitants. How will this air quality be controlled?

How will the building be cooled or warmed, will it be mechanical or natural? Natural methods will reduce the burden on the environment.

Proposals are going to be looked on more favourably if they can be linked in with public transport.

If the proposal will require people to use personal transport to get to the shops or their job, this is seen as unsustainable.

Waste How much waste will be produced during the life of the building and how will this waste be disposed of? Will it go into a landfill or could it possibly be recycled?

Water Not only can water usage be monitored and lowered but also water can be harvested and used again for other purposes. This harvesting of water also reduces water runoff and these needs to be considered.

Recycling

Landfill

Usage

Run-Off

Grey Water

What waste produced on site can be recycled and used again, the more that can be recycled the more sustainable it will be.

The more waste that goes into landfill, the less favourably the proposal will look from and environmental perspective.

Devices can be fitted in buildings to reduce the amount water used.

The more hard standing developed, water run-off is increased.

Water used within the home maybe used again for other purposes.

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National Parks What is a National Park?

“In the UK there are 15 members in the National Park family which are protected areas because of their beautiful countryside, wildlife and cultural heritage.

People live and work in the National Parks and the farms, villages and towns are protected along with the landscape and wildlife. National Parks welcome visitors and provide opportunities for everyone to experience, enjoy and learn about their special qualities.� www.nationalparks.gov.uk

Opposite page - Mu Ko Ang Thong National Park, Thailand.

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IUCN - International Union For Conservation Of Nature History

In 1910, Paul Sarasin, a Swiss medical doctor, proposed a “Committee to establish an International or World Commission for the Protection of Nature”.

Founded in 1948 as the world’s first global environmental organization as the International Union for the Protection of Nature.

The organization changed its name to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1956 with the acronym IUCN. The remains the name to this day.

The Commission helped to establish the First World Conference on National Parks, held in 1962 in 1962 in Seattle, USA.

IUCN published its first “World Directory of National Parks” in 1975. It contained loose-leaf pages with comprehensive data on each national park.

The Third World Congress on National Parks in 1982 in Bali, Indonesia, marked a critical turning point. The old view of protected areas as ‘set aside’ was replaced with a new idea: protected areas could be important components of sustainable development.

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By 1992 conservation had become a mainstream priority, tens of thousands of people would attend the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, also called the Earth Summit.

In 2008, the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) was re-launched online following a complete redevelopment of the database and the incorporation of maps and visualization tools. It is the most comprehensive global data set on marine and terrestrial protected areas available, providing information on more than 120,000 national and international protected areas.

WCPA created the Grasslands Protected Area Task Force in 1996 to raise the level of protection for grassland ecosystems, placing immediate priority on temperate grasslands. Temperate grasslands are one of the most altered ecosystems on the planet.


Park Categories There are many different types of protected areas across the world. The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has split them into six categories.

I. Strict Nature Reserve/Wilderness Area:

IV. Habitat/Species Management Area:

A protected area managed mainly for science or wilderness protection

A protected area managed mainly to preserve specific species and to maintain habitats.

Examples:

Examples:

Denali National Park and Preserve, USA

Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, USA

Great Victoria Desert Nature Reserve, Australia (right)

Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

The Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve, Costa Rica

Ship Cove Scenic Reserve, New Zealand (left)

II. National Park:

V. Protected Landscape/Seascape:

A protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. (UK National Parks - V).

A protected area managed mainly for landscape/seascape protection and recreation.

Examples:

Examples:

Yellowstone National Park,USA (right)

Any of the 15 National Parks in the UK

Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria

Lyngmarken Landscape Protected Area, Greenland (left)

Mu Ko Ang Thong National Park, Thailand Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Japan

III. Natural Monument:

VI. Managed Resource Protected Area:

A protected area managed mainly for conservation of specific, unique natural features.

A protected area managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems.

Examples:

Examples:

Natural Bridges National Monument, USA

Wudangshan Scenic Area, China

Ganga Lake Natural Monument, Mongolia (right)

Rivière George Faunal Habitat, Canada

Bosques Petrificados National Monument, Argentina

Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal (left)

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The National Parks of the UK

There are 15 members of the National Parks family, beautiful areas of mountains, meadows, moorlands, woods and wetlands. The 15 Parks are part of a global family of over 113,000 protected areas, covering 149 million square kilometres or 6% of the Earth’s surface. 1 - Cairngorms

They are areas of protected countryside that everyone can visit, and where people live, work and shape the landscape. Each park has an organisation that looks after the landscape and wildlife and helps people enjoy and learn about the area.

2- Loch Lomond and the Trossachs

3- Northumberland

5 - Lake District 4 - North Yorkshire Moors

6 - Yorkshire Dales 7- Peak District 8 - Snowdonia 9 - Norfolk Broads

10 - Pembrokeshire

11 - Brecon Beacons

12 - Exmoor 14 - New Forest

15 - South Downs

13 - Dartmoor

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Aims & Purposes of a National Park

The Sandford Principle

The aims and purposes of National Parks are laid out by law. The 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act, was a law made by parliament that set out what our National Parks would be like.

A fisherman would like to fish at a lake shore. He has access to the lake and so he can enjoy his day fishing, which fulfils the National Park purpose of understanding and enjoyment.

There are slightly different aims and purposes for the National Parks in Scotland and for the Broads, compared to National Parks in England and Wales. When the aims and purposes conflict with each other, then the Sandford Principle should be used to give more weight to conservation of the environment.

There are also Ospreys nesting in a tree nearby, which catch fish in the lake. Ospreys are a protected bird species and are easily disturbed by noises and movements during their breeding season. Looking after the breeding Osprey fulfils the National Park purpose of conservation.

The Environment Act 1995 revised the original legislation and set out two statutory purposes for National Parks in England and Wales:

In this example the two main purposes of National Parks, conservation and understanding and enjoyment are in conflict. By applying the Sandford Principle the conflict is resolved and conservation, in this case the nesting Ospreys, take priority. The fisherman is encouraged to find another fishing spot during the osprey breeding season. When they Ospreys have migrated away in winter, the fisherman can fish in the lake.

1 - Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage. 2 - Promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of National Parks by the Public.

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The North Yorkshire Moors Yorkshire has been voted the third best place to visit in the world by the Lonely Planet. Yorkshire’s local athletes helped the county clock up more medals in the 2012 London Olympics than entire countries such as South Africa, Spain and Brazil. The North Yorkshire spa town of Harrogate has been named the happiest place in Britain. Bradford becomes the world’s first UNESCO City of Film. Yorkshire now has more Michelin-starred restaurants than any other county outside London.

When deciding on a location to base the project, it will need to be in a national park and ideally a conservation area, also, the more restrictions on the site should enable more conflicts between policies to be found. Once a rough area is located, nearby development plans will be read and understood to decipher what is required in terms of development in the area. Specific sites within the regions may also be highlighted as potential development locations.

Opposite page - Bilsdale, North Yorkshire Moors

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Populated Settlements

Landscape Character

The North Yorkshire Moors National Park itself contains no areas of large population, the main cities and larger towns are around the periphery. Middlesbrough to the North West, Scarborough to the South East and Whitby to the North East.

Landscape character is the recognisable pattern of elements that occurs in a particular landscape. Variations in geology and soils, landforms, land use and vegetation, settlement patterns and building styles, give rise to different landscapes, each with its own distinctive character and unique sense of place. Nine different landscape character types and thirty one Landscape Character Areas were identified across the Park – the location, key landscape characteristics, settlement pattern and building characteristics of which, are shown in the map to the left.

Within the park, population is largely in small hamlets and villages but interspersed with typical countryside market towns, such as Helmsley.

1 - Moorland 2 - Narrow Moorland Dale 3 - Forest 4 - Coast & Coastal Hinterland 5 - Limestone Hills 6 - Narrow & Glacial Channel & Griffs 7 - Limestone Dale 8 - Central Valley 9 - Upland Fringe North Yorkshire Moors Park Boundary

Middlesbrough Whitby Stokesley

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9

Castleton 8

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4

Robin Hoods Bay 9 1 1

Rosedale Abbey

7 3

Hutton Le Hole

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2 6

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Hawnby

3

5 5

Scarborough Helmsley

5 5

Pickering 9

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The National Park Settlement Hierarchy

Danby

Goathland Where as most county councils have defined development limits for settlements within their boundary, the North Yorkshire Moors does not. Instead each settlement is categorised according to it’s amenities (see right). Development within each settlement is handled on an individual basis. Regular development limits set out the limit to which development maybe accepted, in the National Park, this limit is set by the existing boundary of development.

