INTRODUCTION WHAT IS A TREND TREND FORECASTING FASHION THEORIES TREND INFLUENCERS THE IMPACTS OF FASHION TREND IDENTIFICATION STYLING SHOOT EDITIORIAL CONCLUSION
1 3 5 7 11 15 17 27 37 41
Chloe Rose N0743680 Word Count: 2749
I confirm that this work has gained ethical approval and that I have faithfully observed the terms of approval in the conduct of this project. Signed …….....
METHODOLOGY To back the foundation of this report primary and secondary research will be evidenced. Primary research offered detailed information and through unique research specific for this report which included in-store and high street interviews and behavioral observation, questionnaires. The secondary research involved the collection of existing research through the use of websites, books, documentaries, magazines and trend databases such as WGSN.
SHOP SAFARI This included researching high street retailers specifically to observe the trend slogans and verifying why its a trend in todayâ€™s market. In addition, gaining an insight of the characteristics of those buying into the trend.
STREET STYLE INTERVIEWS Street style interviews were completed to define why consumers were buying into the trend. Evidence of the trend was collected using photographs.
This report will identify the significance of trends and the need for trend forecasting. Factors driving the trend and the role of trend forecasting within fashion marketing will also be explored. Social, cultural and economic factors as well as media influencers that impact trends and the future of trends will also be considered. The report will focus on the slogan trend; that has been featured at Coachella, Spring Summer 2018 Fashion Week, catwalks globally and on the high street. The report will examine the evolution of the trend and its origin. Primary and secondary research has been incorporated to support the findings of the trend. This includes in-store interviews with retailers in Nottingham and will conclude with the sustainability of a chosen trend.
A TREND TYPICALLY REFERS TO A ‘GENERAL DIRECTION OR MOVEMENT’(Stone,2008).
FASHION TRENDS ARE OFTEN INFLUENCED BY A RANGE OF DIFFERENT FACTORS SUCH AS CINEMA, CELEBRITIES, CLIMATE, CREATIVE EXPLORATIONS, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND TECHNOLOGY.
The fashion industry has evolved over the last 20 years. The change in the fashion market has put pressure on retailers to apply low costs and flexibility in design quality. More importantly, speed to the market in order to preserve a profitable position in an ever-increasing challenging market. Trend forecasters can be described as lifestyle detectives who spend their time detecting patterns or changes in attitudes, mind sets or lifestyle options, that run against current thinking or how people normally behave, live, dress, communicate and trade. (Raymond, Martin, 2010, 12;)
Fashion forecasting is the element used in most successful businesses today. Fashion stands at one of the most saturated, consequently competitive markets. Therefore, precise forecasting allows the fashion industry sections to prepare to meet consumer demand with acceptable products for sale. Inaccuracy can be extremely costly and could lead to damaged reputation or fall behind in their competitors.
DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION CURVE
(Brandon, 2011) suggests that if fashion is to be accepted by consumers it must follow the diffusion process and can be defined by the diffusion curve demonstrating how different consumer groups adopt over time. Rogers divides consumers into five different categories.
INNOVATORS The curve starts with innovators which accounts for 2.5% of the population as shown in (fig 1). Innovators are inclined to set the trends by wearing articles before they become fashion trends. They are more likely to discontinue when they become broadly accepted or exposed by the media through fashion week.
EARLY ADOPTERS The second part of the curve includes the Early Adopters, 13.5% of the population. They fashion a proposal first and influence exposure to the mass media through the emergence of a fashion trend. Early adopters are likely to be public figures with influence including celebrities or significant people who offer the endorsement and creative input. This is defined as the trickledown effect ( Veblen, 1899).
EARLY MAJORITY The third group includes the Early majority 34% of the population, one of the largest parts of consumers. The trend is then on a steep incline and heading towards its peak. Due to the popularity of the trend, fast fashion retailers recreate the apparel to reach buyers.
LATE MAJORITY The second biggest part of the curve include consumers that can be described as the late majority of 34% of the population. The trend can be described as matured and heading toward a decline in popularity due to the design lacking creativity and originality within the retail market.
LAGGARDS The final curve includes 16% of the population. Laggards are considered as anti-innovators and are described as only interested in the trend when itâ€™s fading moreover retailers will be aware that client base demand or (the next big thing) so the trend will be on sale or discounted.
A FASHION CYCLE The fashion cycle is a term commonly used in the industry that communicates the way that fashions come and go and the length of time they will stay on trend. Once a fashion has been created, there are five stages of the fashion cycle.
THE INNOVATION OF A TREND New styles presented by high fashion brands are first showcased to buyers and the media. Celebrities and influencers wear the styles to exclusive events, which generates a slope in the cycle. The exceptional level of craftmanship results in a high product price.
