Handmade Design in the Digital age How and why has handmade design become popular and affected the culture of modern design? Chloe Chadwick
Contents 1 Introduction 3 The re-INtroduction of handmade in the digital age 7 Trends & PopulaRity 9 Do It Yourself 11 Handmade vs. Digital 15 The Hybrid 21 Conclusion 23 References 25 Bibliography
INTRODUCTION Handmade design and craft culture has become prominent in contemporary graphic design. Current society appeals for new and inventive ways of thinking, resourcing material, and creating ideas ‘outside the box’. Design is a continuous cycle that copes and adapts to societal changes, focusing on fresh and appealing design that reflects current issues or popular trends. The ‘handmade’ genre has become part of present-day culture, and is visible across all media and communication platforms. The re-introduction of handmade ideals into design has become increasingly significant over the last ten years, changing the way designers think and react. This establishment of ‘handmade’ design in the 21st century initiated from the needs of civilization, it was a reaction to issues such as sustainability, to cope with the economic downturn and encouraged people to be proactive, to source their own materials and become efficient by ‘doing it yourself’. This ‘do it yourself’ attitude has increasingly developed in society over the last few years, and is at the forefront of developing a new genre that shows the possibilities of what graphic design can be using traditional techniques and processes. The focus of the essay is based on my passion and belief that handmade design is an effective way of creating and communicating in the digital design world. It allows young designers, like myself, to establish new and innovative ways of thinking, and develop a wide skill set before entering the creative industry. The handmade processes in design directly connect with my own creative practice, as experimentation and discovering different ways of thinking is a key component in my approach to designing. Combining handmade and digital methods is an area of interest for myself, as using handmade techniques and materials have become part of my niche and individual stamp in the creative industry. This essay will focus on how and why the handmade culture has affected design in the digital age, why handmade design has become popular in modern society and what this means for designers in the future.
Re-introduction of Handmade 3
Digitalization is one of the leading features in modern day society. With technology around every corner, society has developed a reliance on the digital medium and modern communication tools. The digital world has changed the way designers communicate and produce, and has become the immediate response to any issue, with many designers resorting to the Internet for inspiration. The turn of the century became the turning point for designers, who were bored of using the same old techniques, so began to explore new areas and processes in design. The innovation of the Mac and its userfriendly, pro designer format became the ‘must have’ tool in the creative industry, becoming the ‘designer’s best friend’. Since further developments in technology, the obligatory use of the Mac has decreased, in favour of experimental design with a particular focus and increase use of handmade methods. Tiffany Meyers, a freelance journalist states, “The novelty of the Mac – the thrill of stretching stuff they couldn’t previously layer - has worn off. And in the past few years, they’ve rediscovered the process of working by hand, producing a marked surge of graphic design that incorporates diverse elements of handwork.” (Meyers, 2009) The Mac became a source and starting point for design, as everything was possible and everything could be altered at the click of a button. But just like any other trend, this ‘novelty’ soon wore thin, and became the everyday way of creating design. Meyers indicates that methods of design, like any trend, has a time span, and these methods soon turn from a novelty, and gradually become less popular until the process adds to the back catalogue of a designers skill set. Now, handmade design in the digital age is becoming increasingly popular. “Digitalization is one of the elements of our modern world. While it is true we enjoy the benefits brought to us by modern technology, we are beginning to rediscover the value of handmade effects and elements in design, advertising, and products.” (Yoshimura, 2009) The benefits brought by the digital world have improved the way designers can create and interact, but designers are beginning to rediscover the value of handmade, as going ‘back to the drawing board’ can enhance design and create imagery that pushes the boundaries in graphic design. The handmade era has become alive again, and the way in which design is created has adapted for the new century. “For many designers, handmade was a reaction – a response – to the computer, and many believed creating boutique projects using older, slower, or hand-manipulated media was a way to positively direct design back to its roots.” (Chen, 2011) This reaction was to compete with the ideals of digital imagery, and a response from designers to show that not every great piece of design has to come from a digital output. From this movement, designers are becoming increasingly aware of the origins of design, and are often looking into the past for inspiration to create design by hand to connect to these graphical origins and understanding of the creative process. In society, we generally assume that using a computer will produce a quicker result, a smoother design that will appeal to anyone and everyone. “There’s always a promise of being able to design better and faster than I was able to last year, last month, last week. Sleeker computers, sharper monitors and more feature-laden software upgrades are somehow supposed to help us produce better and better work.” (Chen, 2006) Chen indicates that the ideals of a using a computer for design purposes creates a false illusion, that you can create design faster and better than the last, but this is not necessarily the case as this false assurance has been cracked by the ideals of handmade design. The term ‘handmade’ occasionally creates an impression of a slow and long process, and although this is the case for some methods, handmade design can be produced just as quickly as computers, and shouldn’t be ruled out as a fast way of creation.