- Local service centre – Helmsley - Service villages – larger villages near the edges of the Park - Local service villages – smaller villages which have a range of local services - Other villages – villages with more limited services, often in remote locations

See the map (below) for Local Service centre, all service villages and local service villages, plus selection of other villages.

Staithes

- Open countryside

Fylingthorpe Easington Staithes Guisborough

Hinderwell Lythe Danby Sleights

Fylingthorpe

Swainby Goathland Osmotherley Guisborough

Rosedale Abbey

Thornton-le-Dale

Scalby Fadmoor Boltby

Helmsley

East Ayton Thornton-le-Dale West Ayton

Ampleforth

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Helmsley Helmsley as a town has been chosen for this project as it has been recognised that there is need for development in the area. The town of Helmsley is split between the Local Planning Authorities of Ryedale District Council and the North Yorkshire Moors National Park Authority. In order to plan for the future growth of the town an additional 150 houses and up to approximately 2 hectares of employment land is needed over the next 15 years. The two authorities are working together with Helmsley Town Council to produce a development plan called the ‘Helmsley Plan’, which will identify sites to accommodate this new housing and employment land.

The ‘Helmsley Plan’ will consider the following, - Key information about Helmsley - Planning policy context - Affordable housing provision - Infrastructure provision - Renewable energy installations - Additional space for retail outlets will not be considered.

Opposite page - Borough Beck with Helmsley church in the background.

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Conservation

Protected Views

Conservation Areas were introduced by the Civic Amenities Act in 1967. A Conservation Area is defined by the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as an ‘area of special architectural or historic interest, the character of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance’.

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2

5

3

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Local authorities have a statutory duty to identify, designate, preserve and enhance Conservation Areas within their administrative areas. The aim in a Conservation Area is to preserve or enhance not merely individual buildings but all those elements, which may include minor buildings, trees, open spaces, walls, paving materials etc., which together make up a familiar and cherished local scene. Open spaces play an important role in helping to define the character of the Conservation Area, they increase the sense of openness within the town affording special views into and out of the Conservation Area which in turn help to define the sense of place. The recognised important views within Helmsley are shown to the right, 6 of which are included on the opposing page.

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Scale 1 : 10000

NORTH

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Listed Buildings

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Buildings are designated for their special architectural or historic interest and as such are afforded statutory protection under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990. There are almost 3,000 Listed Buildings in the National Park (51 in Helmsley) that contribute to the cultural heritage and landscape character of the area and represent a range of buildings that, once lost, cannot be replaced. Listing does not mean that a building must be preserved without change forever. However, there are restrictions on what you can do and any alterations which affect its character, either internally or externally as a Listed Building will require Listed Building Consent. This may include major alterations such as extensions but also covers minor works such as altering fireplaces, partitioning a room or re-pointing brickwork.

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Scale 1 : 10000

NORTH

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Conservation Zones

Zone 1

Conservation Areas were introduced by the Civic Amenities Act in 1967. A Conservation Area is defined by the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as an ‘area of special architectural or historic interest, the character of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance’.

High Street, Borough Beck, Cleveland Way, Church Street, Castlegate, Helmsley Castle

In order to make the appraisal more accessible the detailed assessment of the architectural and historic character has been divided into five smaller areas. These sub areas have been chosen to incorporate streets and spaces that relate to each other both geographically and characteristically and include:

In plan this area is dominated by the castle although it can actually only be glimpsed from alleyways leading off Castlegate and from the Cleveland Way car park. It is often the first part of Helmsley that is viewed by visitors, especially those arriving from the north and using the Cleveland Way car park.

Area 1: High Street, Borough Beck, Cleveland Way, Church Street, Castlegate, Helmsley Castle Area 2: Buckingham Square, Bridge Farm Close, Rye Bridge Area 3: Market Place, Bridge Street, Borogate Area 4: Ryegate, Pottergate, Bells Court Area 5: Bondgate, Carlton Lane, Villiers Court, Elsmslac Close, Canons Garth

Some outbuildings and burgage plots are disused or underused (below top) and as such this area is potentially vulnerable to development pressure. Although the area currently has a positive impact on the character of the Conservation Area this contribution is fragile. Currently there are no controls over boundary treatments and the sense of permeability created by traditionally low level fencing and the ensuing views across these burgage plots is being eroded by the erection of inappropriately high, close timber boarded fencing (below bottom). This not only obscures views through the Conservation Area, it creates a sense of enclosure along the footpath which could be threatening to users.

5

3 1 4

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Zone 2

Zone 3

Buckingham Square, Bridge Farm Close, Rye Bridge

Market Place, Bridge Street, Borogate

This area is dominated by Duncombe Park Estate’ s housing and its connections with the Estate are made tangible by the presence of the Estate entrance and old gate house. Although this area is dominated by terraced housing its character is quite different to that of Areas 1, 4 and 5. Housing is set back from the pavement edge creating small front gardens which are bounded by picket fencing and cast iron railings. Both are low level and permeable and should not be replaced with panelled fencing or higher boundary treatments which would enclose this area. There are several larger houses on Buckingham Square and the southern end of Bridge Street which are also notable for their vertical sliding sashes and green Westmorland slate (below top). The vista from Buckingham Square along the Castlegate section of Borough Beck towards the bridge and church provides one of the most well known views of the Conservation Area (below bottom).

The Market Place (below top) forms the historic, social and commercial nucleus of the town. It continues to provide an important functional space for the Conservation Area and a market is still held here on a weekly basis (Friday). Consequently the Market Place represents an important, open public space although much of the open space within the Market Place is currently used for car parking and conflict between pedestrians and vehicles is an ongoing issue. Although the Market Place contains larger buildings (below bottom) than the rest of the Conservation Area, many of which break with the normal pattern of development, comprising two and a half or three storeys, the open space of the market place prevents these buildings from becoming too oppressive. The majority of buildings which contain three storeys also have diminishing storeys and as such appear smaller than some larger, two storey buildings. Buildings here are mostly constructed of coursed rubble and some are rendered or painted both of which help to reduce the formality of the Market Place. The organic cluster of buildings to the south of the square also softens the appearance of the Market Place adding charm to the character of this area.

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Zone 4

Zone 5

Ryegate, Pottergate, Bells Court

Bondgate, Carlton Lane, Villiers Court, Elsmslac Close, Canons Garth

This area forms the eastern boundary to the Conservation Area and contains the largest amount of new development. The oldest streets in this area, evident from early maps and archaeological analysis, are Pottergate and Ryegate. These streets, together with Bondgate, enclose a property block that is a relict landscape of the 12th century ‘borough’ town planning, although the historic houses that now occupy it date predominantly from the 18th or 19th centuries. These buildings are small, mostly low, terraced cottages (below top) constructed from local stone with pantile roofs and Yorkshire sliding sashes. They are built close up to the pavement edge and have a varied eaves lines, ridge height and roof pitch.

Bondgate, whilst being bounded on the south by traditional, terraced cottages, is slightly unusual in that it has several larger Victorian villas set in their own grounds on its northern side. These gardens and the mature trees that they contain enhance the character of this area. There is also a row of twelve terraced houses (below top) known locally, due to their number, as the ‘Apostles’. These too are set back from the pavement edge creating small yet attractive front gardens. The repetition and similarity of these cottages is part of their charm but the installation of plastic doors and windows in some of these cottages threatens to undermine the character of this row. The installation of plastic doors and windows (below bottom) has also taken place further along Bondgate and on Pottergate, in Area 4, detracting from the character of the area and standing out as an alien and unsympathetic material. Often, however, modern methods of window opening have just as negative an impact on the character of the area as the use of plastic does.

Historic plot boundaries and the traditional built form have been maintained in these streets in part, but the new development including Bells Court and Rye Court depart from these historic street forms and building patterns (below bottom). This new development appears alien in its context and jars with the otherwise harmonious streetscape. The incorporation of non-vernacular architectural elements, such as porches , exacerbates the impact of this development.

The predominant boundary treatment in this vicinity is stone walling and both this and the traditional outbuildings make a positive contribution to the character of the area.

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Local Character

Building Size

Arrangement

Building Size.

Organic Arrangement.

Although the Market Place contains larger buildings than the rest of the Conservation Area, many of which break with the normal pattern of development, comprising two and a half or three storeys, the open space of the market place prevents these buildings from becoming too oppressive. The majority of buildings which contain three storeys also have diminishing storeys and as such appear smaller than some larger, two storey buildings. Buildings here are mostly constructed of coursed rubble and some are rendered or painted both of which help to reduce the formality of the Market Place.

The organic cluster of buildings to the south of the square also softens the appearance of the Market Place adding charm to the character of this area. Borogate and Meeting House Court provide smaller scale pedestrian mews both of which link the Market Place to the rest of the Conservation Area and provide safe and attractive areas in which to walk and shop.

