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aul’s speech to the Areopagus (Acts 17) has often been used as an example of engaging faith with culture. This is a key aim of this magazine: being a platform where authors / artists present their faith as interacting with life and culture, whether this is reflecting on one’s individual walk with God, happenings in the church, contact with representatives of other religions or other aspects of contemporary culture. The apostle engaged using formal rhetoric. Whereas wellargued essays are included in Areopagus, we also have more personal reflections and poems. Thanks to modern electronic communication, we are able to use graphics and full-colour photos that would make Paul envious.

Mark Tatton Ting Ting Hui PHOTOGRAPHY Saem Ha Rahani Buenaventura GRAPHICS DESIGN

The Areopagus would have met in the marketplace of Athens. Having been a philosophical centre for centuries, Athens continued to be a meeting place of ideas. Indeed, the Athenians were (in-)famous for doing little other than sitting around exchanging new ideas. This marketplace of ideas theme is one that Areopagus attempts to emulate. LST has a diverse community, with members coming from many different countries and a smorgasbord of experiences. The mix of contributors and range of articles in this issue is a faint reflection of the kaleidoscopic possibilities. The hope is that this reflection can be further developed in future issues.

Areopagus was born more than thirty years ago, but has been in a prolonged coma for the last few years. All those involved in waking her out of her coma look forward to this being a long and rich new phase of life. She will need much support though. Whether you have responses to any of the articles included in this issue, ideas for new content or want to contribute articles in new areas (or suggest authors), please feel free to comment online by joining our Facebook group ‘Areopagus Magazine’ or email

Peter Lilly Sam Buck Valerie Quay Nabeel Mohan Daniel Ostertag Danish Khalil(pen name) CONTRIBUTORS

Tony Lane Jeanny Wang Paul Hammond Helen Crawford Georgina Bassett EDITORIAL SUPPORT




The opinions expressed in Areopagus are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the magazine, its editor or London School of Theology. Copyright © 2010 Areopagus



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PLOTTING ONE Student’s Theological Journey




Danish Khalil (pen name)







3 4-5

16-17 18-19

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Is there clear teaching in the charismatic church on the nature and correct usage of tongues today?

Photo: Under Creative Common rights by Joachim S. Müller 2006


have been to New Wine Christian conference for a number of years during my summers. It has always been a time I look forward to and remember fondly. God has always blessed me through my time there, mostly through working with the children’s groups and engaging with God in a different context. Last year, however, was quite a different experience. I worked for the two-week conference with LBC productions, which was great fun. I learnt a lot and gained new skills in operating cameras, but standing behind a camera watching what goes on at meetings and celebrations certainly does detach you from what is happening in the room.

From this vantage point I noticed all sorts of things that I would otherwise have missed. As I watched people in worship and in ministry times etc… I found myself questioning what was going on. Was this really real? The people shaking and falling over, the people screaming and shouting and crying, speaking out words that didn’t make sense - from an outsider’s perspective this is all pretty crazy stuff! I know God is at work at events like New Wine, I’ve experienced his presence and know what it’s like to be in that place. At the same time I am very aware of what the Bible says on the gifts of the Spirit in the context of orderly worship in 1 Corinthians 14. Of course Paul

‘Are certain spiritual gifts forgotten in favour of others? Maybe those that are less obvious to other people.’ 4


was speaking into a particular situation when writing this epistle, but I wonder how this can be applied to Spirit filled worship settings today? Paul seems to stress the importance of understanding. He encourages people to speak in tongues and to prophesy in the church environment but under the prerequisite that someone would be able to interpret what was being said or that the prophecy was for the building up of the community. This passage is explicitly about speaking in tongues and prophecy within the church, not about an individual’s response to the Holy Spirit, which to a certain extent is uncontrollable. Two chapters earlier Paul gives a list of spiritual gifts in 1 Corinthians 12:4-11. Turner comments that many Pentecostal and Charismatic writers have used this passage as a boundary to what can be classified