“Computers have enabled us to explore new processes and new ways of making pictures. But I think the most interesting work originates from hand-crafted imagery. It is refreshing, at the moment, to see more hand-crafted images.” (Berrie, 2003) Berrie suggests how important the use of handmade imagery is, as the uniqueness of the hand generates a diverse selection of imagery, because everyone draws, writes and creates differently. This variety creates a broad environment for creators wanting to be involved in handmade graphics to work within, as each hand interprets differently. This exploration of the new but old processes has created a trend in the design world, for designers to revert back to the pencil and see what can happen, even if it doesn’t accomplish anything, it is only an experiment that can lead you to the correct creative decision. “So many designers learn to remove the imperfections that come with doing things by hand. But those imperfections are what make the work human.” (Raye, 2009) The impression that something created from hand is imperfect is misleading. Modern computer technologies have dictated that the clean line and polished finish is the correct and perfect way of creating design. However, the organic nature of handmade design forms a style that is only unique to the handmade genre, and all of the elements that are considered ‘imperfect’ are actually what makes the design so perfect in its effect. It has only been in the last few years where handmade elements in design have become prominent with the industry. In the digital age, there are a large variety of resources that promote craftsmanship and handmade design on a digital platform, developing a field of publishing and promoting handmade work on a digital space. Originating from the USA, Etsy is an online market that allows artisans and designers to sell their original, handmade or vintage items across a large creative platform. It creates a commercial structure on the Internet for designers to connect to a specific audience in the digital world. “Browsing Etsy is both exhilarating and exhausting. There is enough here to mount an astonishing museum exhibition. There is also plenty of junk. Most of all there is a dizzying amount of stuff, and it is similarly difficult to figure out how to characterize what it all represents: an art movement, a craft phenomenon or shopping trend.” (Walker, 2007) Walker suggests with the large quantity of items on Etsy, it is hard to distinguish what is design and what is just ‘clogging’ up the system. Developing this connection between digital and handmade has created and adapted parts of the culture of modern design. It has introduced a new possibility in creating and sharing design, but like many other online facilities, they are lots of unnecessary products that change Etsy from helping increase the popularity of handmade designed products, to a digital shopping structure space for unwanted or not sellable designs. Even though the combination of handmade items being sold on a digital platform expands the designers audience, personally, I believe this takes some of the ideals away from original craft fairs, where these types of products were sold before the digital shopping experience. Like Etsy, social media has become an integral role within the design world. It has become a platform where creativity can be shared across a large audience, as well as messages and important views that help define the integrity of design. “As social media and the Internet become ever-more entwined into our lives and livelihoods; as design studio struggling under global recession heed the call for sustainability and eco-awareness; as truth – in the media, in science and politics and advertising – becomes more and more valuable; the need to prove that a real human being, one with integrity and a clear conscience, stands behind a particular design has become more and more essential.” (Chen, 2011) This digitalization of design in the media has made designers feel like they must become involved in this type of advertisement to stay prominent in the creative industry.
Trends & Popularity The natural progression of popularity in design, whether it be a ‘style’ or idea, is common to every new phase, and the natural development of these phases is encouraged by the demand within society. Society decides whether a style will become popular or not, as the consumers will buy products and designs based upon what is appealing to them and considered on trend. “I think that in this day and age, people are seeking out something that is authentic and personal.” (Dormody, 2008) Dormody argues that society are looking for something that they can develop a personal connection to, and for that item to have a genuine purpose. This connection between the design and the audience is critical to whether it becomes liked or disliked. This connection to the design combined with whether the intended message is easy to understand will in turn decide upon whether it becomes popular. Sabrina Gschwandtner, an artist and writer states, “Handcraft is popular right now as a reaction against a whole slew of things, including our hyper-fast culture, increasing reliance on digital technology, the proliferation of consumer culture, and even war.” (Gschwandtner, 2008) The handmade culture has been continually growing due to the high paced consumer world, where every item can be bought fast and easy. Modern society has reacted to this digitized culture with handmade design, to form an even balance and counteract our fast culture with the calmer processes and originality of handmade design. Anne Odling-Smee, a writer and designer states that “Not everyone wants to live in an environment full of polished surfaces, artificial materials and perfectly designed spaces – generally people are attracted to rough edges, natural fibres and mistakes they can see.” (Odling-Smee, 2002) The originality and unique qualities of handmade methods are becoming increasingly used, as society is reacting to the formal structures and lines in digital design, and instead wants something new and contrasting to these ideals, such as the rough ‘edges’ and quirky elements in handmade design. These rough edges create believability in the design, that each piece of material has been considered by a human touch.