Market Place

dge

Bri eet

Str

te ga

ro

Bo

Helmsley 1:500

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Settlement

Development

Nucleated Settlement.

Backland Development.

Many of the places that we consider to be locally distinctive, such as the historic town centre of Helmsley or Hutton-le-Hole, grew incrementally in response to local circumstances.

Due to the high environmental quality and intact historic street frontages, it is envisaged that the majority of new development in Helmsley will be on back land areas. Here, development of back land areas must respect the scale, massing, materials and character of the surrounding buildings.

Helmsley initially grew up around the Church and the crossroads. At the crossroads the market placed developed, from the market place other retail outlets have grown. This has formed the hub of the settlement with residential spread around the edges, this has mainly been focused to the North and the East due to the location of the castle blocking development to the West.

Existing infill in backland areas -

Market Square

gate

East

r Potte

Main nucleus

gate

Residential Spread dge

Bri eet

Str

Helmsley 1 : 10000

Helmsley 1 : 1500

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Historic Vernacular

The strong character is one of pavement edge development creating strong, horizontal building lines within the street scene.

This area is dominated by Duncombe Park Estate’ s housing and its connections with the Estate are made tangible by the presence of the Estate entrance and old gate house. Although this area is mainly terraced housing its character is quite different to that of Conservation Areas 1, 4 and 5. Housing is set back from the pavement edge creating small front gardens which are bounded by picket fencing and cast iron railings. Both are low level and permeable and should not be replaced with panelled fencing or higher boundary treatments which would enclose this area.

The pattern of pavement edge development should create a feeling of enclosure within the town. The relatively wide streets, however, the regular occurrence of open spaces such as alleyways to the sides of properties, allotments and burgage plots and the sudden discovery of the open Market Place at the heart of the town prevents this from happening.

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Historical Build-up

10th Century

1190

Helmsley originated with the church in the 10th century, this was situated to one side of what has become the current market square.

Helmsley castle was built around 1180 and has grown up gradually through several stages. Parts of the castle still stand to this day. With the castle, what is now the centre of Helmsley, started to grow.

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1600

Modern Day Development has continued to spread to the north and the east, to try and decrease the rapid spreading of the boundary, a lot of in-fill development has happened. This has resulted in different densities of development across the town.

From the market square the development spread to the north and the east. Spread was halted to the south and west by the River Rye and the castle.

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Access

Public Roads

Private Roads

The main road through Helmsley is the A170, it connects the A1 to the coast at Scarborough. The B1257 links the centre of Helmsley to Stokesley and Middlesbrough to the North. Two other roads to the North lead to the open moorland of the North Yorkshire Moors.

There are a large number of private roads within Helmsley. The majority of these are small residential streets with the main exception of the driveway up to Duncombe Park estate.

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Bus Routes

Pedestrian Zones

Helmsley is well linked to the local bus network enabling public transport to the coast, to the nearest train station, further in to the North Yorkshire Moors and to the nearest big city of York. The main bus stop is located centrally in Helmsley, alongside the market square.

There are very few pedestrian only areas within Helmsley and they are located near the central market square area.

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Helmsley Development Plan Suggested Sites For Development

2

3

1 The main purpose of the Helmsley Development Plan will be the allocation of sites for further development. When selecting sites for development the Local Planning Authorities will consider the following: -

Meeting the objectives of both the North Yorkshire Moors’ and Ryedale District Council’s Core strategies (the existing local plan frameworks of each Planning Authority.

-

Recognising the different weight to be given to different issues. For example highways, accessibility, flood risk and impact on heritage assets and nature conservation sites.

-

Recognising the need to only allocate deliverable and developable sites - that is those that are available and can be developed at some point set out in the Helmsley Plan.

The Helmsley Plan will be used alongside the planning policies of the existing North Yorkshire Moors Core Strategy and Development Policies Document and the emerging Ryedale Plan in assessing new development proposals in Helmsley.

Areas put forward for potential development

North Yorkshire Moors National Park 6 Local Conservation Area

5 Flood Zone 2

Scale 1 : 10000

Flood Zone 3

The map to the right shows the site currently being put forward for development.

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4


Site 1

Site 2

Current Use - Agricultural

Current Use - The site is currently part sports playing field and part grazing land .

Site Description - The site is entirely located on a hillside, mainly slope away to the south, towards Helmsley. The Western edge of the site slopes more steeply in that direction, down towards Borough Beck.

Site Description - The site is situated on the Northern edge of Helmsley, and adjoins the Elmslac housing estate. To the West is the main sports field, the site itself is used as an overflow sports facility. Public footpath running along the West.

Constraints - The two slopes of the site (gentle to the South, steeply to the West) are the biggest constraints of this site , major ground works would need to be undertaken during construction. This would need to be considered during design.

Constraints - As part of the site is presently used as a sports facility, a provision will need to be proposed the it’s replacement prior to any planning permission being granted.

Accessibility - The site is easily accessible from Baxton’s Sprunt, reasonably close to the local infant school and the doctors, a short walk from the main retail area of Helmsley which also offers public transport links.

Accessibility - The site has good overall accessibility with close proximity to the school, doctors and the retail area.

Flood Risk - As this site is located on the hillside sloping up and away from Helmsley, it is not in any recognised flood zone area.

Flood Risk - As this site is located on the hillside sloping up and away from Helmsley, it is not in any recognised flood zone area.

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Site 3

Site 5

Current Use - Grazing land.

Current Use - Agricultural.

Site Description - The site is located to the north of the A170, to the far North Eastern edge of Helmsley. The land falls gently from the North East towards the South West and has much steeper slopes bordering the Northern edge.

Site Description - The site lies to the South of the A170, to the North of the River Rye and accessed via Riccal Drive. The land lies relatively flat, currently in agricultural use and is drained by Spittle Beck which bounds the site to the East.

Constraints - There are some mature trees on the North East corner of the site, mainly Oak with some Sycamore. There is also a rare apple orchard to the South East, records show that this could be over 100 years old.

Constraints - This site is located 106 metres to the West of a Scheduled Monument. Proposal for this location will need to demonstrate that no harm would come to the monuments including their setting.

Accessibility - The site has good overall accessibility being close to the main road (A170), a bus stop, doctors and school.

Accessibility - The site has good employment prospects being near the industrial area but isn’t near school or doctors.

Flood Risk - The site partly falls within Flood Zone 2, Any development over 1 hectare in size requires a flood risk assessment at full planning application stage. Where feasible developers should consider the use of sustainable drainage systems in order to mitigate against the threat to species in the River Derwent as a result of increased run-off.

Flood Risk - The area immediately adjacent to Spittle Beck is Flood Zone 3 and should be avoided. The site mainly falls within Flood Zone 2, Any development over 1 hectare in size requires a flood risk assessment at full planning application stage. Increased water run-off should be dealt with as sustainably as possible to mitigate threat to wildlife.

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Site 6

Site 5

Current Use - Overgrown scrub-land.

Current Use - Grass scrub-land.

Site Description - The site lies to the South West of Helmsley centre and on the boundary of the Duncombe Park estate, there is a gradual slope to the south, towards the River Rye. Access along the bottom of the site is needed for properties on the Southern edge of Bridge Street.

Site Description - The site is located very close to Helmsley Castle which is an Ancient Scheduled Monument. The land is relatively level with only a little slope toward the East. Trees and vegetation surround the site, mainly to the South East.

Constraints - The main issues with this site will be the proximity of the River Rye and the small size of the site. Accessibility - Very close to retails outlets, a longer distance to the school and doctors but still within walking distance. Flood Risk - The area immediately adjacent to River Rye is Flood Zone 3 and should be avoided. The site mainly falls within Flood Zone 2, Any development over 1 hectare in size requires a flood risk assessment at full planning application stage. Increased water run-off should be dealt with as sustainably as possible to mitigate threat to wildlife.

Constraints - Even though the High Street is in close proximity, the immediate access to the site is a narrow and rough gravel lane. Access for larger vehicles could prove problematic. Accessibility - The site is located close to Hight street, off a small road, Cleveland Way. The nearby retail is very close but the other facilities (school, doctors) are a little further away but still within walking distance. Flood Risk - The site is one of the furthest from any water source within Helmsley, due to this it does not lie within any currently recognised flood risk area.

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Brief Chosen Site After investigating and considering the Helmsley Development Plan and the requirements of the town, it has been decided to produce a proposal for a centre within Helmsley which will encourage outdoor activities in the area and increase visitor numbers to the National Park.

