CHIGWELL SCHOOL A U T V I A M I N V E NI A M A U T F A CI A M
Some History from the Archives
being details of:•
Sir William Penn
Sir Eliab Harvey (and the Fighting Temeraire)
The Burford Headmasters
Our historic buildings
The Memorial Chapel
A summary of School history…so far
Marian F Delfgou School Archivist
A copy of the memorial brass in St Maryâ€™s Church Chigwell
“Our” Archbishop, Samuel Harsnett, Archbishop of York, first came to Chigwell in 1597 with his wife Thomasina [Daughter of William and Elizabeth Waldegrave of Hitcham, Suffolk. Widow of William Kemp of Gissing in Norfolk].Their daughter also called Thomasina was baptised at Chigwell on July 6th 1600. Samuel’s wife died at Chigwell in February 1602. Their daughter seems to have been cared for by Anne Parker ‘a nurse’ who later lived at the School. Samuel Harsnett had been baptised, as ‘Hasnothe’, at St Botolph’s, Colchester on June 20th 1561. His father being the baker William Harsnett. In 1574 William died and his wife Agnes took charge of the Bakery. Samuel went to Colchester Grammar School, entered Kings College Cambridge as a sizar in 1576, he transferred to Pembroke and gained his B.A. in 1580 and his Fellowship in 1583 when he was also ordained. Harsnett took over the Mastership of Colchester Grammar School from 1586-88. [Many of his works of scholarship were written during the next ten years and his library collected]. In 1597 he became Chaplain to Bishop Bancroft and the ‘cure of souls’ for Chigwell. 1598 he was made a Prebendary of St Paul’s Cathedral and in 1602 Archdeacon of Essex, together with the living of Shenfield and of St Margaret’s in Fish Street, London. Harsnett resigned his living at Chigwell in 1605 when he was appointed Master of Pembroke. Appointed Bishop of Chichester in 1609 and then of Norwich in 1619 he became Archbishop of York in 1628. He had become frail in later middle age and died, on his way to London, at Moreton in Marsh, Gloucestershire on May 25th 1631. Although a place had been prepared for his burial in York Minster his will demanded that he be buried in Chigwell, ‘at the feet of my dear wife’. The brass commemorating him was set over his grave in the church and later moved to the wall. In 1886 it was finally set between the old and ‘new’ Victorian chancels. 2
‘Our’ Archbishop bought land in Chigwell and a ‘tenement there-on’ from John Wroth in 1619 [where there had been a gild school set up in 1500 by Thomas Elderton and the Vicar Jacob Bilney] for just £16.10s. In 1627 he bought and gave to the School, the house now known as ‘Harsnetts’. He himself had lived at ‘Stickmarsh’ nearby [burned down in a fire in 1935]. The first Headship was established under Peter Mease, a Dutchman, in 1623. [He married Elizabeth daughter of Henry Withers a Governor of the ‘new’ school]. On the 13th April 1629 the Foundation Deed was signed. Careful provisions for School government laid down. Headmasters were not to be gamblers, smokers, drunkards, nor priests, boys were not to be too harshly caned; Latin and Greek Grammars were to be taught [Lily’s Latin Grammar and Cleonard’s Institutions] through a twelve hour day. The Lord’s Prayer, the Te Deum and 113th Psalm were to be said each day during the services. 18 scholars, boys, were to be selected and taught freely, others could be accepted for payment. The boys must be clean and not infectious and ‘must not make water in the courtyard’. The rents for Tottington glebe lands in Norfolk were used to support the school, the Bishop of London was appointed Visitor and these Statutes were to be read annually, in St Mary’s Church, on Easter Monday. Among the 21 Governors appointed were Emmanuel Utye the Vicar of Chigwell, Thomas Berisford the Rector of Loughton, Edmund Denny of the White Hart, Henry Withers of Blackmans, David Dunbar of Woolston Hall, Sir William Nutt, grocer and William Brown, yeoman – who signed his name with an X. From the small, hardworking, Christian foundation has come our present co-educational, multi-faith, comprehensive public school. For over 375 years through comfort and poverty, peace and war, dissention and civil war, school has grown in philanthropy and scholarship.
Part of the Foundation Deed for Chigwell School made by the Archbishop of York, Samuel Harsnett on the 13th April 1629.
York Minster in 1849. From a lithograph by F. Bedford.
St Maryâ€™s, Chigwell in 1789 From a watercolour held in Walthamstow Museum.
Chigwell School, before New House was built in 1775. From a drawing by Buckler reproduced in The Mirror 14th December 1839.
