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Visual Communication Project II

Stop Motion Animation Exploring techniques and Narrative structures Guide: Prof. Sudesh Balan Chitra Chandrashekhar (09625804) M.Des. Visual Communication 2009-11

Date: 10.11.2010 Industrial Design Centre Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Powai


Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Stop Motion Animation Exploring techniques tec and Narrative structures Visual Communication Project II Co Submitte in partial fulfillment for the requirement of Submitted deg the degree, Masters of Design in Visual Communication (2009 - 2011) at the Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.

Guide: Prof. Sudesh Balan Guide Chitra Chandrashekhar (09625804) Date Date: 10.11.2010

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures

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Approval Sheet The Visual Communication Project II titled ‘Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative structures’ by Chitra Chandrashekhar (09625804) is approved towards partial fulfilment of the requirements for post graduate degree of Master of Design in Visual Communication.

Guide _________________________________________

Internal Examiner _______________________________

External Examiner _______________________________

Chairperson ____________________________________

Industrial Design Centre Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay July - November 2010

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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Declaration I declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where others’ ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misrep- resented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/ source in my submission. I understand that any violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed. Signature: Name of the student: Chitra Chandrashekhar Roll No.: 09625804 Date: 10.11.2010 Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


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Acknowledgements The project has been an enriching experience and I wish to express my gratitude to the Visual Communication faculty, Industrial Design Centre (IDC), as they let me explore the field of Stop Motion Animation. I am also grateful to my guide Prof. Sudesh Balan for his timely guidance, support and technical advice; and Prof. Nina Sabnani, for introducing me to the technique of animation, sharing her valuable experience, suggestions and encouraging me to explore, experiment and deepen my understanding of the medium. The IIT Bombay and IDC library and the IDC Product Photo Studio have been very valuable resources to the project. I thank my friends Somya, Hemali, Chinmayee, Nimisha, Ishneet, Devina, Vineeta, Shampa, Somparna and peers from IDC who have supported me through the work’s progress. Also my friends from the animation department Anindya, Geetanjali, Samidha, Naveen and Sumeet were generous in providing critique, tips and sharing their knowledge and resources. Last but not the least, my family and relatives especially Perima and Peripa. Their wishes and prayers have always given me the strength and courage to go on. My sincere and heartiest thanks to all! Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


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Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Abstract Animation films have become synonymous with magic, fun and entertainment from the very first experiments in the late 19th Century. This art form has developed from experiments based on optical illusion. An animation film’s experience of seeing a story come to life and yet differing from perceived reality is unlike any other form of story telling or film making. Stop Motion animation has it’s own way of captivating it’s viewers. The magical quality given to mundane objects transforms them into personalities that viewers can easily connect with. Narratives have been an integral part of human evolution. They are our unique way of making meaning from events and objects in our environment. Narrative discourses and story telling have evolved over time. Narratives in films have the power to hold the audience’s attention. Hence this medium has grown to be a timeless way of story telling. The project aims to explore visual communication, as an audio visual narrative experience, using stop motion animation. The project also looks forward to skill building experiments in the field of stop motion animation. Along with this, it is intended to help my understanding of story telling, narratives, image making, stop motion animation, music and film making. A larger goal of creating a unique experience using the above techniques, has led to a set of experiments, explorations and the final result - ‘The Elusive i’. Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

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Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Contents

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Acknowledgements Abstract

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1. Introduction 1.1 Human Experience: Visual and Cerebral 1.2 Stop motion Animation: What and Why? 1.3 Objectives 1.4 Methodology

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2. Explorations 2.1 Early experiments 2.2 Informed efforts 2.3 Way ahead

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3. Understanding Narratives 3.1 Narratology 3.2 Literary tropes 3.3 Archetypes 3.4 Learning from examples

66 67 67 68

4. Ideation: Part A 4.1 Deciding the genre: Fantasy 4.2 Experts on Fantasy 4.3 References of fantasy works 4.4 Redefining Fantasy

70 71 72 72

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

5. Ideation: Part B 5.1 Brainstorming 5.2 Research 5.3 FInal Idea 5.4 Story Construction 5.5 Final Story - The Elusive i

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6. Development 6.1 Scripting 6.2 Sonic narrative 6.3 Character design 6.4 Story boarding 6.5 Medium Selection

84 86 86 88 92

7. Execution 7.1 Schedule of items 7.2 Shooting setup 7.3 Animation 7.4 Audio design

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Contents 8. Final Output 8.1 Post production 8.2 Writing a DVD 8.3 Publicity Design - DVD cover, flyers/ posters

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9. Conclusion 9.1 Achievements 9.2 Limitations 9.3 Lessons for future

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Appendix Glossary List of figures

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Bibliography Stories Books Papers Essays/ Articles Web sites Documentaries/ TV Shows Live action films Animation films Short animation films

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1. Introduction 1.1 Human Experience: Visual and Cerebral 1.2 Stop motion Animation: What and Why? 1.3 Objectives 1.4 Methodology

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Chapter 1: Introduction

“..human experience....essentially a set of informed imageries rich with meanings...“

1.1 Human Experience: Visual and Cerebral Human experience is a motley of images, sensations and information. Transforming these scattered bits of information into useful knowledge has been the key to our evolution. The human brain is unique in stringing, chunking and aligning information in a sequence that is memorable. This sequence of images and events is recounted and shared in the form of stories. Visuals formed early modes of communication as they preceded human speech. We can understand that from a new born who spends most of the time grasping the variety of visuals in its surroundings. Later as spoken language developed, oral communication in the form of stories spread with travellers and continued into the long lived tradition of storytelling we all know well. Thus, human experience is not an inflow of disparate images but essentially a set of informed imageries rich with meanings and associations. These imageries are either self-created or narrated to us. Throughout human history an urge to re-tell events and reproduce images to convey ideas, emotions and experiences has led to astronomical leaps in technology. 16

With the invention of the camera in the 19th century, medium of human expression and experiences changed dramatically. Gradually, filmmaking developed into a strong medium of storytelling. A film projected on a screen could tell stories with a life-like feel. These moving images which reflected life, connected well and enhanced the human experience. 1

Along with film making, grew a genre of animation films. Their charm was in adding life to inanimate visuals - graphics and objects. Animation films evolved from experiments with toys and devices that simulated movement giving an illusion of life. This further diversified the medium of film making and story telling. The medium continues to improve with constant experiments and technological breakthroughs in achieving newer levels of expression for human experience.

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This project is born out of the urge to learn and build the design sense required in crafting such an experience with a medium that developed over two centuries ago.

3 Figures 1, 2, 3: Visual medium of story: Cave art,Greek vase painting, Seafarer tells a story Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 1: Introduction

Human Experience through Narratives Audio Visual

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Drawings Paintings Books Prints Murals/ Relief Sculpture Architecture Photography Silent films

Puppet/ Theatre/ Play Dance drama Talkies cinema TV Shows Documentaries Virtual walk throughs Animation films 2D and 3D Music videos Projection installations

Figures 4: Human experience through narratives: visual and audio visual in the Indian context

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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.2 Stop Motion Animation: What and Why? Animation filmmaking grew from experiments with devices and toys such as the Zoetrope, Thaumatrope, Praxinoscope etc. The principle of persistence of vision, which is now much debated, was the basis of many experiments by film makers. According to the principle by P. Roget, the human eye when exposed to light for a brief period, continues to see an after image even after the light source is taken away. The time estimated for the eye to retain the after image was 1/ 24th of a second. Research concluded that it is due to persistence of vision that the eye perceives movement when a series of images is flashed at a fast rate. The perception of movement is being studied by psychologists and according to them it is not attributed to the principle of persistence of vision.1 However, irrespective of scientific controversies, filmmakers were convinced with the principle and began developing images with incremental changes to be run on a film roll. The roll when played through a

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1. Hardy, C. Arthur, ‘The Study of Persistence of Vision - Psychology: A.C. Hardy’, Communicated by Edwin B. Wilson, Departmznt Of Physics, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, February 20, 1920.

projector would maintain the speed of 24 frames per second. Thus creating the illusion of motion. This illusion was used in the making of early animation films both hand drawn and stop motion animation. Although the principle of animation was common to both the techniques, stop motion animation differed from hand drawn animation. Stop motion animation largely referred to the manipulative movement of inanimate objects to create an illusion of magical movement. The first use of stop motion animation was in the 1890’s film The Humpty Dumpty Circus by J. Stuart Blackton and Albert. E. Smith. Little toys and animals of a circus were shown to come to life. Experiments developed further into using paper cut-outs, puppets and clay for animation. Gradually this technique developed into special effects for live action movies mainly where demons, monsters and supernatural powers were a part of the story such as Jason and the Argonauts and Kingkong.

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Only over the last century did stop motion animation in clay, termed as claymation, 7 Figures 5, 6, 7: Early animation through devices. Zoetrope, Thaumatrope and Praxinoscope resply. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 1: Introduction

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Experiments in stop motion animation are of a great variety, some are given in the below list: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Objects Pixilation Blackboard White board Paint on glass Sand Graffiti Beads Pin screen Cut-outs

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Silhouette Origami Free form Paint on Film Clay puppets Special FX for live action 17. Wood toy 18. Stereoscopic

Figures 8: Stop Motion Animation: Explorations over a century Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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Chapter 1: Introduction

develop as an independent medium of mass entertainment especially for television broadcast. Series like Pingu, Bob the Builder and Nick Park’s Shaun the Sheep and Creature Comforts became popular television content for children. Stop motion feature length films have also been produced and widely liked by audience. Wallace and Grommit, Coraline, Mary and Max are to name a few. Apart from popular claymation films, stop motion animation has been extensively experimented with at the National Film Board of Canada. This technique offers freedom to use a wide range of media, materials, and room for more experiments. Norman Mc Laren pioneered in making experimental films that used pixilation and stop motion such as The Neighbours. Caroline Leaf, Ishu Patel, Jacques Dourin and Alexander Petrov are some other experts in this domain as they perfected techniques such as sand on glass, beads, pin screen and oil on glass respectively. In addition to creating illusion of motion of objects and puppets in their miniature worlds and having an experimental quality, stop motion animation is also excellent as a cost 20

effective method of film making. Yet, it can be an equally powerful and appealing messenger of ideas and stories. The short ad film for an NGO called Praja by animator Rajiv Eipe uses mixed media and claymation to convey the message of community spirit and unity. With growing access to digital resources stop motion animation is also developing into a household craft or skill. In this milieu, it becomes important to learn what makes such an accessible medium of communication more professional and superior in quality while having low production costs. Also, inspired by the magic of animation, this project is used as an opportunity to: 1. Learn about animation. 2. Explore the craft of stop motion animation and the possibilities of experimentation. 3. Use it as a medium of exploratory narrative expression. 4. Learn digital techniques used in the production of professional quality audio-visual content.

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Figures 9,10, 11, 12: Popular Stop Motion Animation. From top left, clockwise: Wallace and Grommit, Mary and Max, Bob the buider and Praja.

1.3 Objectives The project is directed towards creating an audio-visual experience and aims the following: 1. Learning the medium of stop motion film making. 2. Understanding narratives, story construction and film language. 3. Applying this learning to create a visually stimulating narrative using stop motion animation.

Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 1: Introduction

1.4 Methodology The project goals were achieved using the following methodology: A. The technique: 1. Learning by doing: Experimenting initially with various objects, materials and media such as drawing, painting etc. to experience the process and derive the problem areas to solve. 2. Systematic learning: Knowing established rules and tips to achieve better results by: a) Applying key attributes of animation films action, timing, composition, colours, music and sound. b) Learning appropriate use of camera, lighting, studio environment for production, editing and digital processing.

c) Understanding materials as representational tools of meanings, characters, backgrounds, props etc. B. The theory: 1. Study of the science of narratives and literary devices. 2. Case studies of live action and animation films. 3. Decide a genre for writing the final narrative. C. The final result: 1. Final concept or central theme generation. 2. Practise short narratives construction skills. 3. Developing final story and script. 4. Learn planning and execution logistics involved in pre-production, production and post-production.

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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5. Execution of the final narrative using stop motion animation. 21

The above process was then plotted on a time line for realistic goal setting. For this purpose, the broad stages identified were: Experiments Narrative study Ideation Final Concept Pre-planning Planning Shooting Post production The time line shown in the following page defined the scope of all activities to be completed in stages within target dates. This time line was revised from time to time, as the project advanced or exceeded set deadlines.