This site has been chosen for the project as it lies both within the area of the town centre and close to the boundary of Duncombe Park.

Area of town centre

The locality of the town is important as people using the centre may be staying in the local hotels/B&Bs and may also wish to use the shops for food, drinks or even gifts. Area of site

Being close to the boundary of Duncombe Park is good as some of the activities (walking, orienteering, bush craft) may actually happen in the park. Being this close would save on having to transport people to the activity venue.

Area of Duncombe Park

Opposite page - View over Westerdale, North Yorkshire Moors

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National Park Policy On Increasing Tourism

Challenges acknowledged by NYM: 1 - Reversing the current trend of a decline in the number of tourists and tourist days spent in the National Park. 2 - An increasing need to promote health and wellbeing, particularly in view of increases in levels of obesity and heart disease, set against increasingly sedentary and technology-led lifestyles of many young people. 3 - Embracing the drive nationally to reconnect people with nature and increase the number of volunteers. 4 - Embracing the development of an ‘experience economy’ that focuses on experience over material goods. 5 - The effects of climate change may lead to damage to some of the National Park’s infrastructure such as bridges and rights of way. CO2 emssions related to tourism must be minimised, particularly if it is considered that the number of tourist days will rise. 6 - Ensuring that recreational activities in the Park do not result in harm to the historic environment and tranquility and do not disturb communities and vulnerable or protected wildlife. 7 - Minimising conflicts between different recreational interests.

In 15 years time: More people of all ages, backgrounds and abilities now have a high quality, enjoyable experience of the National Park. They undertake a range of activities including walking, cycling, sightseeing and other more adventurous activities. These activities bring benefits in terms of people’s health and wellbeing and are undertaken in ways which minimise the impact on the natural environment.

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Suitability Of Helmsley For An Outdoor Centre

Scugdale Crag -

Open Moorland -

Both climbing and abseiling can be achieved at Scugdale Crag. Not an extensive area but at only 20 miles from the site it offers a good opportunity, only a short distance away.

7.5 miles to the North of Helmsley is open moorland, this countryside is ideal for teaching orienteering and bush-craft techniques. As well as this the moorland is good for cycling and hiking.

The Coast Not local at 30 miles away but the nearest coastal area is Scarborough, sailing, wind-surfing, surfing, open canoeing among many more activities.

Rievaulx Abbey A popular walk from Helmsley to the tourist attraction of Rievaulx Abbey. A seven mile round trip can be done in around 4 hours but with a visit to the Abbey and a refreshment break, most of the day could be spent on this adventure.

Duncombe Park This large estate to the West of Helmsley was waymarked walks around the estate and currently runs orienteering courses for all ages which explore the woodlands, river valley, meadows, woodland skyline and commercial forestry.

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Outdoor Centres

Current Centres - North Yorkshire Moors

Outdoor activity centres or outward bound centres can serve multiple functions, they can boost individual self-confidence, used for team building exercises, increase personal fitness and many others.

Valley Adventure - Saltburn by the Sea Carlton Outdoor Education Centre - Middlesbrough

Newton House Field Centre - Whitby

A centre can either have activities based at the centre itself and also utilise facilities a little further a field. In both instances the centre acts like a base, from here people can the theoretical side and then head out to various locations for the physical aspect.

HELMSLEY Peat Rigg Outdoor Training Centre - Pickering Carlton Lodge Outdoor Centre - Thirsk Rocksteady Adventure Ltd - York

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Carlton Lodge Outdoor Centre

Rocksteady Adventure Ltd

Carlton Miniott, Thirsk, YO7 4NJ

York Eco Business Centre, Amy Johnson Way, Clifton Moor, YO30 4AG

Activities: Canoeing, abseiling, caving, gorge walking, mountain biking, bouldering, challenge course, highropes, raft building, archery, climbing wall.

Activities: RYA recognised sailing school based at Wykeham Lakes. Canoeing, windsurfing, raftbuilding, sailing, orienteering, mountain biking, rock climbing, caving, gorge walking.

Carlton Outdoor Education Centre

Valley Adventures

Carlton-in-Cleveland, Middlesbrough, TS9 7BD

Woodland Centre in Valley Gardens, Saltburn by the Sea

Activities: Archery, canoeing, rock climbing, orienteering, open canoeing, hill walking, mountaineering, problem solving courses, environmental field studies, high ropes, bushcraft.

Activites: Archery, surfing, bridge build, bushcraft, coastal discovery, orienteering, obstacle and adventure courses, problem solving, scavenger hunt.

Peat Rigg Outdoor Training Centre Cropton, Pickering, YO18 8EX Activities: Rock climbing, canoeing, zip lining, abseiling, orienteering, kayaking, high rope, gorge scrambling, caving, sea kayaking, hill walking, raft building.

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Hotels + B&Bs Which Would Be Supported By Addition Of Activity Centre

There are 16 hotels and B&Bs within 8 miles of Helmsley, 12 within 3 miles. All 16 will accommodate 336 individuals (more if sofa beds etc. are included). This shows an already large business focused on providing accommodation for tourists. These business could only profit further from the additional tourism brought in by a newly developed outdoor centre.

B&Bs: 5, Stilworth House 6 6, Westway Cottage 6

10 11

7, No. 54 6

Hotels:

4

8, Laskill Country House

12

8 Miles

8 14

9, Plumpton Court 12 1, The Black Swan Hotel

90

5

10, Easterside Farm 10

13 16 4

7 1

2, Pheasant Hotel 24

11, The Inn at Hawnby

12

3, The Feathers Hotel

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12, Laskill Grange 12

4, Feversham Arms Hotel

66

13, The Carlton Lodge

16

14, Red Roofs B&B

8

15, The Royal Oak

10

16, Heather Cottage B&B

4

15

3 Miles

9

6

3 3 Miles 2

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Shops Which Would Be Supported By Addition Of Activity Centre

There are in the region of 60 shops/cafĂŠs/business that would benefit from the added tourism that an outdoor centre would bring to the area. Weather they be just day visitors or staying in a local hotel/B&B, they may require gifts from many of the souvenir shops or possibly food from one of the cafĂŠs.

One of many outlets for sandwiches/snacks/drinks

Range of shops/facilities available

Souvenir shop for gifts to take home

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Requirements Of Activity Centre

Depending on the scale of the centre and the different activities that will be happening, different spaces will be required in the building. Space requirements of a typical Outdoor/Activity Centre:

Classrooms/Dining room

Kit rooms

Drying rooms

Toilets

Showers/Changing rooms

Kitchen Outdoor centres require the mix of special dedicated spaces such as kit rooms and drying rooms but also multifunctional spaces like a dining room that could also be used as a briefing/meeting room.

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Toilets -

Kit Storage -

Kitchen -

The amount of toilet required will depend on the number of people using the facility and what service the facility provides. Following numbers are suited for sports centres with 50/50 male/female. WC - 2 per 100 males, 1 per 5 females. Urinals - 1 per 20 males. Unisex WC - 1 minimum. Wash basins - 1 per WC, 1 per 5 urinals.

Depending on the size of the centre the amount of storage needed will vary, the bigger the centre the more storage needed. This obviously depends on weather or not the centre supply all the kit for the activities.

The size of the kitchen is not only determined by the amount of people being catered for but also the type of dining. More space is required for a kitchen serving a dining restaurant than a more simple cafe/coffee shop. Typical space requirements for different needs (m2per seat)

WC cubical sizes (m2) Able-bodied - 1.5 Disabled - 2.5

Fine Dining - 0.9 Mid-market Restaurant - 0.6 Cafeteria - 0.4

Showers/Changing Rooms -

Drying Room -

Dining Room -

Both shower cubicles and changing facilities alter in size depending whether or not they are for disabled people or not.

The size of the drying room will depend on the size of the centre and the amount of kit in use. How ever much kit there is, when wet it will need to dried efficiently for a quick turn around. This will require enough space to spread things out to enable them to dry.

As with a kitchen, a dining room requirements are different depending on the type of food being served.

Shower Cubicle, including drying space (m2) Able-bodied - 2 Disabled - 5 (including WC) Changing cubicle (m2) Able-bodied - 1 (minimum) Disabled - 4 (minimum), 5 (comfortable)

Typical space requirements for different needs (m2per seat)

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Fine Dining - 2.0 Coffee Shop - 1.7 Banquet - 1.0 Bar & Lounge - 1.8 (1.2 crowded)

Different facilities require a different amount of space, the other thing that determines the space needed is, the amount of people being catered for.


Environmental Issues

Changing Rooms/Showers

Different spaces with different functions will require different environmental considerations. For example, a kitchen will require good ventilation but natural lighting may not be a high priority. On the other hand, a classroom will need the natural illumination but not necessarily the same amount of ventilation.

