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Impressionism

exhibit

held

75

paintings. The three halls were filled with paintings hung up on every corner and spacing on the walls. Every single painting had captured my attention according to its vivid color presented, one more beautiful than the other. The artists had incorporated not only a great technique to their work but as well used an expression through color. Each hall On Thursday, November 15, 2012, I

had been more condensed with people

attended the Montreal Museum of Fine

than the next. The individuals viewing

Arts. The museum was located on 1380,

the exhibition were of all ages, from

Jean-NoĂŤl

Pavilion

young students to the elderly people.

Sherbrooke Street West. The museum

I’ve never seen a museum so crammed.

was in a well known location, this

Personally, I did not find my experience

determining

high

to be as enjoyable as I hoped because

expectancy. It was well presented and

of the interruption brought by the

was kept clean. It had been decorated

people.

and fixed with expressive color on the

thoughtless

white walls.

Our Major Movements

appreciation of the art, and overlooked

class had been scheduled to meet in

its beauty and significance with laughter

front

at

and unnecessary slurs. This had really

approximately 1 pm, in order for the

distracted me as a first time viewer of

self tour to begin. I had arrived a few

this specific art because of all the

minutes after the given time, with two

constant

of my classmates and stood in a fairly

movement occurring around me. It was

long line. After purchasing my museum

difficult for me to keep a focus. My

ticket, I then had to wait in another line

classmates and I had still managed to

to check-in my belongings. Finally, we

value the beauty of the art, even with all

began our self tour. We were directed to

of the distractions. The art itself was

go see the exhibition on the history of

powerful,

Impressionism. There were three grand

recommend this exhibition to anyone

halls

French

who shares the same passion for art,

paintings from the Clark, based on the

and who can relate and understand the

Impressionism art era. The

work by all the many talented artists.

of

Desmarais

right

the

filled

away

museum

with

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the

the

building

Great

Some

students

when

talking

and

it

came

and

self

were to

the

distracting

expressive.

I

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The Romantic era had begun between

applied, radiant color, thus emphasizing

the years; 1800-1850.This period had

the helplessness of mankind in the face

been

the

of nature's mysterious and awesome

the

power.

a

rebellion

Neoclassicism

era,

against

seeing

that

Romantics of this era had pursed their passions when illustrating their arts. Whereas,

the

Neoclassicism

artists period

from had

the mainly

revolved their mood of art around self sacrifice. While this canvas holds a strong and meaningful history, which really sets this serious tone for the entire painting. Having taken place 1on the night of October 16, 1834, the Houses of Parliament in London were consumed by fire. As the Londoners crowded around the river, and filled every available boat in order to gaze in awe at the horrifying spectacle. The artist had then sketched this horrific scene occurring right before his eyes, and

then

portrayed

its

entirety

in

studio. The 2London-born artist, Joseph Mallord William Turner was the most versatile, successful, and controversial landscape painter of nineteenth-century England. Turner then goes into great detail when illustrating the flames into 3a

surging maelstrom of vigorously

The

first

attention

of

thing

that

the

grabs

audience

is

the the

usefulness of all the various colors which create depth in the composition, by allowing the viewer to visualize freely without any closed boundary. The visual aspect that has great impact on the canvas is the flame that appears to be circling in a twister-like motion, moving towards the high center of the painting. This spiral wind carries numerous color such as; the oranges, bright yellows, and light pastels of browns and greens. If

the

viewer

concentration

keeps

towards

a

the

close

painting,

then it will become evident of the two hidden faces that are seen throughout the

canvas.