Chapter 1: Introduction

Stages

July Aug

September 1to23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1

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October 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 1

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November 4 5 6 7

džƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚƐDĞĚŝƵŵ EĂƌƌĂƚŝǀĞƐƚƵĚLJ /ĚĞĂƚŝŽŶͬƐƚŽƌLJĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƐ &ŝŶĂůĐŽŶĐĞƉƚͬƐĐƌĂƚĐŚƐĐƌŝƉƚ WƌĞͲƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ^ŚŽŽƚŝŶŐ WŽƐƚͲƉƌŽĚƵĐƚŝŽŶ

Project Time line Scheduling - Concept stage.

Project Time line Scheduling - Pre-planning phase.

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Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures

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2. Explorations 23

2.1 Early experiments 2.2 Informed efforts 2.3 Way ahead

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


Chapter 2: Explorations

2.1 Early Experiments To get acquainted with stop motion animation a set of experimental activities had to begin. This phase of experiments were however, carried out with little theoretical backing or guidance. The intent of this unguided approach was to learn by doing. This way it was easy to identify and prioritize the areas of further improvement. These early experiments explored various materials and media, largely to test the illusion of motion and the look and feel. The following list of experiments formed the foundation of the learning that followed: 1. Objects 2. Drawing 3. Cut-out 4. Grains/Rava

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From top left (clockwise): Explorations in Cut-out, Drawing, Object and Grains Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 2: Explorations

Procedure: The following constitute the common technique used for all the explorations: Animation: Incremental changes in position was tried for initial experiments. Timing: Each frame was run in the original sequence without changes or repetition. Technology: Snapshot digital camera set in auto mode was used. Camera was used as both handheld and on a tripod. The frames were run in sequence using Windows 7 movie maker. Lighting: The lighting used was from the ambient 40 Watt fluorescent lamps. Narration: There was no particular narrative or story line.

Note: The label ‘No. of frames’ in all the following photographic references refers to the number of raw frames shot on camera for that sequence.

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

1. Objects (Ref. Pg. 26-29): Matchsticks, book, spectacles, crafted flower, card and rubber bands were the items used here. Some key features of this step: a) Sequence using matchsticks, had a rough idea of transformation of sticks into a flying creature.

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b) Sequence shot with rubber bands was captured with the camera on a tripod. 2. Drawing (Ref. Pg. 30): Colour pencil was used on a sketchbook to draw incrementally for each frame. The drawing was a rough doodle of a flower and a butterfly. It was interesting to see the result when frames were played as a video. The strokes and tones seemed to appear automatically. 3. Cut-out (Ref. Pg. 31): Paper and translucent sheet cutouts were placed on top of a back lit surface for a silhouette animation effect. The following are other key features of the set up: a) A small LED lamp was placed inside a container and covered with a trans luscent 3mm acrylic sheet to achieve a backlit surface. b) The sequence of frames was captured using a DSLR camera on a tripod, almost upright angle. 4. Grains/ Rava (Ref. Pg. 32): Using the above backlit setup and capture mode, grains and rava (processed wheat grains) were used instead of sand. The patterns were handmade without any tools.

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Chapter 2: Explorations

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Above: Object animation: Matchsticks; Duration: 13 sec.; No. of frames: 90; Done by: Self Capture Mode: Handheld snapshot Digital Camera; Exposure settings: Camera Auto Settings

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Chapter 2: Explorations 7

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Above: Object animation: Card; Duration: 1sec.; No. of frames: 18; Done by: Self Capture Mode: Snapshot Digital Camera; Exposure settings: Camera Auto Settings

Above: Object animation: Spectacles; No. of frames: 5; Done by: Self Capture Mode: Handheld snapshot Digital Camera; Exposure settings: Camera Auto Settings Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


Chapter 2: Explorations

Above: Object animation: Book; Duration: 2 sec.;No. of frames: 13; Done by: Self; Capture Mode: Handheld snapshot Digital Camera; Exposure settings: Camera Auto Settings with flash.

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Above: Object animation: Flower; Duration: 2 sec.; No. of frames: 19; Done by: Self; Capture Mode: Handheld snapshot Digital Camera; Exposure settings: Camera Auto Settings with flash. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 2: Explorations

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Above: Object animation: Box of Rubber bands; Duration: 2 sec; No. of frames: 33; Done by: Self Capture Mode: Snapshot Digital Camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: Camera Auto Settings with flash.

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Chapter 2: Explorations

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Above: Drawing animation: Colour pencil on sketchbook; Duration: 17 sec.; No. of frames: 192; Done by: Self; Capture Mode: Handheld snapshot Digital Camera; Exposure settings: Camera Auto Settings Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 2: Explorations

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Above: Cut-out animation: silhouette; Duration: 4 sec; No. of frames: 25; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/8 - 1 sec - ISO 400 and 800 for light and dark settings respectively. Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


Chapter 2: Explorations

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Above: Grains animation; Duration: 4 sec; No. of frames: 53; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/4.5 and f/5 - 1/20 and 1/40 sec - ISO 800 and 400 - Bias +.3 Step

Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 2: Explorations

Inferences: 1. Animation: The result lacked smooth movements and appeal. 2. Timing: There was no concept of timing, speed, pause etc. 3. Technology: Using the tripod helped achieving more stable shots. However, the tripod itself was not secured to the ground causing displacement No new software was used or tried out. Also there was no idea about the appropriate image resolution and quality. 4. Lighting: There was no thought given to using lighting in filming. 5. Narration: There was no particular narrative or story line. These inferences helped to identify areas of formal learning. The following stage was dedicated to addressing the challenges of this stage, step by step.

From Top left (clockwise): Card, Spectacles, Matchsticks and Book Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

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Chapter 2: Explorations

2.2 Informed Efforts: Learning from the previous challenges, a formal approach of learning was adopted. This began with learning the basic principles of animation such as the 3 laws of motion, movement arcs, waves and weight. Drawing a motion path/ curve with position markers as guides aided in achieving smoother animation. Help also came from observing already accomplished works and their making videos that are available on the internet. This led to the learning and application of timing and frame counts. As now it was known that to avoid jittery animation making small increments in movement was a must. Technologically there was a shift from snapshot camera to DSLR. Slowly tripod and the camera’s software EOS Utility with remote shooting function were used in further explorations. This led to less jerks while 34 shooting. Camera movement such as pan or zoom were also explored. Understanding grew in the use of lighting, camera settings and camera functions. This stage of experiments continued to give emphasis to improvement in animation and technique. As a result, not much of progress happened in creating a narrative or story line.

Before beginning with experiments, brief preparatory animation tests were done. Through these tests concepts of movement graph, line of action, motion arc were seen and learned. Also, in making a real looking animation it was important to apply the laws of physics such as newton’s law of motion, gravity etc. It is only after practising these laws, that further exaggeration or experimentation for caricatured movements was possible. The first of the animation tests was bouncing ball in clay (Ref. Pg.35). The path was drawn on a paper, with markers for incremental displacement. While animating, an effort was taken to apply the right pace of action, weight, stretch and squash and anticipation. These were few of the 12 animation principles laid down by Disney animators. Later, while running the frames in sequence, concept of timing was tested. The effect of running single frame as opposed to repeating the frame twice or thrice was compared. This cleared the concept of animating in ones, twos and threes. Animation on ones suited fast action or transformation while twos and threes helped normal or slightly slower pace.

The next set of tests were to understand animation of a motion cycle. Animation of simple doodled figures using photoshop was attempted for the below: 1. Walk cycle 2. Running 3. Flying (line and doodle) 4. Animal walk This never came in direct use. Nevertheless, it helped in learning the idea that we need a minimum set of frames to run as a motion cycle. Depending upon the desired pace, these frames may be played with a moving background. This way real-like movement can be perceived by the viewer. After the breif animation tests, the following list of experiments were performed: 1. Clay 2. Grains/ Sand 3. Objects 4. Drawing 5. Paint

Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 2: Explorations

From Left: Doodle animation: Walk cycle - 8 frames; Run - 5 frames Animal walk - 8 frames; Bird fly - line and doodle - 8 frames

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Above: Bouncing ball animation test: Clay; Duration: 2 sec; No. of frames: 28; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/80 sec - ISO 800 - Bias +.3 Step

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Chapter 2: Explorations

Procedure: The following were the common techniques used for the explorations in this stage: Animation: Explorations beyond linear movement paths were attempted such as incremental distortion or change of physical form, magic-like appearance. Timing: Animation tests, cleared the concept of frame rate (24 fps). Frames were run in sequence with experiments on ones, twos, threes, holds etc. Technology: Shooting mode using EOS utility’s remote capture, DSLR, tripod eliminated earlier challenges of shaky images. The frames were timed and played in Windows 7 movie maker for quick results. 36

Lighting: Experiments now also included use of incandescent light source. Narration: Experiments aimed at achieving small, smooth actions, hence there was less emphasis on a story line.

1. Clay Experiments (Ref. Pg. 37 - 42): Five experiments were done in clay using a secure camera setup. Out of these four explored free form transformation. The fifth used an armature clay puppet, but this was an exercise in shooting and lighting rather than animation. For this a small set up of black background, foreground, ambient fluorescent light and incandescent lighting along with exploration of exposure settings was attempted. This task helped in understanding the coordination required for a studio set up. 2. Grain/ Rava (Ref. Pg. 43): Grains were animated with the back lit set up used in the previous stage along with the ease of remote capture mode. There was an improvement in shooting and animating, from the previous attempt. With some help for drawing in sand, a shot with a girl blinking was captured with 4 frames. This shot led to the making of a short video on a spontaneous story using transitions. 3. Objects (Ref. Pg. 44-45): Learning from the first stage, objects were now being moved on smaller increments to control jitters. For the crayons shot, a quick camera pan was also attempted.

4. Paint (Ref. Pg. 46 - 48): This was a set of experiments using acrylic, oil paints and light. Oil and acrylic paints were tested on a backlit surface covered with a transparent overhead projector film. The backlighting set up for acrylic was using a camera rig and a lightbox with translucent acrylic sheet on top which was further covered with the transparent OHP film. Animation was very rudimentary. The technique was an exploration in the look and feel of using paints and ease of use. Light painting was not explored fully. However it was learned we can get better results with basic planning of a storyboard along with DSLR’s bulb mode setting. The attempts done here, were using a laptop power cable’s LED lit terminal for the blue light effect. In the absence of a storyboard or movement there are only static shots and no animation. 5. Drawing (Ref. Pg. 49 - 50): The act of drawing filmed as a time lapse. EOS Utility’s timed capture mode was used to capture the series of actions as they happened. The second attempt used hand as a character. There was use of magic appearance of an apple from a drawing. This experiment was also tried to sync recorded whistling sound.