Like fashion, design also repeats and reflects upon earlier trends, as new styles are often structured upon elements of design used in the past, becoming the starting point for most new ideas. The handmade process reflects early trends in graphic design, such as the Dada movement, when it was popular to use found materials and other resources to create graphic design for commercial use. The natural progression of design continues at a constant speed; like a wave, it rises gradually until it peaks, before eventually declining when everything becomes overused and unpopular. The handmade ‘wave’ started with a few designers, who were reluctant to give in to becoming completely digitalized and wanted to revert back to traditional roots of constructing imagery. “In spite of the huge progressions made by mechanical and digital technologies on graphics and printing throughout the twentieth century, the handmade graphic just refuses to go away quietly and bow to the authoritative precision of works mediated through metal type or digital bitmaps. The answers may lie in that assumed authoritative precision which edits out all the imperfections, the unfiltered emotions, the unpredictabilities and the vagaries of the human touch.” (Carruthers, 2005) In the current climate, handmade design is almost at its peak, as it is becoming commercially available, such as being applied to product design as well as becoming an increasingly common response to image making, due to the popularity of the ‘nostalgic look’. The nostalgic ‘wave’ is a response to the eco-friendly outlook on life, a reflection on current environmental issues and the current trend of memorabilia, such as old cameras, vinyl records and folk inspired prints. Currently, nostalgia and handmade design are coinciding with each other, as traditional processes used in handcrafted imagery reflect upon the past, where the nostalgic design or product originated. “New handmade designs elicit feelings of warmth, coziness, and nostalgia.” (Yoshimura, 2009) The unique quality of handmade design can form an association with the home, and all of the comforts that surround you in your own environment. Yoshimura expresses all of the common qualities of handmade design that generate a sense of security, authenticity and memory. Nostalgic handmade design creates a sense of history, a memory that in turn creates a personal impression on the audience, as every person connects to the past and relates to particular nostalgic imagery.
Do It Yourself
Due to the change in societal needs, handmade design has become a response to issues that reflect current affairs. This in turn changed the way design was made, and re-introducing the values of a ‘do it yourself’ attitude in the creative industry. The ‘DIY’ attitude, which originates from the Punk era’s dynamic ideals, has spawned from modern society willing to experiment with new ideas and ways they can push the boundaries. This attitude however, has now been reflected upon professional designers, as society is questioning whether an amateur can produce it. In the ‘do it yourself’ genre of the creative industry, it is hard to distinguish who has created the imagery when particular handmade elements are used within design. Differentiating whether a hobbyist or a professional designer who uses handmade processes is at work is important, as outlining the boundaries between these two levels is key. Personally, I believe that defining the difference between a hobbyist and professional is easier, as hobbyists create work for the enjoyment of themselves, where as designers produce and create for the enjoyment of others as well as themselves. This outlook on design and way of living has affected the way designers think for the better, allowing them to acknowledge the integrity of homemade, handcrafted designs and to pursue the ideals of handmade design, but to push their own ideas and methods further to create design that is both professional and shows distinction from amateur designers. McGuirk, a journalist and critic suggest, “In a post-industrial culture that romanticises the handmade, designers are being called upon to do something they haven’t for a century – make stuff themselves.” (McGuirk, 2011) The new explorative nature of handmade design is becoming increasingly popular with contemporary designers, who want to experiment with what is possible within image making. This term handmade and ‘do it yourself’ also invokes the idea of craftsmanship and what this means in the design world. “The word ‘craftsmanship’ is doing very well. It has become the trump card for any marketing campaign seeking to sell a brand’s story as one with integrity, skill and provenance.” (Macdonald, 2013) Macdonald argues how brands have used craft and the handmade to persuade audiences that these brands have a story that centres on an authentic background, to show an idealistic brand that appeals to modern society demands. But this is not necessarily a good thing for craft and traditional craftspeople that have developed these skills over a long period of time, creating a trust of authenticity with the audience. “Some people want to embrace craft for its essence of craftsmanship-that is, the quality of a piece of work, the time and effort that went into its production. Others are excited by craft because of its inherent otherness-that is, its unique ability to set its practitioners outside of mainstream industrial society.” (Wagner, 2008) The ideals of craftsmanship may decline from the digitalization of design, but the need for handmade design and traditional processes is prominent in the do it yourself attitude, with designers wanting to try out all methods available.
