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The Stadium

and The City Exploring the stadium as a catalyst for urban development and a symbol for civic pride and community space Christopher M. Brown Architectural Thesis Fall 2016 Professor Julian Bonder


The Stadium + The City

Boston’s New Urban Soccer Stadium

Christopher M. Brown / Master of Architecture Candidate Fall Semester 2016 Arch 613 Graduate Thesis Studio Roger Williams University School of Architecture, Art, and Historic Preservation Professor Julian Bonder


The Stadium + The City

Boston’s New Urban Soccer Stadium Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Architecture degree:

Christopher M. Brown / Master of Architecture

Date

Julian Bonder / Thesis Advisor

Date

Stephen White / Dean, SAAHP

Date

Special thanks to: Robert J. Dermody, Roger Williams University: Structural advisor Paul Byrne, BBVA Compass Stadium: Advising with MLS stadium guidelines and standards Kishore Viranasi, CBT Architects: Design insight Sae Kim, CBT Architects: Design insight Nathaniel Cabral-Curtis, MassDOT: insight into initial Allston site


Codes + Regulations

Precedent Analysis

Site Identification

Program

6

Context

Introduction

Table of Contents

06 05 04 03 02

01


Appendix

Bibliography

11 Technical Solutions

10 Design

09

Design Framework

08

07

7


8


Abstract Throughout the history of the stadium, the building type has acted as a multi-faceted and tangible embodiment of a society. From the Colosseum in Rome and the ball courts of the Maya to the multi-billion-dollar Olympic complexes of the twenty-first century, the stadium plays multiple roles of connectivity and emblematic civic pride. It is often a symbol of a city or country’s status economically, and is the place where a people come together to be a part of something larger than themselves, all while witnessing the spectacle for which that arena was built. These spaces are inherently public in their bringing together society to become something larger, as individuals rejoice and commiserate together in a celebration of civic pride. Often times the historic stadium has reflected this by playing a role in the urban fabric of the city it represents; from stadia like Stamford Bridge, nestled into the streets of Chelsea, to Fenway Park in Boston. Beginning in the twentieth century, there has been a shift in stadium design. No longer an urban player, the stadium is pushed to the outskirts of the city and inundated by a sea of parking. Governments question spending the resources on building such facilities that are only used one day out of seven. If the stadium is to rejoin the urban fabric, it must be a public space and active urban resource for the people and of the people of the city. This thesis returns the stadium to the urban fabric as an integral element of the community and a place for the people. As a soccer stadium for the Revolution, it will evoke the refined design of world class stadia in Europe and South America, bringing that caliber of venue to the shores of North America and the city of Boston as a symbol of the Revolution and the MLS’s arrival on the world stage.

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INTRODUCTION PROBLEM STATEMENT

/

PROJECT STATEMENT

/

ARCHITECTURAL INTENTIONS

01


Soccer + the Stadium The stadium is a typology found in across the globe. Each of these structures serves the same basic function, to set the stage for the spectacle; however, each arena takes a different form, embodying the culture and aspirations of the city or country that it is in. These arenas provide a cross section of society like few other typologies, bringing together the young and the old, rich and poor, and everyone in between. The spectacles they house give these people a common goal and focus, leading to a civic pride and unity that can reinforce a city’s sense of place. The sport of soccer, the most popular sport in the world in most countries in the world, is embedded in a deep sense of community, place, and self. In many cities and towns in Europe, South America, and further, the people of these places feel a life-long connection to the sport. Often in less affluent countries, children make their own makeshift spaces in the built environment, sometimes illegally, by taking over empty lots for the sport. Support for the local squad is rooted in these childhood memories and experiences, and is manifest in the passions of the fan. In the United States, this passion is not readily visible toward local soccer teams. In cities like Boston, the sport does not have the same history that baseball, ice hockey, and others have. This is in part due to a lack of a proper home for the local team, and a physical place for the community to identify with the sport. Without a proper home stadium tailored to the sport’s needs, it will continue to fall short of the experience that it provides to other communities around the world.

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“If you are making this big investment in infrastructure, there must be a way to make it more useful to the city, more integrated into the city.� -Dan Meis, Stadium Architect


Problem Statement While the sport of soccer has such strong ties with the communities in which it is played, many stadia in the United States in the later part of the 20th century were removed from the urban context, exiled to a sea of parking at the periphery of the city. This often creates destinations that are lacking in public transportation, limiting those who can enjoy a match. Stadia were seen as a misuse of space in downtowns and urban cores where land values are high, given that many stadia sit empty for large portions of the year. In the United States, a National Football League stadium, which hosts a maximum of 12 games in a season (including 2 preseason games and 2 playoff games) sits empty 96% of the year. A Major League Baseball stadium on average sits empty 75% of the year. A Major League Soccer stadium can expect to be empty 95% of the year. For comparison, a Premier League ground in England is empty roughly 94% of the year. This number includes only day games, and not practices, concerts, or other events that are held at these stadia, the number of which vary based on the stadium. For municipal and state governments, many of which help fund- at least in part- stadium construction projects across the US, this is unacceptable. Taxpayers in these cities and states do not want to see their money spent on sports facilities that are often times not owned by the city that helped pay for them, but instead by a wealthy franchise owner. Many others do not see the sense in why their money should be spent on a stadium they may never set foot in, and which will sit empty more than it is actually used. These complaints are valid, and are what makes the climate of stadium-building a controversial one, especially politically. After all, these taxpayers are voters who will have no qualms about replacing politicians they deem to be wasting their money. 16

Sitting Empty NFL Stadium Usage

Days in Use (12 Game Days)

Days Empty (353)

MLB Stadium Usage

Days in Use (81 Game Days)

Days Empty (284)

MLS Stadium Usage

Days in Use (18 Game Days)

Days Empty (347)

Premier League Stadium Usage

Days in Use (21 Game Days)

Days Empty (344)


Project Statement Returning the Spectacle to the City The answer to these concerns is an evolution in this building type that has been around for centuries. If a stadium, such an undertaking of infrastructure, space, and money is to be constructed, then it must make the most of what it is. The space must be multi-functional, and it is the stadium designer’s and elected official’s duty to their community to design in such a way as to make the most use of the money being spent on these projects. This thesis will explore the possibility of the stadium’s triumphant return to the urban core, becoming an integral part of the public realm. Designed as a soccer-specific stadium, the facility will transform into a space that is used by the community even on non-match days, and will galvanize a fan base that will now be able to access the venue through public transportation. The stadium will create a new public space when not in use for its primary purpose, and will reinforce its bond with the community by becoming a landmark and a place that is utilized on an everyday basis by every member of the community, not simply the sports fanatic. This multi-functionality of the stadium complex will ultimately be its greatest strength, providing its infrastructure to the community as a backdrop for the people to use for whatever they please, from flash mobs to protests, cultural celebrations to community events. This type of stadium will allow the event to spill out to the public, taking the idea of the public square to another level. Restaurants and bars designed into the stadium will become normally operating establishments during non-match days, and portions of the stadium itself will become usable for public activities. 18


“It is incumbent upon us as designers to program and integrate the stadium into the community we are designing for.� -Jonathan Knight, Populous


Project Themes This thesis will explore a number of themes at both the architectural and the urban scales. The theme of the stadium’s place in the city, and in urban life and society will be paramount in this exploration. Connecting to the city of Boston and the region of New England is a driving factor of the design of this stadium and surrounding complex. The stadium’s connection to the city cements the building and the franchise in the city’s psyche, making them a visible presence and a landmark when one thinks of Boston. The stadium is quintessentially Boston. Programing for the community is explored through the multipurpose design of the stadium, creating a model for the future of stadia in regard to being useful on all days, not simply match days. This includes designing stadium facilities to be accessible by the public, including certain concourse areas and the amenities, allowing the space to become a public park to the people of the local community, and a destination for all 365 days of the year. The stadium explores what it means to be “iconic” architecturally with the goal of creating a landmark building. This is done through expressive envelope design, and the exploration of structural solutions unique to long span systems. This structure is expressed as a part of the design to create a signature for the building. The theme of walkable, transportation-oriented development in which one arrives via a subway, train, or bus and does not need a car during their time on site is central to the development of this thesis. This results in more pedestrian friendly areas, which better suit large crowds that an arena brings, and also more active, diverse and enjoyable city streets on non match days. The thesis exploration on this site also explores the re-purposing of land converted from highway interchange into streets that more resemble a city with some regard to the pedestrian. The re-routing of the Massachusetts Turnpike is central to this. The streets that evolve from this allow public spaces and promenades to take center stage, rather than the automobile. Environmental sustainability in design is the duty of any responsible twenty-first century design, with the stadium type being no different. The Beacon Park Yard stadium design brings to the forefront exciting ways in which green architecture can be employed in spectator sport design. 20


Connection to Place / Placemaking

Flexibility + Versatility

Iconic Design

Transportation + Walkability

Sustainability 21


CONTEXT OVERVIEW /

HISTORY

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ENVIRONMENT

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NEIGHBORHOODS

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CULTURE

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Overview Boston Coordinates: Region: State: County:

42°21′’ 29″” N 71°03′’ 49″” W New England Massachusetts Suffolk

The city of Boston, located in the Northeast United States on the coast of Massachusetts, is the largest city in the New England region. The city is located on the mouth of the Charles River, on the shores of Boston Harbor, an inlet of Massachusetts Bay. As of 2014, the city proper is home to 655,884 people, while it is the anchor of the larger Greater Boston Area, home to some 4,600,000 people, making it the 10th largest metro area in the country. Boston is one of the oldest major city in the United States, founded in 1630. As such, it has an extensive mix of architectural styles, from colonial structures to more contemporary design, often occupying the same city block. It is a major center for commerce in New England, drawing a large number of commuters from surrounding communities and from neighboring states, with some traveling from as far as Rhode Island and New Hampshire for work. This convergence on the city from the surrounding area has given Boston the nickname “the Hub” due to its importance to the region.