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Chapter 2: Explorations

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Above: Clay animation: Free transformation; Duration: 3 sec; No. of frames: 24; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/30 sec - ISO 800

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Above: Clay animation: Free transformation; Duration: 6 sec; No. of frames: 82; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/20 sec - ISO 400

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Above: Clay animation: Free transformation; Duration: 4 sec; No. of frames: 54; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/40 sec - ISO 800

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Chapter 2: Explorations

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Above: Clay animation: Free transformation; Duration: 11 sec; No. of captured frames: 80; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: Not recorded

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Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


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Above: Clay animation: Pandeji; Duration: 6 sec; No. of frames: 76; Idea, Puppet and Animation by: Hemali; Photography, Composition and Lighting: Self Left: Lighting, setting and composition; Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/30 sec - ISO 800 Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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Top: Sand animation: Girl blinking; No. of frames: 4; 1 Cycle. Drawing, Animation and Idea Partner: Chinmayee, Photography: Self Capture Mode: DSLR on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/4.5 - 1/50 sec ISO 800 - Bias +2 step Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Bottom: Sand animation: Love story; Duration: 24 sec; No. of frames: 112; Drawing, Animation and Idea Partner: Chinmayee, Photography: Self Capture Mode: DSLR on a tripod - remote shooting; Exposure settings: f/3.5 - 1/3 sec - ISO 1600 - Bias +1.3 step

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Above: Object animation: Box; Duration: 6 sec; No. of frames: 67; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/5 - 1/15 sec - ISO 400

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Above: Object animation: Crayons; Duration: 25 sec; No. of frames: 129; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/3.5 - 1/13 sec - ISO 800 - Bias +2 Step

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Above: Painting: Acrylic on transparency film; Duration: 10 sec; No. of frames: 87; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera mounted on a sand animation lightbox rig; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/160 sec - ISO 400

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Above: Painting: Acrylic on transparency film; Duration: 14 sec; No. of frames: 61; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/8 - 1/100 sec - ISO 400 - Bias +1 step and f/6.3 - 1/30 sec - ISO 400 Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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Above: Painting: Light; Duration: No animation; No. of frames: 28; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - Bulb mode 10 sec - ISO 800

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Above: Drawing: Dry pastel on paper time lapse; Duration: 18 sec; No. of frames: 203; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod-manual clicking; Exposure settings: f/4 - 1/8 sec - ISO 800

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Above: Drawing: Hand moves on a drawing; Duration: 31 sec; No. of frames:150; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod - manual clicking; Exposure settings: f/4 - 1/8 sec - ISO 800

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Chapter 2: Explorations

Inferences: 1. Animation and Timing: There was considerable improvement compared to stage 1. But certain actions were jittery because of capturing jumps in action. 2. Technology: Capturing techniques were improved. Camera functions and experiments with image resolution were yet to be explored. 3. Lighting: Slight progress was made but skills to operate in a studio environment, were yet to be acquired. 4. Narration: In order to get the animation right, this stage could also not explore narratives. Small efforts were made but it was not consistent. Lessons learned from stage 1, led to stage 2 experiments to be carried out with more knowledge and understanding of technicalities. Learnings from this stage directed towards intense practise for better animation and more attention to areas that were yet to be explored like story, studio environment.

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2.3 Way Ahead:

Procedure:

As inferred from previous stage, complexity of tasks in this stage was further increased to incorporate rough story line before experimenting. However, not all tasks were done single - handedly, since animation as a profession is mostly a group effort. Experimentation grew in terms of mixing various media such as digital effects where the mood was further enhanced with sound, foley and music. Experiments also included further use of camera, lighting and stereoscopy. This stage was seen as a phase of further growth of skills. The project now had to look into the development of strong idea for a story or narrative. Final experiments included: 1. Objects 2. Sand 3. Cut-out 4. Time lapse 5. Stereoscopy

The following were the common techniques used in the explorations of this stage:

Some of these experiments were part of group works, however only areas of work done and learned by me have been highlighted. While others have been duly credited for their respective contributions.

Animation: Explorations of variety of movements such as fluids, light, wind etc. were tried. Timing: Sense of timing learned in the previous stage was practised further. Technology: Experiments with camera functions was tried. Parallel search for frame grabbing software was also on. Editing softwares from the adobe suite premier pro and after effects were learned and used for video compilation, audio sync and superimposed effects and stereoscopic channel alterations etc. Lighting: Studio environment experience was gained in this stage. Narration: This phase was an improvement in application of short story ideas to animation. Clues were taken from the objects or medium used.

1. Objects (Ref. Pg. 53 - 55): Animation used more of timing, camera moves and materials. Also adding special effects to heighten the meaning was learned. 2. Sand (Ref. Pg.56): Initial warm up exercises were important to get acquainted with the new medium. The second exercise was a group effort in animating for a small sound track. Here variety of tricks were explored. Camera swivel effect, splash effect, jiggle etc. 3. Cut-out (Ref. Pg. 57 - 58): This was a group effort with a message ‘save water’. My role was in animation, special effects, lights and photography. It was the first time when many media were used. The syncing of audio was also explored in this experiment. 4. Time lapse (Ref. Pg. 59 - 61): This task dealt with using time lapse in an experimental way. My role in this group task has been to try chroma key in after effects, superimpose two other videos and composite the final video. Another task explored time lapse of clouds. 5. Stereoscopy (Ref. Pg. 62 - 63) : In a joint effort, a clay puppet was animated in a small indoor setting. Learning was in using set and props, story with a horror theme, studio lighting, special fx, stereoscopy and audio syncing.

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Above: Object animation: POP blocks and clay articles by IDC Juniors and Clay puppet by Hemali Vadalia; Theme: Welcome Freshers; Duration: 14 sec; No. of frames: 115; Idea and Animation partner: Hemali Vadalia; Lighting and Photography: Self; Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod and table top set up; Exposure settings: f/4.5 - 1/100 sec - ISO 1600 - Bias +5 Step Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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Above: Object animation: Junk metal, nuts, bolts and screws, grains, beads, tacks, cloth pouch, ring; Theme: War; Duration: 7 sec; No. of frames: 78; Idea, Lighting and Animation partner: Hemali Vadalia; Photography: Self; Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod in a studio environment; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/2 sec - ISO 100 - Bias +5 Step Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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Above: Object animation: War theme composited; Duration: 1 min 32 sec; No. of frames: 517; Photography: Experimental Animation Elective students; Compositing, Audio, Effects: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: Varied; Softwares: Windows 7 Movie maker - Adobe After Effects, Audacity - Adobe Premier Pro; Background videos on war: You tube Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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Above: Warm up; Duration: 19 sec and 4 sec; No. of frames: 182 and 131 for two separate sequences respectively; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera mounted on a light box rig Remote shooting; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/60 sec - ISO 400

Above: Sand animation: 4 sec audio clip sync; Duration: 4 sec; No. of frames: 56; Idea, storyboard, drawing, animation, image editting partner: Chinmayee Samant; Timing, video making: Self; Capture Mode: DSLR camera mounted on a light box rig Remote shooting; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/125 sec - ISO 400 Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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Above: Paper cut-out animation: Save Water; Duration: 18 sec; No. of frames: 111; Idea and drawings: Sayali Bhagali; Layout, Animation and Photography partner: Chinmayee; Timing, Sound, Editing, compilation: Self; Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod - Remote shooting; Exposure settings: f/5.6 - 1/13 sec - ISO 800 Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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Above: Paper cut-out animation: Experimental treatment; Duration: 6 sec; Experiments: Self Softwares used: Windows 7 Movie maker - Adobe After Effects, Audacity - Adobe Premier Pro; Superimposed video: http://www.vimeo.com/11341685 Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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Above: Timelapse: Skyscape over 1.5 hours; Duration: 25 sec; No. of frames: 896; Done by: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod - Timed capture; Exposure settings: f/7.1 - 1/800 sec - ISO 200, f/5.6 - 1/500 sec - ISO 400 and f/76.3 - 5 sec - ISO 400 Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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Above: Time lapse; Duration: 16 sec; No. of frames: 138; Photographed by Chinmayee; Timing: Self Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/3.5 - 1/30 sec - ISO 800 Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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Above: Time lapse; Duration: 38 sec; Concept partner: Hemali, Images co-editing: Hemali and Chinmayee; Compositing,Timing, effects, audio: Self; Softwares used: Windows 7 Movie maker - Adobe After Effects Adobe Photoshop - Adobe Premier Pro - Google Sketchup; Background video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pHoFgt5rq0 Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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Above: Clay animation: Lichtgeist; Duration: 38 sec; No. of frames: 129; Lighting, Photography: Self; Set, props, animation partner: Hemali Vadalia; Editing, timing, audio: Self; Capture Mode: DSLR camera on a tripod; Exposure settings: f/5 - 1/6 sec - ISO 400, f/5 - 1/20 sec - ISO 800, f/5 - 1/5 sec - ISO 800, f/5 - .6 sec - ISO 800 and f/5 - 3 sec - ISO 100 Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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Above: Clay animation: Lichtgeist Stereoscopy; Editing, titling: Self; Softwares used: Windows 7 Movie maker - Adobe After Effects

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Inferences: 1. Animation and Timing: A consistent improvement was seen. More practical concepts of animation became clear with increase of complexity in tasks.

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2. Technology: Using adobe suite softwares was a useful asset for editing, compiling and compositing. On the other hand, open source frame grabbing softwares that were acquired required a set up of webcam or video camera instead of still cameras. Hence they could not be utilised. 3. Lighting: Explorations in the studio environment were a good learning. Also a more semi-professional rig for back lit animation provided convenient space to work in case of sand. 4. Narration: Still more work was required to make the content equally entertaining. The stories that were made were sometimes jointly conceived. A need to grow was identified in this area due to limitation of the required skill. After basic awareness of techniques, the project moved on to learning about narratives and applying it to the project.

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3. Understanding Narratives 3.1 Narratology 3.2 Literary Tropes 3.3 Archetypes 3.4 Learning from examples 65

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Chapter 3: Understanding Narratives

3.1 Narratology: Narratology is a science of analysing narratives and their underlying structure. The term coined by Tzvetan Todorov, was also developed by Gerard Genette in his book called Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. According to the science one must first distinguish the three key elements of narratology - story, narrative and narration.

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A story is explained to be a series of events which is narrated by a narrator. The form of the narration was termed as a narrative. According to Gerard, a narrator was an inevitable part of story communication and the narrator’s tool for communication was a narrative. Narratology dealt with learning the syntax of narratives more than their semantics. The four main ingredients that make up a narration or any written text, as per the narrative typology by Gerard Genette are: narrative mood, the narrative instance, level and time. Other related facts are the narrator’s perspective, distance from story, chronology, narration time and speed, presence or absence of narrator, narration frequency etc.

1. White, Hayden, The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987.

Traditionally a narrative is said to be a combination of ‘show and tell’ also known as mimesis and diegesis. However, structuralists like Gerard regarded narratives as variants of only diegesis and said that mimesis was not independent of the diegesis. Hence there were many sub categories of narrative voice - heterodiegetic, homodiegetic, intradiegetic, extradiegetic, metadiagetic. These were varying modes of diegesis which governed the different positions of the narrator with respect to a narrative or a series of narratives (as we see in meta-narratives or frame narratives).

“...far from being one code among many that a culture may utilize for endowing experience with meaning, narrative is a meta-code, a human universal on the basis of which transcultural messages about the nature of a shared reality can be transmitted”1 13

Gerard Genette emphasized that the narrator plays a pivotal role in a narrative as the narrator’s voice, distance and relation to the story determines the accuracy of information or account of events. Gerard’s narrative typology is a collection of various observations and patterns. These patterns have scope for more permutations and combinations especially while creating new narrative content. An overview of this subject, gave a fair idea and direction to proceed to the next step of learning about writing styles and established literary conventions.

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Figures 13, 14, 15: Top - Hayden White; bottom

left - Gerard Genette ; bottom right - Tzvetan Todorov. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 3: Understanding Narratives

3.2 Literary Tropes:

3.3 Archetypes:

Narration is one form of a rhetorical mode. Rhetoric is communication that is intended to be of a persuasive nature. This implies that narration must have a purpose or must communicate an idea or message. Here, it helps to know some literary styles and conventions developed for rhetoric that can be used to communicate most effectively.

Literary work especially fiction writing, has been analyzed by structuralists to follow set patterns that are universal. The attributes of both the situations and characters found in one narrative can be traced across others.

Literary styles in rhetoric incorporate literary devices or tropes. Literal meaning of trope is to turn or twist. Essentially tropes are an arrangement of words in such a way that they obtain new meanings different from their literal sense. The following are a few types used in different forms of literature: Metaphor Metonymy Synecdoche Irony Oxymoron Hyperbole Litotes Antithesis

Simile Pun Allegory Alliteration Satire Personification Parallel construction Climax

The above are ways of communicating by substitution of meaning, exaggeration, negation of converse, sarcasm etc... Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

In this context, literary works have always been analysed and influenced by research papers published by psychiatrists like Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. One such concept proposed by Carl Jung was about Archetypes. It was said that an individual is made up of personalities that were either Primordial or Universal. The former were qualities ingrained in us congenitally while the latter are those we can trace universally amidst the human race. Archetypes were the unconscious attributes of the human personality which are observed as universal. There were hundreds of archetypes documented by Carl Jung, some of these were: Child, Hero, Victim, Martyr, Wounded Healer, Redeemer, Warrior, Nurturer, Mentor, etc. Archetypes In literature or drama, are classified by the role or purpose of the character in a story. The classical 8 archetypes seen in film narrative analysis are: Protagonist, Antagonist, Reason, Emotion, Sidekick, Skeptic, Guardian and Contagonist.