Handmade vs. Digital Within the creative industry, there are many types of skill sets that include both the handmade and digital versions of creating design. The current popularity of handmade design has lead to different creatives and professional designers down different paths; some choosing to purely work with digital, some choosing the traditional techniques of handmade processes, and some developing their own style and a ‘hybrid’ of design. “Hand type may not always be the right answer or the most timeeffective solution, but it is definitely the most fun. It’s the answer I go to most often. It shapes my work and the work of so many around me. It is the answer that keeps the artist from taking himself or herself too seriously and infuses some fun into an industry that sometimes takes itself too seriously. It reveals the hand of the maker, and its viewer finds comfort in that; the artist illustrated by lines made crooked from too many cups of coffee.” (Perry, 2007) Perry expresses his enjoyment of handmade typography, how fun can permeate the design world, and develop an industry that can sometimes be considered far too straight forward for the exciting art that is being created. Creating typography from hand shows how the designer works, not just visually, but it gives you an insight into how the designer thinks and responds to visual ideas. Hand drawn typography has become popular in modern society as it creates an authenticity and appearance that the design is more directed at the user, creating more of a personalised connection.
In contrast, designers such as Jonathan Barnbrook take a unique and different approach to create typography. He uses digital tools to create typefaces that are inspired by politics, classical typography and churches/gravestones. Digital typography is often created for commercial based design and not considered as a design in itâ€™s own right. However, Barnbrook makes sure that each letter is designed with precision not only to stand alone, but to work as a complete set making the typeface a piece of design in itself, with a constant theme across the style of lettering. The difference between the styles of hand drawn typography and digitalized type shows the spread of how design can be created, and the importance of this. Often with computer-generated typography, there is a definite structure compared with the loose and unguided structure of hand produced typography. Handmade typography has affected modern design, as now there is more consideration when using a particular style of type in design, whether it should be handmade or digital, to successfully put across the intended message.
Traditional processes and techniques have been revived in the 21st century. Methods such as letterpress and silkscreen printing have allowed designers wanting to explore older handmade processes but still create a high quality print that still has all the handmade virtues in it. “Some are using letterpress and silkscreen technologies to produce small-batch or one off products.” (Meyers, 2009) The idea that these handmade processes such as Letterpress create a limited number of prints, making the design more special and significant, creating an authentic feel and appearance to the design, emphasising the popularity of Letterpress in modern design. Alan Kitching creates his designs using Letterpress, exploring colour, layout and type in each design. “Despite being slow, labour-intensive and costly in comparison to modern printing methods, an increasing number of designers (and often, their clients) want to use it. Partly this is because the process offers so much more than the computer in terms of learning about print.” (Odling-Smee, 2002) Odling-Smee suggests that learning about the processes of traditional printing methods is becoming increasingly popular with clients, due to the appeal of handmade effects and products in society and design.
Various Alan Kitching Letterpress Prints
â€˜LetterMpressâ€™ creates designs and posters that create the aesthetics of letterpress but in a digital format. Available on several Apple platforms, this application replicates the method and final effects of a Letterpress print, but creates this print through an automatic, easy to use high-definition platform, that includes sound effects and an intuitive touch screen that makes you believe you are experimenting with a traditional but impacting tool. This app has been created as a reaction to the design world and society, how the process and skill of typesetting letters by hand is needed to be replicated in society, a new aesthetic in the digital world. The need in modern society for handmade processes comes from the need to have something authentic and touch by the human hand, to contrast the digitalisation of the world, so it is interesting that LetterMPress is a technological application that is trying to replicate the hand processed application. Personally, creating this application takes all the purpose and meaning out of a Letterpress print, not only for what traditional method stand against but the skill and technique learnt on how to set up type in a traditional way.