One

of

the

faces

represented are portrayed as a profile on the right hand side. This side profile is seen in the movement of the flames, perhaps

looking

towards

London’s

citizens when in a hurry to settle on the boats to have a closer and more fixed look on what had been occurring. There is an olive shaped darkened spot in the

1http://www.clevelandart.org/exhibcef/highlights/html

/4896108.html 2

Š 2000–2012 The Metropolitan Museum of Art -

colored flame, this being the right eye of the face. The mouth area becomes evident

as

well,

because

of

its

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/trnr/hd_trnr.ht

darkening shadow occurring in the

m

flame. The mouth and lips are opened,

3http://www.clevelandart.org/exhibcef/highlights/html

/4896108.html

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appearing to be astonished by this

happening in the center frame, referring

horrific setting. The second face shown

to the flame. The constant movement

in the painting is placed on the left

on

hand side. Again, Turner had used the

considering

side profile of the face. Although, this

throughout the image. The artist still

second face seems to be more apparent

manages to obtain a balance in the

with regards to having the features

painting without distracting the viewer

more defined, and noticeable to the

from truly grasping the beauty as well

viewer’s eye. The features are formed

as

with the assistance of the landscape

illustration.

created on canvas. The right eye of the profiled face is modeled after the piece of land formed on the sky blue crystal water. The little land presented in the image

is

darkened

once

again

to

acknowledge its purpose for the piece. The face is featured with a straight long and narrow nose, creating character to this specific face comparing to the other. The reason for this is comparing both sets of features in the faces the second face seems to be arranged in a stronger visual. Other than the hidden details presented in the painting, the importance of color use plays a fairly

the

the

Turner

canvas

is

the

plenty

tragedy

explores

phenomenal, happening

presented

and

in

the

experiments

with new and unusual aspects to his painting.

During the Romantic era, it

was common to have an artist pursue their passions when illustrating their arts. This is why I personally believe that Turner had illustrated something different that had even captured the historical aspect of this specific time. I believe he incorporated what he had seen and what he had interpreted into this one painting. In hopes of forming a lively illustration that can relate with everyone’s memory of that horrific day.

huge part when dealing with the subject matter. Considering the heaviness of the subject matter, Turner still basses his art around vivid color. Which can still

maintain

a

great

impact,

but

stresses less towards the serious tone of the painting, because of these lively colors. The space on the canvas is not evenly distributed with regarding to the left side appearing to be far more busy when dealing with movements, and once again the color. Although the artist does

form

one

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The Realism period of art was born 4between

the

years,

1850-1880.

provided on this specific canvas is very much opened. The image allows the

Realism art refers to direct observation,

viewer

a bare representation of what is the

space provided, with regards to the

ordinary, to have the world observed in

distinct

its real form without any glory. This

illustration directs the observer’s main

specific art was

not meant to be

attention towards the high center of the

touched or fixed; it was painted based

piece. The sky and clouds are extremely

on what the artist had seen, and how

detailed referring to its color, and

they interpreted the art without making

shape. The strong and effective color

any alterations to please the public.

draws the concentration towards this

Realism

as a goal not imitating

depth

achievements

the

correspond to the painting. The clouds

truthful and accurate depiction of the

are in a clumped space, filled with a

models that nature and contemporary

contrasting

color

life offer to the artist. The father of the

differentiate

perhaps

Realist

Gustave

behind the what appears to be a dream-

Courbet (1819-77). The artists of this

like sequence. Creating a mystery or

era, had based their focus primarily

rather

towards creating the real working class

question regarding the true meaning

people, and focussed less on gods and

behind the image. Gustave as the artist

goddesses. The artist did so to portray

plays with a various pallet of colors,

the reality in the image, and less on the

which helps to develop the observers

imaginative aspect.

mood of the painting. The image seems

past

5sets

artistic

movements

was

but

The genius to Courbet’s painting is how he joins this large amount of color and movement to illustrate this full background without it appearing to be distracting

to

for

the

observer

to

analyze and understand. The space

to

interpret

flow

and

of

the

the

painting.

calmness

forming

imaginative

that

both

that the

an

The

helps meaning

un-answered

to be set on a beach, peaceful and dream-like scenery. The painting is fabricated to have three levels. These levels are detected by the use of color, provided in each section. The sand is darkened

with

a

black

shadow

overtaking a fairly great area in space, this implying a lack of light, in the

4

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bottom sector. There is a noticeable contrast

between

the

bottom

and

middle center of the painting. The top half

of

the

image

appears

to

be

generally set on a more enlightened feel; the texture and movement in the Page 11


sky

really

do

characteristic.

accentuate Although,

a

lively

from

the

bottom elevating to the top of the painting, the color starts off as dark shadings, and slowly dilute into the whites, and baby blues seen in the sky. At the very top of the painting we see only then that the color of the sky drops back to the solid black gloomy color, resembling

the

sand.