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Every story and it’s characters follow an arc. The story opens with the introduction of characters followed by a conflict to be resolved in the end. The story’s protagonist is the one who faces conflict on his quest for a goal. As the story progresses, s/he should also follow an arc and end with a transformation or attainment of the goal. Other archetypal characters are part of a story to make it more real and rich for a viewer or reader to connect with. All well written narratives use archetypes for a story’s progress to it’s end. It may be seen universally applied from Shakespearean plays to George Lucas’ Star Wars. Archetypes need not always be a character it can also be the fate or a trick situation in the story. Archetypes can be combined in one character also, making it a complex character. The knowledge and use of archetypes, can help in fleshing out the characters of a story. They also form as an analytical tool to check uniformity of behavior of a character. There may be exceptions but archetypes are a good way to learn personality complexes that make or should make every character take certain decisions, actions or reactions.

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3.4 Learning from examples:

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Knowledge of archetypes helps construction of stories that audience can relate with. This is why film narratives regularly apply archetypes for the ease of comprehension in the visual medium. Narrative for films however inspired by literary sources, tend to transform when adapted. Thus it was useful to see the translation of a narrative into the film language by watching films as case studies, both live action and animation. Clearly the story arc, character arc and the conflict-resolution principle was used extensively in films. It was also evident that a film would reach closure the moment the main character has come a full arc. There are also films with an anti-climax or the unexpected closure. Story arc can also be manipulated in films by the use of non-linear narrative format to deliberately attract the viewer’s attention. Memento appropriately fits the format. The interest levels have been maintained owing to the non-linearity of the story. Even though the plot is based on revenge, the experience is heightened due to the manipulated twists. Lessons from the narrative structures and the film language had to now be used in creating a narrative content. This was done after a genre of writing was decided and understood well.

Notes on the understanding of the story v/s character graph. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


4. Ideation: Part A 4.1 Deciding the genre: Fantasy 4.2 Experts on Fantasy 4.3 References of fantasy works 4.4 Redefining Fantasy

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Chapter 4: Ideation: Part A

4.1 Deciding the genre: Fantasy

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Fantasy as a genre has always been associated with stop motion animation. Fantasy characters in early live action films were glorified with stop motion animation. Hence, the choice of genre complements the technique of communication. Initial understanding of fantasy was expressed as a description. After a formal study of fantasy as a popular subject of many literary works, the definition of fantasy was redefined.

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The following was the essay written as an expression of the perception of fantasy before acquiring expert viewpoints:

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Figures 16 - 21: Don Quixote, Hobbits, Harry Potter, Twilight Zone TV show, Rene Margritte, Pan’s Labyrinth respctvly.

Fantasy is a way of escaping from reality into a world. Here one’s mind is drawn away from the present moment and transported into an unknown land of mysteries. Ironically, often the unknown world or the unfamiliar has reflections of reality or the familiar. Thus making fantasy a sort of caricatured view of the real world, filled with exaggerated, glorified forms in both, visuals and meanings. Fantasy is a short getaway or a resort where reality can be seen with a fresh perspective. A trip back from a fantasy world enriches one’s mind with a lesson or two or may be more about reality. There occurs a subtle communication of thoughts in the garb of

the extraordinary and glorious frills of fantasy. Well dressed fantasies have the calibre to effortlessly transfer thoughts both simple and complex without one’s realization. Their potent trait of easy recall, echo these thoughts and thus gradually help in understanding the intended message in the fantasy. Fantasy is a deeply coded programme that is set to entertain and communicate through strong signs and metaphors. As the exterior charm veers out in our minds, the intrinsic meaning begins to take strong hold in our thoughts. Creation of a fantasy is a challenge to dress up a string of messages in the best way possible. Fantasy creation is unique, in the effort that is required to match the depth of the meaning to the heights of glory and wonder. Fantasy is a pleasant way of experiencing reality and learning to deal with real situations. Often it is filled with optimism, hope and a strong will to change for the good. Stripped of all its glamour it can essentially be seen as a moral vehicle, spreading the message of virtues and ideals that can move many a minds. These impressions of fantasy were verified by the learning of fantasy from experts, references such as arts, fairy tales and epic stories.

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Chapter 4: Ideation: Part A

4.2 Experts on Fantasy: Fantasy as a literary genre is subject to research in terms of narrative science and psychoanalysis. Many experts in the field have various interpretations. Hence definition of fantasy in a single coherent statement was difficult to find. This is especially true in explaining Fantasy as something unreal or different from reality. Here George P. Landow can be quoted from Fantasy and Conceptions of the Real for the paradox in a fantasy: “Fantasy and our conception of what is fantastic depend upon our view of reality: what we find improbable and unexpected follows from what we find probable and likely, and the fantastic will therefore necessarily vary with the individual and the age”1 At this conjecture it is also best to quote yet another expert, Eric Rabkin, author of the book, The Fantastic in Literature, Princeton University Press, 1976. Here he defines the fantastic element in a narrative:

“Admittedly, the fantastic is reality turned precisely 180 degrees around, but this is reality nonetheless, a fantastic narrative reality that speaks the truth of the human heart.” 2 Learning from these, it can be said that fantasy is a way of communicating one’s own suppressed thoughts and emotions. This is why fantastic literature is often termed subversive of the real world maladies or authority. It is a way of falsifying prevalent values and beliefs of the society in favour of a seemingly absurd fantasy world. In fact, the absurd is only a reflection of the strange truth. Then, how is this form of fantasy different from the J.R. Tolkein’s Lord of the Rings with a moral theme of good versus evil? Is it important for fantasy to give out morals like a fairy tale? At this point it helps to learn that even in fantasy literature there exist tropes such as the presence of magic or supernatural, or a quest for something powerful, a fantasy world or a universe.

2. http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle. 1. Harding, Olivia, The Ordinary and The Extraordinary, http://www.victorianweb.org/genre/ asp?title=1809 harding.html Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2 Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

It is precisely summed up by John H. Timmerman in his online article titled Fantasy Literature’s Evocative Power: “In order to characterize a work as fantasy literature,.... there are six traits which must be present to some degree: story, common characters, evocation of another world, use of magic and the supernatural, a clear sense of good and evil, and the quest.” 3 According to John and even Todorov, true literary work of fantasy or high fantasy must be much more than mere allegory. A fantasy story, must have a strong plot or tale such that it evokes a reader at two levels. Firstly it encourages the reader to continue reading. Secondly it implicitly passes on thoughts and forces a point of view.

3. ibid.

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Chapter 4: Ideation: Part A

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4.3 References from Fantasy works:

4.4 Redefining Fantasy:

Works on fantasy across many fields were referred to for better understanding. Works from the western romantic era - arts, music and literature of the period had overtones of fantasy. Romantic thoughts were dreamlike, celebration of larger than life ideals and aspirations. In addition, fantasy as the unfamiliar familiar was seen in surrealistic art and magic realism literature as well. In both cases the element of magic was treated as a normal way of life thus projecting the unreal as real.

A renewed understanding of fantasy tells that it is a form of writing that is intended to narrate events or emotions which otherwise cannot be openly said. It could have multiple connotations but is of a subversive nature. A fantasy story has 3 levels of reading - first the main plot or story, second the meaning of the story and the third level is the subversive meaning embedded in it.

Also a collection of works - literature, live action films and animation films were seen for observing the visual treatment of fantasy in the narratives. Folk tales, Fairy tales, Don Quixote de la Mancha, Alice in Wonderland, Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter, The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus, Howls Moving Castle, Princess Mononke, Pan’s Labyrinth, James and the Giant Peach are few of the narratives that have led to the understanding of fantasy and the prerequisites of a narrative form from this genre. Each of these works had layers of meaning to be decoded. Each one of them was unique in establishing the start and the end of fantastic events in the story. This projects fantasy as a spatial marker in a narrative that is communicated with signs, portals etc. Also each story had rules of the world which appeared normal to the characters. The use of penalty or loss of magic took adverse turns in the story adding to the drama, challenges and conflict for the characters.

There is also a basic distinction in the ways in which fantasy is perceived. For most cases it is shown as a light frivolous situation with illogical occurrences. However, in it’s highest sense it is very intense in reading and understanding. Such writings are termed as high fantasy where the rules of the universe, the characters etc. are all very well structured. Fantasy seen as glimpses of hidden magic in the real world is termed as magic realism, a movement pioneered by Gabriel García Márquez in the 1950’s. The terminology is not as common as Fantasy but the essence of the genre is to portray reality in a fantastic way. This form of story is more subtle and implicit in its communication than the flamboyance of a fantasy story. Often short stories can be written in this genre. Considering the project duration taking up fantasy in it’s true form would not be achievable. Hence magic realism or a dream state supports the development of a short script that can be executed with stop motion animation. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


5. Ideation: Part B 5.1 Brainstorming 5.2 Research 5.3 FInal Idea 5.4 Story Construction 5.5 Final Story

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Chapter 5: Ideation: Part B

5.1 Brainstorming: Realizing the complexities required for a true fantasy story, it was decided to attempt a short situation with elements of nostalgia, dream or magic realism. This set off a series of brainstorming session where ideas were recorded in various forms - free writing electronic notes, scribbles from watching films, doodles, inspirational sketches, thumbnail sketches of story ideas.

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act in the present think beyond....Zone out or Zone in?)

5. Music and Action 6. War/ Peace/ Unity 7. Cosmic riddles: (relativity of time, infinite space or multiple universes?, universe growing or collapsing?)

8. What happens when a writer pauses? (Hemisphere hopper! Focussing, intended ambiguity and memory searches, Rhythmic

The result was a list of spontaneous uneditted ideas for further evaluation and selection: 1. Frangipani: (Fragrance conjuring images, agent of fantasy, nostalgia, memories.) 2. Inspiration in its many forms: how an idea comes from varied sources 3. Ways of seeing: Illusion and anamorphism 4. You are only as trapped as you imagine: Exploring dichotomies/ Paradoxes: Familiar v/s Unfamiliar or strange, Closed v/s Open; Dark v/s Colourful; Solid or Rigidity v/s Fluid; Time lapse v/s miniature; Perceived Reality v/s Captive v/s Free; (Traps: Stuck in

movement - consciousness -sub and pre. Left brain v/s Right brain - Consciousness and sub consciousness together create preconsciousness in the minds of the viewers.)

During this period of brainstorming, parallel research on these ideas was conducted in the form of reading, watching documentaries. This process of acquiring knowledge shaped the thought process of selection of the final idea and seeing it through execution.

a rat race; Imagine: Slow down, everything is smiling and slow. Trap: Brain in a skull; Imagine: Brain/ Mind breaks free to imagine. Traps: In a small dark room, Imagine: Open fields of grass and trees and horses wild and Visual explorations during brainstorming

free, Is that good? does that do any good? Imagine and brighten your view of the present. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 5: Ideation: Part B

5.2 Research:

5.3 Final Idea:

A number of BBC and Discovery Channel documentaries on human brain, sleep, REM, human instincts, cosmic evolution,Theory of relativity, Stephen Hawking etc. were watched and noted for facts. These were also supported with readings from articles on the internet. The purpose of this step was to understand the mechanics of human brain, intelligence and perception as a theory to design information or communication. Also, fantasy as a theme aligned with many of these topics.

The final idea that could encompass all the other ideas was the message: ‘You are only as trapped as you imagine’. Meaning: ‘Nurture the power to imagine’ In an increasing world of logic, information, automation and speed there is a constant sense of being trapped in the mundane - numbers, facts, devices, machines and captivated by money, luxury brands, glamour. Imagination is the key to success. As the famed physicist, Albert Einstein also said: “I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.”1

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23 Figures 22, 23: Human instinct and Secrets of Sleep Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

In all the chaos and madness we seem to be entangled, it is the power to imagine that offers a refreshing change. Our imagination is our inspiration to go on with the mundane, it offers us with renewed energies. However, the power to imagine has grown leaner as we have grown older. The message reassures that we are only an imagination away from breaking out of the madness and when we return its 1 http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/show/2177

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not all that bad. All we need is a spark of inspiration that can be triggered by the simple moments from the very same mundane world we live in. The idea was visualized as a series of short narratives by stringing together previously listed ideas and communicate this thought powerfully. The idea could also be developed into a narrative that is character based, abstract/ multi-layered. The narrative wished to transcend through levels - from a mundane (microcosmic) space to the larger universe (macro cosmic).This triggered a string of story ideas. In order to gain practical experience in building the final story, small story writing exercises began. On reworking those ideas, it was found that they could not develop into full plots, so they were left as concepts. They were also evaluated in terms of their physical execution using stop motion animation. Thus an iterative task of writing and evaluating helped learning the basics of story writing.

