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American Colonial Policy They promised to train the Filipinos in Democracy and Self-Government. They want the Philippines to stand on its own as a free and independent nation They shared power with the Filipinos in the government. Human Rights were protected. They developed the economy, improved hygiene and sanitation, and introduced the public school system.

American Colonial Government Military Government (August 1898-July 1901) Gen. Wesley Merritt Gen. Elwell Otis Gen. Arthur MacArthur (Father of Douglas MacArthur)

Civil Government (July 1901-August 1902) The Philippine Commission The American Gov. Gen. together with the Philippine Assembly or the Philippine Legislature The Commonwealth of the Philippines

Contributions of the Americans to the Philippines Economic Progress: Population Explosion New Land Policy Friars land were resold to Filipino farmers Homestead Act of 1924 allowed Filipinos to own up to 24 hectares of public land Torrens titles were given to the land owner

Contributions of the Americans to the Philippines Agriculture Increase In 1902, the Bureau of Agriculture became the first gov’t agency in the Philippines

Free Trade America Business Flourished New Industries Improvement of Transportation and Communications Better Budget New Banks International Exhibitions and Meetings

Economic Problems We sold our raw materials cheap and bought expensive manufactured goods from America. Colonial Mentality Labor and peasant unrest spread in 1920s and 1930s American Capitalists and businessmen controlled the new companies

Other American contributions Religious Freedom Training in Democracy Free Education Better Health Service Introduction of the English Language Free Press

Democratic Family Life and Social Classes Emancipation of Women Recreation, Movies, Theater, Arts and Science

QUIZ: o They promised to train the Filipinos in Democracy and (1)_______________. They want the Philippines to stand on its own as a free and independent nation. o In 1902, the (2) _________________ became the first gov’t agency in the Philippines. o The two types of American Colonial government implemented in the Philippines were (3)__________________ and (4) ________________. o (5) _________of 1924 allowed Filipinos to own up to 24 hectares of public land.

The Commonwealth of the Philippines o After the Filipinos lost the war to the Americans in 1901, they did not really stop fighting for independence. o The Filipinos carried on the fight for freedom in three ways:

o Theater and Literature o Peasant revolts and Communist Party of the Philippines o Peaceful pressure by the Filipino politicians ending the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. (Political Campaign for Independence)

I. Freedom Theater and Literature o Tagalog zaruelas became popular (1902-1905) o Banned by the Americans o examples: Tanikalang

Ginto by Juan Abad and Kahapon, Ngayon and Bukas by Aurelio Tolentino

o Tagalog writers wrote about the sufferings of the people. o Lope K.Santos wrote Banaag at Sikat in 1935 o Amado V. Hernandez was both writer and labor leader o 1907: freedom of the press and the elections

II. Peasant Revolts and Communist Party o Peasant Revolts in Surigao, Nueva Ecija, Iloilo, Negros Occidental, Pangasinan, Laguna and Bulacan o Sakdalitas: peasant revolt that took place in 1935

o Benigno Ramos: a popular writer and orator who founded the newspaper and a political party named Sakdal

o The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) o Founded in Manila by Cristano Evangelista on August 1930 o In 1931, they organized labor strikes throughout the country.

III. Political Campaign for Independence o After World War I, Filipino politicians united to campaign for immediate Philippine Independence. o Sent independent missions in the US from 1919-1935 in the hope of urging the American Congress to grant independence to the Philippines. o In 1932, the US Congress passed the Hare-HawesCutting Law. It was the first Philippine Independence law passed by the US. The law was passed after the 1931 OSROX mission of Sen. Sergio Osme単a and House Speaker Manuel Roxas.

III. Political Campaign for Independence o But the . HHC law did not push through. Osme単a & Quezon quarreled over it in the Philippine Legislature. o Political debate took place between the group of Senate President Manuel Quezon who were in favor of the HHC Law against the Anti-HHC Law headed by Osme単a & Roxas. This marked the split of the Nacionalista Party. o The HHC Law was rejected by the Philippine Legislature in October 17, 1933.

III. Political Campaign for Independence o In 1934, US Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Law. o The law provided that the Philippines would be independent in ten years time. o A transition government run by Filipinos would be established. This was the Commonwealth of the Philippines.