Kit Storage

Lighting - Both natural and artificial lighting will be required in the changing rooms/shower, this is due to the rooms being used both in the day time and evening. Due to the nature of changing rooms, any light provided through natural means will have to be through obscured glazing.

Ventilation -

Heating -

Cooling -

The changing rooms will need to be heated, specially in winter as people will be changing and during this, will not be clothed. Underfloor heating would be preferable as it provides a good even heat and would not be cold to the touch on the feet.

No excessive cooling will be required in the changing rooms.

The showers will produce a lot of moisture which will need to be gotten rid of through mechanical ventilation.

Kitchen

Lighting -

Ventilation -

Lighting -

Ventilation -

Some items of kit, specially climbing safety kit have to be stored away from direct sunlight, the sunlight can damage the integrity of the equipment. This means that this storage can be in a dark room with only artificial lighting.

Some level of ventilation will be required in case any equipment is put away slightly damp. The movement of air should help any remaining moisture from damaging the equipment.

As the space will likely be used both in the day time and the evening, natural and artificial lighting will be required. As the activities may commence early in the morning, packed lunches may be required, this will mean kitchen preparation may have to be done even earlier, artificial lighting will be required while dark outside.

Lots of ventilation required in kitchen/ cooking facilities due to steam moisture created during the cooking process.

Heating -

Cooling -

Heating -

Cooling -

Minimal level of heating will suffice for kit storage. This will help any residual dampness to dry out.

No cooling required for kit storage.

Heating will be required in this space, potentially the kitchen may only be used for the preparation of snacks, cold food. During these times no heating through cooking will be made so additional heating will be needed.

In large commercial kitchens cooling will be required due to the heat created through cooking. In this smaller space, which might in certain cases only be producing cold/ snack food, not as much heat will be created. Therefore the demand for cooling will be less. Ventilation and the passage of air may be enough in this instance.

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Classrooms

Offices/Admin

Lighting -

Ventilation -

Lighting -

Ventilation -

Both natural and artificial lighting required in the classrooms. Any natural light from direct sunlight may have to be obscured from time to time if lectures are taking place. The strong light can effect the performance of computer/projector screens.

Natural ventilation should suffice in classroom/dining room spaces, no excess moisture or heat should be created.

Both natural and artificial lighting required in the office/admin rooms. Any natural light from direct sunlight may have to be obscured as the strong light can effect the performance of computer screens.

Ventilation maybe required to add a cooling a affect from the heat of any sunlight and running computers. No other need for ventilation requirements to get rid of excess moisture.

Heating -

Cooling -

Heating -

Cooling -

Underfloor heating in classroom spaces would provide a good level of even heating throughout the space.

If the space has plenty of direct sunlight, it may need to be cooled in the summer, specially if used for long periods of time during the day. This could either be through efficient ventilation or solar shading.

A reasonable level of underfloor heating should suffice in office/admin spaces.

In spaces with direct sunlight, during the summertime they may need cooling, the heat generated from computers can also add to the need for cooling. This could either be from solar shading to stop the heat entering the space or through ventilation.

Dining Room

Drying Room

Lighting -

Ventilation -

Lighting -

Ventilation -

Both natural and artificial lighting required in the dining rooms. The space may be used for breakfast before sunrise and for evening meal after sunset.

A certain level of ventilation maybe required in the dining room to get rid of food smells, an efficient natural ventilation system should suffice.

A drying room will require no natural light, artificial light will suffice. This means that the location of the drying room can either be in the centre of a building or possibly even underground.

The amount of moisture in a drying room will require very good ventilation, very probably mechanical ventilation to aid any natural ventilation.

Heating -

Cooling -

Heating -

Cooling -

Underfloor heating in classroom spaces would provide a good level of even heating throughout the space.

If the space has plenty of direct sunlight, it may need to be cooled in the summer, specially if used for long periods of time during the day. This could either be through efficient ventilation or solar shading.

The very nature of a drying room means it require lots of heating, possibly more than any other room in the building. This means that the room will have to be well insulated to help minimise the amount of energy required to heat the room.

This will not be required as it will have negative effect on the function of the room.

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Site Analysis Solar Gain

The trees to the south of the site cast large shadows across the majority of the site throughout the day. Any raised spaces in the development will benefit more from the sunlight. Ground floor or basement spaces will be well shaded from direct solar gain. 10:00 - Composition

16:00 - Composition

13:00 - Composition

Daily Composition

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Wind - Macro/Micro

Daytime effects on the wind due to the valley

Prominent Wind Direction From South/West

- As the day progresses and the air in the valley warms up, the air rises up the valley. As this air rises it is replaced by cooler air falling into the bottom of the valley.

Evening effects on the wind due to the valley - During the evening the air cools and sinks back down to the bottom of the valley. - The warm air remaining in the valley rises straight up and gradually follows the cooler air down again.

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The Site


Precipitation

Drainage

The dominant geology of the North York Moors is the relatively hard Jurassic mudstone. The area is generally dominated by slowly permeable, seasonally waterlogged, clayey and loamy upland soils. The surface layers of these soils are usually peaty and acidic.

In the most part Helmsley slopes away to the south, water run off is in this direction and also into the small beck which runs from the North to the South and flows in to the River Rye.

Due to these physical and climatological factors, the hydrological response of the North York Moors to rainfall events can be very quick and ‘flashy’. The steep slopes, of hard mudstone overlain by clayey soils, can generate large amounts of runoff very quickly, leading to a very ‘flashy’ hydrological response. Groundwater flows are important in the area of limestone towards the southern edge of the North York Moors. Condensation and rain

Heavier rain falls on higher ground

Rain Shadow

Air Cools

Warm, moist Westerly winds

Atlantic

North Sea

3750mm

1205mm

Less 750mm

Lake District

Pennine Hills

North - East England

The site slopes down to the banks of the River Rye, water run off is in this direction only. On the opposite side of the river the land rises more steeply up and away from Helmsley. Water run off into the river from this side is greater due to the increase in gradient. Winter 400 -500mm Autumn 300 - 400mm Spring 250 - 300mm Summer 200 - 250mm

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Flooding

The existing flood risk situation within Helmsley is displayed in Figure 10.9. It shows that a significant number of properties lie within Flood Zone 3, and are therefore potentially at risk from a 1% flood event.

PPS25 - Flood Zones and degree of flood risk.

There appear to be several sources of this predicted flooding. The River Rye flows in an easterly direction along the southern edge of the town, and is a designated ‘main river’. Borough Beck flows through the town from the north-west and joins the River Rye just upstream of the Helmsley Bridge. Spittle Beck flows along the eastern edge of the town and confluences with the River Rye downstream of the town. Both of these are ordinary watercourses.

Flood Zone 2 Medium Probability - between 0.1% + 1% chance of annual flood.

River

Flood Zone 1 Low Probability - less than 0.1% chance of annual flood.

Flood Zone 3

Flood Zone 2

Flood Zone 3a High Probability - 1% or greater chance of annual flood. Flood Zone 3d Functional Floodplain - Land to provide flood storage.

1

3

2 Reported drainage issues Reported Surface runoff flooding 2

Reported main river flooding

2 4 3

Flood Zone 3 4 Flood Zone 2

Helmsley - 1:10000

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Form Development

Opposite page - All Saint Church, Helmsley

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Existing Site Photos

Photo One - View of entrance to site

Photo Three - Looking from across the site

Photo Two - Looking from across site towards river

Photo Four - Looking across site to castle

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Site 1:1250

Bridge Street - To Town Centre/Market Square

Photo Two - Looking from across site towards river

Photo One - View of entrance to site

Buckingham Square - To Duncombe Park Estate

Photo Three - Looking from across the site

A170 - To Thirsk/Malton/A1

Photo Four - Looking across site to castle

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Form Development Existing Building Height

Plan 1:1000

Section N-S 1:500

This section shows the section of the site with the building to the north of the site to the left of the section. This is the tallest nearby building and therefore dictates the potential height of this proposal.

Section W-E 1:500

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As can be seen below, raising the building to 7 meters does raise it above the height of the buildings to the east. This be taken into account further down the design route.

“Design Guidelines - consider the scale, massing and height of a building in relation to adjoining or adjacent buildings and their respective dimensions;� - North York Moors Design Guide, Part 1, General Principles

Initially the plot envelope has been raised up to the same height as nearby existing buildings, the maximum as stated in local conservation guidelines. This creates a large volume that can them be manipulated and carved away at as required depending on different criteria.