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as a spiritual gift,1 among these are prophecy and the gift of tongues. It may be fair to conclude, given the focus of chapter 14 that these two spiritual gifts were both the most common and the most potentially troublesome in the Corinthian church. Prophecy and tongues are two of the more overt, obvious manifestations of the Spirit and probably two of the easiest to abuse by those seeking recognition and status as ‘spiritual’. However, even if the gifts are genuine it is easy to see how those without them could perceive those speaking in tongues as more spiritual, especially without interpretation which is what Turner suggests might be happening in the Corinthian church to warrant such a response in chapter 14 of Corinthians.2

who would probably say they were nominal in their faith and some of the ministry times they see really freak them out. Now, I know large gatherings like New Wine are very different situations to most weekly local church gatherings, it is a time of refreshing and uplifting for many, a Christian environment where a lot of the barriers are lowered for many to receive from God. It is only mentioned here because that’s where I began really questioning things; however I think the way that spiritual gifts are perceived and practised at the local church level needs to be addressed by some. New Wine may have an important role to play in this respect.

‘No matter what gifts we posses, if we do not have love and do not use spiritual gifts in love for God and others, then they are worthless.’ Does this kind of situation occur today? Is there clear teaching in the charismatic church on the nature and correct use of tongues today? In my own experience I have to answer yes to the former question and no to the latter question. Although I have heard interpretations given as people have spoken out in tongues in a church situation and we must take into account Paul’s assertion that speaking in tongues is something between an individual and God where the Holy Spirit enriches your spirit in prayer to God (1 Corinthians 14:14), I think we should also further consider more the perception of the church to those outside. I know of some who work at conferences like New Wine who are not Christians or

Is it appropriate to pray for somebody in tongues if it is designed for our own responses to God? Are there those in your church who feel inadequate when they see people prophesying or speaking in tongues? Is there enough teaching on these gifts and issues? Are church leaders ready to ensure that worship is orderly in ensuring that gifts are not abused and are used for the uplifting of everyone present?

These may not be issues that you or your church struggles with, by no means do I want to suggest that this is a universal problem. What I have seen, however, is a movement in many churches towards a ‘freedom in worship’. This is encouraging and it is certainly good for people to feel free to worship in ways that help them best connect with God; though, in my experience this is when such issues can start to arise. There are countless angles from which one can approach this subject and there have been many books written by experts in this field that cover far more ground in much greater detail. These are simply some questions that I have had that perhaps may raise question marks for you. Whatever view we take on the use of spiritual gifts in public worship, we must remember that in between 1 Corinthians 12 and 14 is 1 Corinthians 13. No matter what gifts we possess, if we do not have love and do not use spiritual gifts in love for God and others, then they are worthless.

1 2

Turner, Then and now, p179 Turner, Then and now, p262

Turner, Max, The Holy Spirit and Spiritual gifts then and now, London: Paternoster, 2007.

Are certain spiritual gifts forgotten in favour of others? maybe those that are less obvious to other people?


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ANYTHING IS ... by Valerie Quay What scares me most is the idea that Anything is possible. Anything. That it could be you. That this is it. That all my dreams and daydreams! come to fruition. That this fairytale ending is mine. That I call off the search. And walk away with, Go home to you. This is too much. How do I merit such Happiness when I am already so content? A bonus issue. A bowl of sugar-sprinkled strawberries and cream after The cherry on the top. And you would be surprised at - I am! What I begin to believe possible.



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Excavate me

Dig into the deepest memories of my history brush the dust off my rib cage and peer through at my heart still beating arrhythmic-ally Let it be known In honesty that defies the need for acceptance this eternal truth without makeup The picture of a building stretched over scaffolding is a translucent lie no one believes Observe this surface document the dirt patterns that stain my skin my refurbished interior in a shell that contradicts its contents silently thinking of pointless purity and convincing no one Change has to be inside and out


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Plotting One Student's Theological Journey Daniel Ostertag