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The city is home to some of the world’s leading medical and educational institutions including Harvard and MIT, and more than 100 other higher education institutions in the Greater Boston area, including colleges, universities, art schools and technical institutions. At any one time, Boston is home to roughly 250,000 college students, who are a boost to the local economy and are relied on by many local establishments. In addition to this, Boston’s culture as a sports town is well known, and its franchises from the so-called “big four” sports (NFL, MLB, NHL, and NBA) enjoy a large following both locally and around the country. Boston is widely renowned as a baseball town due to its long history of playing host to professional teams, two of which are still active in Major League play; the Atlanta Braves (founded in 1871) and the Red Sox, who have played in Boston since 1901.

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History Founded by Puritans from England in the year 1630, Boston has had as long a history as any American city, and has played an important role in American history. The city was founded on three “mountains” originally known as the Trimountaine, which were almost completely flattened as the city expanded. The original settlement was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula, which was connected to the mainland by an isthmus know as The Narrows, the site of present day Washington Street. As the city grew, it used the many hills in the area as infill to create new land where before there were only tidal flats and bays. The result was the creation of entire neighborhoods, including Back Bay, much of the area directly surrounding Long Wharf, the South Bay and South End, and the Seaport. Boston played an important role in the American Revolution, as the site of the Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party, events which helped set the Revolution in motion. During the period after the Revolution and through the 19th century, Boston enjoyed its status as one of the world’s wealthiest international ports, as well as a major manufacturer of garments and leather goods.

CAMBRIDGE

DOWNTOWN BOSTON BACK BAY

European immigrants flocked to Boston for work, driving the population up and defining many of the ethnic neighborhoods still recognizable today. This includes the primarily Irish South Boston and Charlestown, and the Italian North End. Economic downturn in the twentieth century was responded to with the creation of the Boston Redevelopment Authority, which enacted a plan of urban renewal, gutting some of Boston’s oldest neighborhoods. The West End and the Scollay Square neighborhoods were both met with demolition, which drew the ire of the public. Following this period of decline, the city saw the construction of high-rises along a newlyplanned “high spine” in Back Bay, along with skyscrapers rising from the Financial District. 30

CHARLESTOWN

SEAPORT

DORCHESTER

SOUTH BOSTON

Shaded area showing Boston landmass in 1630 with present shoreline outlined


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Environment Boston city proper covers roughly 48 sq mi of land and 41 sq mi of water on the east coast of Massachusetts. The city has a combination of flat topography in filled areas as well as several distinctive hills, that define the city, the most notable being Beacon Hill. The city’s elevation therefore varies, with some areas sitting as high as 141 ft above sea level, while other areas are only 8 ft above sea level. The Charles River defines most of the city’s northern border, while the Neponsett River does the same to the south. The climate of Boston is a humid continental climate that is influenced somewhat by its proximity to the ocean. Winters in Boston are known for periods of cold temperatures and the alternation of snow and freezing rain. Summers are generally hot, humid, and somewhat rainy, while transition seasons tend to be mild. Sea breezes cool in the city in the summer. The hottest month in Boston is July, with an average temperature of 73F, and the coolest is January, where the average drops to about 29F. Precipitation in Boston is on average 44 inches a year. Coastal winds can result in large storms, known as nor’easters, to drop large amounts of precipitation on the region during the winter, and tropical storms occasionally affect the city in autumn. Snowfall in the area is common from December to March, and amounts of snow can vary by a wide margin from winter to winter.

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Average Temperature (Degrees F)

Average Precipitation 5

90

4.5

80

4

70

3.5

60

3 50

2.5 40

2

30

1.5

20

1

10 0

0.5 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Average Low

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Average High

0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Average Precipitation (inches)

Average Hours of Sunshine

Winter Snowfall Counts Distribution

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Average Hours of Sunshine

33


Wind: Spring

34

Wind: Summer


Wind: Fall

Wind: Winter

Images Courtesy of Climate Consultant

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Neighborhoods Boston is known as a city of neighborhoods, due to the distinct enclaves that formed relatively early on in the city’s history. These districts were often divided by geographic features which disappeared as the water and mud flats around Boston were filled in during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Today, the city of Boston recognizes 23 official neighborhoods. As immigrants arrived in Boston, they often settled in neighborhoods with other immigrants from the countries they had left, resulting in distinct ethnic enclaves that each took on character of the population’s culture. The city’s North End attracted Italian immigrants, leading to its recognition as Little Italy, while South Boston became a deeply Irish community. Russian Jews made up the majority of the former West End’s population. Many of these neighborhoods (with the exception of the West End, which was razed for condo towers) retain the character of these cultures, although their population has diversified and changed in recent years. Boston’s downtown, which is formed by the Financial District, Government Center, and Downtown Crossing, has seen the most change over its history. Much of “Old Boston” is long gone, replaced by a series of twentieth century urban renewal projects and modern office towers that make up Boston’s skyline. Neighborhoods such as Back Bay were built on completely new land, brought in from Needham and points west, and from the original three hills of Boston. Today, Back Bay’s townhouses are its distinctive feature.

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Neighborhoods of Boston

CHARLESTOWN EAST BOSTON

ALLSTON

DO W CRO NTOW SSIN N G

WEST END BEACON HILL BACK BAY

BRIGHTON FENWAY

NORTH END

CHINATOWN

FINANCIAL DISTRICT

SEAPORT

SOUTH END

SOUTH BOSTON

MISSION HILL ROXBURY

JAMAICA PLAIN

DORCHESTER

ROSLINDALE WEST ROXBURY

MATTAPAN

HYDE PARK

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Demographics Ethnicities

40


Population Density (from 2010 census)

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Mean Household Income in 2012

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Universities

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Culture Stadium as Civic Space for the City Throughout the ages, civilizations have gathered in arenas to take in the spectacle. Juvenal described (rather cynically) that in Rome the emporer need only provide the people with panem et circenses, or bread and circuses, to keep a populace content. Moreover, this shows the capacity for these structures and the events they house to be an outlet for public discourse, and a manifestation of civic pride. In modern society, countries, states, and cities construct these venues as symbols that embody an ideal that the society is trying to convey to the world. These stadia become a place for people to come together, to sing, cheer, chant, celebrate, and commiserate as one entity. It is a place where one can feel a part of a common goal and a greater community, as a city, region, or nation.

Ultras of Fiorentina’s Curva Fiesole hold up cards depicting the skyline of Florence before a match against Juventus in 1991.

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An ancient Mayan stadium in Mexico

The Flavian Amphitheatre, Rome, is arguably the most famous ancient stadium

Fans of Club AtlĂŠtico River Plate display flares

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Growth of Soccer Culture in US The sport of soccer is a global force as the world’s most popular sport. Major leagues in England, Spain, France, Italy, and Germany are largely successful and the names of these clubs are recognizable to many across the world. Every four years, many countries are brought to a standstill as the World Cup commences, and nations vie the title of best in the world. In inner cities of developed and developing nations alike, children play soccer, often in fields they have claimed for themselves, and often without proper nets, balls, or even grass. In the United States, soccer has not, historically, had the same following that the sport has enjoyed in Europe and South America, often taking a backseat to baseball, football, basketball and hockey. The sport has always had a following from immigrants from soccer loving countries. Over the last two decades, however, there has been a shift in the popularity of the sport in the US. With the 2010 and 2014 World Cups, the sport grew further. Children now grow up playing the beautiful game, and watching their MLS team on television. Teams have begun building stadiums specifically for themselves, and attendance has risen sharply. Building a soccer specific stadium in the Greater Boston area builds on this movement of soccer passion that is growing in America. In a city home to both large populations of immigrants from soccer loving countries, as well as millennial college students who are much more likely to have grown up playing soccer, and therefore be fans of it, than their parents, a soccer stadium will provide a place for these communities to come together.

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Above: Television ratings in the United States of the World Cup compared to major American sports championships.

Left: Youth camps are growing the popularity of the sport. Right: PPL Park in Philadelphia, one of a round of new soccer specific stadiums built by MLS teams.

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PROGRAM CLIENTS + USERS /

PROGRAM OUTLINE

03


Clients The top professional soccer team in the Boston area, the New England Revolution, together with the city of Boston, are the clients for this proposal. The Revolution are in need of a new stadium as the growing momentum of the soccer culture in the United States threatens to leave the club behind if they do not act. Currently, the Revolution, or “Revs” as they are colloquially known, play about twenty miles from Boston, at Gillette Stadium in Foxborough, Massachusetts. The stadium, while appropriate for an NFL team, is not fit for the Revolution, who on average fill around 20,000 of the stadium’s 68,000 seats. The atmosphere of the spectacle of being at a soccer match is all but destroyed in this cavernous environment, which sits in the suburbs amid a sea of parking, with no connection to public transportation. By moving the team to the urban core of the Boston area, the team can better locate itself among two of the sport’s larger fan bases: millennial who grew up playing the sport, and immigrant communities from countries where soccer is the most popular sport. By being in the urban core, the team ensures that these fans can reach the stadium on public transit, making a trip to the stadium more accessible to all. The city of Boston would build the stadium with the team, which would allow the city to ensure that the facility could become a public space during off-hours. Involving the city would also have the added benefit of opening up the possibility of using the field for athletic teams of local high schools and colleges to use. The state and city’s involvement would also center around the construction of the infrastructure of the new mixed use master plan surrounding the stadium, stimulating growth in the area.