The interior of ‘Big School’ from a drawing by Fairholt. Reproduced in a Railway Guide of c.1850.
Sir William Penn Quaker. Founder of Pennsylvania. O.C. 1655-58
Born in 1644, to Admiral Sir William Penn and his wife Margaret Jasper of Holland, Will Penn was educated first at Tower Hill and then at Chigwell in about 1655-58. Later at Christchurch Oxford he became a Quaker and was in consequence expelled from the University. For attacking the doctrines of the Trinity, the Atonement and Justification by Faith, he was imprisoned in the Tower in 1668, where he wrote ‘No Cross, No Crown’. He was again imprisoned for preaching in 1671 and used his enforced leisure to write ‘The Great Cause of Liberty of Conscience’, an able defence of religious toleration. In 1681 he was granted the territory now forming the State of Pennsylvania by Charles II in lieu of debts owed to his father Admiral Penn, and he determined to found there a community based upon the principles of toleration. Penn made two apparently happy marriages, first to Guilemina Springett and then after young widower-hood, to Hannah Callowhill and had twelve children. His letters home are thoughtful and full of loving instruction. But his later years were embittered by troubles in Pennsylvania and by the dishonesty of one of his agents, who nearly ruined him and who was the cause of him being imprisoned for debt. He died soon after his release in 1718.
School days…. School, when Will Penn was here, consisted of just the small Tudor guild house, where the Second Master has his study and the Big School classroom, now the Swallow Library, and Harsnetts House across the lane. Beside it stood the old alms houses. Other cottages of lathe and plaster have long since fallen down and been replaced by ‘more modern’ 18th century ones. Water came from the wells at Harsnett’s and at School, light from rush-lights and candles, warmth and hot food from the big fireplaces and food for the mind from the Latin Master Edward Cotton, who flogged his boys and taught them by rote. Books were still rare and expensive and so learning by repetition was usual. Will and his fellow scholars would have repeated declensions, learned Cicero and Caesar and later struggled with goose quills and soot-black ink to scratch out their Latin and Greek grammar and histories. The boys learned to write well while one of the School Governors, William Brown, could only ‘make his mark’ with a cross. There was little arithmetic, Pepys taught himself to multiply when he was middle aged. We don’t know how many boys were at school then, 20 seems a likely number, but we do know the names of two of Will’s fellow pupils. William Spere and Frances Fox were both nominated from Woodford Parish in 1657. E. J. Erith in his ‘History of Woodford’ tells us that Fox had to be clothed ‘fit to send him to Chigwell School’ and that he later became apprenticed to the Blacksmith at Chigwell. In the 1670’s he was made Constable and Churchwarden of Woodford and Surveyor of Highways in 1696. We have no record as to Fox or Spere’s appearance but Will Penn was later described by an old lady in Pennsylvania as ‘the handsomest, best looking, lively gentleman I have ever seen. Rather short in stature, athletic but grown stout…’ (Topical life of Penn – Wm. Hull). Which description backs up the tradition that Will developed his running prowess while at Chigwell (G. Stott).
John Aubrey writes in ‘Brief Lives ‘The first sense he had of God was when he was 11 years old at Chigwell, being retired in a chamber alone; he was so suddenly surprised with an inward comfort and (as he thought) an externall glory in the roome that he has many times sayd that from thence he had the Seale of divinity and Immortality, that there was a God and that the Soule of man was capable of enjoying his divine communications. His schoolmaster was not of his Perswasion.’
Penn’s ideas on Education are set out in his ‘Fruits of Solitude’ 1693. ‘We are in pain to make them scholars, but not Men! To talk rather than to know, which is true Canting. The first thing obvious to children is what is Sensible. We press their memory too soon, and puzzle, strain and load them with words and rules. To know Grammar and Rhetoric, and a strange Tongue or two, that is ten to one may never be useful to them! Leaving their natural genius to Mechanical and Physical, or natural Knowledge uncultivated and neglected, which would be of exceeding use and pleasure to them through the whole course of their Life. To be sure, Languages are not to be despised or neglected but Things are still to be preferred. Children had rather be making of Tools and Instruments of Play; Shaping, Drawing, Framing and Building etc. than getting some Rules of Property of Speech by heart; and those also would follow with more judgement, and less trouble and time.