Photo: Under Creative Common rights by Cayusa 2007


ntil I was 21 I lived in a small village of about 400 people [in southern Germany] which is situated on the edge of a high plateau rising about 1000 ft above the low lands. The village is nicknamed Oasis of Rest. Until today there is no broadband internet there and the last chance to get up there by public transport is just after 6 p.m. My first real time away from home was when I came to London in 2002. It was my first flight ever. I remember that it was a sunny September day and that on the plane I listened to a song by Michael W. Smith called ‘I’ll lead you home’ (random but true!). The day will forever be engrained on my memory, but let me start at the beginning...            I had grown up in a Christian home. My parents were part of the tiny Protestant congregation in the village. In my early teens I went to the Christian youth club meetings. I was often a pain in the neck for the leaders because I was a hyperactive, little kid with way too much energy. During the summer I would usually go to a camp where they


were doing action games, a huge bonfire every night and a bible study in the morning for the whole crowd of 150 rowdy boys. These camps were always fun and it was quite the change when I decided to go to another kind of summer camp one year. I was perplexed because some of the people there were lifting their hands when they sang. I had never before seen anyone doing that and I thought it was a bit strange. Luckily, I knew the guy who was leading my small group and he explained it to me in a way that made sense to me. On the last day of the camp I had become used to this new way of doing things and the talk that night hit home. I don’t even remember what was being said, but I do remember that I realised that night that the love of Jesus is deeply personal. He died for me?! Wow! I cried my little heart out and the course of my life was changed there and then. A few years on I found myself drumming in a rigourously evangelistic, Christian hardcore band that was modelled after a

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‘I wrote ‘Jesus loves you’ on my clothes, helped lead a daily prayer meeting in school and ... told everyone, including our teachers, that Jesus loved them!’ band called No Longer Music. Our name was Jamaica Mo Mix (don’t ask why!). We had read a book called Rock Priest by David Pierce in which he told stories of No Longer Music’s evangelistic feats in some really dark, even overtly satanic music clubs around the globe. That was it. We had a hero after whom to pattern ourselves. We never quite made it to any satanic music clubs, but those years were marked by evangelism at every turn. I wrote ‘Jesus loves you’ on my clothes, helped lead a daily prayer meeting in school and me and my friends told everyone, including our teachers, that Jesus loved them! By the time I got out of school a very important friend – the same guy who had led my small group on that momentous summer camp – had left our band and I had my first full blown identity crisis. This friend had been such a huge influence in my life that I started asking myself whether I had always only copied him. Suddenly I felt like I had never really been myself. This led me to question many things which I had thought were authentic until then, including my walk with God. At the time, part of the letter to the church in Laodicea from the book of Revelation applied to me. I was neither hot nor cold. I knew that Jesus didn’t like lukewarm Christianity. And because I had too many doubts and knew that pretending to be hot wasn’t going to work, I became a prodigal son. For the next one or two years, I was on a search for authenticity and meaning. I remember going for

a walk in the middle of the night and being amazed that while I did my share of wild living I still sensed the Father’s arms being wide open every time I needed someone to talk to. It was the purity of this kind of love that eventually made me realise that this was the reality I was searching for, full of meaning and authenticity. I came to the conclusion that following Jesus was actually the most meaningful way of life I could imagine. It was at this point that I decided to take what was a huge step for a country boy like me and come to England in order to do a 5 month discipleship school in Croydon (south London ). For the first time in my life I got on a plane. On that sunny September day I set off to spend half a year with some people I had never met before. My hope was that this time would help me become an authentic and wholehearted follower of Jesus. Folly’s End Church was part of a church network that grew out of a renewal movement that started at the Toronto Airport Christian Fellowship. It was a pretty wacky place to be! I remember once we had to carry two students out of the church into our minibus in order to get home. They were so drunk in the Spirit that they couldn’t walk! The teaching at the school revolved around a few core themes: The father heart of God, hearing God’s voice and emotional