Sight lines POLICY H8 - Important Open Views All proposals should maintain the existing important open views to both the open countryside and to the historic built environment, in particular the setting of Duncombe Park and Helmsley Castle, All Saints Church, the Town Hall and the remaining burgage plots to the west of Church Street and Castlegate which play an important role in the character of the town and the setting of the North York Moors National Park.

Helmsley Castle

Site

One of the main attractions of Helmsley, the Castle, can be seen when entering the town from the bridge over the River Rye. While this view may be obscured slightly in the summer by the trees, it would be obscured further with a large new development on the site. View from the bridge

View of Helmsley Castle

Any development on the site should not be of sufficient height to obscure the view of the castle

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Bridge Over River Rye


Castle View One

Castle View Two

B

B

A Section A-B 1:500 The yellow line in the below section connects the viewpoint on the bridge to the ridge line on the nearby residential building. Anything above this line on the site will obscure an existing view of the castle

A The large residential building to the north-west of Buckingham Square blocks a certain view of Helmsley Caste from the bridge as you enter Helmsley. Above this house the castle can be seen so this dictates the first cut into the building envelope. Taking an angle from the view point on the bridge to the ridge line of the house marks the limit for the roof for this section of the building.

Section A-B 1:500

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The section below shows the line which is drawn from the view point to the lowest existing view of the castle. Below this line there is no view of of the castle so the building can remain.

As one looks through the area to the south-west of the site, there are no existing obstructions to the view of the castle. As the castle is on a mound it is raised up from the local landscape, this creates a volume of space in which this building can sit and not obscure any views.


Building Line

Initially the plot envelope has been raised up to the same height as nearby existing buildings, the maximum as stated in local conservation guidelines. Section N-S 1:500

This creates a large volume that can them be manipulated and carved away at as required depending on different criteria. Plan 1:1000 As it stands the building envelope matches that of the site in plan. This does not however fit in with the local settlement character.

Plan 1:1000 Here the north-west edge of the building has been moved 3.5 meters into the plot to fall in line with the local building line.

Local Character

The building line within Helmsley is largely up to the pavement but locally around the site it is stepped back. One of the guidelines with the conservation area is to adhere to local building lines with new developments.

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Building Program The Site Section Depending on the shape of the building and the location of the building on the site, different internal spaces will have different characteristics. With an investigation into what these spaces maybe like, one can arrange the internal spaces accordingly. For example, areas that will be predominately dark can be set aside for storage and services.

Top - This represents the highest point of the potential building envelope, spaces here are going to have the best views, and access to the most natural light. Ground Level - Entrance points will be at this level, spaces will have reasonable access to natural light, a good connection with the outside world should be achievable. Basement - Below ground natural light will be limited even where light-wells are used, little views of natural life.

Internal Spaces Kitchen The kitchen does not require huge amounts of natural light or have the need for wide open views. For these reasons the space is to the rear of the building. Dining/Meeting Room This should be one of the main spaces in the building, because of this it has prime location with lots of natural light and the best views possible. Admin Natural light is required so the space is placed on the edge of the building, views are not needed so placed on the street side. Toilets/Showers This area requires no natural light or views so can be placed within the building, this may be changed depending on access needs. Reception The entrance/reception area clearly needs to be adjacent to the access point and so it is placed accordingly.

Public / Private Spaces Grouping the public spaces together and the private spaces together will help when it comes to arranging circulations spaces. It can also make the building more simple to navigate for the public.

Services The services and accompanying spaces can be located in the basement as access will not be required frequently and only by centre staff. No light/views. Storage As long as the space is well ventilated there are few other requirement for kit storage. Easy access is important and will need to be thought about.

Public - The public spaces have been arranged to the southern side of the site, this means the public get the views.

Drying Room One of the first spaces to be used after an activity so quick/easy access for guests and equipment is paramount, as is good ventilation and warmth.

Private - Towards the northern side of the building are the private spaces, these are the darker spaces with little views.

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Courtyard Development

Due to the organic and infill nature of development within Helmsley, there are a collection of different courtyard type spaces throughout the town. Some are original designed spaces, some have come about due to the development of spaces around them.

River Facing Courtyard

River Facing Courtyard

Advantages - Increases the views over the trees and river, creates a private area away from the street

Advantages - Creates a good space for access into the building direct from the road. Will have views over the town of Helmsley.

Disadvantages - Open courtyard not private from nearby access to the south of the plot.

Disadvantages - Larger area of building facing North away from sunlight/solar gain.

Double Courtyard

Central Courtyard

Advantages - Good access from the road, creates areas with views over the tree and river.

Advantages - Provides light into the centre of the building, area inside is private from nearby street and access.

Disadvantages - Results in an awkward shaped building, arranging internal spaces may be compromised

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Disadvantages - Does not create any extra views over the town or river/trees


Hierarchy

Entrance

Looking back to the market square of Helmsley and the hierarchy of the different spaces and buildings, a similar approach was taken with placing the main meeting room/dining area. This is one of the few spaces in the building where people will be able to relax and take advantage of the surroundings. Dropping the height of the central section of the building increases the views out of the building and creates an open space that could be used as a terrace during good weather.

As the building currently occupied the entire site, the corner was removed to create an entrance area and a place to park a couple of vehicles.

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Light Well The large basement area is currently underground with no views or access to natural light. With the addition of this light-well, it opens up the basement to limited views of the surrounding trees and landscape. It also allows natural light to flood the space, in turn making it a more enjoyable place to be.

Canopy The original roof-line has been extended back over the entrance area, to form a canopy. This accentuates the entrance of the building and offers staff/clients some protection when coming and going during inclement weather.

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Views ‘POLICY H8 - Important Open Views All proposals should maintain the existing important open views to both the open countryside and to the historic built environment, in particular the setting of Duncombe Park and Helmsley Castle, ‘

As well as protecting the views across this site as per local policy, it is also worth considering the views that can be gained from any development on the site. With this in mind the diagram below shows the potential views of different aspects of Helmsley that could be seen from the site.

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Windows Building orientation and design that aims to maximise the benefit of solar gain and daylight is known as Passive Solar Design. For domestic buildings this can contribute as much as 15% of the energy required for heating and lighting. • To make the best use of natural light buildings should, where possible, be orientated with the windows of the main habitable rooms, usually on the longest side, within 30 degrees of south. - North York Moors Design Guide, Part 1, General Principles

The local design guide states that for sustainability reason the majority of the windows for habitable spaces are located within 30 degrees of south. For this reason the windows that are located on the north side have been limited and sited to make the best of the available views.

Castle Windows The tall narrow windows in castles were so designed to provide clear views of approaching armies and space to fire arrows out of the castle. Their tall/narrow nature also made it hard for the invading soldiers to fire arrows into the castle. Proposed Windows The windows in this proposal have been designed in order to provide views of particular areas of Helmsley.

Instructor Accommodation Taking the bedrooms as an example, the windows to the north have a view of the organic centre of Helmsley town centre. The windows to the south look over the first floor terrace on the centre and the trees/countryside beyond.

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80


Drawings

Opposite page - Project Proposal

81


Site 1:1250 Bridge Street - To Town Centre/Market Square

Buckingham Square - To Duncombe Park Estate

A170 - To Thirsk/Malton/A1

82


Site 1:500

Castlegate

A1 70 -B rid e tre

S ge t

are

m

ha

g kin

u Sq

c

Bu

River Rye

83


Basement 1:250

Services

Storage

Fire Escape

Basement/Climbing Area

Sta

irs

84

To G

rou

nd

Flo

or


Ground Floor 1:250

Office

Store

Drying Room

Equipment Store

Showers Entrance/Reception Toilets

Sta

irs

Fro m

Bas

em

Meeting Room

ent

Void

85


First Floor 1:250

Bedroom One

Bedroom Two

Kitchen

Dining Room & Large Meeting Room

Open Air Roof Terrace

Void To Basement

86


Roof 1:250

87


B

Sections - 1:250

D

C

A

A

B

C

D

88


Detail Section - 1:100

89


North Elevation 1:200

90


91


South Elevation 1:200

92


93


94


Strategies

Opposite page - Bridge Street, Helmsley

95


Spatial Strategies Entrance

Meeting Room

One of the key spaces within the centre is the main entrance/reception area, this is the first space the clients see and it also serves as the main circulation space. Not only does it act as a circulation area for spaces on the ground floor but it also connects the ground floor to the basement and the first floor.

An initial meeting space is required as to provide space for briefing clients before and activity. This is a simple space with immediate access from the main entrance/reception area. Key areas of consideration during the design process have been highlighted below.

The ground floor is not only connected to the other floors physically but also visually, the staircases are placed in large voids which connect the vertical spaces visually.

When considering the route through the building for potential clients, the briefing room would be the first place the clients would use after the signing in at reception.