This

can

be

confusing to the observer considering the

undecided

theme

and

subject

towards the painting. I personally believe that Gustave’s painting is phenomenal. The painter’s imagination seems to have run away with him. It really fascinates me to see how the artist captures this fictional aspect and is exploring it as if it were real. It takes a true artist with vision to allow the viewers to feel involved in this dream.

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The Impressionism period had begun 6in

and lemon yellows in the painting that

the mid-1880s when a group of

contrast vibrantly with darker colors of

young artists, led by Seurat and Signac,

blue and purple to create an illusion of

challenged conventional Impressionism,

shimmering sunlight and deep warm

applying the theories of French chemist

shadows. The handle of each color

Chevreul, they sought a “scientific” way

contributes to the Pissarro painting, by

of seeing the world by breaking up each

allowing the interpreter to uphold this

colour into its various components, and

imaginative scene. Any use of pastel

applying these separately to canvas.

color sets off this calmness to the eye

The artist’s method became known as

because of its natural and soft texture.

“pointillism”

The pastel colors never seem to be

or

“Neo-Impressionism.”

The artist, 7Camille Pissarro was known

enforced on the eye.

as the “Father of Impressionism.” His

artist, spent much of the last twenty

active year’s as an effective French

years of his life painting the area

artist had begun in 1830 and had ended

around his in Eragny a town about sixty

in the year 1903. The artist’s earlier

miles outside of Paris. He was had been

works of Naturalism had been inspired

clearly attracted to all of the mural

by the Realism painter Courbet, by

beauty

means of the similar color palette, and

surrounded him, also considering that it

tools to create the image. Pissarro was,

-was

for a brief time, a convert to the style.

industrialization. Although Pissarro had

Instead of dots,

8he

used a range of

of

the

almost

a lifelong

9Pissarro

landscape

his

that

untouched

10sympathy

and

as an

by

for the French

small strokes and separate touches of

peasant

restful

landscape

color to be applied to the canvas in a

includes the lonely figure of a sheppard

technique of dabs with the tip of the

tending his flock in the far distance.

artists brush, with a dense application

The working man appears to be in

of paint (three or four layers) results in

harmony with the nature, as much

a highly textures surface that enhances

being a part of the country side as the

the tone vibrations in the picture.

trees and the opened fields. We can also

The beauty that captures the audience

see the shack in the far center of the

of their attention, is the vivid greens, 6

Montreal Museum of fine arts – Painting Description

7

Copyright 1999-2007, HuntFor.com, All rights

9

The Clark- Camille Pissarro, "Saint-Charles, Eragny,"

1891 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgOH6KOdHAc

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Montreal Museum of fine arts – Painting Description

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The Clark- Camille Pissarro, "Saint-Charles, Eragny,"

1891 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgOH6KOdHAc

Page 15


painting, placed behind the two thin

causing the grass and bushes to emerge

barked

trees, but not covering its

a little darker than the opposed side.

entirety. The shack seems to be less

The right side has very little shadow

evident in the image with regards to its

use; it is essentially exposed by the

similar color use as the background

sun’s

trees. The artist had color blended both

incorporated vivid colours such as;

the clumped trees and the shake in the

brilliant pinks next to blues and greens

same pastel color pallet. Including the;

in the lower left corner to help create

greens,

this optical illusion that cause parts of

purples,

blues

and

pinks,

rays.