wholeness. One of the main goals there was to see the character of the student shaped by these values and living in community was seen as the best way to achieve that. So we shared a big house and had to do the shopping, cooking and cleaning together. It was an amazing experience of close community. In many ways this influenced my view of church and how individuals can be empowered by belonging to a loving, family-like community. After the school I travelled around North America for three months and got to know some people that would have a huge impact on me in what was yet ahead. But before any of that happened I went back home and did an apprenticeship in roofing. One day there was exciting news! A friend told me and my brother that his parents owned an empty, old house and that we could live there for free as long as we paid the expenses. My brother had also just come back from a discipleship school with YWAM and it felt as though God was opening a door for us to develop what he had planted in us abroad. The house soon became a hub for many of our friends. We had regular cell group meetings and band practices there and quite often we had friends staying with us. Some years later I had finished my apprenticeship but I was a bit unsettled about the prospect of spending my life on building sites. Somewhere along the way I had picked up a passion for people as well as the desire to do something that would connect them with God. I was pondering these sorts of issues when I

‘because I had too many doubts and knew that pretending to be hot wasn’t going to work, I became a prodigal son.’


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heard an American missionary named Rolland Baker speak at a conference. He gave mind-blowing testimonies of how he and his wife saw God doing mighty miracles in one of the poorest countries in Africa . His reports matched the stories of Peter and Paul in the New Testament. Up until then what I read about in the book of Acts and our 21st century world seemed far apart. But when I listened to this man it seemed like God was the same yesterday, today and forever. So it was like another heavenly arrangement when a friend I had met years before while travelling in Canada invited me to come to the Dominican Republic . She said I could work in some of the development projects she was involved with there. Here was my chance to live out what I so greatly desired; to put my faith into practice, to serve people and to do something that would be a testimony of God’s love for them. During my time in the Dominican Republic I gained a very tangible picture of discipleship. The people I was working with there built basic but dry houses for extremely poor people who often lived in conditions which were a hotbed for diseases. I also worked with an organisation that focused on caring for children at risk and providing education. It was hands-on stuff! One of my biggest joys during this time was that I felt my life being conformed to what I read in the New Testament. I remember feeling so honoured to call myself a disciple of Christ while at the same time seeing many ways in which I fell short of that high calling.

I thought if I could only learn the ways of Christ, if I could have him as my rabbi - following him as the twelve disciples did, being taught how to live in a way that brings honour and glory to God - I would be the happiest person on earth. I emailed everyone I knew who studied theology or anyone who could help me find a place where I could learn about these things. I told them I was looking for something hands-on, not mere theory. The response was meagre. One of the few good answers I got was from a pastor in California who was involved in a house church movement. He was another one of these important people I had met while travelling around North America some years earlier. He invited me to live with him and his family and join them in exploring what it means to be the church. It was during this time that I enrolled in distance learning at LST. The flexibility of the course allowed me to combine theological training with hands-on ministry. I stayed in California for three exciting months, then I went back home. The following two years involved theological study, travels to Romania and Africa to work with different ministries, and time on building sites as a self-employed builder. Until about one and a half years ago how I related to God had been shaped by two main influences: The spirituality I had come to know at Folly’s End and my Protestant upbringing. Rationality had not necessarily

been the biggest feature of my faith. However, that started to change on a trip to Africa . One of my best friends and I spent two months in Mozambique and Tanzania . On two occasions in particular I was impressed by his ability to explain and articulate his faith. It was fascinating to see him converse with Muslims. He knew his theology! I realised that these were the fruits of his theological study in the German city of Tübingen . Until then I had been a bit sceptical of academic theology, but these experiences made it highly attractive to me. Back from Africa , I was glad to join my friend in Tübingen for my final year of distance learning. Listening to theology professors who understand their occupation to be a scientific one (part of the German Geisteswissenschaften) really challenged me to examine matters of faith and belief on an intellectual level. Again I was impressed, if not intimidated, by the vast knowledge of some of the students in the higher semesters and their ability to think critically. Everything is scrutinised to the detail. Now I am here at LST. In my first week here I said to Jeanny Wang that I wish I could bring together the best of the different experiences I have had so far. Drawing together sharp thinking, sincere faith and love for people would be a good basis for the continuation of this journey of discipleship into the future. Let’s see...  