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POLITICAL RALLIES

MATCHES CONCERTS

STADIUM

PARK / PLAZA

LIVE + WORK TRANSIT


Users

Match Days

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Non-Match Days

Supporters / Fans

Shoppers

Players

Families

Coaches

Children

Training Staff

Restaurant Goers

Event Staff

Business Owners

Press

Students

Business people

Fitness Enthusiasts


The Fans

The Team

Local Supporters Suburban Fans Visiting Supporters

Players Coaches Staff

The City

Commuters Recreationists Families

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Stadium Program Spectator Areas

Seating (with capacity for 20-25,000 people) Viewing plaza Concourses Concessions Team Store Restaurant Bar Suites / Club Seating Box Office Medical Station

Team Facilities

Playing Field Locker Rooms Restrooms + Showers Medical Trainer Team Offices Admin Offices Marketing offices Meeting Rooms Press facilities Fitness + Training Area

Services

Security Groundskeeping Fire Safety Mechanical Electrical 54


Master Plan Program Leisure

Plaza Space open to Stadium Park area Open Promenade “Boardwalk� through stadium

Amenities Stores Bars Restaurants

Transportation

Cab + Uber Stand Pedestrian Bridge Bike lanes and paths Water Taxi wharf

Work

Office Space Incubator Space

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Adjacencies + Relationships The initial program of the stadium development includes two categories that are interrelated in many instances. The first category is of programmatic elements related to the stadium itself. In this category, spaces for the spectators, concourses, viewing areas, seating areas, and more are found. It is also in this category that team facilities are included, such as the locker rooms, team offices, and facilities related to the team and its operations. The second category includes programmatic elements related to the larger development around the stadium, and its connection to the surrounding neighborhood and the city as a whole. This is dominated by a shopping and restaurant complex integrated in the stadium itself as well as a mixed use entertainment district designed to activate the space. This is where the multiple uses of the stadium complex will come into play, as spaces occupied by stadium users on match days become spaces that are utilized by the public on off days. Integral in this development is the creation of public spaces, in the form of plazas and green park space, that will create places that engender community gatherings year round, and possibly allow access to the previously underutilized Reserve Channel waterfront.

Possible program layouts are seen to the right. The layout of the spectator areas in relation to the pitch, as well as the relation of press services and boxes is manipulated in several basic ways to explore different configurations and the effects that they have on the form of the plan, and how they change the spectator’s relationship to the field that is being viewed in distance and height. 56


BAR

PLAZA

STORE

BAR/ RESTARAUNT

OFFICES

OFFICES

BAR/ RESTARAUNT TEAM STORE PARK

MIXED USE

MIXED USE

TRANSIT STATION MIXED USE 57


SITE IDENTIFICATION OVERVIEW /

EXISTING CONDITIONS /

CONTEXT ANALYSIS

04


Site As finding sites in a major city as developed and dense as Boston is difficult, only two sites were found to be large enough and suitable for a structure as large as a soccer stadium. Proximity to public transportation was a necessity when looking at sites, as was the possibility for connections to surrounding neighborhoods. Three sites were explored in this process, with the site on Summer Street in the Seaport District being ultimately selected.

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Summer Street, Seaport District The site proposed for the Boston urban soccer stadium is a plot of land in the Seaport District of Boston, situated along the Reserve Channel south of Summer Street. The space is rife with potential, much like the other sites explored, and now sits under-utilized as a series of crumbling parking lots and low rise warehouse buildings.

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Site History Boston’s Seaport District has undergone some of the most drastic changes of any Boston neighborhood. The area that is now the Seaport was originally comprised of salt marshes and mudflats. These mudflats were often the site of ships running aground, and has resulted in at least on shipwreck being discovered in the foundation of new construction in the area. Gradually, as the city grew, Fort Hill, one of the three hills that comprised the original Shawmut Peninsula Boston was founded on, was leveled to fill in parts of the harbor. This included the body of water between Boston and Dorchester neck (present day South Boston) formerly known as the South Bay. Much of this new land became a new seaport of wharfs and warehouses, as well as a thriving textile industry and a busy naval base. The remnants of the water separating this area from Downtown became known as the Fort Point Channel, after Fort Point and Fort Hill near its mouth. The Seaport District saw a drop in use by the middle of the twentieth century due to a decline in shipping traffic coming to Boston over other East Coast ports. After decades of warehouses falling into decay, Mayor Thomas Menino began an effort to revitalize the area as the “Innovation District” of Boston, drawing innovative companies, new restaurants, apartments, and more to the area. This produced the Institute of Contemporary Art, District Hall, the Moakley Federal Courthouse, the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center, and a number of new restaurants, hotels, businesses and residences. This unprecedented growth was punctuated by the announcement of General Electric’s intentions to move their headquarters from suburban Connecticut to a site in the Seaport in 2013.

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Northern Avenue and Fan Pier circa 1930


Top to bottom: An aerial drawing of Fan Pier circa 1915. The Northern Avenue Bridge looking toward Downtown, with the Customs House Tower in the background. New proposed development in the Seaport represented in massing. Right: The South Boston Naval Complex and dry docks in 1958. All images courtesy of the Boston Public Library. Rendering courtesy of The Boston Globe.

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Analysis Key Landmarks

4

8

6 7

3 1) Boston Convention + Exhibition Center 2) Lawn on D

1

3) Blue Hills Bank Pavilion

2

5

4) South Station 5) Boston Design Center +Cruiseship Port 6) Seaport World Trade Center 7) WTC Silver Line MBTA Station 8) Fort Point neighborhood

10

9) South Boston 10) South Boston Power Station

9

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Circulation

MBTA transit lines in the area of the site, highlighted in yellow. The Red Line, as Major highways, (in orange) and major roads in lighter orange surround the site. well as all South Station Commuter Rail lines are a 20 minute walk from the site Interstate 90 (and the beginning of the Ted Williams Tunnel) as well as Summer at South Station, while the Silver Line brings fans closer to the site. Street and D Street are major arteries in this neighborhood.

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Proximities

Walking Distance to South Station:..................................1.0 mi in 21 min Walking Distance to WTC Silver Line:..............................0.4 mi in 8 min Distance to Downtown by car:..........................................1.0 mi in 4 min Distance to Downtown via Silver Line:.............................1.0 mi in 9 min

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Geologic Conditions Given Boston’s geographic history and the fact that more than sixty percent of the city is built on filled land, it is no surprise to learn that much of the site is composed of landfill. The result is a site with a high water table, which must be taken into design consideration when proposing anything below ground. Much of the Seaport, including the entirety of the site, was built on landfill over former mudflats, which resulted in a flat terrain in which building below grade becomes an exercise in holding back water from basements using slurry walls and constant pumping. These are not necessarily the most environmentally or economically friendly solutions, and will inform how much of the design (if any) will include built space below grade. The topography of the site, as mentioned above, is primarily flat, with any grade change on the site itself negligible. To the south, the topography rises to Dorchester Heights in South Boston. The former mudflats that occupied the Seaport were often the site of ships running aground and being abandoned, as was the case with one ship from the ninetieth century which was buried in the landfill and discovered during construction of a foundation of a new office tower in 2016.

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Seaport Site Context

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Access - From MBTA

Access - Vehicular

Access - Pedestrian

View Corridors

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PRECEDENT ANALYSIS ALLIANZ ARENA MUNCHEN

/

BBVA COMPASS STADIUM HOUSTON

05


Precedent Selections

St Jakob-Park - Basel, Switzerland Herzog & de Meuron

82

Allianz Arena - Munich, Germany Herzog & de Meuron

Bossard Arena - Zug, Switzerland Scheitlin Syfrig Architekten


BBVA Compass Stadium - Houston, TX Populous

Juventus Stadium - Turin, Italy Hernando Suarez, Zavanella, Giugiaro

Estadio OmniLife - Guadalajara, Mexico Jean Marie Massaud & Daniel Pouzet

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Allianz Arena

Munich, Germany Architect: Herzog & de Meuron Tenant(s): FC Bayern Munich TSV 1860 Munich Capacity: 75,000 Opened: 30 May 2005 84

Allianz Arena is located in Munich, Germany, north of the city center. Designed by Herzog & de Meuron, the building provides inspiration in the form it adopts as a stadium. The defining feature, the air-filled plastic “balloons� that ring the stadium, give the stadium an iconic presence that has become a landmark famous the world over, and has become a symbol for the clubs that play there. The facade is back-lit by LED

lighting, and takes the color of the team that is playing that particular night, transforming the exterior into stunning red, blue, or white that invigorates the supporters filing in and sets the mood for the rest of the event.


Roof structure + bracing

Facade detail

Section through one side of stadium

Wall section detail

Piece of facade material

Section of entry, seating organization

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Access from U-Bahn, Autobahn

Facade night detail


Allianz Arena seats 75,000 people, so it has a scale much larger than that which is desired for Boston’s urban soccer stadium, which would seat 25,000 people. Although the scale is much larger, Allianz Arena does fit on the Seaport site as it is vertically organized, and with a foot-

print of about 2,800 sq-ft there is space left over. The complex designed around the stadium that will encompass this space would include parks, and mixed use development. 87


BBVA Compass Stadium

Houston, Texas Architect: Populous Tenant(s): Houston Dynamo Capacity: 22,039 Opened: 12 May 2012 88

BBVA Compass Stadium is a soccer-specific stadium designed for the MLS’s Houston Dynamo. This study is of special interest to this thesis as the situation in Boston is similar: an MLS team without a proper home, a similar potential seating capacity, and the desire to be in the urban core. Houston’s stadium is located on the eastern side of downtown, with surrounding plots

taken up by restaurants, sports bars, and surface parking lots. It is serviced by its own Houston MetroRail stop. Architecturally, the stadium’s facade is its signature, evoking a contemporary feel and form that is memorable.