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Chapter 5: Ideation: Part B

5.4 Story Construction:

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This phase was significant in building story writing skills. Activities done in this stage were to put all the thoughts and ideas in writing and see if that could be understood as a story. These ideas were largely being shaped by constant references from books and articles on fantasy story writing, imagination, human mind and many other such related facts. The intent was to continue writing till an idea is derived which can be further developed into the final narrative. The process of elimination of story idea was dependent on the strength of the plot, level of connection established with audience and practicality of execution using stop motion animation. Most of these ideas were in turn reflected as a recycle of thoughts in further story writing tasks. The final narrative cannot be told separate from these story ideas. Final story manifested from a process of evolution of these rudimentary ideas.

Story Idea1: Act 1 mundane – slow+chatter+frown/ glum Act 2 – sudden jitters+instant burst of action and movements Act3 – sudden quietness, tingling music, remnants of the wonder and more smiles Rainy day, stuck in traffic, slow and boring, mundane sight – greyscale Suddenly protagonist in awe, clamour and burst of life, flowing imagery. Back to boring traffic with remnants of the protagonists fantasy imagery. Story Idea2: Act 1 mundane – writer struggling to pen down ideas, looks out Act 2 – source of inspiration – music/ framed painting/ artwork, smell from window etc.dreamlike visuals Act3 – unexpected twist – writer nowhere to be seen but in the painting/ book. Story Idea3: Strawberry Fields Forever....     Lullabye........ Trapped – imagine – back to real; Imagine – trapimagine – back? Real –fantasy –real; Fantasy-realfantasy –new real Constant back n forth of writer’s fiction and reality.

Story Idea 6:A man/ object of humans use, wears the rosy colour glasses... and the world is pleasant. Story Idea 7: A worm trapped in a maze, gasping and crawling, finds it hard to escape. There is complete darkness and a sudden thud is heard as if a door is closed. In an office cubicle a clerk slams his desk as he is flooded with files and papers. He is tired and dull and stares hard at the stack of files and papers. After a sip of coffee and some knuckle crunching, he suddenly gets busy with the papers. He is all focussed and rustles into the papers. While this is happening the worm in the maze has suddenly perked up and moving swiftly through the maze through all the right doors. Soon it breaks free into a world full of books and paper. The worm frolics freely in this new world exploring its many facets. While the clerk in the cubicle is now sitting cheerfully admiring the interesting new world he has created. In his cubicle, the files are stacked on the desk with a done stamp on them and sit as important icons of his new world. (Story as an analogy) Other ideas: able to draw on the most powerful resources at your disposal - your creative imagination poetic, poetical,

Story Idea 4: Plot....Drivers always smiling... meter down, down and down again... door opens, closes, open, closes, destination names....., rear view mirror smiling     customer, a writer......... fantasy leads to writer signing off on a book titled with movie name... Story Idea 5: Writer signs off a book and picks up his book n pen and leaves. On a street not very far a taxi driver irritated and bored looks at an image (a billboard/ magazine at a signal) of perceived better life. Here the writer spots the taxi driver, stops him and sits in the taxi. The taxi moves on in time the writer finds his stop and asks to stop taxi. As he leaves the taxi he wishes the taxi driver with (some riddle of a message – have a nice trip!). After the writer leaves the driver discovers a totem (the writer’s pen that glitters) which he decides to tie to the mirror. He watches the swinging pen in a traffic jam and ever since, every Taxi ride is a new fantasy trip – days are merry and cheerful while nights are full of glitz and glow. Until one day in reality a customer leads him into a real world of fantasy.... he can’t tell if its reality or imagination. But the pen is missing from the mirror. Where did it go..?? The end is a hand/ a silhouette picks it up (but clues of his/ her profession are shown like a sweeper, traffic police, beggar on the road, watchman). (Scope for constant hopping in n out of imagination..... The end illusions) (Pen – writer’s tool to transfer mind’s thoughts.... hence the closest symbol of expressing thoughts. Which inspires taxi driver to think what all wonders the pen would have written....thus igniting his imagination making him eagerly await his next ride.

(Fantasy sequence makes use of interesting illusions) (Pen – writer’s tool to transfer mind’s thoughts.... hence the closest symbol of expressing thoughts. Which inspires taxi driver to think what all wonders the pen would have written....thus igniting his imagination making him eagerly await his next ride. Imagination can make the mundane wonderful! However, as often.... it is the mundane that instigates the imaginary and pen an industrially manufactured and mass produced product is the source of imaginary journeys.) Story is a collection of metaphors. Character arc/ Story wave. Taxi driver has learned to love the mundane with the power of imagination that he doesn’t require one anymore. The story wave oscillates from ordinary to extraordinary almost sinuously. Day and night.... fields and starlight/ fireflies.../ night fair... Sand v/s object; Time-lapse v/s clay/ object.

Other ideas: able to draw on the most powerful resources at your disposal - your creative imagination Wealth... shut away...:( imagination as a tool to evolve. stone, spears, metal arms, gun powder, magic realism!!! :D to cause enchantment without using fantastical devices. Notes: imaginary means not based on fact while imaginative means marked by independence and creativity in thought or action

brainstorm mundane/ familiar objects to be turned around for story with unfamiliar qualities. genie, aladdin, minister story goal to acheive freedom through the key to imagination. protagonist trapped in a rut. Symphony helper: finds a confidant/ sidekick that can only guide/ nature/ clue/ force that leads the protagonist. bough. villian/ antagonist sets the curse/ the rule that people move in predictable rhythm. Cacophony hinderer: material requirements/ economy. same conditions: a is bored while b is enjoying.... secret is in an object/ place which a discovers in the end.

a and b both stuck in a cycle/ rut/ routine b looks at something and works well while a is wondering bout b and inquisitive to know what keeps him going? b is looking at work from a bohemian ideals... Comedy.....:D tongue in cheek humor starts with merry scene....in a paradise, with the things functioning in an order of the world - too much order leading to boredom shown with humor. A bee/ worm wishes to fall out and lands in the unpredictable chaotic horrors of the real world. Humor::???????? little prince types.... eye blinks.... converts into lamp with a moth hovering it..... the lamp is the heat trap, moth attracted to the imaginary light of the day. eye mesmerised with the light and thoughts drift with the music. beginning with vague ideas whuch then take flight. but as theres sensation of burning he realises that going too far isnt all that merry.

Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 5: Ideation: Part B paradise/ pure imagination free if u truly wish to be.... Bars/ transoms and mullions mundane not mundane..... fantastic actually boring....??? funny???? how? space-time warp..... use your imagination!!! Man stuck with pen and files/ sweeper..../ victoria runner/ watchman boundaries...are imagined....imagination is the limit. adults lost the key to turn the turbine of imagination.......... Imagination is shut away in chests one for each all interconnected once opened up. World of adults higher level but low in imagination. rich imagination in centre/ black hole sucks all imagination how to retreive? lost their eye for imagination. Fusion indian visuals for western music. push ur limits= imagination u only as trapped as u imagine.... imagination giives the energy to go on with mundane differently..... Metaphor:caterpillar goes on a daily chore and wears out.....?? grows fat...n thin and fat and thin... rhythmic because it never knew it could transform n fly.......to get the honey. it never knew that it could open the eye for imagination which is by closing the eyes and push all walls. A short narrative on imagination is one’s limits. imagination = energy, transformations, familiar strange n vice versa. Man stuck in a rut never imagined that the rut could make him go/ make new places. A wheel the harder it spins... in liquid the faster u steer, tracing the evolution of the way we work through human inventions....:D wheel, windmill, ship....cars...space..solar system,etc... Fantasy? funny... imagination imagination = metaphor/ elixir to be discovered from the mundane, that makes

knew it could transform n fly.......to get the honey. it never knew that it could open the eye for imagination which is by closing the eyes and push all walls. A short narrative on imagination is one’s limits. imagination = energy, transformations, familiar strange n vice versa. Man stuck in a rut never imagined that the rut could make him go/ make new places. A wheel the harder it spins... in liquid the faster u steer, tracing the evolution of the way we work through human inventions....:D wheel, windmill, ship....cars...space..solar system,etc... Fantasy? funny... imagination imagination = metaphor/ elixir to be discovered from the mundane, that makes the mundane better since boundaries are expanded and feeling of energy n refreshment and freedom. frame narrative :D it takes imagination to renew and transform... learn from nature... there is a cycle and yet there is dynamism and organic qualities. imagination leads to fluidity n rigidity. it leads to positive thinking and self improvement. gives dynamism. inspiration/ idea catches one’s imagination. who discovers? why? how all benefit? how to objectify imagination so it repeats its presence once identified. world where adults are asleep.....:D as they grow they close their eyes until are caught in the rut and are completely asleep/ some form of handicap....maimed....??:Dmix diff items to form the flora and fauna of the fantasy world. They form cocoons and never stretch and keep tossing and turning within it.....until one day lightning struck/ out of suffocation one slowly came out of the slumber and opened eyes to imagination and then life was better. As more people wake up or stir up their imagination the world is better experienced... movement - fluttering, floating, humming, swaying, colour, music a thrilling experience. here play of illlusion comes in faces in clouds, creatures in trees....etc...:D

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

provement. gives dynamism. inspiration/ idea catches one’s imagination. who discovers? why? how all benefit? how to objectify imagination so it repeats its presence once identified. world where adults are asleep.....:D as they grow they close their eyes until are caught in the rut and are completely asleep/ some form of handicap....maimed....??:Dmix diff items to form the flora and fauna of the fantasy world. They form cocoons and never stretch and keep tossing and turning within it.....until one day lightning struck/ out of suffocation one slowly came out of the slumber and opened eyes to imagination and then life was better. As more people wake up or stir up their imagination the world is better experienced... movement - fluttering, floating, humming, swaying, colour, music a thrilling experience. here play of illlusion comes in faces in clouds, creatures in trees....etc...:D 3 levels of reading.... 1, story..2, surface meaning/ metaphoric interpretation/ allegory/ irony 2, subversive content READ BETWEEN LINES 1st world/ secondary world..... nature vs cocoon Plural Readings Why a story is told.... when its told.... important.... Its foolish to think the world is dark when your eyes are closed.... open your eyes and stretch your limits... Liquid can take any shape depending upon its container’s shape/ mould.

This is the story of the shapeshifting germ that wandered into the kingdom of vicious cycle. Ironically was a paradise with abundant to fill woke up a group of people and cured them of the curse of the vicious cycle. kingdom is a circle which the germ gnaws off and frees the people into a spiral that grows in different directions. Box... :D but circle has more spiritual effects Something new breaks into the circle of my thoughts cul-de-sac - impression of being caught in a rut... all u have to do is halt and look beyond.... imagine....... The germ that brought the outrage.....