‘Rationality had not necessarily been the biggest feature of my faith. ... I had been a bit sceptical of academic theology, but these experiences made it highly attractive to me.’ 10 Areopagus SprinG 2010

Should Christians ever confront ISLAM?

by Danish Khalil (Pseudonym)


couple of years ago I took part in an outreach with the aim to share the Gospel with Muslims in the UK. The question arose during the training conference if Christians should confront Muslims about their theological beliefs, especially since most Muslim apologists and radical preachers have a polemical approach towards Christianity. A number of the participants of the outreach, including myself, encountered this problem during evangelism. The trainers and

participants had a variety of opinions about this issue. How should we respond to the Muslim anti-Christian polemic that ‘goes relatively unnoticed, even in the age of mass media…and is rarely subject to critical scrutiny’? I have observed a dilemma in missionary circles concerning the correct missiological methods to employ with Muslims in contemporary Western context. Two well-known Christian scholars on Islam, Colin


Chapman and Chawkat Moucarry regard dialogue, not polemics, as the best model to engage with Muslims. A confrontational approach is supported and practised by a number of Christian evangelists like Sam Shamoun and Jay Smith, though the inter-faith dialogue approach is more popular among most Christian missiologists of our day. Therefore, should we completely abandon a polemical approach and only engage in Christian-Muslim

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dialogue to answer Islamic objections of Christianity? Would this constantly defensive approach not present a weak picture of Christianity to Muslims especially when confrontational style is part of Islamic culture and a vigorous response is expected of the opponent? Why should I not confidently defend the validity of the Christian faith and challenge the authenticity of Islamic faith courteously, wisely and boldly? In other words, should I aim to engage not only with apologetics, which is a presentation of reasoned arguments in justification of a doctrine, but also polemics, which is the practice of forceful arguments to refute errors of a doctrine? What are the biblical and historical grounds for this approach and are there any contemporary precedents in support of this?

and sanctity on which normal work is laid aside.

The Old Testament prophets used polemics to uplift the name of Yahweh against gods of other nations. The polemical strategy began while Israel was in Egypt and gained momentum in the period of the Judges and early monarchy, reaching its culmination at Mount Carmel, which was carried on by later prophets, especially Hosea. Moses confronted Pharaoh and challenged the power of Baal and other Egyptian gods (Exodus 15:11). Elijah confronted Ahab and Ahaziah, kings of Israel, for their ungodliness and proclaimed the name of the true God to them (1 Kings 18:17-40; 21:17-29; 2 Kings 1:118). To exalt the name of Yahweh, Elijah also confronted the prophets of Baal who was seen as a powerful warrior king who controlled the The creation account of Genesis elements of the storm and promised is a demonstration of polemical his devotees children and agricultural approach against other religions in prosperity (1 Kings 18:17-40). order to proclaim sovereignty of Isaiah 40-55 is a polemic against the Yahweh. Genesis 1:1-2:3 is a polemic theology, worldview and gods of the against the mythical-religious concepts Assyro-Babylonian culture and the of the ancient Orient, which is Persian Empire. Hosea is noted for his evidenced by its rejection of the polemical approach against Canaanite common notion that matter prereligious polytheistic practices in the existed the gods’ work of creation; 8th century B.C. presentation of sea monsters and the astral bodies as created objects In the New Testament, John of Yahweh’s power and not his the Baptist attacks the Pharisees competitors; representation of man with a warning of judgement and as God’s representative and ruler on an exhortation to bear good fruit earth and not the lackey of the gods to keep them supplied with food; and the seventh day not as a day of ill omen as in Mesopotamia, but a day of blessing