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BBVA Compass Stadium has a relative- is seen oriented toward downtown in order to ly small footprint, and therefore fits easi- take full advantage of the views to create a vily on the site. The total area taken up by sual connection to the city. the structure is about 2,260 sq-ft. This size stadium would allow for more land to be returned to the city for infrastructure, park land or to be developed. The stadium here

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CODES + REGULATIONS ZONING

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BUILDING CODES

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Zoning While much of the Seaport District has been rezoned as a part of the initiative to redevelop the South Boston Waterfront for mixed use development, there remain some regions that still retain their light industrial zoning status. This is the case on the parcels of land on which the stadium site is located. The collection of 13 parcels the site is made up of are owned by a number of different entities, the largest of which are the United States Federal Government, which retains some land holdings left over from the decommissioning of the South Boston Naval Base, as well as MassPort, and a few smaller businesses. Due to the site’s location underneath the final approach and flight paths of Logan International Airport’s runways which are less than a mile away, there is a 230’ height restriction across the entirety of the site. This is also mandated throughout the Seaport District by the FAA and Logan for the purposes of radar clearance. The site is also regulated by the South Boston Waterfront Industrial / Commercial’s Parking Freeze, limiting the amount of parking that can be introduced to the area.

Site Parcel ID:

Site Address: Site Size: Current uses: Zone: Current Owner:

Zone Information: South Boston Neighborhood South Boston Waterfront Industrial/Commercial* FEMA Flood Zone** South Boston I/C Parking Freeze zone*** Zoning Code Requirements: Maximum Height: 230’ as directed by FAA, Gen, Edward Logan Int’l Airport radar clearance. Setback Requirements: Subject to design review Minimum Open Space: Subject to design review Setbacks: Not required, subject to design review

Parking Requirements:

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0602813000, 0602814000, 0602814001, 0602816000, 0602819001, 0602820000, 0602823000, 0602824000, 0602815001, 0602815000, 0602814003, 0602812100, 0602831000 631 Summer Street, Boston, MA 2,629,142 square feet or 60.36 acres Parking, Commercial, Light industrial South Boston Waterfront Commercial South Boston neighborhood United States Government, MassPort

Estimated 4,000 Spaces


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Zoning maps courtesy of Boston Planning and Development Agency, formerly Boston Redevelopment Authority

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Flood plans The proposed stadium site sits within the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Flood Zone, putting it at risk to flood, however it does not fall into the 100 year flood maps as of November 2016.

Map courtesy of ArcGIS

Map courtesy of Sea Change Boston, Sasaki Associates

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Although it is not in the flood maps, the site is vulnerable to flooding from storm surges as sea levels rise. According to Sasaki Associates and Boston Architectural College, given a projected sea level rise of 2 feet (projected by 2050) with a major storm surge, or a sea level rise of 6 feet, the upper limit of what is projected for 2100, the site, along with most of the Seaport (and Boston as a whole) would be inundated with water.


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Codes The stadium building type is categorized by the International Building Code as a class A-5 building, which includes outdoor sporting stadium venues. As a space with such a high occupancy, the code requires a large amount of width for egress, as well as a plethora of restrooms. As a partially outdoor structure, only some spaces are mandated to have fire suppression systems; these spaces are the concession stands, retail areas, and press boxes, as well as other accessory facilities greater than 1,000sqft in floor area. Area and height are not limited by the International Building Code, as the building type A-5 has no regulations in this category. By nature, the stadium as a type is generally not very tall, and the seating bowl will be carved into the topography to minimize the stadium’s height.

Charts courtesy of The Architect’s Studio Companion

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Egress Building Type A-5: Assembly, Stadium Occupancy Max Travel Distance: Max common path of egress: Largest Area with Single Exit: Max length of Dead End Corridor: Min Door Width: Min Corridor Width: Min Stair Width: Seating:

Aisles:

Longest Dead-End Aisle: Aisle Termination: Aisle Stairs and Handrails

Estimated 26,000 people 200’ unsprinklered or 400’ for open air seating with combustible construction or unlimited with non-combustible construction or 250’ with sprinklers 30’ for fixed assembly seating with 60 or more occupants, 75’ for others 49 people 20’ or 2x width of corridor 32” 44” serving more than 49 occupants, 36” serving 49 or fewer 44” serving more than 49 occupants, 36” serving 49 or fewer For a row with egress at both ends: Maximum row length: 100 seats Minimum clear row spacing: 12” plus 0.3” for every seat above 14 For a row with egress at one end only: Maximum length: Limited by common path of egress travel Minimum clear row spacing: 12” plus 0.6” for every seat above 7 In all cases, required clear row spacing is 22” Minimum: 30” for aisles serving not more than 14 seats, 36” for aisles serving seating on one side, or not more than 50 seats on two sides; 42” for aisles serving more than 50 seats on two sides. For occupant load: not less than 0.2” per person for aisles sloped not more than 1:12, or .22” per person for aisles with greater slope. Max aisle slope no steeper than 1:8. 20’ unless seats served by a dead end aisle are within no more than 24 sears of another aisle and minimum clear row spacing is as required for rows and egress on one end only Cross-aisles sized the same as above, considering combined capacity of all converging aisles Maximum tread depth: 11” Maximum riser height: 8” up to 9” permitted where necessitated by slope of adjacent seating Minimum riser height: 4” Minimum stair width: 36” for serving seating on one side or not more than 50 seats on two sides, or 48” for stairs serving more than 50 seats on two sides. Stair width for Occupant Load: Not less than 0.3” per person for stairs with risers not greater than 7”; add an additional 0.005” per person for each additional 0.1” of riser height; where egress requires stair decent and no handrail is within 30” to either side, add an additional 0.005” per person. Handrails Required: all stairs, ramped aisles sloped more than 1:15 Handrails subdividing stairs or aisles serving seats on both sides may be discontinuous to allow aisle access; the minimum space between the handrail and adjacent seating is 23”.


DESIGN FRAMEWORK URBAN SOCCER STADIUM

07


Soccer Specific Stadium The soccer specific stadium varies from the typical large-scale American stadium in several ways. Designed for the sport of soccer, which does not have the need for large sideline areas, and instead this space is used to bring the fans as close to the playing surface as possible. The atmosphere of a soccer match is unlike that found at games of most other sports. Rarely are crowds silent, as they may be in baseball when there is no action, or when the home side’s offense is on the field in football. Instead, soccer fans sing continuously, often creating their own songs and chants, including call-and-response cheers. As soccer has not enjoyed as long of a history in the United States, it draws significantly smaller crowds than those of the NFL or MLB. These crowds are swallowed up in large stadiums, where more than half of the seats are empty. With this, the atmosphere of going to a soccer match disappears. Soccer specific stadiums are designed to foster the atmosphere that makes soccer unique; often with a smaller capacity that provides a more intimate setting. The most rabid of fans, called “ultras� in some countries, are usually given their own section behind one of the goals. In an effort to provide further fan comfort many of these stadiums have a large awning or roof over the seats, leaving the field of play open to the elements while sheltering the spectators. This has the added benefit of retaining and reflecting the sound of the fans in the arena, enhancing the atmosphere.

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Soccer specific stadiums in the MLS, including markets in both the US and Canada. 107


Design Considerations Stadium Context

Spectator Movement Paths

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Courtesy of Construction and Design Manual: Stadium Buildings


Lighting

Courtesy of Construction and Design Manual: Stadium Buildings

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Design Considerations Seating +Balustrades

Courtesy of Construction and Design Manual: Stadium Buildings

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Design Board

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DESIGN PROCESS

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MASTER PLAN

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STADIUM

08


“Design so that the event spills out, and becomes a destination that also has an arena... a public square taken to the extreme� -Johnathan Knight, Populous

Place des Festivals, Montreal, QC


Early Conceptual Sketches Conceptual design began with the intent of creating a public space unique to Boston in which the event space would become a destination and a resource for the community and for the city as a whole for 365 days a year, regardless of whether an event was occurring. The architecture of the stadium itself was to take in views of the city and relate back to it, becoming something that was of Boston while being something new to it as well. Sketches here include some related to the initial site selection, at the Beacon Park Yard in Allston. On this site, realignment of the interchange of the Massachusetts Turnpike (Interstate 90) and the implementation of a new street grid were explored, in addition to the right-of-way of the MBTA Commuter Rail’s Framingham-Worcester line and the placement of the new West Station. Ultimately, the site in Boston’s Seaport between E Street and the Reserve Channel was selected, however elements of design options explored at Beacon Park Yards would influence conceptual design in the Seaport.