THE INCREASE IN POPULARITY
Mass media shares information on an international level which forms a secondary sales line. Fast fashion retailers create range plans to suit their target demographic. This is achieved by modification of design and the use of cheaper fabrics.
THE PEAK IN POPULARITY The summit is the highest point of the fashion cycle. Manufacturers produce trend adaptations or replications at various price points to cope with the success of the trend, this is known as brand extension.
THE DECLINE IN POPULARITY As the trend becomes less relevant, consumers look for original styles. This means consumers are not prepared to pay the initial product price as the trend is seen as outdated. Retailers recognise the decline of the trend so move stock to sale ranges.
THE REJECTION OF A STYLE Rejection is the final element of the cycle before new trends emerge.
WHAT INFLUENCERS A TREND? In history, trends have been shaped through marketing, advertising and the media and have attempted to influence style. It could be argued that trends are inclined by social, climate, creative explorations, political, economic and technological factors. Many new trends tend to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary (Sproles & Burns, 1994). This relates to the trickle-down theory, where high fashion brands introduce a trend which impacts the ranges high street stores introduce. Fast fashion brands are aware of the power of shortlived trend life cycles where individuals continuously seek products to satisfy their micro-moments of inspiration. Retailers understand that some styles in the introductory phase are recognised as fads and have to gain popularity and momentum before becoming a trend. The power and influence of social media on the fashion industry is one of the most effective marketing tools. Reliable bloggers are considered to be powerful and brands recognise the purchasing power that consumers hold (Llouw, 2011). Bloggers and celebrities have strong influence within the industry, as they can promote clothing effectively and inexpensively on their networks. RewardStyle, ShopStyle and LiketoKnow, to support trends to revolutionise and grow.
TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND TRENDS TRENDS TRENDS TREND
Fast fashion” is a clothing supply chain model that acts to respond quickly to latest fashion trends by frequently updating the clothing products available in stores (Byun and Sternquist, 2011; Moore and Fernie, 2004). This carried out by updating clothing products available In stores, examples of retailers that have adopted fast fashion are H&M and Zara and have introduced new designs to stores every three to five weeks (Hu et al., 2014). Due to fast changing trends, it has offered the consumer more. Allowing people to consume more has impacted negatively on society and the environment. This was recognized Vivienne Westwood in 2013, where she stated, ‘Don’t invest in fashion but invest in the world’.
Figures vary, but one study suggests as many as eight in 10 garments are not actually sold in charity shops. Even the Charity Retail Association estimates that 41 percent are sold on to commercial recyclers, and 4 percent go to landfill. Therefore this has forced consumers to consider the circular economy model, it focused on an alternative to the traditional linear economy of make, use, dispose of. Circular economy aims to extract maximum value whilst in use, recover & generate materials at the end of service life. In response, brands including H&M and Zara are stepping up in-store recycling initiatives, which allow customers to drop off unwanted items in fashion “bins” in high-street shops.
WHAT INFLUENCERS A TREND? Pressure on brands to deliver constant trends can lead to unethical practices within the supply chain as the pressure to deliver is so immense that workers are pushed to work extreme hours, (RetailConstulant). An example of ethical practices being ignored was the Rana Plaza disaster in 2013 where the factory collapsed causing a devastating 1138 deaths. The wages at Rana Plaza were as low as US$68 a month which unions and employers admit is not a considerable living wage (Parry,2016). As a result, movements forced the industry to become more transparent.
88% of UK and US Millenials and Generation Xers believe brands need to do more good, not just â€˜less badâ€™ (VERDENIETO, 2015). Green is the new black because ethical fashion has risen on the brand's agenda from luxury to the high street. (Fashion Transparency index, 2018). this has led retailers to share their policies and commitments on human rights and the environment. Nonetheless more needs to be done as not a single brand scored higher than 60% on the fashion transparency index 2018. The score is reflected in policy, commitments, governors, traceability, know and show and fix and spotlight issues. Although it is a step towards change. Everlane is a fashion brand example acting ethically as they work closely with factory owners and share factory production stories behind each piece of clothing.
SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS S
SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS TREND IDENTIFICATION SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS SLOGANS
A trend highly featured at London Fashion week 2018 is the slogan print trend: â€˜Clothing is a great way to make a statement. and it enables consumers to wear practical outfits that still look on trendâ€™, (Who What wear, 2017).
WHAT IS DRIVING KEY DRIVERS OF THE SLOGAN TREND
Consumers buy into the slogan trend for three main reasons as it permits individuals to make an explicit political statement or express other views, to follow fashion trends and to draw attention to themselves through the art of clothing. However, an important key driver is celebrities as Racheal Berks designed a t-shirt with the slogan â€˜The Future is Femaleâ€™ where the likes of Cara Delivingne and Kendall Jenner have been captured in. This aided the trend as consumers place a higher value on fashion that celebrities endorse, it plays on consumer psychology as if their receiving advice from a valued friend. However, The slogan trend became a talking point socially, culturally and politically through the use of freedom of speech through clothing. Nonetheless, profit margins within the marketplace appear more important than the messages the clothing is trying to reflect.