(Matthew 3: 7-10). Jesus models the use of friendship, mild opposition and confrontation in his ministry. His ministry was based on love and compassion (Matthew 9:35-38). He befriended prostitutes and tax collectors to show God’s love to them (Matthew 9:9-13). However, he also publicly confronted scribes and Pharisees by depicting them as more than hard-hearted for distorting the meaning of the law of God, wilfully living as hypocrites, not being faithful to their religious heritage and doubting that the Messiah had come (Matthew 23:120). He employed polemical approach to make a prophetic appeal for repentance (Matthew 23:1-20). He rebuked Pharisees in a parable for their hypocrisy (Mark 12:1-12), drove the moneychangers out of the temple for the honour of God’s house (Matthew 12:12-13) and pointed out a Samaritan woman’s deficiency (John 4:1-42). Paul also used both apologetics and polemics to spread the Gospel. He was a zealous Jew who converted to Christianity, retained all his passion, intellect and knowledge of the Scriptures using them to argue with both Jews and Gentiles (Acts 17-19). Paul boldly confronted other nations’ false views of God and used his skills to point to the true God (Acts 14:15; 17:29; 19:26). He used polemics in his writings by linking human religion

‘Jesus models the use of friendship, mild opposition and confrontation in his ministry’


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to the demonic (1 Corinthians 10:20). Paul’s letter to the Galatians is called ‘one of the most polemical documents in all the Bible.’ The history of the church has ample evidence in support of not only apologetics but also polemics. In the second century Justin Martyr and Irenaeus are among many of those who confronted Greek philosophy and Paganism in defence of Christianity. Justin Martyr is known for defending the faith and Irenaeus for standing against heresies. ‘While Justin was primarily an apologist, Irenaeus’ main contribution lay in the refutation of heresy and exposition of apostolic Christianity.’The Nicene Creed (381) came out of polemics against Arianism, Macedonianism and Apollinarianism. From the early years of Islam to the Crusades, varied Christian response to Muslims also included production of material that bore the marks of polemical approach to prevent Christians from converting to Islam and refute its claim to be a divinely revealed religion. St John of Damascus (675-753) and the Catholicos Timothy I (728-850), are representative of these responses.

without any hindrance. Karl Pfander’s (1803-1865) historic debate in 1954 with a Muslim mullah in Agra was followed by the conversion of two high-profile Muslim preachers less than ten years later, who then wrote several polemical works against Islam. During this era, missionaries and Muslim converts in the Indian subcontinent produced some of the most outstanding apologetic and polemical literature in the history of the Christian-Muslim encounters. Turning to the contemporary era, the 1974 Lausanne Covenant stated, …there is only one Saviour and only one gospel…We recognise that everyone has some knowledge of God through his general revelation in nature. But we deny that this can save…We also reject as derogatory to Christ and the gospel every kind of syncretism and dialogue which implies that Christ speaks equally through all religions and ideologies.

This position provides room for dialogue without compromise but also leaves open the door to test and judge other religions by Scripture. In the wake of 9/11, different reports

have been published about dynamic missionary activity of Muslims in Britain. Taking advantage of Western freedom to critique and question, radical Muslim preachers vigorously challenge Christianity and its relevance to British society. Some writers have drawn attention to the anti-Christian polemical literature at Islamic bookstores. Growing trend towards radical Islamic lifestyle has also been highlighted by a variety of surveys. This demands not only an effective defence of Christian faith and ideals but also convincing refutation of Islamic claims. There are numerous testimonies of believers from Islamic background on www.answering-islam. org, the main polemical Christian website against Islam. Many of them have come to know the Lord through the efforts of believers who have exposed Islamic claims of being the true religion. Jay Smith, a Christian apologist, who has had forty formal debates with different Islamic leaders including a debate at Oxford Union with Benazir Bhutto, the former Pakistani prime minister, has reported winning converts in the long run as a result of such approach.