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Conceptual Design Field Orientation and Seating Configuration Optimal field orientation for the site was studied through the superimposition of a number of professional soccer fields from similar latitudes around the world, as well as several MLS stadiums, onto the site. The pattern of field orientation showed that while there is no mandate to what direction the run of play faces, most often soccer fields at this latitude do not run directly east to west. This is to avoid creating unfair advantages of glare in one keeper or team’s eyes during sunset. The field orientation of northwest to southeast was chosen, giving the stadium views from one end toward the city while sheilding the players from direct glare at sunset. Different seating configurations were studied to ascertain the best solution for the stadium. This included one large, unbroken seating bowl with luxury boxes on both sidelines, two complete seating bowls with boxes between, and an asymetric configuration in which all luxury boxes were stacked on one sideline, with an upper deck on the other, allowing fans to get closer to the field of play. Line of sight was also explored, with the steepest slope allowed by code chosen for the seating sections. This is intended to add to the atmosphere of the spectators being “on top of� the field of play. 118


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Conceptual Design Exploring the Stadium as a Roof Initial conceptualization of the stadium as a large roof plane under which the program on the site was unified was explored in the sketches to the right. The evolution of the roof through design exploration saw its form shift from taking up the entirety of the site to becoming punctured in places to allow for large public spaces with natural light. This scheme was explored with the surrounding master plan as a part of a “neighborhood� of buildings, some of which would engage in the stadium itself. This creates the condition of the stadium concourses acting as pedestrian-only city streets during non-event days. In creating a neighborhood context around the stadium, the buildings are able to be scaled in a way that allows for a relation to the larger scale development currently occurring to the north and west of the site with the smaller scale of residential South Boston to the south of the site. Buildings on the site step down in height and footprint so as to transition from the stadium scale (and that found in the Seaport) to the scale of the triple decker housing to the south. To the east, a waterfront promenade lines Pappas Way, creating a new waterfront space on the Reserve Channel.

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Conceptual Design Exploring the Stadium as an Object The stadium presenting itself as an object on the site, with a clearly defined facade and frontality, was investigated in the sketches to the right. The conceptual goal of this scheme was to create a building which would be instantly recognizable by its iconic facade. The site scheme explored in parallel with this concept was the idea of the site existing as a raised plinth landscape. The stadium event floor and playing field would occur at grade, providing a sustainable configuration given the site’s high water table would require anything below grade to be built with constant pumping. A system of ramps would bring fans from grade on Summer Street to the concourse level at the top of the lower seating bowl, and the space under the plinth and ramp system would become a mix of commercial space including stores, bars, restaurants, and cafes that would provide activity and create a destination for the neighborhood year round, regardless of the stadium’s event schedule. The ramp area and plinth surface would provide the neighborhood an urban plaza park space that would become a resource for the city.

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Conceptual Review


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Conceptual Review

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Conceptual Design Post-Review Conceptual Refinement Following the conceptual review began an effort to combine elements of both schemes into a cohesive proposal. Master planning of the site extended from the initial site to include the block at the south end, fronting First Street and the edge of South Boston. In considering criticism from the review, a plinth scheme began to take shape that worked in tandem with an urban neighborhood master plan covering much of the site, with the stadium becoming the centerpiece of the new live-work-play district which fans would arrive at via a grand ramp from Summer Street, arriving to the hieght of the plinth gradually. Buildings fronting E Street (newly connected directly to Summer Street) near the north end of the site conceal a complete view of the stadium to the spectator arriving from Summer Street, which reveals itself once the viewer makes their way up the ramp. Investigation of the form of the stadium’s “wrapper� or facade element began to reveal a continuation of this ramp expressed in void spaces in the composition of the facade, which at points would open to reveal views of the city.

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Form Investigation

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Conceptual Design Form Investigation

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Conceptual Design Post-Review Conceptual Refinement In an effort to create an active urban destination year-round, the population of the area underneath the plinth with commercial program was explored. The result was two differing approaches to the plinth idea, with the orientation of the stadium on the site shifting slightly. In both schemes, a “street” of shopping and dining began at the main ramp, continuing at-grade underneath the plinth space, with openings at strategic points to allow for natural light and circulation of people to access the passages at multiple levels. The path of the ramp and promenade culminates in a tower housing a hotel, office space and amenities, framing a new plaza for festivals, gatherings, and community use. The second approach, in which the stadium is shifted so as to present its “goal line” stand to Summer Street and approaching fans, has the benefit of creating equal circulation around both touchline stands. The sub-plinth passageway presents itself along the southeastern side of the stadium as it did in the previous scheme, culminating in the tower at its end. The main plaza for celebrations and festivals in this scheme is front and center on Summer Street, framed by the stadium and flanked by the ramps leading to it on either side. Both approaches included the re-alignment of Pappas Way inland, fronting the edge of the stadium plinth storefronts, with park land fronting the water. 132


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Mid Review Presentation The Stadium + The City Chris Brown

Throughout its history, the building type of the stadium is a multi-faceted and tangible embodiment of a society. From the Colosseum in Rome and the ball courts of the Maya to the multi-billion-dollar Olympic complexes of the twenty-first century, the stadium plays multiple roles of connectivity and emblematic civic pride. It is often a symbol of a city or country’s status economically, and is the place where a people come together to be a part of something larger than themselves, all while witnessing the spectacle for which that arena was built. These spaces are inherently public in their bringing together society to become something larger, as individuals rejoice and commiserate together in a celebration of civic pride. Often times the historic stadium has reflected this by playing a role in the urban fabric of the city it represents; from stadia like Stamford Bridge, nestled into the streets of Chelsea, to Fenway Park in Boston. In some cases, the urban condition transforms to become a stadium, and for a few hours or a few days a public space becomes the arena, as is the case with Piazza del Campo in Siena, which becomes the home to the city’s annual Palio race. The twentieth century has seen a shift in stadium design. No longer an urban player, the stadium is pushed to the outskirts of the city and inundated in a sea of parking. Governments question spending the resources on building such facilities that are only used one day out of seven. If the stadium is to rejoin the urban fabric, it must again be a public space, for the people and of the people of the city in which it is a valuable asset. This thesis will return the stadium to the urban fabric as a place for the people.

The Fans

The Team

Local Supporters Suburban Fans Visiting Supporters

Players Coaches Staff

The City

Commuters Recreationists Families

POLITICAL RALLIES

Form Investigation

MATCHES CONCERTS

STADIUM

PARK / PLAZA

LIVE + WORK TRANSIT

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Ground Level

Concourse Level

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Mid Review Presentation

Club Level

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Suite Level


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Post Mid Review Refinement Roof Studies

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139


Gate Review THE STADIUM

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THE CITY

Chris Brown

Throughout its history, the building type of the stadium is a multi-faceted and tangible embodiment of a society. From the Colosseum in Rome and the ball courts of the Maya to the multi-billion-dollar Olympic complexes of the twenty-first century, the stadium plays multiple roles of connectivity and emblematic civic pride. It is often a symbol of a city or country’s status economically, and is the place where a people come together to be a part of something larger than themselves, all while witnessing the spectacle for which that arena was built. These spaces are inherently public in their bringing together society to become something larger, as individuals rejoice and commiserate together in a celebration of civic pride. Often times the historic stadium has reflected this by playing a role in the urban fabric of the city it represents; from stadia like Stamford Bridge, nestled into the streets of Chelsea, to Fenway Park in Boston. The twentieth century has seen a shift in stadium design. No longer an urban player, the stadium is pushed to the outskirts of the city and inundated in a sea of parking. Governments question spending the resources on building such facilities that are only used one day out of seven. If the stadium is to rejoin the urban fabric, it must again be a public space, for the people and of the people of the city in which it is a valuable asset. This thesis will return the stadium to the urban fabric as a place for the people.

Plinth

As a soccer stadium for the Revolution, it will evoke the refined design of world class stadia in Europe and South America, bringing that caliber of venue to the shores of North America and the city of Boston as a symbol of the Revolution and the MLS’s arrival on the world stage.

Match Days

The Fans

The Team

Local Supporters Suburban Fans Visiting Supporters

Players Coaches Staff

The City

Commuters Recreationists Families

Shoppers

Players

Families

Coaches

Children

Training Staff

Restaurant Goers

Event Staff

Business Owners

Press

Students

Business people

Fitness Enthusiasts

Skin / Roof

POLITICAL RALLIES

Non-Match Days

Supporters / Fans

MATCHES CONCERTS

STADIUM

PARK / PLAZA

Skin / Roof

LIVE + WORK TRANSIT

Concessions

Commercial

Offices

Stadium District Master Plan

Entrance Plaza + Ramp

Arrival from Summer Street is driven by the stadium’s celebratory entrance, a gently sloping ramp from street level up to concourse level, atop the stadium’s plinth. The new Revolution team store and Museum to New England Soccer occupy the corner of the plinth, while the area above is a lively entertainment zone to which the stadium is a backdrop.

The Stadium

State of the art home of the New England Revolution, the stadium is the centerpiece of the complex. Seating 24,585, the arena sports an iconic luminous roof and skin supported by a space frame designed to shelter fans and keep in crowd noise. While not in use for Revs matches, it hosts various high school and college events, as well as the Boston Breakers. On non game days, the upper deck bar and restaurant provides sweeping views of the playing field, city, and Reserve Channel.

Park System + Waterfront

Tying together the stadium district are a series of interconnected parks, designed to bring the space to life and provide a community resource year round. This includes youth sized soccer fields directly south of the stadium, as well as an integrated waterfront promenade and bridges on the Reserve Channel.