1st world/ secondary world; nature vs cocoon Plural Readings Why a story is told.... when its told.... important.... Its foolish to think the world is dark when your eyes are closed.... open your eyes and stretch your limits... Liquid can take any shape depending upon its container’s shape/ mould. This is the story of the shapeshifting germ that wandered into the kingdom of vicious cycle. Ironically was a paradise with abundant to fill woke up a group of people and cured them of the curse of the vicious cycle. kingdom is a circle which the germ gnaws off and frees the people into a spiral that grows in different directions. Box... :D but circle has more spiritual effects Something new breaks into the circle of my thoughts cul-de-sac - impression of being caught in a rut... all u have to do is halt and look beyond.... imagine....... The germ that brought the outrage..... The germ that breaks the spell of the ruler..the vicious cycle.... The spiral germ....spirulina...blue green... :D world’s internal logic... decide... :D circle of imbecility.....to fruitfulness.... world has a vilehoop government with smiles and the subjects smile in a daze.... robotically working fast/ slow to finish the circle. they move in circles. pun intended. circle: orb, hoop, loop orb, loop, round figure, aureole, band, belt, bowl, bracelet, circlet, circuit, circumference, circus, cirque, coil, colure, compass, cordon, corona, crown,

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circle: orb, hoop, loop orb, loop, round figure, aureole, band, belt, bowl, bracelet, circlet, circuit, circumference, circus, cirque, coil, colure, compass, cordon, corona, crown, cycle, disc, disk, ecliptic, enclosure, equator, full turn, globe, halo, hoop, horizon, lap, meridian, orbit, parallel of latitude, perimeter, periphery, record, revolution, ring, ringlet, round, sphere, stadium, tire, turn, vortex, wheel, wreath, zodiac germ: spirulina, helix Hidden away in the closet of an astronomer was a unique looking tube. Thinking its a World of many shapes but civilisation in circles moves in circles... nobody ever wondered why??? A glimpse of the circular world. Irony the world of circles indeed not a circle...its a coil... they just needed to break out of their perceived reality to learn and enjoy the adventures it possessed. :D

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Chapter 5: Ideation: Part B

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Above: Evolution of thoughts into the final story

Above: First scribbled version of the story: The Elusive i Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 5: Ideation: Part B

5.5 Final Story - The Elusive i: Colourful real world The final story evolved from the initial idea of imagination, magic realism and fantasy. The story is based on a person’s mental journey - a dream. It is essentially the quest for one’s imagination or ‘i’. The power to imagine has been objectified as a typographic symbol. ‘i’ is portrayed as the mind’s eye and a key to mental freedom. A person is shown stuck at his desk with a troublesome laptop when a sudden warning crashes the set-up. As he takes a break his mental meandering takes him to a dark world where he transforms into a puppet stuck in a rut. His efforts somehow, lead him out of the rut towards a window. Here he is transported to a childhood. Everything is strangely familiar and yet wonderful, all with the grace of ‘i’. As the child loses sight of ‘i’ the dream snaps and he returns to reality. The person wakes up realizing that it was a dream but is bewildered with the message of the missing key on the laptop. As he looks around to find the key, ‘i’ is shown hidden away in a dried flower on the desk. This story comes from an initial back story where ‘i’ is a fantastic element lost from Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

today’s day and age. Gloom and despair has spread everywhere. The wise say it is time to find ‘i’, the secret to a brighter and happier world. They say, it is both the easiest and the toughest task to find and use ‘i’. As young children we were once good friends with ‘i’. So then, what happened? Where did ‘i’ go away? Will someone find ‘i’? What is ‘i’? Myth has it, that long time ago ‘i’ was felt by all. In its presence, one could travel to familiar strange worlds whenever one wanted and return enlightened. Although ‘i’ was always coded and elusive; and no one could control it, they somehow always sensed and experienced it’s magic. Like all magic, too much was not good. To get enlightened it was important to return. But with habitual use of magic, people turned even magic to mundane, and ended up lost and disoriented. Eventually they did return, only to find a muted, colorless world where ‘i’ was lost forever. Some say, ‘i’ can still be seen by those, who have ventured into their dark worlds and returned. It is supposed to be hidden

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Dull, gloomy study room 1

Dark world

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Child

ii i

Flow of the Narrative: The mental journey

The power to Imagine

Due to the elusive nature of our imagination the title of the story became ‘The Elusive i’.

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away somewhere in the darkness. Some say its illogical and beyond their capability to reach for something as mythical as ‘i’, and thus do not bother about it. The rest are simply ignorant and indifferent to the hue and cry over ‘i’. So, is it true that ‘i’ exists? Is there a dark world? What does it look like? Would anyone ever find ‘i’?

Story refinement: The story was decided to be purely visual with only background score and audio effects and no narration. The narrative mode being audio visual, required the story to be modified to suit the medium. Difficulty in translating the back story was understood earlier in the project. Even during filming, the story was edited for clear and precise communication. The sequence of story, directed to have a new setting for every act. In order to establish visual continuity, a structure of timely triggers had to be introduced for the audience to perceive the change as logical and natural. All changes in the story were made around the underlying message of ‘quest for the power to imagine’. The story was translated into a script format to achieve better clarity.

Decoding The Elusive i: The project objective, aimed at designing a narrative by encoding within it, layers of meanings and interpretations. The use of allegory as a communication tool, helped to illustrate the various emotional states of mind. The story also considered the use of stop motion animation technique as an agent to add yet another layer of meaning through the selected medium or materials. In this narrative, ‘i’ can be termed as the plot device or the central vehicle driving the plot. Hence it is important to know the qualities of ‘i’. Directly it refers to imagination but by stretching it’s realms it could also connote innocence, intuition, identity, integrity, intelligence, inspiration and there after left open for the viewer’s interpretation. This leaves the story with some mystery and flexibility for adaptation. However, there is a risk of the misinterpretation of ‘i’ as ego. This can be explained by seeing the treatment of the ‘i’ versus the egoistic ’I’. The use of lowercase gives a small feel rather than an uppercase ‘I’. Assigning a lowercase also reflects the small hidden inner self compared to the upper case inflated false self.

i

Imagination aginat Interpretaions: rpreta Innocence nocen Intuition ntuitio Identity dentit Integrity ntegri Intelligence ellige Inspiration spirat Multiple meanings of the ‘i’

i

Lowercase Hidden inner self

Versus

I

Uppercase Ego

‘You have to stretch your imagination and burrow into yourself to discover your life patterns, lessons, and gifts. This inner knowledge does not surface easily.’2

2 http://meta-religion.com/Psychiatry/Analytical_psychology/a_gallery_of_archetypes. htm#ixzz15CQTsTKK Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


The reference to different stages of the dream such as dark world, childhood, the mundane present were implicitly referring to the different levels of consciousness of our minds. Childhood has been compared to the deepest level of consciousness. This stems from the science of a child’s brain. Research says, that a newly born child, has a far more active and receptive brain than that of an adult. With time and conditioning a lot of these powers are lost due to an upbringing in a closely knit protective environment. The power of imagination has been equated to this physical capacity of a child’s brain to perceive reality untainted with prejudices or biases. Childhood, is presented as a space - time entity where one is transported to find true self and freedom. The dark world, is the mind’s perception of the rigmarole of life and the window is actually a breather we all seek to have from the mundane, but always head back to life with new vigour. The dream snaps when the child’s bubble pops and the man enters the dark world and then back to reality. The story is about our imagination leaving us as we move over to adulthood and thus forgetting the inner child-like self.

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The final story can be analyzed with reference to literary and psychoanalytic archetypes also, as below: 1. The protagonist is the boy/person whose state is that of the archetype Slave. This character out of his own weakness is trapped or stuck in the situation - his desk and a laptop. 2. The ‘i’ is portrayed as the shape shifter. It has no particular goal or path, its aimless, and entices the child to follow. 3. The child is the representation of the child archetype that sees wonder in everything, filled with innocence. 4. The puppet character could be a slave but more appropriately a victim. Since the puppet is helpless and even with efforts of running away gets trapped in the vicious system.

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thoughts and establish connection with the audience at the same time. To resolve these doubts, the story was decided to be scripted to define the actions and duration of each sequence. Here, it was learned why literature cannot be directly converted into a visual format. Subtleties of composition - semantics, syntactic, pragmatics have to be considered while planning each frame, as opposed to fluidity of literature that allows us to imagine the story, characters and the world..

The protagonist aspires to get hold of the ‘i’ and transforms into a child to do so. As he is about to get the ‘i’ the dream snaps, the only conflict in the story. The ending will leave a clue of his chances of succeeding instead of showing the goal attainment itself. The story is an experimental narrative of a dream that traverses through three levels of time and space. It was challenging to visualize and communicate such abstract Initial idea of making the quest for ‘i’ as a treasure map to find the key to freedom. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


6. Development 6.1 Scripting 6.2 Sonic narrative 6.3 Character design 6.4 Story boarding 6.5 Medium Selection

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Chapter 6: Development

6.1 Scripting:

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Once a story line was established, it was translated into a film script. The script was written on open source application called Celtx in an AV format. As the story got refined, so did the script. A total of three versions were written. This process gave the story a definite length and perspective. Ambiguities in story and the script were easy to spot and rectify with adequate details or changes.

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Chapter 6: Development

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6.2 Sonic Narrative:

6.3 Character Design:

Since no narration was used in the film during pre-visualisation stage, audio or music and sound effects were used to set the narrative mood. For this purpose a range of tracks were being tested. Predominantly two options for sonic narratives were made using Audacity. Concept audio tracks were made by cutting and joining music heard from past experience.

Initial sketches guided the final look of the characters. In order to achieve clear visual distinction between situations in the story, the characters were shown as contrasts. The dark world figure was visualized to have a puppet like limited movement. While, the child sequence shows a kid in a bubble more adorable, animated and cheerful. The bubble was to allegorically communicate the protective environment in which children live and play. Another interpretation that suited was the protective mother’s womb where a child resides oblivious to external worries.

Option 1 used an opera called ‘Figaro’ from the play ‘The Barber of Seville’. It’s original usage by a barber advertising himself on a street had playfulness and sudden bursts of chaos. This suited the dark world and could have lent humor to the otherwise serious sequence. In Option 2, it was replaced by a chaotic melange of dhol and drums from the Dhol Drum Foundation. This could have caused confusion, giving the meaning of celebration instead of chaos. Later more intense tracks were being searched for. For the child sequence, a dreamy, quiet tinkling music and sound was looked out for. ‘Pure imagination’ by the band, Maroon 5 was selected as a concept track and set as a benchmark for the final audio.

The puppet character and the child had another key difference. Since the story wanted to express that a child’s mind was more open and imaginative as compared to the grown up puppet. Their heads were drawn with the brain showing through. For the child, the brain was designed to be constantly alive and was shown in a stylized manner as a decorative pattern. But for the puppet, the size of the brain is shown much smaller and less active and left as a void.

Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 6: Development

Visual Character development of the child and the puppet-like grown-up. The distinction of theirs brain can also be seen.

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Chapter 6: Development

6.4 Story boarding:

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Story boarding began after full understanding of the final expected output. The final output was decided to be produced in full HD, at 1920 X 1080 resolution with 16:9 aspect ratio. Hence, after basic thumbnails sketches and doodles the final storyboards were planned and drawn on 16:9 templates. Each sequence of the story was drawn one by one. The order started with the child, then the puppet sequence and then finally the live person. However, since filming in stop motion required to have an idea of the materials. After a few initial storyboards, quick hands-on test shots were taken to assess workability issues and look and feel of the conceived idea. Depending on the test shots, story boarding was modified. The sequence of the child was digitally made on Adobe Photoshop to visualize sand as per the test shots and comprehend the colours and the composition. Animation was to be manually achieved, the step of animatics was substituted by running storyboards and the concept audio track on a time line for a rough estimate of the timing and duration.

Initial doodles, sketches on thumbnails before story boarding

Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 6: Development

Story boards: Dark World:

CU. Puppet is on the floor. BG: drum is thumped by a hammer. Slow tempo.

Cut. L.S. Zoom out. A face yells at him. Puppet is standing in a wild puzzling factory like set-up. Drum beats faster.

Cut. M.S. Puppet begins running to escape. He stops Cut. L.S. He balances precariously on a tile. at a stream. Floor tiles are floating across the stream.

Cut. MS. Puppet comes floating into a maze like lobby with a long corridor.

Cut. L.S. Puppet enters a room with lined up planks on the floor.

Cut. CU. Puppet sees the room as a safe place to enter.

Cut. L.S. As the puppet steps in the walls of the room start closing in and the floor vanishes. He falls into a shaft.

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Cut. L.S. He falls straight into a duct in a machine room.

Left: The Rough storyboards. Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


Chapter 6: Development

Childhood World:

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Zoom in. CU. Child reaches out to the flower.

View spins. CU. Child reaches out to the flower and it changes to a dragon fly.

Cut. The child drifts behind the dragon fly. View spins. Dragon fly becomes i and enters water where fishes are swimming.

i transforms into a big fish.

Zoom in. big fish opens its mouth. The child floats into its mouth.

Pan up. The big fish spray out the child from its spout.

Cut. The kite flies across. When i comes in. More i’s come there and become fire works. Some i’s float around and dance as they spray fireworks.

Cut. The child looks down at the big fish. A lot of i’s are drifting upwards.

Child enters behind i.

Pan side. i transforms into a kite.

Cut. the child wonders and longs to touch it. The child then eagerly reaches his hand out of the bubble.

Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 6: Development

Back to reality through two worlds:

Cut. CU. The hand slowly pokes out to touch i.

Cut.MS. The child outgrows the bubble and it bursts.

Cut. The child is growing as it is falling.