The Hybrid 15
Generated from the recent popularity of handmade developments and the advanced technical processes created using digital methods, a new crossbred style of design has emerged. “A third, hybrid aesthetic is emerging, one that marries the technologies of the past and future into a vibrant, exciting present.” (Chen, 2007) This hybrid is the new development within modern graphic design, as it focuses on using an understanding of a variety of skills, both digital and handmade, and intertwining this knowledge in application to create successful design. It has created a form of design that stretches the parameters of what design can be, and how design can change will the influence of modern culture choices. By stretching these parameters, the graphic world has introduced even more possibilities, such as processes and ideas, into an already vast category. “It’s not the first time designers have checked in the rear-view mirror.” (Mader-Meersman, 2009) Julie Mader-Meersman, a Professor of Graphic Design, uses this analogy to reflect how designers often interpret ideas from the past to create new ideas for the future. It’s common knowledge that designers will seek inspiration from the past or look at inspiration from older techniques to re-use, as well as research contemporary and popular colours and trends of design. Especially in handmade design, traditional methods are reflected upon and developed for the modern day adaptations. Therefore, it is no surprise that designers combined both styles and skill sets to create imagery that includes both handmade and digital elements. Many designers combine the handmade with the digital, creating connections and developing work with a particular aesthetic to enhance the idea and message of the design, choosing carefully what the appropriate method to use is, whether it be digital or hand processed. “When designers work by hand today, they’re demonstrating a reluctance to let the computer dictate their design. But it’s not some revolt against the Mac.” (Meyers, 2009) Meyers implies that the popularity of hand created design is not due to the declined use of the Mac, as this is still very much the for front of modern graphic design, but it is a new understanding of what can be created when stepping back to the drawing board, and considering all elements of design befittingly. “Now we’re not amazed by what the computer can do so much as with what we can do with the computer, so it makes sense that the next stage would be to make things with our own hands, using what we know about technology to take it to the next level.” (Grady, 2009) Designer Kevin Grady insinuates that using what we know about technology can enhance the handmade, creating a new level and style of design. Several designers based in the UK are using this technique to produce imagery, such as Kate Moross, a designer who combines her love of bold colours and hand drawn type with experimental film and animation, and Michelle Thompson, a designer illustrator who uses mixed media. Both designers use the same consideration when creating design by using elements of the handmade with elements of digital based work, but both using these skills to create work totally different to each other and unique to themselves.
Various Kate Moross Designs
Kate Moross, a designer based in London, uses bold and creative ways of producing work, not only through her unique and well known style of hand drawn typography, but also her digital skills, that integrate print design, multimedia film and animation. “Incorporate the two aesthetics – handmade and digital – in order to best communicate their message.” (Chen, 2011) Moross incorporates the fun and excitement of creating something by hand, and the thrill it gives the creative and presents that in her designs to an audience willing to embrace this excitement. During the Design MCR conference in Manchester, Moross (2013) states, “the future is multi-disciplinary” and “every singly reaction is important”. Moross understands that in order to create fresh and appealing design for modern society, the message and execution of design is imperative, as the reaction from an audience is critical when gauging how successful a design is. This ‘multi-disciplinary’ form of work that Moross creates also shows the progression in society of combinational design, using both handmade and digital processes in the future to create design that can push the boundaries.
Various Michelle Thompson Illustrations
Using imagery from her own collection and archive, Thompson responds to briefs and creates design that allow the audience to see the complexity and reasoning behind the involvement of both handmade and digital elements within the piece, to enhance how the audience responds, evaluates and reacts to the design. Thompson incorporates the range of aesthetics within her style of design to best depict the intended message of each design piece. In my opinion, this new â€˜hybridâ€™ within design, which uses a combination of tools and effective ways of introducing handmade processes into the digital world not only benefits young designers, but changes how an audience reacts to modern design, and what an audience should think and feel giving a stronger connective link to society. This form of design is less restrictive, and allows creators to generate design that appeals to a variety of creatives, such as fine artists or sculptors, instead of a limited set of designers in the graphics industry. Also, this style of hybrid design can only be a positive part of development within the creative world, as not only has a new style and genre been created, but now designers are using all of their knowledge and skill set to create something that is better suited for the message or point of the design.