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Mixed Use Entertainment District

A live, work, and play community creates a new dense development in a corner of the Seaport District that has been unaffected by the recent building boom. The blocks here carry the form of the South Boston block, with buildings rising in scale from the residential neighborhood to the south to a more dense mixed use zone to the north, including commercial space, residential units, and restaurant space. Integrated parking hides stadium parking in garages concealed inside these buildings, minimizing the footprint of parking in the neighborhood. Cross Section A

Longitudinal Section A

140 East Elevation + Site Section - Pappas Way

North Elevation - Summer Street


3

Wall Assembly Section callouts

Wall Assembly Section Level 4

Cross Section B

Level 5

Longitudinal Section B

141 West Elevation - E Street

South Elevation


Final Product

The final design scheme emerged from a series of efforts to create a more cohesive, comprehensive stadium complex that engendered a sense of place in Boston’s Seaport. This was a year-long effort that expressed itself in multiple facets of the project, but perhaps no where more than in the form of the roof, which swept downward towards the ground in some parts of the facade, and lifted to reveal views from the city into the stadium while framing views of the Boston skyline from the stadium’s interior. The design of the stadium demonstrates a desire to embody the arrival of MLS and the Revolution on the world stage of soccer, and the building is designed to feel like a major sports stadium regardless of its relatively small capacity of 24,585. Seating tiers are as steep as code allows, and the luxury seating has been stacked to one side of the stadium, designed to create a loud environment regardless of the number of fans in attendance. A restaurant running end line to end line creates a destination overlooking the field regardless of whether there is a match. The master plan reflects the need for the stadium to be a destination, with retail development in the stadium’s ground level, and a series of public spaces and youth soccer fields opening the Reserve Channel up to more recreational activity, and creating a place that all can enjoy.

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Final Product Stadium District Master Plan Entrance Plaza + Ramp Arrival from Summer Street is driven by the stadium’s celebratory entrance, a gently sloping ramp from street level up to concourse level, atop the stadium’s plinth. The new Revolution team store and Museum of New England Soccer occupy the corner of the plinth, while the area above is a lively entertainment zone to which the stadium is a backdrop.

The Stadium State of the art home of the New England Revolution, the stadium is the centerpiece of the complex. Seating 24,585, the arena features an iconic luminous roof and skin supported by a space frame designed to shelter fans and keep in crowd noise. While not in use for Revs matches, it hosts various high school and college events, as well as the Boston Breakers. On non -match days, the upper deck bar and restaurant provides sweeping views of the playing field, city, and Reserve Channel.

Park System + Waterfront Tying together the stadium district are a series of interconnected parks, designed to bring the space to life and provide a community resource year round. This includes youth sized soccer fields directly south of the stadium, as well as an integrated waterfront promenade and bridges on the Reserve Channel.

Mixed-Use Entertainment District A live, work, and play community creates a new, dense development in a corner of the Seaport District that has been unaffected by the recent building boom. The blocks here carry the form of the South Boston street grid, with buildings rising in scale from the residential neighborhood to the south to a more dense mixed use zone to the north, including commercial space, residential units, and restaurant space. Integrated parking hides stadium parking in garages concealed inside these buildings, minimizing the footprint of parking in the neighborhood.

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Final Product

148


The design of the stadium and master plan both respect the city of Boston by taking into account the surrounding area. The stadium is designed to frame views of the skyline of Downtown. The master plan takes the form of the South Boston street grid from 1st Street up to the stadium, extending E Street for five blocks.

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Final Product Ground Level The ground level of the stadium contains the service areas of the stadium, including the locker rooms for teams, as well as security, mechanical, and laundry spaces. The playing field itself is also located at this level. Surrounding the stadium program is a series of retail and commercial spaces designed to activate the area on non-match days. At the north end of the building, the New England Revolution Team Store and Museum of New England Soccer welcome fans coming to the stadium.

150


The view from the Revolution supporters section, known as “The Fort� during a match.

151


Final Product Concourse Level Concourse level occupies the space on top of the plinth of created by program elements on the ground level. Accessible from the main ramp and by a series of stairs and bridges, this level includes the main concourse of the stadium, which rings the seating bowl to which it provides access. It is home to the concession areas and restrooms for the majority of the stadium’s 24,585 seats. Outside of the ticket-controlled area are a series of public plazas designed to become a “front door� to the stadium, which are places for demonstrations, cultural gatherings, marketplaces, and more to happen.

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Inside the stadium’s main concourse during a match.

153


Final Product Club Level The club level is dominated by the club suite for which it is named. The club seats (and the luxury suites above) area stacked on the south side of the stadium, designed to concentrate fans in traditional seating closer to the field on the upper deck on the opposite side. The club area includes a series of food vendors, including buffet style vending, and a lounge with a series of tables and couches that stretches the length of the field. Patrons in the club level can choose to stay indoors, but have access to an exclusive seating section outdoors, running from box to box. The first level of club offices area located on this level as well, comprising the southern facade of the stadium.

154


A concert inside the stadium as viewed from the Club level.

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Final Product Luxury Suite Level Traditional luxury suites sit above the club level. These suites are furnished with private couches and tables, as well as a private restroom. Each suite has access to fifteen seats outside. Press facilities are located at midfield on this level. Access to the suites is from the club level below, which is accessible to suite patrons. The second level of club offices are located on this level, again comprising the south facade of the stadium.

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Aerial view of the stadium from the east, with Boston skyline in the background.

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Final Product Restaurant Level Located above the upper deck on the north side of the stadium, the restaurant level is the highest in the building. This restaurant and bar space is designed to be open regardless of whether or not there is a match in play. Offering spectacular views of the pitch, Boston skyline, and Boston Harbor, the restaurant features an exterior roof deck space for outdoor dining in warm whether.

158


The view from the bar at midfield during a non-match day in the stadium.

159


Final Product

Cross Section A

162

E Street Elevation


Cross Section B

Pappas Way Elevation 163


Final Product

Transverse Section A

164

Summer Street Elevation


Transverse Section B

Soccer Plaza Elevation 165


Final Product Conclusion Stadium design proved to be both immensely challenging and extremely rewarding at the same time. The scale of the project brought about an array of problems that are exclusive to buildings of this size and nature, but allowed exploration of design options not usually explored. The integration with such large programmatic elements within the context of a neighborhood master plan created exciting possibilities of avenues of urban planning within the city. It became abundantly clear that stadia in the twenty-first century must become resources for their respective neighborhoods, through commercial activation and public space, if they are to be truly useful structures, and that the days of the suburban stadium surrounded by surface parking no longer made sense from an economic or urban planning standpoint. Undertaking a project of this type was an invaluable learning experience in dealing with large spaces, and in the act of placemaking. This connection to place is integral in all architecture, but it is imperative it is considered on projects of this scale.

166


Final Product Presentation Boards THE STADIUM Christopher M. Brown

RWU SAAHP

+

Fall 2016 Graduate Thesis Studio

THE CITY Professor Julián Bonder

Throughout the history of the stadium, the building type has acted as a multi-faceted and tangible embodiment of a society. From the Colosseum in Rome and the ball courts of the Maya to the multi-billion-dollar Olympic complexes of the twenty-first century, the stadium plays multiple roles of connectivity and emblematic civic pride. It is often a symbol of a city or country’s status economically, and is the place where a people come together to be a part of something larger than themselves, all while witnessing the spectacle for which that arena was built. These spaces are inherently public in their bringing together society to become something larger, as individuals rejoice and commiserate together in a celebration of civic pride. Often times the historic stadium has reflected this by playing a role in the urban fabric of the city it represents; from stadia like Stamford Bridge, nestled into the streets of Chelsea, to Fenway Park in Boston.

Plinth

Beginning in the twentieth century, there has been a shift in stadium design. No longer an urban player, the stadium is pushed to the outskirts of the city and inundated by a sea of parking. Governments question spending the resources on building such facilities that are only used one day out of seven. If the stadium is to rejoin the urban fabric, it must be a public space and active urban resource for the people and of the people of the city. This thesis returns the stadium to the urban fabric as an integral element of the community and a place for the people. As a soccer stadium for the Revolution, it will evoke the refined design of world class stadia in Europe and South America, bringing that caliber of venue to the shores of North America and the city of Boston as a symbol of the Revolution and the MLS’s arrival on the world stage. Match Days

The Fans

The Team

Local Supporters Suburban Fans Visiting Supporters

Players Coaches Staff

The City

Commuters Recreationists Families

Supporters / Fans

Shoppers

Players

Families

Coaches

Children

Training Staff

Restaurant Goers

Event Staff

Business Owners

Press

Students

Business people

Fitness Enthusiasts

Skin / Roof

POLITICAL RALLIES

Non-Match Days

MATCHES CONCERTS

STADIUM

Views PARK / PLAZA

LIVE + WORK TRANSIT

Concessions

Commercial

Offices

SEAPORT STADIUM

Stadium District Master Plan Entrance Plaza + Ramp

Arrival from Summer Street is driven by the stadium’s celebratory entrance, a gently sloping ramp from street level up to concourse level, atop the stadium’s plinth. The new Revolution team store and Museum of New England Soccer occupy the corner of the plinth, while the area above is a lively entertainment zone to which the stadium is a backdrop.

The Stadium

State of the art home of the New England Revolution, the stadium is the centerpiece of the complex. Seating 24,585, the arena features an iconic luminous roof and skin supported by a space frame designed to shelter fans and keep in crowd noise. While not in use for Revs matches, it hosts various high school and college events, as well as the Boston Breakers. On non -match days, the upper deck bar and restaurant provides sweeping views of the playing field, city, and Reserve Channel.

Level 1

Level 2

Lev

Park System + Waterfront

Tying together the stadium district are a series of interconnected parks, designed to bring the space to life and provide a community resource year round. This includes youth sized soccer fields directly south of the stadium, as well as an integrated waterfront promenade and bridges on the Reserve Channel.