It were happy if we studied Nature more in natural things and acted according to Nature whose rules are few, plain and most reasonable. Let us begin where she begins, go her pace, and close where she ends, and we cannot miss of being good naturalists.’ There is much other wisdom in his writings; on Marriage. ‘79. Never marry but for Love; but see that thou lovest what is lovely. 92. In marriage do thou be wise; prefer the person before money, virtue before beauty, the mind before the body: then thou hast a wife, a friend, a companion, a second self; one that bears an equal share with thee in all thy toils and troubles. 102. Wherefore use not her as a servant but as one whom thou hast ‘served seven years’ to obtain. 103. An husband and wife that love and value one another show their children that they should do so too. (Others visibly lose their authority in their families by their contempt of one another and teach their children to do likewise).’ on Thoughtfulness. ‘Go slowly in the rush and noise of life, as you have intervals, step at home within yourselves and be still. Wait upon God and feel his good presence; and this will certainly carry you through your day’s business.’ on Death too. ‘They that love beyond the world cannot be separated by it, for death is but like crossing the world as friends do the seas, they live in one another still.’ 10
The ‘Indian Treaty’.
The Great Treaty between William Penn and the native Indians took place at Shakamaxon in 1683 under the ‘Great Elm’. Voltaire described it as ‘the only treaty not sworn and never broken’. Tishcoban
Penn wrote to the Indian chiefs in 1681 saying: ‘God… and the King of the Countrey where I live, hath given unto me a great province therein, but I desire to enjoy it with your Love and Consent, that we may always live together as Neighbours and freinds [sic], else what would the great God say to us, who hath made us not to devoure and destroy one another but live Soberly and kindly together in the world. … I shall shortly come to you myselfe… and my resolution is to live Justly peaceably and freindly with you’.
A Wampam sash given to Penn by the Chiefs 11
PHILADELPHIA ‘The Holy Experiment William Penn established his colony and later the city of Philadelphia on Christian principles. Men and women of all races, all religions, wealthy or poor were treated equally. Every citizen was given an equal plot of land. Some built wooden houses, the Indians set up wigwams. The mixture of Swedes, Finns, Irish, Scots, Dutch, French, Native Indians and English responded with something akin to love to these fundamental principles which he based on the ‘Sermon on the Mount’. Gradually it grew into the thriving city we know today.
The William Penn Charter School in Philadelphia has close links with School. John Wilson, an ancestor of Dick Lloyd who was our Head Praefect of 1936, taught there in the 17th century. Another Head Praefect, Fletcher Hodges came from Charter School in 1952. Prince George of Yemesee was here in 1714. Penn Fellows have come to help teach for a year at School. The Comets (Bill Haley’s Rock and Roll Band) have enlivened the Quad with their music during visits from Philadelphia. What was once an epic and risky voyage in a ‘three-master’ is now just ‘a flight across the pond’ and our links with William Penn’s ‘new country’ remain strong.
Admiral Sir Eliab Harvey
Governor at Chigwell School 1788-1830
ROLLS PARK “ABRIDGE, her tank and waterfall, The path beneath Sir Eliab’s wall. I once again am stepping; Beyond that round we rarely stirred, Loughton we saw, but only heard of Ongar and of Epping.” extract from Chigwell Revisited by James Smith O.C. 1785-91
Belonging to the Barrington family from 1135 the manor at Chigwell was sold to Thomas Wilmer in 1639 complete with its ‘mansion’ for £1,900. Wilmer, a Royalist Major sold half the 13
manor lands to an Edmund Denny, probably to pay off the fine levied on him for his support of the late King Charles I. In 1668 half the manor with other local lands was sold to Sir Eliab Harvey whose father had rented the mansion previously. Occupied by the Harvey family until our Admiral Sir Eliab Harvey’s widow Louisa died in 1841 it was thereafter rented to a succession of notable tenants including Lord Bicester. The Admiral’s great grandson Lieutenant General Sir Francis Lloyd GCVO, KCB, DSO appointed as G.O.C. London came to live at Rolls in 1920 (he too was a Governor at Chigwell School, 1923-26). Rolls Park was then inherited by Sir Francis’ brother Reverend Rossendale Lloyd and in 1939 by his son Andrew Lloyd. Requisitioned during the Second World War the mansion deteriorated and after the war it became impossible for Andrew to keep up with the repairs needed. Eventually in 1953 the mansion was demolished. Originally a timber built Tudor house the earliest part of the mansion still existing in 1953 were the Jacobean kitchens built in 1600. We know that by 1900 there were 15 bedrooms, music room, orangery and ‘magnificently’ decorated reception rooms. Now there is little left of the lovely ‘House on the Hill’ excepting stables, cottage and orangery…. and Sir Eliab’s Wall. The magnificent staircase carved by either Sir Grinling Gibbons or Thomas Kinward who was master joiner to Charles II is now at Hinchingbrooke House, Cambridgeshire. Note: A piece of stained glass was brought home by Sir Francis Lloyd from the ruined cathedral at Ypres after the First World War. We have a piece of Ypres’ stained glass in our Chapel window as part of the ‘Holy City’. Sir Francis gave his precious find to Headmaster Walde to be incorporated into a new life here.