The 1935 Philippine Constitution o On July 10, 1934, 202 delegates were elected to a constitutional convention. o The delegates met for the first time on July 30, 1934.

o Claro M. Recto was elected as convention president. o On February 08, 1935, the new constitution was approved by the majority of the delegates o March 23, 1935, Pres. Franklin Roosevelt signed the constitution o The 1935 Constitution was ratified by the Filipino people in a plebiscite on May 04, 1935 o This constitution served as the Commonwealth in the Philippines (Third Republic)

The Commonwealth of the Philippines o September 17, 1935: The first national election was held o Manuel Quezon won as President and Sergio Osmeña as Vice President o November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth was inaugurated in Luneta o Manuel Quezon was re-elected for another term on November 1941 o The Commonwealth of the Philippines existed from 1935-1946. It was semiindependent government of the Filipinos under the American colony. o “I would rather have a government run like hell by Filipinos than a government run like heaven by Americans.”- President Quezon o The experiment in this Democracy was interrupted by the Second World War

o The Commonwealth leaders went into exile in the US from 1942-1944.

The Second World War o Japan launched a surprise attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Initial aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops both north and south of Manila. o The defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, who had been recalled to active duty in the United States Army earlier in the year and was designated commander of the United States Armed Forces in the Asia-Pacific region.

The Second World War o The aircraft of his command were destroyed; the naval forces were ordered to leave; and because of the circumstances in the Pacific region, reinforcement and resupply of his ground forces were impossible. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay. o Manila, declared an open city to prevent its destruction, was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942.

The Second World War o The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May. Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous "Death March" to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. o It is estimated that as many as 10,000 men, weakened by disease and malnutrition and treated harshly by their captors, died before reaching their destination. Quezon and Osme単a had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and later left for the United States, where they set up a government in exile. MacArthur was ordered to Australia, where he started to plan for a return to the Philippines.

The Second World War o The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines. Although the Japanese had promised independence for the islands after occupation, they initially organized a Council of State through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943, when they declared the Philippines an independent republic. o Most of the Philippine elite, with a few notable exceptions, served under the Japanese. Philippine collaboration in Japanese-sponsored political institutions--which later became a major domestic political issue--was motivated by several considerations.

The Second World War o Among them was the effort to protect the people from the harshness of Japanese rule (an effort that Quezon himself had advocated), protection of family and personal interests, and a belief that Philippine nationalism would be advanced by solidarity with fellow Asians. o Many collaborated to pass information to the Allies. The Japanesesponsored republic headed by President JosĂŠ P. Laurel proved to be unpopular.

The Second World War o Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by increasingly effective underground and guerrilla activity that ultimately reached large-scale proportions. o Postwar investigations showed that about 260,000 people were in guerrilla organizations and that members of the anti-Japanese underground were even more numerous. o Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces.

The Second World War o The major element of resistance in the Central Luzon area was furnished by the Huks, Hukbalahap, or the People's Anti-Japanese Army organized in early 1942 under the leadership of Luis Taruc, a communist party member since 1939. The Huks armed some 30,000 people and extended their control over much of Luzon. o Other guerrilla units were attached to the United States Armed Forces Far East.

The Second World War o MacArthur's Allied forces landed on the island of Leyte on October 20, 1944, accompanied by Osme単a, who had succeeded to the commonwealth presidency upon the death of Quezon on August 1, 1944. o Landings then followed on the island of Mindoro and around the Lingayen Gulf on the west side of Luzon, and the push toward Manila was initiated.

o Fighting was fierce, particularly in the mountains of northern Luzon, where Japanese troops had retreated, and in Manila, where they put up a last-ditch resistance.

The Second World War o Guerrilla forces rose up everywhere for the final offensive. Fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on September 2, 1945.

o The Philippines had suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction by the time the war was over. o An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed, a large proportion during the final months of the war, and Manila was extensively damaged.

Schedule for the Third Quarter

 January 05 Discussion: Americans in the Philippines  January 07 Discussion: World War II

 January 10 Discussion: Japanese in the Philippines  January 11 PT 1Activity and Deadline of all PPTs  January12 Review for the Long Test  January 14 LONG TEST 3.2 and Deadline of the Group PT

Philiipines under the Americans  

Lecture for Philippine History and Government class (School year 2010-2011)

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