Mixed Use Entertainment District

168

Cross Section A

Transverse Section A

East Elevation + Site Section - Pappas Way

North Elevation - Summer Street

A live, work, and play community creates a new, dense development in a corner of the Seaport District that has been unaffected by the recent building boom. The blocks here carry the form of the South Boston street grid, with buildings rising in scale from the residential neighborhood to the south to a more dense mixed use zone to the north, including commercial space, residential units, and restaurant space. Integrated parking hides stadium parking in garages concealed inside these buildings, minimizing the footprint of parking in the neighborhood.


vel 3

Level 4

Level 5

Wall Assembly Section

Cross Section B

Transverse Section B

West Elevation - E Street

South Elevation - Soccer Plaza

169


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS STRUCTURE

/

ASSEMBLY

09


Outline of Technical Investigation The undertaking of the soccer stadium in the Seaport District explores a number of different technical aspects in arena design and in architectural design overall. This proposal explores the ideas of making space that is civic, embodies a community and the ideals and aspirations of its culture, As part of this, the project includes celebrated and prominent views toward the city skyline and surroundings, in an effort to create visual connections to the community that this stadium represents. The architecture of the project is inclusive and fostering of community gatherings, and also creates a memorable and unique space that will be an integral part of the area. In exploring the building type of the stadium, it is hard to avoid also exploring long span systems for use in creating an awning system or roof over the seating areas of the stadium. This is done through a space frame system that combines the facade and roof into one architectural element that defines the stadium. This is clad in a system of frosted plexiglass panels that can be illuminated different colors depending on the event. This dynamic skin cladding on the facade turns the stadium into create a vibrant landmark that attracts people to the building and adds to the urban fabric of the area, while covering the spectators and leaving the pitch open to the elements. As a twenty-first century facility, this project uses methods to mitigate its environmental impact through different means of sustainability both active and passive. This includes heat island and storm water runoff mitigation through minimizing impermeable hardscapes and introducing materials that are less heat conductive, along with an emphasis on plantings and vegetation to limit the amount of asphalt surface in the project. In an effort to minimize the impact of parking on the site, the 4,000 parking spaces for the stadium are embedded in the buildings of the master plan, as seen on the sketch to the right. This allows for enough parking without impacting the urban fabric of the neighborhood. 172

Early conceptual sketch of the layout of the space frame structural system.


Exploded Axonometric 173


Technical Investigation Wall Assembly The order of assembly for the stadium’s facade and structure begins in the structural members of the plinth and stadium seating bowl. The seating bowl is comprised of precast concrete L planks to which the seats are bolted. Concrete precast beams and columns support this seating bowl. The plinth’s structure is comprised of precast columns supporting a waffle-slab. This is allows a longer span for the spaces below the plinth. The skin of the stadium, made of plexiglass panels is attached to the steel space frame structure using a series of steel angle elements. The innermost ring of panels is clear plexiglass to maximize the sun able to get to the natural grass field. The space frame itself is comprised of round steel hollow core tubes. The stadium loudspeaker system is attached to the space frame’s second inner-most ring. A GigaTera Sufa X Sports Lighting System rings the stadium, also attached to steel hollow core tubes.

174


175


BIBLIOGRAPHY INFORMATION + IMAGE SOURCES

10


Works Cited “Back Bay Aerial.” INETours. Accessed May 13, 2016. http://www.inetours.com/Photographs/images/Boston/PCSO-Back-Bay_8601.jpg. “Beacon Park Yard.” Farm1.staticflickr.com. Accessed December 19, 2016. https://farm1.staticflickr.com/515/20213530245_962840c3. jpg. “Boston Massacre.” IIS Windows Server. Accessed December 19, 2016. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/bostonmassacre/ bosmassrevere.jpg. “Boston’s Zakim Bridge.” Blog Media Inc. 2014. Accessed July 16, 2016. https://blog-blogmediainc.netdna-ssl.com/upload/Sports Blogcom/3097095/0219597001440479127_filepicker.jpg. Burgess, Bill. “Huntington Avenue Grounds.” PhotoBucket. Accessed May 13, 2016. http://i685.photobucket.com/albums/vv217/BillBurgess/Boston2520Nationals2520-25201890.jpg. Campbell, Robert, and Peter Vanderwarker. Cityscapes of Boston: An American City through Time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992. Clauss, Kyle Scott. “Revs Eyeing Move to Dorchester’s Bayside Expo Center.” Boston Magazine. June 22, 2016. Accessed August 19, 2016. http://www.bostonmagazine.com/news/blog/2016/06/22/new-england-revolution-dorchester/. Culley, Peter, and John Pascoe. Stadium and Arena Design. London: ICE Publishing, 2015. “Demographics Map.” CooperCenter.org. Accessed July 23, 2016. http://demographics.coopercenter.org/DotMap/index.html. Google Earth. (May 10, 2016). Boston, Massachusetts. 40° 20’ 32.67” N, 71° 02’ 26.25” W, Eye alt 7499 feet. http://www.earth.google.com [September 26, 2016]. Highway. “Allston I-90 Interchange Improvement Project.” Massachusetts Department of Transportation. Accessed May 19, 2016. http:// www.massdot.state.ma.us/highway/HighlightedProjects/AllstonI90InterchangeImprovementProject.aspx. John, Geraint, Rod Sheard, and Ben Vickery. Stadia: the Populous design and development guide. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2013. Macomber, Seth. “Foxboro Official: Revs stadium “a matter of when”.” The Bent Musket. June 25, 2016. Accessed August 19, 2016. http:// 178


www.thebentmusket.com/2016/6/25/12030068/foxboro-official-revolution-stadium-update-soccer-specific. Montreal Visitors Guide. Accessed October 12, 2016. http://montrealvisitorsguide.com/wp-content/uploads/montreal-Festival_International_de_Jazz_de_Montreal-3.jpg “Municode Library.” Municode Library. Accessed August 19, 2016. https://www.municode.com/library/ma/boston/codes/redevelopment_ authority?nodeId=ART33OPSPSU_S33-16AGHOPSPSU. “New England Revolution.” Comcast SportsNet New England. Accessed May 13, 2016. http://www.csnne.com/sites/csnne/ files/2013/08/11/gillettesoccer.jpg. “Old State House Boston.” Wikimedia Commons. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Old_State_House_Boston_Massachusetts2.jpg. “PPL Park.” Fusiondotnet. Accessed May 14, 2016. https://fusiondotnet.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/149253507-e1423156362108.jpg?quality=80&strip=all. “Scoring Ratings.” Wall Street Journal, September 2015. Accessed August 13, 2016. https://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/BTAC919A_SOCCE_9U_20150707131816.jpg. Sheard, Rod. Sports Architecture. London: Spon Press, 2001. Ultimatesportsfeed.com. Accessed September 19, 2016. http://ultimatesportsfeed.com/. “USA Fans.” U.S. Soccer. Accessed December 19, 2016. http://www.ussoccer.com/~/media/images/fans/2014/140412-fans. Wimmer, Martin, Inka Humann, and Anna Martovitskaya. Stadium Buildings: Construction and Design Manual. Berlin: DOM Publishers, 2016. “Zoning Viewer | Boston Redevelopment Authority.” Zoning Viewer | Boston Redevelopment Authority. January 2016. Accessed August 19, 2016. http://maps.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/zoningviewer/.

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APPENDIX RESEARCH /

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

11


PREVIOUSLY PROPOSED SITE: SOUTH BAY, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS The first proposed site for the new Boston soccer specific stadium is located just to the south of downtown Boston, in an area of the city known as the South Bay. The South Bay occupies an exciting site in the city of Boston. Formerly one of the bays that bound either side of the narrows leading into colonial Boston, the site was filled in over time as neighborhoods around it expanded. As the city built South Station, the remnants of the bay were filled in to provide land for the rail yards needed to service trains, leaving the stub of the Fort Point Channel to the north as the only remainder of what used to be there. As a result, the site has access to a multitude of transportation options, from the MBTA’s Red Line subway service, which stops a block away from the proposed site, to the commuter rail and Amtrak connections at South Station less than twenty minutes’ walk to the north, and the viaduct carrying the Southeast Expressway through the site. The site comprises a “dead zone” near the geographic center of Boston, occupied by rail yards, light industrial use and maintenance facilities with little to no connection to the rest of the city. Surrounding the site to the west is Boston’s West End neighborhood, and to the east is South Boston. To the north are the skyscrapers of downtown, giving the site a visual connection to the city of Boston desired to infuse a sense of place and identity with the stadium.

The soccer stadium and surrounding downtown skyline, as well as close proximimaster plan will breathe life into this desolate ty to the Broadway MBTA station on the Red space at the heart of the city, creating con- Line. nections between neighborhoods and a focal point for positive growth and development. The site of the stadium itself will be alongside interstate 93 on land currently occupied by a maintenance garage of the MBTA. This will give the facility the desire views of the 183


SITE HISTORY: SOUTH BAY, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS

Town of Boston circa 1776

The South Bay’s history dates back to the founding of the city of Boston. Originally, together with the Back Bay, these two bodies of water formed the narrow neck that connected the colonial town of Boston to the Massachusetts mainland. The narrows held a gate to the city, which would be the first landmark to greet travelers entering Boston by land. 184

The road into the city on the Narrows is in present day Washington Street, an important thoroughfare through the city which connects multiple neighborhoods. As the city filled in around the narrows, the South Bay became smaller, ceding its footprint to infill for development in the South End. This trend would be continued in the Back Bay in a more dramatic fashion.

With the construction of a new “South Union Station,” the city of Boston in conjunction with several major railroad companies, filled the bay in to serve as tracks leading to the new station, leaving the site in roughly the condition it is in now.