Pissarro

creating a camouflage effect. There is a

the canvas to

defined calmness and beauty illustrated

withdraw from the center of the canvas.

on the canvas. Having the paintings location set to be in an opened large space, really emphasizing this deserted overall feel. The observer can interpret the space as a getaway, with the associations of the imaginative color, and

forestry.

painting

had

For been

many

years

called,

the

11Saint-

Charles, Éragny at sunset and was bathed with an overall yellow glow that was later discovered to be the result of discolored varnish. As a result of the removed vanish; we can now be able to see clearly the sun being held quite high in the sky. The thin bark of the very tall trees shield our eyes form any unnecessary glare and then cast long shadows across the foreground of the canvas. The sense of balance seems to

I

believe

Pissarro

12advance

skilfully

the

wanted

overall to

while others

effect

deliver

that

on

the

canvas, was to initialize this freedom of space to allow the viewer to construe the painting in their own way.

The

pointillism

this

technique

used

for

painting has been flawlessly perfected, and the vision of the painting has been created very well with regards to the light color used. Pissarro seems to be very imaginative when illustrating his paintings. I believe it is truly amazing to have an artist take a first glimpse of scenery, then having to recreate the same idea on canvas, but having used a new dabbed technique which I think must take far more patience and time to create the exact vision.

be rather adjusting, due to the division of painting. The painting appears to be divided down the center into two parts. The left side contains more shadow, 11

The Clark- Camille Pissarro, "Saint-Charles, Eragny,"

1891 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgOH6KOdHAc

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The Clark- Camille Pissarro, "Saint-Charles, Eragny,"

1891 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgOH6KOdHAc

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The began

Impressionism in

the

19th

period

of

Century,

art

their shoes, performed their routines

1870-

and slumped exhausted in the wings

1880’s in France. Impressionist art is

when

formed

Degas’s

in

an

accurate

and

real

the 15

performance

was

over.

drawings then became the

depiction of light such as, sunsets,

raw material upon which the artist was

daylight, and sunlight. The common

faced his oil paintings and his wax

French term used for describing this

sculptures back in his studio, then

depiction is, “en plain air”. The artistry

carefully structures composition reflects

of the paintings would be ordinary, very

not only Degas interest in drawing in

common and real, a term referred to as

perspective but also his knowledge at

“true to life”. The artists of this era had

the flattened forms, elegant lines, and

a strong preference for creating an

opened

image based on everyday life as their

woodblock prints that began to appear

subject matter as well as, basing their

in Europe in the middle of the 19th

concern towards ordinary people. Edgar

century. In this long horizontal painting

Degas who is the artist

never to

the dancers are dispersed, filling the

have reconciled himself to the label of

entirety of the image. The dancers are

"Impressionist,"

call

either, sitting and standing and or

himself a "Realist" or "Independent.”

stretching around the walls of this very

Degas

large

had

a

13seems

preferring tendency

to

to

capture

spaces

rehearsal

founded

room.

Japanese

Their

bodies

unplanned moments, then basing what

posed so that our eyes are led from the

he has seen on his very first impression

seated figures in the foreground on the

of the occurrence. Throughout this era,

right to the smaller figures on the left.

the artists had illustrated their works

Balancing on one leg, and resting their

with a great number of colors, to really

other foot on the bar. The artist still

emphasise the mood of the painting.

maintains to catch the grace of the

Degas fascination with the ballet is well

known.

14spent

The

Degas

artist

had

hours backstage at the Paris

Opera House drawing the dancers as they put on their costumes, adjusted 13

© 2000–2012 The Metropolitan Museum of Art -

ballerina dancers, while having included the exhaustion presented on their faces, because of the competitive nature of dance and all the un-seen effort and dedication that

is put

into

it.