Scale 1:50

Scale 1:200

Scale 1:250

View of River/Trees

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The briefing room has only limited views, this is a deliberate consideration as to not provide any potential distractions during talks regarding safety.


Toilets/Showers

Equipment Store

Many spaces may have communal changing rooms and/or gender segregated changing/toilet facilities. With the limited space on this site and only the small groups likely to use the site, alternative changing facilities have been considered.

The main equipment store is immediately accessible from outside, this is for ease of removing and replacing the equipment used for activities. The space is connected to the dry room so items can easily be transferred between the two areas. There are no requirements for views from the store as people do not spend a large amount of time in here, also for the same reason, electric lighting will provide all the lighting needs.

The shower and changing area is directly accessible from the outside of the building and not directly connected to the main area of the building. This space is the dirty zone and the toilets provide a buffer zone before entering the main building. All changing and toilet areas can be hosed down for cleaning.

The connecting doors link the main store room to the drying room. Any wet equipment that returns from an activity will go into the drying room, when dry it can be transferred to the main storage area.

Scale 1:50

Equipment store - Outside Scale 1:100

Direct access from outside to the storage room.

Storage Space Shower/changing

Lockers

Shower/changing

The outside space between the building and Buckingham Square access road can be used for cleaning the equipment used for the activities. Scale 1:50

Toilet

Toilet

Shower/changing

Toilet

Toilet

Shower/changing

Entrance

Hand Basins

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Internal access to get to and from the store room to the shower facilities.


Office Space

Basement

The office space has been located near to the entrance to the centre and the centre’s reception. Anyone coming to the centre to meet with the owners can easily be directed to them in the office. A view of the approach to the centre can be seen through the purposefully located windows, this also offers a certain level of passive security.

Due to the nature of outdoor activities, these can sometimes be affected by the weather. Most activities can still go ahead to a certain extent for example, walking, bush-craft and cycling. Some activities can’t go ahead in poor weather though, one of these is climbing. there is also no nearby climbing wall and this facility could also be used by the local community. Scale 1:50

Upon reaching the top of the climbing wall, one is rewarded with views of the countryside.

Scale 1:50

The open void spaces in the centre have been utilised for the purposes of the climbing wall.

Office/Admin Space

Store Room

Client Climbing

Client Belaying Reception

Basement

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Dining Room

Instructor Accommodation

The dining room/large meeting room is one of the few spaces in the building that will be used by people for a prolonged period of time. While here they will largely be relaxing and will have the time to appreciate the views from the highest point in the centre. This space has been specifically been located here to take advantage of the views over the River Rye and the surrounding landscape.

At centres such as this they often employ freelance instructors that possibly need accommodation on site. For this reason the centre has two en-suite rooms for this very reason. They have been located so that they have their own access from the ground floor and to the open air terrace on the first floor.

Scale 1:100

Scale 1:50

Kitchen

Store Room

Lift

om Fr oor l ss ce d F Ac oun Gr

Cupboard/Wardrobe Bed Dining Room/ Large Meeting Room

Void

Access to & from first floor terrace

Outside Terrace

Desk

En-suite

First Floor Terrace Access can be made to and from the bedrooms directly from the exterior of the site. This gives the instructors to opportunity to come and go without mingling with clients.

99

The doors for gaining access to the rooms are away from the main first floor terrace to help keep the rooms more private from the public access areas.

Windows have been orientated towards views of the church and Helmsley town centre.


Material Considerations - Sandstone Policy

“Ask yourself; does the development use a palette of materials which relate to its context?”

- NYM Design guide Part 1, General Principles.

“Design Guidelines Match or compliment the range of materials that are characteristic of the area.”

- NYM Design guide Part 1, General Principles.

Sandstone placed with the grain placed in a vertical direction can suffer from flaking or de-lamination. This is were the layers of stone separate from one another, the effect looks like they are peeling apart. Despite this, this is still the most popular way to lay sandstone.

The two most commonly used building materials in Helmsley are Limestone and Sandstone, because of the National Park and the conservation area, both of these materials are high on the list of materials to use in future developments. Sandstone can and is currently quarried reasonably locally and with in the National Park at Grosmont and near Whitby. Limestone is quarried a little further away in Lincolnshire. There are precedents in Helmsley for stone dug out for one development to be used for another. This could potentially happen with this project with the basement stone.

The diagram below shows the area of the site that would need to be dug out for the basement, this stone could then be worked and used for building the large outer walls of the development. See bottom images for precedents of how this has already been done in Helmsley.

Feversham Arms Hotel underground car park

100

Recent Canons Garth development


Appearance - Materials ‘The long-term appearance of buildings and their impact on the character of the area is greatly influenced by the type of materials used. It is not just the choice of suitable materials that is important but also their effective use to ensure new buildings are sympathetic to their setting. Therefore, the choice of the right materials and their correct use are a paramount consideration in the design process and should be treated with equal status to siting, form and design of a new building.’ - North York Moors Design Guide, Part 1, General Principles

A comment design feature around Helmsley is the difference between the use of stone on building frontages and the use of the stone on less prominent façades.

Residential Property Buckingham Square, Helmsley Eastern Elevation

Northern Elevation

To the front of buildings their is predominantly a more formal arrangement to the stone work with proper courses laid out like bricks. A less formal approach is taken with other façades, this uses up bits of rough stone which couldn’t be used at the front or on more formal buildings.

Residential Property Eastern Elevation This facade uses those blocks of rough stone less suitable for a more prominent position.

Pottergate Helmsley

Northern Elevation This is the elevation most visible from the street and will be composed of formal courses of stone.

Commercial Property Castlegate, Helmsley

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Stone Detailing “- Original stone or brickwork should not be rendered, clad or painted as these change the character of the existing building. - A lime-mortar mix should be used where stone is the chosen material of construction..”

“As a general rule, joints should be filled to sit flush (or slightly recessed back) from the wall face – particularly if the stone is eroded, pressing the mortar firmly into the joints and finished with a bagged/stippled surface to expose the aggregates.”

Inappropriate pointing techniques include: Buttered pointing

Ribbon/strap pointing

Pick-faced

Punched with a border

Pitched/rock face

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Recessed

Exterior

Flush

Exterior

Ribbon

Exterior

Bagged/ Stippled

Model Building

Tooling techniques: Bordered herringbone

- NYM Design guide Part 1, General Principles.

Exterior

Ashlar stonework with fine lime-putty pointing

Exterior

Appropriate pointing techniques include: Bagged/ stippled pointing

Exterior

- NYM Design guide Part 1, General Principles.

Buttered

Lined


Material Considerations - Timber

Policy Timber has been chosen as a material for several purposes including connecting the building to it’s local natural surroundings but also for it’s sustainability characteristics.

“Use a limited palette of materials to ensure coherence, particularly on small or infill developments or in sensitive locations such as conservation areas.”

The local country estate, Duncombe Park could supply the majority of the timber needed for this project, this estate is so local to the site they share boundaries.

- NYM Design guide Part 1, General Principles.

There are two saw mills in Helmsley, either of which could prepare the timber ready for use on site. The total miles travelled for timber used on this project would be in single figures. Trees Around Site

Timber Cladding On Castle Visitors Centre

Local Timber & Saw Mills Duncombe Park Estate Sawmill Two

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Site

Duncombe Sawmill


Construction Considerations U-Values - Solid Limestone Wall

Stone Wall 4000mm Limestone

Regulation Meeting Width Wall Calculating U-Values of a solid Limestone wall Limestone -

R =

1

4000

x 1.5 1000

=

2.8

U =

1 = 0.34 0.12 + 0.06 + 2.8

Material Volumes Limestone - 50.0m3 (2000kg/m3) = 100 tonne (100,000kg)

Totals - Material volume Material mass

= 50 m3 = 100,000 kg

Cradle - Gate Limestone - 100 tonnes (0.09 kg/co2/kg) = 9000 kg/co2 Total = 9000 kg/co2

Gate - Site Material delivered to site via 32 tonne truck Limestone0.94 x 100 = 94 MJ/km

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Timber Wall -

Timber Floor -

18mm Vertical boarding 40/60mm Horizontal battens Permeable Membrane 50 mm Insulation 70mm Insulation 100mm Cross-lam Timber 50mm Batons 50mm Insulation 12.5mm Plasterboard Paint to Finish

15mm Timber Floor Foil Protection Layer 60mm Screed Underfloor Heating Damp Proof Membrane 50 Insulation 140mm Cross-lam Timber 60mm Insulation Ceiling Hangers Finished Ceiling