Zoom out and pan out. LS. The puppet is falling towards a collection of buildings.

Cut. CU. A person is sitting in front of a laptop on a desk.

Cut. CU. Person is asleep. as i appears next to his hand on the desk. The sky turns sepia to blue.

Cut. MS. The man wakes up to see his screen and begins smiling. as i sits on his laptop.

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Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


6.5 Medium Selection: Test shots that were taken during the shot planning and story boarding phase, also helped to decide the material and treatment of the story.

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The three media experimented for the test was Rava/ substitute for sand, Clay and silhouette puppet. The choice of material suited the story worlds that the characters would be seen in by the viewers. The challenge here was to tie all the three diverse media into a unified look and feel. Hence a general sepia tone was preferred for all the sequences within the dream. Sand as a material has very earthy feel, and in stop motion it is well known to show abstract ideas. The soft fuzzy look also suited the child. While cut-out would have given the puppet character the right platform. Since a real character is dreaming all this was chosen to be shot as pixilation which would be in a slightly fuzzy colored look to give an impression of awaking from sleep.

Above: Test shots and look-feel palette

Logistically, medium selection was also based on the ease and cost effectiveness of working. Since fresh learning during execution would cause time for execution. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


7. Execution 7.1 Schedule of items 7.2 Shooting setup 7.3 Animation 7.4 Audio design

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Chapter 7: Execution

7.1 Schedule of items: 94

Production List for the dream sequence: Paper, Paper cutter, Sand, Rag, DSLR Camera, Back up battery, Laptop with EOS utility software., Lightbox and Camera rig. Since the sequence was planned first, shooting began with this sequence.

For further sequences: Paper/ Film, Gel paper, props: junk gear. nuts bolts, rag, table, books, laptop, tripod. After the sand sequence, the cutout and pixilation sequences were executed.

7.2 Shooting set up: Sand animation setup required a light box with a camera rig to mount the camera, facing down on the light box. Once the camera was mounted, the rig was secured with weights at the pedestals to avoid disturbance of the setup. Using an A3 sized paper a field equivalent to 16:9 was cut out and pasted underneath the acrylic top of the light box. The camera was then connected to a laptop via the EOS utility software. At times, when the set up would be disturbed accidentally pr during battery changes, the field guide marked on the light box would help to readjust the location of the camera and the rig.

From Top left (clockwise): Camera rig, camera mounting, drawing on sand, Erasing on sand, field guide markers, lightbox below the camera. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 7: Execution

95 Above: Procedure of drawing on sand using hands, pen and brushes Exposure settings: f/4.5 - 1/30 sec - ISO 100 Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


Chapter 7: Execution

7.3 Animation: 96

Sand animation started with reference from the storyboards. However, in the absence of animatics, and conventional drawing setup, micro planning for each shot was done by making thumbnail sketches and rough sand images before making the final shots. This process was tedious and prone to slight inaccuracy, but it helped achieve continuity and timing. While shooting, pictures, each shot was simultaneously added to the Windows 7 Movie Maker for a quick checking of animation, timing and avoidable errors. These were then further exported as 1080p resolution videos in .wmv format. These scratch videos were timed and directly added to the Adobe premiere interface’s time line along with the desired tracks. Further changes were made to slow down or speed up certain actions. This scratch version was intended to guide the post production process, where the procedure will be redone with cropped images in full resolution. Above: Process of Animating each shot: from thumbnail sketches to rough sand forms to detail drawing. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Chapter 7: Execution

97 Above: Raw images of opening shot of the child sequence Exposure settings: f/4.5 - 1/30 sec - ISO 100 Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

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The process of animation was a constant back and forth checking and animating to ensure no jumps occur while animating.

7.4 Audio Design: Music and sounds were selected from a Creative Commons licensed web site that matched the benchmark audio tracks. They were compiled with the uncropped scratch videos in .wmv format. This helped to judge and adjust the timing to sync with the audio beats.

Above: Movie maker interface showing quick timing; Below: Premiere pro interface showing the quick editing for a scratch video. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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8. Final Output 8.1 Post production 8.2 Writing a DVD. 8.3 Publicity Design - DVD cover, flyers/ posters

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In Stop motion animation post production is an essential stage, especially when all captured images have to be individually treated and then run in sequence in programmes like Final Cut Pro or Adobe premier pro. In this film, after many trial and errors a suitable work flow was established to achieve fast and good quality output. For fast work, all images of a shot/ sequence were scaled into medium quality jpegs using Adobe Photoshop’s action and droplet functions. These were then imported into the Premiere Pro interface, lined up and timed as per the scratch video along with audio and effects. To ensure that the raw footage field markers were not seen, this sequence of images was imported into another new sequence. Here a common scale factor was applied to the desired level where the field area was seen clearly without the markers. Also additionally fast colour corrector and sharpness effects were applied to all sequences for a uniform warm and sharp grain quality look for the sand animation film. After ensuring uniformity of look and feel, the final video was rendered and exported in full HD format. It was also registered with Creative Commons for free rights.

Above: Premiere pro interface showing final frame by frame lineup, colour correction and sharpness correction and the final look of the film.

8.2 Writing a DVD: DVD compilation is the professional way of compiling the final film along with it’s process videos and sketches as a complete documentation of the project. Writing a DVD using professional softwares such as iDVD or iDVD pro or Adobe Encore wherein customized menus and icons could be added was the desired way. However, due to absence in the necessary skill sets and limited project time, it was decided that

a regular data DVD shall be compiled with all the relevant body of works. DVD writing and compilation process was learned to be a separate work area in itself hence left out of the project’s scope. However the project managed to look at the packaging of a DVD as seen in the next section.

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Chapter 8: Final Output

8.3 Publicity Design - DVD Cover, Flyer and Posters: During post production, publicity design of the film was done. This was felt important since the experience of watching a film could be initiated even before the actual show. Publicity also heightens the experience by setting curiosity and expectation levels among the audience. Hence design of DVD cover, film posters and flyers were decided to be the scope of works. Print design could exploit the typographic code in the title - ‘The Elusive i’. Concepts were worked out to explore options. One option translates the ‘i’ into the iris of a human eye. Since imagination is often referred to as the ‘mind’s eye’. The rough ideas were executed on Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop.

Above: Concept sketches and early explorations for publicity design - DVD Cover, flyer and poster.

The purpose of flyers was to contain the film’s synopsis and serve as a souvenir, for the audience to remember the experience of watching the film even after it is over. The entire experience is planned to extend beyond the defined duration of the film. This way the audience would continue to think and make more meaning, transcending their experience from passive to active. 101

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Above left: Spatial publicity–Fliers stuck on successive columns of a circulation corridor. Above right: Poster design before the presentation and for future Upper left: DVD Cover and sticker design Lower left: Flyer design Publicity work covered various channels to generate interest in the film experience. The poster was used in combination with both flyers and spatial publicity.

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9. Conclusion 9.1 Achievements 9.2 Limitations 9.3 Lessons for future

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9.1 Achievements:

9.2 Limitations:

9.3 Lessons for future:

The project can be summarized as a fruitful learning process as it spanned across many subjects such as storytelling, film making, animation, communication design, music, arts etc, as per the original objectives.

Limited available time was the primary limitation. Due to this, very high quality of explorations could not be achieved. Limitations in the production logistics posed challenges for the project’s smooth progress

The project can be mapped as a steady and positive growth curve. Since, with increasing levels of challenges in the project learning and interest levels of explorations also kept growing.

This is the reason for inability of utilizing available professional facilities such I-mac interfaces for editing and post processing. A slight lapse in the over all planning, caused lesser time allocated for production as compared to the planning phase. Since it was the first time a project of this nature was attempted, more time should have been given to the execution phase.

‘Practice makes you perfect’ This can be appropriately said about the skill of animation, timing, action and direction. It is totally dependent on my personal efforts to improve. It was also felt that, while experimenting with new media, it helps to decide on one medium earlier in the project. So that concentrated efforts may help to perfect one skill. This in turn builds confidence during execution of the final story, and during time constraints.

This can be seen in the journey of creating a fictional narrative film from modest beginnings of basic experiments with animation and little thought in terms of storylines. It can also be concluded that, the project goals of learning new concepts and applying them to get practical results has been successfully met.

Also in the ideation phase, problems faced in generating quick stories could be attributed to absence of regular reading habits especially of fictional content.

Through the brief exposure to narratives and literary theories it was felt that the art of story telling and writing is equally a skill to be practiced. But it can also develop by reading many works of fiction. Lastly, to design a well communicated experience, its important to reach out to the target audience. It is the only way by which the audience will get immersed in the experience. For the experience to be long lasting the content must be engaging, unique along with it’s physical treatment.

Time line revise: Execution stage - deviations from original. Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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Appendix Glossary List of figures

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Glossary: Compositing: The post production technique of digitally adding effects and layers to a video. It refers to chroma keying etc.. DSLR: Refers to a Digital Single Lens Reflex camera. It is useful to shoot high quality stop motion films. EOS Utility: Is a software package accompanied with a Canon DSLR kit. It allows connecting the camera to any external computer. It also has the added facility of live view remote shooting. Fantasy: Is a genre of fiction in which extraordinary events and rules are perceived normal such as occurences of magic. Frame rate: The speed at which frames run in a second. Stopmotion animation: 24frames per second. Imagination: Is the human capacity to creatively experience

List of figures: that, which is not present, in the current space or time. Narratology: Science of studying the structure of narrative discourses. Narrative: Is that which a narrator uses to convey a story. It is a multifaceted vehicle of visual, oral or audio-visual communication. Rig: Is an equipment or device that helps carry out complicated actions in an animation. E.g. Flying object, or stand to hold a camera. Rhetoric: Is language that is intended for persuasion. Trope: Is a literary device used in writing. It is a convention/ set pattern/ formula. Stop motion animation: Frame wise manipulation of objects or graphics to create illusion of movement.

Visual Stroytelling: 1. http://www.gamesradar.com/f/myth-ingames/a-200909179283790005 2. http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.classics.umd.edu/index_clip_image002_0000.jpg 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Millais_Boyhood_of_Raleigh.jpg 4. Human Experience through visual and audio visual in the Indian context: a. http://lh3.ggpht.com/_6KYckTGt_yo/RgqMNKHQOwI/ AAAAAAAAABc/s4OxMupXBCs/scan0002.jpg b. http://www.dollsofindia.com/dollsofindiaimages/ miniature-paintings/royal-procession-by-lake-ofudaipur-BC29_l.jpg c. http://www.schoyencollection.com/religions_files/ ms4464.jpg d. http://earthdivasblog.com/2010/09/01/kalamkarifabrics/ e. http://www.cepolina.com/photo/animal_elephant_ sculpture_Mamallapuram_India.htm f. http://www.aasd.k12.wi.us/Staff/lawrencebarbar/Lawrancebarbara/ch06/6-19.jpg g. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:India_statue_ of_nataraja.jpg h. http://www.indiainimages.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Madurai-Meenakshi-Templepainting.jpg i. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jainism_Meeting_Hall-_16th_century_India.jpg Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


Appendix

j. http://www.designandpeople.org/downloads/images/ raghu-rai-poster1-big.jpg k. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/4/4f/A_scene_from_film,_Raja_Harishchandra_%281913%29.jpg l. DakshinaChitra, Karnataka dolls, Author m. http://www.bimp.uconn.edu/images/photos/t3.JPG n. http://bharata.natyam.ibelgique.com/bharata_natyam_999.jpg o. http://lh3.ggpht.com/_VLcxUQhufMs/S656lEKgxjI/ AAAAAAAAALE/6LhvSRKe6Aw/135_Udaipur+ puppets.jpg p. http://www.serpentinegallery.org/Pather%20 Panchali.jpg q. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com mons/0/04/Savithiri_1941_M._S._Subbulakshmi_ Shanta_Apte.JPG r. http://i.indiafm.com/posters/movies/04/mughaleazam/ still8.jpg s. http://www.globalgiving.org/projects/free-poor-children-surgery-in-india/updates/ t. http://www.jollywood.com/images/products/detail/ Ramayan_p012.jpg u. http://www.rudi.net/files/paper/illustrations/ composite.jpg v. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-tTOJ1RvUY w. http://www.bolly.cz/filmy/balganesh/bal04-v.jpg