He

incorporates the delicacy of each dancer individually as well as incorporating this

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dgsp/hd_dgsp.h tm

15

Edgar Degas, "Dancers in the Classroom," c. 1880 -

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLIBDRVww80 14

Edgar Degas, "Dancers in the Classroom," c. 1880 -

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLIBDRVww80

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sort of drain and fatigue in the dance

figure ties is the whole composition;

16it

studio. Every single dancer appears to

connects

the

be isolated from one another, perhaps

background and the opened space on

in the habit of competition or rather in

the left with the closed space on the

order

right.

for

the

dancers

to

remain

focussed and centered with themselves in preparation for their routines. Degas has colored the scene with costume. Each dancer is clothed with a crystal blue tutu, and around their waists a cotton sash that varied in color. Some presented in the blues, and pinks, as well as the yellows, and oranges. This really

implying

more

life

into

the

painting, also identifying each dancer as an individual but yet still collaborates with one another in the studio. Each color represented in the sashes, are also shown on the dance floor in the studio. We can see the color from the sashes; appear to be tinted on the beige floor. This creating a fuller composition with

regards

to

having

the

the

foreground

with

I visited the Montreal museum of fine arts on the 15th of November for the first time. I had the privilege to view the exhibition

of,

Impressionism’, beautiful

‘A

History

filled

paintings.

with

of

various

Throughout

the

entire art exhibition, the ‘Dancers in a Classroom’ had greatly captured my attention, based on its pastel color and just the overall beauty of the art of ballet itself. Also seeing the elegancy along with illustration really moved me as a viewer. Degas created this painting according to his specifications, and this is

portrayed

throughout

the

entire

canvas.

color

distributed around the canvas, and not only clumped in one specific area in the painting.

Degas

also

illustrates

a

colorful fan that really does capture the audience’s main focus. This being, the sum of all colors used in the sashes of the dancers, all of the colors are incorporated in this one fan being held in the center of the painting. The young girl placed in the center, is half in a shadow and the other half in the light. The light that which enters the room from through the windows. This one

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Edgar Deg Edgar Degas, "Dancers in the Classroom,"

c. 1880 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLIBDRVww80

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Impressionism was an era that

Several

different

varieties

of

allowed artists to break the rules of

chrysanthemums fill the top half of

traditional art technique, doing so by

Tissot’s canvas. Large white full flowers

incorporating lively color, and freely

are scattered in blooms of other colors;

brushing as well as overlapping line

burgundy red, sunshine yellow, a pale

formation.

Artists of this era were

gold and vibrant orange on the right of

usually set out to be creating their art

the painting and of course a light touch

outside, in a form of open composition.

of delicate lilac on the left. Tissot’s

The artists would surround themselves

model for his painting is a young

with working in opened areas such as,

woman

landscapes.

James

gardening clothes; she crouches in a

Tissot

is

who

Jacques

Chrysanthemum painting, was a French

turning towards us spectators, as if we

painter.

an

have surprised her therefore is slightly

tightness of execution and

imprecise. She wears a dazed looked on

17academic

attention

18served

painted to

of

in

rather uncomfortable position. Her face

Tissot

artist

dressed

this

great

the

Joseph

appropriately

with

detail.

He

had

her face as if she had been caught off

in the Franco Prussian war as

guard, and was not expecting to be

part of the improvised defense of Paris,

interrupted.

soon after Tissot moved to London

Degas

where

wealthy

photography and in fascination of the

collectors interested in buying his work.

accidental visual effects the camera can

he

hoped

Tissot then

19lived

to

find

20Tissot

was

very

like

his

friend

interested

in

in the fashionable

record. It’s possible that this blurred

suburb of Saint-John’s wood where he

sudden movement is a photographic

added a

effect, translated by Tissot into oil paint

large

conservatory

to

his

house.

on

canvas.