The Reformation was a result of yet another theological controversy between Martin Luther and the Catholic Church. During the modern mission movement (1792-1950), the missionaries working amongst Muslims in the Indian sub-continent took polemical approach to Islam. Henry Martyn (1781-1812) preached


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So how should we respond to anti-Christian polemic by radical Muslims in the contemporary Western context? In light of the biblical/ historical evidence and contemporary situation, we do not need to choose between apologetics and polemics. As the context demands, we should confidently practise both approaches to reach Muslims. We must stand for the defence of Christian faith and where needed must also refute false teachings of Islam. However we must do it with love and integrity (Titus 2:7-8) and should not be the ones who seek confrontation. Polemics should not arise out of hatred but from the desire to glorify Jesus Christ. As John Stott wrote, ‘the highest of missionary motives is neither obedience to the Great Commission (important as that is), nor love for sinners who are …perishing (strong as that incentive is) …but rather zealburning and passionate zeal-for the glory of Jesus Christ.’ Zebiri, Kate, Muslims and Christians Face to Face, Oxford: One World, 1997, p. 173. 1

Still, Jane, ‘Dialogue, not polemics, the best model,’ The Melbourne Anglican, id=2327&s=1454 (Accessed 23 October 2009). 2

Webster’s New International Dictionary, London: Bell, 1927, p.1666. 4

Wenham, Gordon, Genesis 1-15:Word Biblical Commentary, Texas: Word Books, 1987, p. 37.


Ibid., 56-71, pp. 57-58.

Baltzer, Klaus, Deutero-Isaiah: A commentary on Isaiah 40 – 55: Hermeneia, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999, pp. 35-37.

Azumah, John, ‘Christian Mission and Islam,’ Edinburgh 2010 Witnessing Christ Today, http://www.edinburgh2010. org/en/study-themes/1-foundationsfor-mission/hamburg-consultation.html (Accessed 23 October 2009). 18

Alford, Deann, ‘Unapologetic Apologist,’ Christianity Today, Vol. 52, No. 6 (June 2008) 34-37, p. 37. 19


Kakkanattu, J. P., God’s Enduring Love in the Book of Hosea: A Synchronic and Diachronic Analysis of Hosea 11, 1–11., Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006, pp. 5-6. 9

Saldarini, Anthony J., Pharisees, Scribes and Sadducees in Palestinian society: a sociological approach:The Biblical Resource Series, Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2001, pp. 165-66. 10

Davies, W. D., & Allison, Dale C., The Gospel according to Matthew:Vol 3 Chapters 19-28: International Critical Commentary (new series), Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1997, pp. 258-262. 11



Larkin, William J. Jr, ‘The Contribution of the Gospels and Acts to a Biblical Theology of Religions’, in Rommen, Edward & Netland, Harold (Eds.), Christianity and the Religions: A Biblical Theology ofWorld Religions, California: William Carey Library, 1995, pp.72-91 & 84. 13

Azumah, John, ‘Christian Mission and Islam,’ Edinburgh 2010Witnessing Christ Today, en/study-themes/1-foundations-formission/hamburg-consultation.html, (Accessed 23 October 2009). 20

The Lausanne Covenant, http://www. (Accessed 15 Feb, 2010) 21

Sookhdeo, Patrick, Faith, Power and Territory: A Handbook of British Islam, Pewsey: Isaac Publishing, 2008, p.190. 22

Zebiri, Kate, Muslims and Christians Face to Face, Oxford: One World, 1997, p. 173. 23

Riddell, Peter G., & Cotterell, Peter, Islam In Conflict, Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 2003, p. 193. 24

Bennett, Clinton, Understanding Christian-Muslim Relations, London: Continuum, 2008, p.163. 25

Alford, Deann, ‘Unapologetic Apologist,’ Christianity Today, Vol. 52, No. 6 (June 2008) 34-37, p. 37. 26

Stott, John, The Message of Romans: God’s Good News for theWorld: with study guide, Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994, p.53. 27

Dunn, James D.G., ‘Echoes of IntraJewish Polemic in Paul’s Letter to the Galatians,’ in Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 112, No. 3 (1993) 459-477, p. 459. 14

Moore, Bruce (Ed.), The Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 60. 3

Chisholm, Robert B. Jr, ‘To whom shall you compare me?:Yahweh’s Polemic against Baal and the Babylonian Idol Gods in Prophetic Literature’, in Rommen, Edward & Netland, Harold (Eds.), Christianity and the Religions: A Biblical Theology ofWorld Religions, California: William Carey Library, 1995, pp. 56-71. 6

Lane, Tony, A Concise History of Christian Thought, London: T & T Clark, 2006, pp. 10-19. 15


Ibid., p.12.