Town of Boston circa 1775 as shown in British Gen- Map of the city of Boston in 1880, approximately ten Aerial view of Boston circa 1870. The South Bay is viserals’ map of the area. The South Bay is seen in the years before the filling in of the South Bay and the con- ible surrounded by expanding neighborhoods of the bottom right hand corner of the image. struction of South Station city.

185


RECENT SITE HISTORY: SOUTH BAY, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS In recent years, the South Bay has been proposed as the site for a variety of different uses. Following the conclusion of the Central Artery Tunnel Project, which resulted in the newly widened viaduct for the Southeast Expressway, the idea of using the site for something other than rail yards has become an attractive proposition. Most recently, the South Bay was proposed as the site of the Olympic Stadium for Boston’s bid for the 2024 Summer Games. The stadium, designed as a temporary structure seating 80,000 people, would have been the centerpiece of an Olympic Park necklace that would have expanded north to the Fort Point Channel. Following the conclusion of the games, the site would become mixed use development. The Olympic bid in Boston crumbled following a lack of support from politicians, and the fate of the site became uncertain again.

South Bay in 1995

186


Fort Point Channel in 2001 during Big Dig Construction

Boston Olympic promenade

Boston Olympic Stadium and Park

187


SITE ANALYSIS: SOUTH BAY, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS Key Buildings

1) MBTA Maintenance Garage 2) Widett Circle distribution facilities 3) MBTA Red Line Maintenance Facility 4) Broadway Station (Red Line) 5) Boston University Medical Research Ctr

6

1

4 3

5

2

6) South End neighborhood

7

7) South Boston neighborhood


Circulation

MBTA transit lines in the area of the site, highlighted in yellow. Red Line stops Major highways, (in orange) and major roads in lighter orange surround the site, service the site directly, while commuter rail lines bisect the site but do not stop. which is defined by Interstate 93, the South Boston Bypass Road, and Broadway.

189


SITE ANALYSIS: SOUTH BAY, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS Access

View Corridors

190


Climate

The climate of Boston is continental, but are common, as is rain. Winters in Boston tend tumn. The coldest month is January, with is influenced by the city’s proximity to the to vary between snow and freezing rain, while an average temperature of 29F, while the ocean. In the summers, humidity and heat the city enjoys a typically mild spring and au- hottest is July, averaging 73F. 191


Previously Proposed Site: Beacon Park Yards, Allston The second site proposed for the Boston urban soccer stadium is a plot of land in the Allston neighborhood of Boston known as Beacon Park Yards. The space is rife with potential, much like the first site, and now sits under-utilized as an empty rail yard. The rail yard is bordered to the north by the Massachusetts Turnpike’s Allston / Brighton tolls and interchange with surface streets in the neighborhood. The Turnpike, I-90, is slated to be re-routed across the site as to provide less of an impact on the urban environment and to smooth traffic patterns at the interchange and tolls, which is a notorious bottleneck in Boston traffic. The future realignment project will open up waterfront land on the Charles River, which serves as the boundary of the site to the east. Usage of the actual rail yards on the site have dropped since CSX, the railroad company that owned the site, sold the land to Harvard University, who owns the site today. Tracks of the yard are utilized for commuter rail service on the MBTA’s Worcester / Framingham Line, as well as for Amtrak’s Lakeshore Limited service to Chicago. There are plans currently in the works for a new “West Station” commuter rail and transportation hub to be built on a portion of the site. The neighborhoods surrounding the site feature key institutions, landmarks, and residential housing. To the north, Harvard University’s campus spills over the Charles River from Cambridge, including athletic facilities and other university buildings. To the south, Boston University owns much of the land, including dormitory towers, Nickerson Field (former baseball park of the Boston Braves) and other university development, while the residential neighborhood of Allston occupies the site to the west. There is currently no easy way to move across the site, so it acts as an urban barrier between active neighborhoods. 192


Site History

Beacon Park Yards, like the South Bay site, has had a similar use from the late ninetieth century through the early twenty-first century. Rail service through the site began in the 1830’s, with the Boston & Worcester Railroad. The land north of the railroad became the Beacon Park trotting park, an equestrian venue, in 1864. The land was bought twen194

ty-six years later for use as a rail yard named after the park, which it remains today. In 1958, the northern edge of the rail yard was purchased by the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, which built the turnpike, toll plaza, and interchange with Soldiers Field Road.

Beacon Park Yard circa 1930


Top to bottom: A view of a train shed on the rail yards, 1890; A view of the yards from Cambridge Street, 1900; Infrastructure on the rail yards, circa 1890 Braves Field, now Nickerson Park, adjacent to the rail yards, 1920 Right: The Beacon Park trotting park, an equestrian venue on the site, circa 1870.


Realignment and Development Proposals Currently a choke-point for traffic entering Boston from the western suburbs, the interchange on I-90 will be realigned in the coming years. The result will free up space along the Charles River, with views to the skyline of the High Spine of Boston. Roads will be re-routed to create an urban fabric more friendly to development and pedestrian space. Several of the tracks of the current yards will remain, and will service a new “West Station� hub for commuter rail service, bus connections, and possible DMU rapid transit on the existing tacks.

New development in the surrounding neighborhood

196

I-90 Proposed possible realignment, Courtesy of MassDOT

Proposed Beacon Park Yards development


Harvard’s proposal for its Allston campus expansion. The site can be seen in part in the bottom right corner. Courtesy of Harvard Magazine

197


Analysis Key Buildings

7

8

1) Beacon Park Rail Yard 2) Allston / Brighton Tolls + interchange 3) MBTA storage yard 4) Nickerson Field, BU 5) Agannis Arena, BU 6) BU dormitory towers

9

10

11

3

7) Harvard Stadium + athletic complex 8) Harvard Business School

2

9) Double Tree Inn

1

10) Allston neighborhood 11) Cambridge

4 5

6


Circulation

MBTA transit lines in the area of the site, highlighted in yellow. Green Line stops Major highways, (in orange) and major roads in lighter orange surround the site. along Commonwealth Avenue service the site, which is bound by the Framing- Interstate 90 and the Allston / Brighton Tolls occupy the center of the site, along ham / Worcester Commuter Rail Line. with connections to Storrow Drive and Soldiers Field Road along the Charles River.

199


Zoning The Allston neighborhood is zoned primarily for residential development, which is evident in the composition of the neighborhood. Directly to the south of the site, institutional master plan zoning is designated for Boston University’s campus. To the north of Cambridge Street, the “North Allston Landing” site has been designated an economic development subdistrict. North of that is institutional zoned space for Harvard University. The west of the site is zoned for two to three family residential development, as well as neighborhood shopping. The area along the Charles River is designated as Greenbelt Connection Overlay District, and lines Storrow Drive and continues towards the Esplanade. To the south, the area along Commonwealth Avenue is also designated a greenbelt district. The site itself is currently zoned as an EDA, which is an economic development subregion. This fits into the city’s long term plan for the site, which includes mixed use development. This also lends itself to the development of a new soccer specific stadium on the site, while the greenbelt will provide an amenity to be connected to in the mater plan for the neighborhood.

Site Parcel ID:

200

Parking Requirements:

2200105010, 2200303000, 2200102000, 2200101001, 2200101000, 2200105000, 2200104000 106 Cambridge Street, Allston, MA Site Address: 3,977,757 square feet or 91.32 acres Site Size: Highway interchange, rail yard, chemical producCurrent uses: tion, hotel Allston Landing South EDA Zone: Harvard University Current Owner: Zone Information: Allston Brighton Neighborhood Allston Landing South EDA / OS-A* Air Rights Open Space** Zoning Code Requirements: Maximum Height: Subject to design review Setback Requirements: Subject to design review Minimum Open Space: 50% open space preserved or landscaped park provided for public use and recreation Setbacks: Not required, subject to design review *Allston Economic Development Areas (EDAs) are subject Article 51, Allston-Brighton Neighborhood District, of the Boston Redevelopment Authority Zoning Code. As such, zoning codes are considered “flexible” in order to encourage development and job growth beneficial to the Allston-Brighton community, pending a design review. ** Air-Right open space (OS-A) subdistricts shall consist of land used as Transit Corridors owned by a Public Agency; Air-Right open space subdistrict regulations shall apply only to the development of spaces over such Transit Corridors. Uses other than transit are prohibited unless such plans (a) preserve 50% of site as open space; or (b) provide a landscaped public space to be used as a park Estimated 9,000 Spaces


Zoning Districts Zoning Subdistricts Greenbelt Protection

Institutional Master plan Planned Development Area PDA - Permitted

Zoning maps courtesy of Boston Redevelopment Authority

201


Flood plans

Map courtesy of ArcGIS

Map courtesy of Sasaki Associates

202

While the Beacon Park Yard site is on the Charles River, it is not affected as flooded area according to the hundred year flood map. This is due in part to the site’s elevation from the river, as well as the fact that this stretch of the Charles is not predisposed to flooding.

Although it is not in the flood maps, the site is vulnerable to flooding from storm surges as sea levels rise. According to Sasaki Associates and Boston Architectural College, the northern section of the site would flood if the city were hit with a storm surge of 7.5 feet at high tide, as seen in the map to the left.


The Stadium + The City

Boston’s New Urban Soccer Stadium

Christopher M. Brown / Master of Architecture Candidate Fall Semester 2016 Arch 613 Graduate Thesis Studio Professor Julian Bonder

The Stadium and The City: an Architecture Thesis  

Exploring a soccer stadium for the New England Revolution as a catalyst for urban development and a symbol for civic pride and community spa...

The Stadium and The City: an Architecture Thesis  

Exploring a soccer stadium for the New England Revolution as a catalyst for urban development and a symbol for civic pride and community spa...

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