Slogan t-shirts have a lot of positive traits. They give individuals the freedom and power to obtain a political voice. It allows people who may be interested in politics or activism to have their say and to show their opinion to everyone, making it an inclusive trend. Alongside the creative aspects of the fashion industry, the slogan trend presents the social and political factors that impact the industry and society in general. Designers can utilize this platform by elevating issues through the use of clothing. The trend first became popular in the 1980s when Katherine Hamnett and Vivienne Westwood were featured wearing t-shirts with provocative activist messages.
THE HIGH STREET During observations of retailers on the high street, it was found that the slogan trend was mainly present on t-shirts. They were also found on hats, underwear, and bedding but this was less common. It was evident that high street stores such as River Island, Topshop, Urban Outfitters, Primark and John Lewis made the presence of slogan t-shirts an integral part of their visual merchandising. Mannequins were visible on entering the stores. In addition, the store manager of River Island, Emma Hildon, stated, â€˜In every delivery, there will be a slogan printed itemâ€™. This is in contrast to high-end fashion brands as the high street stores observed did not have many slogan t-shirts visible or available. The reasoning behind this may be that once this trend reaches the high street it starts to lose the meaning behind the messages. This may be because slogan t-shirts are presented on the catwalk alongside visual and audio elements that elevate the power of the message, whereas in the retail environment there are not these effects to support the slogans. The designer Henry Holland created slogan t-shirts for his brand which are light-hearted and not generally influenced by serious events. Therefore, it is questionnable as to whether political statements should be made into trends as eventually, trends enter decline. Additionally, it may not be ethical to use serious issues such as feminism to create flippant statements, as the message gets lost behind the slogan.
“I mostly shop at River Island as they always have slogan prints within their stock, I just hope the trend continues to stay”
“I just love the way I feel apart of a tribe when I’m wearing my slogan jumper”
NOTTINGHAM STREET STYLE
THE STYLING SHOOT.
CONCEPT 1 The mood board features retro typeface and warm colours to create a classic and nostalgic ambience. The first idea for the shoot was to have the editorial featured in the magazine Italian Vogue. This led to the shoot having a cafe theme where the design was influenced by 1950s Saigon with a tropical roof garden. The reasoning behind the photoshoot was created from the research of demographics and experience through marketing. Therefore shooting in a diverse location allowed consumers to be part of a travelling experience. Although post-production proved that the message of the trend was lost due to the excessively decorated backdrop, therefore, another shoot was arranged.
CONCEPT 1 TEST SHOOT
CONCEPT The concept behind the styling shoot is to represent the slogan trend as inclusive and original. The Editorial will be featured in Asos Magazine as there is a prodominant focus on â€˜feminismâ€™ and it reflects the gender fluidity of the trend.
MOODBOARD The moodboard illustrates the inspiration behind the location, styling and models. Millenial pen portraits were constructed to ensure the target consumers would buy into the trend within Asos magazine. The shoot will take place outside with the use of ambient lighting to create a realistic environment to relate to the consumer base. Vogue magazine tend to deploy an aspirational model on the cover within a conventional studio. Asos use unorthodox models which relates to the inclusivity of the slogan trend. A risk of shooting outside is the weather conditions therefore a contingency plan was undertook. The location was surfaced and unpopulated which allowed the models to experiment with poses.
MODEL The models were aged 20 to relate to Asosâ€™ demographic. A male and female were selected.
STYLING The apparel consisted of Slogan T-shirts and slim fitting black jeans. The poses adopted by the models dispel gender norms.
ASOS CONSUMER PROFILE
THE FINAL PIECE
CONCLUSION To conclude, the success of the slogan trend can be understood through the trickle-down theory as high fashion brands first utilised this trend which slowly filtered down to fast fashion retailers. This is supported by the economics theory of supply and demand (Marshall, 1838) as the shift in demand for slogans resulted in the quantity increasing. The demand for slogans on the high street stemmed from Dior SS17. Social media influencers and celebrity endorsement has driven the impact of trends. The â€˜Future is Femaleâ€™ t-shirt highlights the success of the trend, endorsed by model Kendall Jenner. Primary and secondary research has suggested that the trend will continue to be relevant in the market, with 69% of respondents on a recent survey (see appendix) claiming they liked the slogan trend which emphasises the inclusivity of the trend. Forecasters will question the longevity of the trend as it begins to reach the decline period. In order for slogans to remain as a relevant trend, brands must become more innovative with slogans. A brand that has recognised this is Dior as within SS18 they were seen utilising slogans in the form of tattoos. This suggests that the trend still has a lifespan and has potential to emerge within future seasons.