Ibid., p. 40.




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Recommended Resources Books


Chawkat Moucarry,

- Answering Islam: A Christian-Muslim Dialog and Apologetic

Faith to Faith: Christianity & Islam in Dialogue, Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2001.

Peter Riddell & Peter Cotterell, Islam in Conflict: Past, present, future, Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 2003.

- The Good Way: Sharing the Gospel with Muslims. Testimonies, articles, books and links - Answering Islam: The Bible and Quran

Michael Nazir-Ali, Islam: A Christian Perspective, Exeter: - Isa al Masih: Paternoster, 1983. A place for Muslims to learn about Islam and Christianity John Azumah, My

Neighbour’s Faith: Islam explained for Christians,

Nairobi: Hippo Books, 2008. Steven Masood, The Bible

and The Qur’an, A Question of Integrity, Carlisle:

- Answering Muslims: The Islamoblog of Acts 17 Apologetics Ministries

Paternoster Publishing, 2001.


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Solidarity by Peter Lilly O Foolish Child Gather in your time from off of the floor. Those years are nothing But a reason to stop sleeping. Make toys out of Your homeless teeth; A scattered distraction From your dreary cell. O Foolish Child Clean up this paint that you spilled. Maps of the future pool out From your face; slowly, but confidently breathing. Decorate your hell With your evacuating blood, Hand-prints on the walls darken As your face grows pale. O Foolish Child Stop dreaming of faultless heroes, Your hope keeps you awake, And the hopelessness keeps you so tired. Decorating your mind With dreams of solidarity Not daring to consider rescue Only to be remembered by, the discontented comfortable. 16


SprinG 2010

This internal taunting but a mild representation Of the torture beaten in from every wall Sapping all strength, and even the hope in truth So, what can we say? O Hero of the Faith Don’t loosen your grip Even as agony tears out your nails Because your hope outlives degradation. The whirlpool galaxy testifies Your loyalty is not in vain. Contrite brothers repent of self-focused petitions We now exclaim, you are not alone!


The first section of this poem is about the torture of persecuted Christians, focussing on the internal battle of loneliness and hopelessness. The last stansas a response of solidarity.We of the Church in the West have it easy.We must not forget to stand in solidarity with our brothers and sisters who face all sorts of persecution in prayer and do what we can to for them in petitioning and enabling of advocates. When one part of the body suffers, it all does. SprinG 2010


Photo: Under Creative Common rights by doublem2 cobalt123 TooFarNorth Eva the Weaver Leo Reynolds



he first Areopagus photography competition has been a great success. The brief was ‘Peace on Earth’ and attracted a myriad of entries. This was intended to be very interpretable so that people with busy schedules could submit favourite photos that could fit the brief. We even had a mix of staff and students submitting. The nature of the brief invited photos from all different branches of photography including landscape, portraiture, architecture and still life; with this in mind it was a very difficult competition to judge. The criteria for judging was based around the photographer’s ability to connect the brief title to their photo in an immediately


captivating manner whilst maintaining the balance of a well composed photo. In light of the criteria, the three photos published were all of an excellent standard. However, Jon White’s entry was immediately striking, whilst not unimaginatively literal in its connection to the brief. It is also a traditionally well composed landscape photo with some interesting post-processing. The photo seems to represent a barrier from the beauty and serenity represented by the barbed wire fencing off the land ahead. I really like the simplicity of this photo and the quality of light. Good one Jon. Your £10 is waiting for you to spend in the bookshop.


Wien and Kat have also submitted excellent photos. Kat’s use of colour is very striking and the choice of using a series of photos instead of just one was done well through the images chosen. Wien’s use of depth of field is an very good example of how such a technique can be used for artistic effect. Well done to both for very highly commendable entries.

SprinG 2010



WIEN FUNG Areopagus

SprinG 2010


Areopagus Spring 2010  

Areopagus Magazine Spring 2010