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x. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1320569/ Commonwealth-Games-2010-Indias-closingceremony-spectacular-send-off.html Early animation through devices: 5. http://www.thebigcamera.com.au/Zoetrope.jpg 6. http://www.cacourses.com/gr12/images/thaumatrope1.gif 7. http://www.exhibitfiles.org/dfile2/ReviewImage/333/original/ Seasonal__Changes.JPG 8. Stop Motion Animation - Explorations over a century: a. http://www.riccardocrocetta.com/?page_id=100 b. http://art.plankman.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/saopaolo.jpg c. http://sci-tech.ws/video/shared+whiteboard/ gallery.html d. http://thedissolve.net/system/thumbnails/24/original/ edison_01.jpg e. http://frederatorblogs.com/talk_to_the_snail/2006/04/ f. http://wakingbadger.com/2008/07/28/rayharryhausen-classics-coming-to-blu-ray/ g. http://forbiddenplanet.co.uk/blog/2008/edinburghinternational-film-festival-opens-tonight/ h. http://visionary-film.blogspot.com/2007_03_01_ archive.html i. http://www.blingcheese.com/videos/1/norman.htm j. http://carolsill.wordpress.com/2008/11/30/lottereiniger-in-51/ k. http://www.carolineleaf.com/workbio.html

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l. http://permtran.blogspot.com/2009/02/permanenttransience-exclusive-hedgehog.html m. http://www.nfb.ca/film/Mindscape/ n . http://csc186.blogspot.com/2008_09_01_ archive.html o. http://dvd.es/analisis/El%20viejo%20y%20el%20mar/ Jose%20G%C3%B3mez p. http://www.nfb.ca/playlists/nfb-oscar-nominations/ viewing/bead-gamehistoire-de-perles/ q. http://www.shortoftheweek.com/2007/03/28/ creature-comfortsdir-nick-park-aardman-animations/ r . http://media.photobucket.com/image/pingu/Jobzave/ Pingu.png?o=9 s. Russian Animation, Archives t. http://www.smh.com.au/news/dvd-reviews/timburtons-corpse-bride/2006/03/13/ 1142098378679.html u. http://jasoninhollywood.blogspot.com/2009/04/ movie-costumes-and-props-on-display-at_21.html v. http://www.cartoonbrew.com/shorts/madametutli-putli.html w. http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_ id=13771365980625 x. Sand animation, B. Probanza, Youtube y. 20 Anos, Barebero Joel Ortiz z. Youtube, stop motion anonymous za. http://huntergatherer.net/reel.php

11. http://www.cleveland.com/goingout/index.ssf/2009/01/remodelohio_show_bob_the_build.html 12. Praja promotional video, You tube.

13. http://archivo.lavozdeasturias.es/html/368067.html 14. http://centrodeestudiossemiologicos.blogspot com/2010/ 02/entre-semiotica-y-semiologia.html 15. http://lizundiablog.blogspot.com/2010/04/tvetan-todorvy-samir-nair-en.html 16. http://www.visionsfineart.com/ocampo/friendship_of_don_ quixote.html 17. http://thecia.com.au/reviews/l/lord-of-the-rings-1.shtml 18. http://www.portaldailha.com.br/noticias/lernoticia. php?id=6555 19. http://www.moviepostershop.com/the-twilight-zone-tvmovie-poster-1020478176.jpg 20. http://academics.adelphi.edu/honcol/modconart/oldnew/ 28.html 21 http://www.jesus-is-savior.com/Evils%20in%20America/ Hellivision/pans_labyrinth.htm 22. Screenshot, BBC - BBC - The Human Mind 23. Screenshot, Discovery Channel - The Secrets Of Sleep

Popular Stop Motion Animation: 9. http://www.tamperefilmfestival.fi/2000/suurreso/TFF_ 009.jpg 10. Screenshot, Mary and Max film Stop Motion Animation: Exploring Techniques and Narrative Structures


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Bibliography Stories Books Papers Essays/ Articles Web sites Documentaries/ TV Shows Live action films Animation films Short animation films

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Stories:

Papers:

Dahl Roald, The Landlady, James and the giant peach and William and Mary.

Hart John, The Art of the Storyboard, A Filmmaker’s Introduction, Focal Press, USA, 2008, ISBN: 978-0-240-80960-1

Books:

Canemaker John, Before the Animation Begins: The Art and Lives of Disney Inspirational Sketch Artists, Disney Pictures, USA,1996, ISBN-10: 0786861525

Ramanujan, A.K., Folktales from India: A Selection of Oral Tales from Twenty-Two Languages, Viking, India, 1993 V.Swain Dwight, Scripting for video and audio visual media, Focal Press, London & Boston, 1983, ISBN: 0-240-51075-5

Webber Marilyn, Gardner’s Guide to Animation Scriptwriting: The Writer’s Road Map (Gardner’s Guide series), GGC Publishing, Canada, 2000, ISBN: 0966107594

Glebas Francis, Directing the Story, Professional Storytelling and Storyboarding - Techniques for Live Action and Animation, Focal Press, UK, USA, 2009 ISBN: 978-0-240-81076-8

Shaw Susannah, Stop Motion: Craft Skills for Model Animation,Focal Press; USA, 2004 ISBN: 0240516591

Tormey Jane, Whiteley Gillian, Telling Stories: Countering Narrative in Art, Theory and Film, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK. 2009, ISBN (10): 1-4438-0532-7

White Tony, The Animator’s Workbook, Watson-Guptill Publications, USA, 1988 ISBN: 0823002292

Hardy C. Arthur, ‘The Study of Persistence of Vision - Psychology: A.C. Hardy’, Communicated by Edwin B. Wilson, Departmznt Of Physics, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, February 20, 1920. Laughton Bruce, Daumier’s Drawings of Don Quixote, Master Drawings, Vol. 34, No. 4, Master Drawings Association, http:// www.jstor.org/stable/1554274 Accessed: 01/09/2010 14:09 Lojek David, Words beyond information: Narrative modes of reality in the work of Jeanette Winterson, Department of English Studies, Humboldt-Universität zu, Berlin, 2001 Aubrey F. G., The Wisdom of Don Quixote, Books Abroad, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1947, pg. 259-263, Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, http://www.jstor.org/ stable/40086424 Accessed: 01/09/2010 13:51

Bacher Hans, Dream Worlds: Production Design for Animation, Focal Press, UK, USA, 2008, ISBN: 978-0-240-52093-3

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Bibliography

M. Tuffield Mischa, R. Shadbolt Nigel, E. Millard David, Narrative as a Form of Knowledge Transfer: Narrative Theory and Semantics, IAM Group, Department of Electronic and Computer Science Southampton University, UK Walsh Richard, The Narrative Imagination across Media: Dreaming and Neil Gaiman’s Sandman, http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/ mit4/papers/richardwalsh.pdf

Essays/ Articles: Grant John, Gulliver Unravels: Generic Fantasy and the Loss of Subversion, Millennium Issue of Extrapolation, 2001, http://www.infinityplus.co.uk/nonfiction/ gulliver.htm Ewik Patricia and S silbey Susan, Subversive Stories and Hegemonic Tales: Toward a sociology of narrative, Law and Society Review, Vol 29, Number 2, The Law an dSociety Association, USA, 1995

Websites: Evolutionary origins of human imagination and The development of imagination in children: IMAGINATIVE MINDS-An Interdisciplinary Symposium, Additional Resources - http://www.britac.ac.uk/events/imagination/ resources/evolution-1a.html, http://www.britac.ac.uk/ events/imagination/resources/evolution-2a.html, 9.11.2010, 5.30 p.m.

http://www.chrissheridan.com/metafilmschool/ archetype.html, 12.11.2010, 9.30 p.m. L. Hamilton Donald “The Human Imagination” Our Seventh Sense!, http://pages.prodigy.com/suna/ imagine.htm, 9.11.2010, 5.30 p.m. http://www.enotes.com/contemporary-literary-criticism/ fantasy-contemporary-literature, 9.11.2010, 5.30 p.m. http://www.eacfaculty.org/pchidester/Eng%20102f/ Archetypal%20Criticism.pdf, 12.11.2010, 11.30 p.m. http://www.findmeanauthor.com/fantasy_fiction_genre. htm, 9.11.2010, 5.30 p.m. http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/show/2177/, 24.10.2010, 11.23 p.m.

Lvlly, Fantasy Is Not for Sissies: Real Rules for Real Worlds,http://hollylisle.com/index.php/How-To-s/fantasyis-not-for-sissies-real-rules-for-real-worlds/Print.html, 02.10.2010, 3.29 p.m.

http://meta-religion.com/Psychiatry/Analytical_ psychology/a_gallery_of_archetypes.htm, 13.11.2010, 8.45 p.m.

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112 Bibliography

Khanna Nishank, Understanding-Literary-Archetypes, http://www.readprint.com/work-6619,

http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/gm/penney14.html, 9.11.2010, 5.30 p.m.

19.09.2010, 4.31 p.m.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspect_ratio, Walsh Richard, The Narrative Imagination across Media, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies/ v052/52.4walsh.html, 9.11.2010, 10.30 a.m.

22.09.2010, 11.16 p.m.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-definition_video, 9.11.2010, 5.30 p.m.

http://www.rlwclarke.net/courses/LITS2307/20042005/04BFryeArchetypesofLiterature.pdf, 12.11.2010, 11.40 p.m. W. Hawking Stephen, The Beginning of Time,1996, http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/lectures/ publiclectures/62, 05.09.2010, 10.13 p.m.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucid_dream, 01.10.2010, 7.21 p.m.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_motion, 29.10.2010, 5.27 p.m.

W. Hawking Stephen, Space and Time Warps,1999, http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/lectures/ publiclectures/63, 05.09.2010, 10.13 p.m. W. Hawking Stephen, Does God Play Dice?, 1999, http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/lectures/publiclectures/64, 05.09.2010, 10.13 p.m. W. Hawking Stephen, Life in the Universe,1996, http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/lectures/ publiclectures/65, 05.09.2010, 10.13 p.m. W. Hawking Stephen,The Origin of the Universe, 2005, http://www.hawking.org.uk/index.php/lectures/ publiclectures/94, 05.09.2010, 10.13 p.m. http://www.stopmotionanimation.com/about/, 17.10.2010, 11.55 p.m.

http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/lit_terms/allegory. html, 9.11.2010, 5.30 p.m. http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/ WelcomeToTVTropes, 20.09.2010, 3.24 p.m. http://www.victorianweb.org/courses/fiction/65/lewis/ lieb3.html, 9.11.2010, 5.24 p.m.

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Documentaries/ TV Shows: 1. A Brief History of Time (Stephen Hawking) 2. BBC - 2007 - Battle of the Brains 3. BBC - Einstein’s Equation of Life and Death 4. BBC Horizon - 2010 - What Makes a Genius 5. BBC.- 2002 - Parallel Universes 6. BBC - The Elegant Universe Einstein’s Universe 7. BBC - The Elegant Universe Strings theory 8. BBC - The Human Mind 9. Discovery Channel - The Secrets Of Sleep 10. Discovery channel - Time warp - Bubble 11. Twilight Zone Episodes - An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, What’s in the box?, The gift and Nick of time.

Live action Films: 1. Tim Burton, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory 2. Christopher Nolan, Inception 3. Christopher Nolan, Memento

Visual Communication 2009-11: Project 2

4. Guillermo del Toro, Pan’s Labyrinth 5. Terry Gilliam, The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus

Animation Films: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

10. Nathan Gilliss and Callum Patterson, Tic Attack and A small creation 11. NFBC, Hungu: Meet the director 12. Nicolas Brault, Hungu, NFBC 13. Nick Mangos, The Victory 14. NID Animation 2007-08, Chai Break

Coraline Disney’s Fantasia – 1 & 2 Howl’s Moving Castle James and the Giant Peach Nightmare before Christmas Princess Mononoke The Little Prince

Short Animation Films: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Andy Kennedy, Accumulonimbus Barebero Joel Ortiz, 20 Anos Bendito machine 1, 2, 3 B. Probanza, Aliento, Asi se hizo, Kristo por, Reencarcion, La Caja Cesar Diaz Melendez, No Corras tanto, Making of No Corras tanto Deus Ex Machina DHL Commercial Dhimant Vyas, Making of Taare Zameen Par Title Leonardo Wolfe, The City of Gothia

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