U-Values - Limestone/Stone Chippings

Stone Wall 1500mm Limestone 600mm Stone Chippings 1500mm Limestone

Timber Wall -

Timber Floor -

18mm Vertical boarding 40/60mm Horizontal battens Permeable Membrane 50 mm Insulation 70mm Insulation 100mm Cross-lam Timber 50mm Batons 50mm Insulation 12.5mm Plasterboard Paint to Finish

15mm Timber Floor Foil Protection Layer 60mm Screed Underfloor Heating Damp Proof Membrane 50 Insulation 140mm Cross-lam Timber 60mm Insulation Ceiling Hangers Finished Ceiling

Material Volumes -

Limestone -

R = 1 x

Limestone - 37.5 m3 (2000kg/m3) = 75 tonne (75,000kg) Chippings - 7.5 m3 (1500kg/m3) = 11,250 kg

3000

1.50 1000 = 2.1 Totals - Material volume Material mass

= 45 m3 = 86,250 kg

Stone Chippings -

R =

1

Cradle - Gate -

600

x

Limestone - 75,000kg (0.09 kg/co2/kg) = 6750 kg/co2 Chippings - 11,250 kg (0.002 kg/co2/kg) = 22.5 kg/co2

0.96 1000 = 0.62

Total = 6772.5 kg/co2

Calculating U Values Of Wall Limestone/Stone Chippings/Limestone

U =

1 0.12 + 0.06 + 2.1 + 0.62

Gate - Site =

0.34

Material delivered to site via 32 tonne truck Limestone0.94 x 75 = 70.5 MJ/km Stone Chippings0.94 x 11.25 = 10.6 MJ/km Total = 81.1 MJ/km

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U-Values - Limestone/Stone Chippings/Polystyrene

Stone Wall -

Material Volumes -

Limestone -

R =

1

500mm Limestone 250mm Stone Chippings 100mm Polystyrene 250mm Stone Chippings 500mm Limestone

Limestone - 12.5 m3 (2000kg/m3) = 25 tonne (25,000kg) Polystyrene - 1.25 m3 (20kg/m3) = 25 kg Chippings - 6.25 m3 (1500kg/m3) = 9,375 kg

1000

x 1.50 1000 = 0.7

Totals - Material volume Material mass

= 20 m3 = 34,400 kg

Polystyrene -

R =

1

Cradle - Gate -

100

x

Limestone - 25,000 kg (0.09 kg/co2/kg) = 2250 kg/co2 Polystyrene - 25 kg (88.6 kg/co2/kg) = 2215 kg/co2 Chippings - 9,375 (0.002 kg/co2/kg) = 18.75 kg/co2

0.032 1000 = 3.13

Total = 4483.7 kg/co2

Stone chippings -

R =

1

Gate - Site -

500

x

Material delivered to site via 32 tonne truck -

0.96 1000 = 0.52

Limestone 0.94 x 25 = 23.5 MJ/km

Calculating U Values Of Wall -

Polystyrene 0.94 x 0.025 = 0.02 MJ/km

Limestone/Gravel/Polystyrene/Gravel/Limestone

U =

1 = 0.12 + 0.06 + 0.7 + 3.13 + 0.52

Stone Chippings 0.94 x 9.4 = 8.8 MJ/km 0.22

Total = 32.32 MJ/km

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Timber Wall -

Timber Floor -

18mm Vertical boarding 40/60mm Horizontal battens Permeable Membrane 50 mm Insulation 70mm Insulation 100mm Cross-lam Timber 50mm Batons 50mm Insulation 12.5mm Plasterboard Paint to Finish

15mm Timber Floor Foil Protection Layer 60mm Screed Underfloor Heating Damp Proof Membrane 50 Insulation 140mm Cross-lam Timber 60mm Insulation Ceiling Hangers Finished Ceiling


U-Values - Limestone/Sheep’s Wool

Timber Wall -

Timber Floor -

18mm Vertical boarding 40/60mm Horizontal battens Permeable Membrane 50 mm Insulation 70mm Insulation 100mm Cross-lam Timber 50mm Batons 50mm Insulation 12.5mm Plasterboard Paint to Finish

15mm Timber Floor Foil Protection Layer 60mm Screed Underfloor Heating Damp Proof Membrane 50 Insulation 140mm Cross-lam Timber 60mm Insulation Ceiling Hangers Finished Ceiling

Stone Wall 200mm Limestone 150mm Sheepwool 200mm Limestone

Material Volumes -

Limestone -

R =

1

Limestone - 5.0 m3 (2000kg/m3) = 10 tonne (10,000 kg) Sheepswool - 1.8 m3 (23kg/m3) = 41.4 kg

400

x 1.50 1000 = 0.28

Totals - Material volume Material mass

Sheep’s Wool -

R =

1

150

= 6.8 m3 = 10,041.4 kg

Cradle - Gate -

x

Limestone - 10,000 kg (0.09 kg/co2/kg) = 900 kg/co2 Sheepswool - 41.4 kg (N/A kg/co2/kg) = 0 kg/co2

0.039 1000 = 3.84

Total = 900 kg/co2

Calculating U Values Of Wall Limestone/Sheep’s Wool/Limestone

U =

1 0.12 + 0.06 + 0.28 + 3.84

Gate - Site =

0.23

Material delivered to site via 32 tonne truck Limestone 0.94 x 10 = 9.4 MJ/km Sheepswool 0.94 x 0.041 = 0.04 MJ/km Total = 9.44 MJ/km

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Flooding

Step 1 - Assess Step 2 - Avoid Step 3 - Substitute Step 4 - Control Step 5 - Mitigate

PPS25 - Flood Zones and degree of flood risk. Flood Zone 1 Low Probability - less than 0.1% chance of annual flood. Flood Zone 2 Medium Probability - between 0.1% + 1% chance of annual flood. Flood Zone 3a High Probability - 1% or greater chance of annual flood. Flood Zone 3d Functional Floodplain - Land to provide flood storage.

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River

Flood Zone 3

Flood Zone 2


Building Use 1:200

Upon Arrival 1 - Guests arrive 2 - Guests book in at reception 3 - Briefing in the meeting room 4 - Changing before activities 5 - Collect the appropriate kit 6 - Guests leave for activity venue

Upon Return From Activity

6

5 1

2

6 - Guests arrive back from activity

4

5 - Take kit to drying room/kit store 4 - Clean up and toilet if needed

3

3 - De-briefing in meeting room 2 - Sign out before departure 1 - Guests depart to home/hotel

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Details 1:10

Timber Wall 18mm Vertical boarding 40/60mm Horizontal battens Permeable Membrane 50 mm Insulation 70mm Insulation 100mm Cross-lam Timber 50mm Batons 50mm Insulation 12.5mm Plasterboard Paint to Finish

Timber Floor 15mm Timber Floor Foil Protection Layer 60mm Screed Underfloor Heating Damp Proof Membrane 50 Insulation 140mm Cross-lam Timber 60mm Insulation Ceiling Hangers Finished Ceiling

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Roof Sedam Matt Membrane Protection Fleece Root Resistant Layer Under-layer Insulation Clross-lam Timber Insulation Ceiling Hanger Finished Ceiling


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113


114


115


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Appendix A - Planning/Conservation Documents Consulted

Appendix B - Companies/Agencies Consulted

English Heritage Conservation Principles and Policies

Carton Lodge Outdoor Centre - http://www.carltonlodge.org.uk

Helmsley Conservation Area Appraisal

Carlton Outdoor Education Centre - http://www.carltonoutdoors.org

Helmsley Plan Final Draft Consultation June 2013

Land Energy - http://www.land-energy.com

North East Yorkshire SFRA Flood Risk Assessment.

North York Moors Planning Department - http://www.northyorkmoors.org.uk/living-in/planning

NYM National Park Authority Design Guide Part 1: General Principles

Peat Rigg Outdoor Centre - http://www.peatrigg.co.uk

NYM National Park Authority Design Guide Part 2: Extensions and Alterations to Dwellings

Valley Adventures - http://www.valley-adventures.com

NYM National Park Authority Design Guide Part 3: Trees and Landscape

Yorkshire Heat Pumps - http://www.yorkshireheatpumps.co.uk

NYM National Park Authority Design Guide Part 4: The Re-use of Traditional Rural Buildings NYM National Park Authority Design Guide Part 5: New Agricultural Buildings NYM National Park Authority Housing Supplementary Planning Document NYM National Park Authority Planning Advice Note 7 NYM National Park Authority Renewable Energy Supplementary Planning Document NYM National Park Management Plan Planning Policy Statement 22: Renewable Energy

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Portfolio Semester 2  
Portfolio Semester 2  

My Masters project, looking at development within the North York Moors national park.

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