Conclusion Handmade design has affected the culture of design in both positive and negative ways, and has become a defined popular trend in the 21st century. Handmade design creates variety in the digital world, as it generates design with intriguing forms and outcomes. Society has dictated the popularity of this trend due to the interesting methods and possibilities that hand designed products and prints create. Overall, trends in design are often adapted to the needs of civilization, because it is important to reflect upon what is relevant and significant to a society for it to appeal to a large audience as well as individuals. However, handmade design and handcrafted techniques should not always be the answer to every piece of design just because it is popular in modern society. The range of what designers can do and create in the 21st century provides a vast ocean for a new designer such as myself to swim in. It forms a range of opportunities, and shows designers different ways of thinking about how to create design using different techniques and acquired skills. The introduction of handmade and traditional skills has increased the selection procedure of what processes are best to use when producing design, meaning the creative industry will continue to expand and develop. The handmade processes becoming prominent in popularity has affected the way designers decide upon what is best for the design, rather than what is fashionable. The creative industry is subjective, with every design there is someone that either loves or despises it. Whether a designer likes or dislikes the handmade process, traditional techniques or the ‘do it yourself’ approach it depends on personal preference and response of the designer, which often relates to the design choices that they would opt for themselves. Taste of design is unique and individual to each designer, as some designers may like traditional processes such as Letterpress, but not like using hand illustrations within design, making the term ‘handmade’ broad and relatable to everyone, and this may not be realised in the creative industry. To conclude, the development and opportunities that handmade design has created in the 21st century has introduced a mix of possibilities and a wide range of creative ideas, which to a young designer such as myself, this creates unlimited opportunities of designing in the creative environment.
References Books Berrie, C. (2003) ‘Christine Berrie’ In Bell, R. and Hyland, A. Hand to Eye: Contemporary Illustration. London: Laurence King Publishing. Pp. 10 Chen Design Associates. (2006) Fingerprint: The Art of Using Handmade Elements in Graphic Design. Ohio: HOW Books. pp. 1 Chen Design Associates. (2011) Fingerprint No 2: The Evolution of Handmade Elements in Graphic Design. Ohio: HOW Books. pp. 1-2 Dormody, D. (2008) ‘If’n Books & Marks’ In Heimerl, C. and Levine, F. Handmade Nation: The Rise of DIY, Art, Craft and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 10 Gschwandtner, S. (2008) ‘Knitknit’ In Heimerl, C. and Levine, F. Handmade Nation: The Rise of DIY, Art, Craft and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 26 Odling-Smee, A. (2002) The New Handmade Graphics: Beyond Digital Design. Switzerland: RotoVision. pp. 6-22 Perry, M. (2007) Hand Job: A Catalog of Type. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 10 Wagner, A. (2008) ‘Craft is what you make of it’ In Heimerl, C. and Levine, F. Handmade Nation: The Rise of DIY, Art, Craft and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 1 Yoshimura, M. (2009) By Hand: Handmade Elements in Graphic Design. Toyko: PIE Books.
Online Journal Articles Carruthers, G. (2005) ‘Handmade graphics refuse to go quietly’. Eye Magazine. [online] http://www.eyemagazine. com/review/article/handmade-graphics-refuse-to-go-quietly [Accessed 15 November 2013] Grady, K. (2009) ‘Direct Comment’ In ‘A Show of Hand’. The Resurgence of Handmade Design. [online] http:// tiffanymeyers.com/2009/04/21/diy-design/ [Accessed 15 November 2013] MacDonald, H. (2013) ‘The Hand Made Tale - Kyoto’. Monocle. [online] http://monocle.com/magazine/issues/61/thehand-made-tale/ [Accessed 15 November 2013] Mader-Meersman, J. (2009) ‘Direct Comment’ In ‘A Show of Hand’. The Resurgence of Handmade Design. [online] http://tiffanymeyers.com/2009/04/21/diy-design/ [Accessed 15 November 2013]
McGuirk, J. (2011) ‘The Art of Craft: The Rise of the Designer-Maker’ The Guardian. [online] http://www.theguardian. com/artanddesign/2011/aug/01/rise-designer-maker-craftsman-handmade [Accessed 15 November 2013] Meyers, T. (2009) ‘A Show of Hand’. The Resurgence of Handmade Design. [online] http://tiffanymeyers. com/2009/04/21/diy-design/ [Accessed 15 November 2013] Raye, R. (2009) ‘Direct Comment’ In ‘A Show of Hand’. The Resurgence of Handmade Design. [online] http:// tiffanymeyers.com/2009/04/21/diy-design/ [Accessed 15 November 2013] Walker, R. (2007) ‘Handmade 2.0’. The New York Times. [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/16/ magazine/16Crafts-t.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1& [Accessed 15 November 2013]
Interview Moross, K. (Thursday 31st October) Design MCR, Manchester Town Hall.