The

movement

in

the

illustration is created as though it was an actual photograph, and is less based on a still picture. The detail in the 17http://www.passion4art.com/articles/jamestissot.ht

m - By Hall Graot II

image is so precise that questions the viewer into perhaps believing that it was not created in a paint technique. The

18

Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute - Copyright

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young lady’s features are presented to be very realistic and lively. The artist

tours/index.cfm?vid=20 19

Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute - Copyright

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uses

a

light

shadowing

the

flowers from where originated from the

contouring on the bridge of the nose

far east. They were valued by artists

and around it. Also, we see the same

with

shadowing

22horticulturalists

technique

used

for

for

the

a

splendid

variety for

and

their

abundance.

by late

around perimeter of the small red toned

blooming

lips. The shadowing technique used by

chrysanthemums were also associated

the artist was to enhance the existence

with

of the importance of the facial features,

himself included them in a painting

creating this depth in the face. The

called, “The widow” in 1868. The young

models eyes are portrayed beautifully;

woman in this painting is removing

the entire mood is based on her eye

some of the withered stems from the

connection with the audience. In this

soil ground. Perhaps the artist was

painting the eyes play a huge role based

proposing a reminder that even the

on the importance, and message sent

beauty of these splendid flowers will

willingly to the viewer. A primary focus

not last forever.

sickness

and

death.

However 23Tissot

is directed towards the yellow sun hat resting

on

the

lady’s

head.

Complementing this accessory with a thick black ribbon tied around the vivid yellow

hat.

This

being

an

evident

contrast, from having two solid colors placed together, with the indifference of tone

and

obvious

meaning.

The

woman’s attire, ties in all of the aspects of the painting together, because of its similar color pallet. The artist sums up the whole painting by capturing the variety of shape and color. If carefully looking at the top left hand corner of the composition, you might be able to see the frame of the conservatory windows.

21For

Europeans in the 19th

century, chrysanthemums were exotic

22

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Page 25


The work of Tissot had been very playful with regards to being colorful, and illustrating a hopefulness to the canvas. I love the colours and the clever use of yellow in the figure creating a more active effect. The beauty in the painting becomes this reality, because it seems so real. The image seems like it’s going to pop out at you at any moment. The illustration is favored by me as a viewer, because of its evident beauty seen in the countless Chrysanthemum flowers, and the hidden beauty seen on the young woman’s face. Inspired work by Tissot.

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Bibliography

10. Copyright 1999-2007, HuntFor.com, All rights reserved http://www.huntfor.com/absoluteig/Piss arro.htm

1.

http://www.clevelandart.org/exhibcef/hi ghlights/html/4896108.html

2.

http://www.clevelandart.org/exhibcef/hi ghlights/html/4896108.html

3.

© 2000–2012 The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tr nr/hd_trnr.htm

4.

http://www.clevelandart.org/exhibcef/hi ghlights/html/4896108.html

5.

Copyright © 1999-2007, HuntFor.com, All rights reserved http://www.huntfor.com/arthistory/c19t h/realism.htm

6.

World Book Encyclopedia, World Book, Inc., Vol. 10, 1991. The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, The Software Toolworks, 1993

7.

© 2000–2012 The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/d gsp/hd_dgsp.htm

8.

Edgar Degas, "Dancers in the Classroom," c. 1880 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLIB DRVww80

9.

11. The Clark- Camille Pissarro, "SaintCharles, Eragny," 1891 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgO H6KOdHAc 12. http://www.passion4art.com/articles/ja mestissot.htm - By Hall Groat II 13. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute - Copyright © 2012, All Rights http://www.clarkart.edu/museum/video -tours/index.cfm?vid=20 14. Fun Facts William Turner http://boonfellow.blogspot.ca/2011/01 /13-facts-about-jmw-turner.html 15. Fun Facts Gustave Courbet http://www.famousbirthdays.com/peopl e/gustave-courbet.html 16. Fun Facts Camille Pissarro http://www.biography.com/people/cami lle-pissarro-9441740 17. Fun Facts Edgar Degas ©2012 Ask.com http://www.ask.com/answers/4209298 1/what-is-an-interesting-fact-aboutedgar-degas http://www.slideshare.net/Nevele/edgar -degas-4330122#btnNext 18. Fun Facts James Jacques Joseph Tissot http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Tiss ot

Montreal Museum of fine arts – Painting Description

SKETCH MAGAZINE

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SKETCH MAGAZINE

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Sketch Magazine  

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

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