Images Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig.
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Hand Job: A Catalog of Type - Michael Perry Various Typographic Designs - Jonathan Barnbrook Various Letterpress Prints - Alan Kitching LetterMPress Application Screenshots Various Prints - Kate Moross Various Prints - Michelle Thompson
Bibliography Books Bell, R. and Hyland, A. (2003) Hand to Eye: Contemporary Illustration. London: Laurence King Publishing. Chen Design Associates. (2006) Fingerprint: The Art of Using Handmade Elements in Graphic Design. Ohio: HOW Books. Chen Design Associates. (2011) Fingerprint No 2: The Evolution of Handmade Elements in Graphic Design. Ohio: HOW Books. Eskilson, S. (2007) Graphic Design: A New History. London: Laurence King Publishing. Foster, J. (2006) Masters of Poster Design: Poster Design for the Next Century. Massachusetts: Rockport. Gallagher, J., Hellige, H. and Klanten, R. (2011) Cutting Edges: Contemporary Collages. Berlin: Gestalten. Heimerl, C. and Levine, F. (2008) Handmade Nation: The Rise of DIY, Art, Craft and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Heller, S. and Talarico, L. (2010) Graphic: Inside the Sketchbooks of the Worldâ€™s Great Graphic Designers. London: Thames & Hudson. Heller, S. and Talarico, L. (2011) Typography Sketchbooks. London: Thames & Hudson. Heller, S. and Vienne, V. (2012) 100 Ideas that changed Graphic Design. London: Laurence King Publishing. Odling-Smee, A. (2002) The New Handmade Graphics: Beyond Digital Design. Switzerland: RotoVision. Perry, M. (2007) Hand Job: A Catalog of Type. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Rothman, J. (2011) Drawn In: A Peek into the Inspiring Sketchbooks of 44 Fine Artists, Illustrators, Graphic Designers and Cartoonists. Massachusetts: Quarry Books. Schmidt, C. (2010) Print Workshop: Hand-printing Techniques and Truly Original Projects. New York: Potter Craft. Yoshimura, M. (2009) By Hand: Handmade Elements in Graphic Design. Toyko: PIE Books.
Online Journal Articles MacDonald, H. (2013) ‘The Hand Made Tale - Kyoto’. Monocle. [online] http://monocle.com/magazine/issues/61/thehand-made-tale/ [Accessed 15 November 2013] McGuirk, J. (2011) ‘The Art of Craft: The Rise of the Designer-Maker’ The Guardian. [online] http://www.theguardian. com/artanddesign/2011/aug/01/rise-designer-maker-craftsman-handmade [Accessed 15 November 2013] Meyers, T. (2009) ‘A Show of Hand’. The Resurgence of Handmade Design. [online] http://tiffanymeyers. com/2009/04/21/diy-design/ [Accessed 15 November 2013] Shultz, B. J. (2011) ‘Handmade and DIY: The Cultural Economy in the Digital Age’. A Dissertation Presented for the Doctor of Philosophy Degree The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. [online] http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=2169&context=utk_graddiss&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.uk%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%2 6rct%3Dj%26q%3Dhandmade%2520design%2520dissertation%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D9%26ved%3D0CFAQFj AI%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftrace.tennessee.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D2169% 2526context%253Dutk_graddiss%26ei%3DiGpeUq6FOIfL0QX6mYGoBA%26usg%3DAFQjCNEIP0MBYWUyRpe3Bp6J3 SxX6drWcA%26bvm%3Dbv.54176721%2Cd.d2k#search=%22handmade%20design%20dissertation%22 [Accessed 15 November 2013] Walker, R. (2007) ‘Handmade 2.0’. The New York Times. [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/16/ magazine/16Crafts-t.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1& [Accessed 15 November 2013]
Websites LetterMPress (2013) [online] [Accessed on 15 November 2013] http://www.lettermpress.com/LetterMpress/Home.html Kate Moross (2013) [online] [Accessed on 15 November 2013] http://katemoross.com Michelle Thompson (2013) [online] [Accessed on 5 November 2013] http://www.michelle-thompson.com/index.asp UK Handmade (2013) [online] [Accessed 5 November 2013] http://issuu.com/ukhandmade/docs/ ukhandmadewinter2013 Virus Font (2013) [online] [Accessed 5 November 2013] http://www.virusfonts.com