21st October 1805
In the terrible sea battle off Cape Trafalgar in 1805, on the west coast of Spain the fleets of French and Spanish ships were assembling to invade England. Lord Nelson, the High Admiral, decided to cut through the line of this assembly by sailing directly into their firepower in order to ‘divide and conquer’ them. Our School Governor Admiral Sir Eliab Harvey sailed his ship the ‘Fighting TEMERAIRE’ astern of Nelson’s VICTORY moving ahead to protect her. He was ordered to ‘fall back’ by Nelson but as the Victory was engulfed in cannonade from the REDOUBTABLE and the FOUGUEUX Harvey brought the Temeraire between the French ships and the Victory returning their fire… the Fougueux was sunk, the Redoubtable was boarded and the badly damaged, Victory was saved. Rubble falling from the two French ships took out the Temeraire’s mast. Admiral Harvey ordered her to be cleared and made sail again. Harvey then opened fire again and disabled the Redoubtable defending the damaged Victory as Lord Nelson lay dying on her deck. Harvey brought the Temeraire through the battle and the three nights of a hurricane which followed and she was brought battered and with honour into port. Sir Eliab Harvey was honoured as a hero, knighted and made a Pall-Bearer at Nelson’s funeral.
After the war he resumed his duties as an MP and as Trustee and Governor [1788-1830] of the School in Chigwell as both his father and grandfather had been before him. A ‘big, rumbustuous man’ he, Major Urmston, and Admiral Jervis presided at lively ‘Trafalgar dinners’ at the Kings Head each October. Sir Eliab was noted by Codrington as ‘being the greatest bore [about Trafalgar] I ever met’ …. he had a good reason to boast! In later life he became a ‘hot-tempered’ old gentleman who ‘stomped around his gardens’ pulling up the French beans, shouting at Lady Louisa and ‘being rude’ to his neighbouring farmers. As a boy, living at Rolls Park, Chigwell, Sir Eliab would probably have been a pupil here under Peter Burford before going to Westminster and Harrow and joining the Navy. He was a patron of the Navestock Cricket Team and, later, a gambler, once losing and winning back again £100,000 in a single night. As Chair of Governors he dealt with finances, new buildings, old drains, inspected the boys’ work-books and served with eight headmasters [including the notorious Edwards who closed the school, ran the pub instead and had to be removed by the bishop of London]. Sir Eliab served School vigorously and steadfastly, just as he had served England; he was still in office when he died.
The Temeraire “Now the sunset breezes shiver, And she’s fading down the river, But in England’s song forever She’s the FIGHTING Temeraire.” from: The Fighting Temeraire by Sir Henry Newbolt
The ‘Tall Ship’ Temeraire, a three-decker of 2.121 tons, carried 98 guns. Some 200 feet in length and 50 in beam she ported 600 or gunners. Made at Chatham from oak cut from Hainault Forest she was an ‘Essex’ ship. Launched 11th September 1798 her first Captain was a Peter Puget. She served first in blockading Napoleon’s fleet in their channel ports. In 1801 being commissioned for the West Indies (instead for a home base) some of her crew mutinied. After a court martial 11 men were hung at the yardarm and the crew paid off. In November 1803 our Sir Eliab Harvey was appointed Captain and with a new crew, mainly Liverpool men, sailed to join the fleet at Brest. Sailing astern of the Victory at Trafalgar the Temeraire took a battering from 6 French ships before sailing in to defend Nelson. Captain Harvey battered the Fougueux, boarded the Redoubtable and held off Dumanoir’s ships. 47 of his crew were killed in action and 31 wounded. After the ensuing storm the Temeraire was towed to Gibraltar by the Defiance, refitted and served for six more years in active service. Captain Harvey was court martialled in 1809 for describing Lord Cochrane as ‘a canting old woman’. After a public outcry he was reinstated, made Admiral and later knighted. The Temeraire became Guardship at Sheerness and last fired her guns for Queen Victoria’s coronation. The artist J. M. W. 17
Turner painted this valiant ship after he saw her being towed along the Thames to be broken up in 1838, thus immortalising her. Note: One Eliab Harvey fought for King Charles I and narrowly escaped Cromwell’s punishment of execution by paying a massive fine instead. Another Eliab hosted a dinner for King James II and another (William) Harvey fought at Culloden for the ‘Bonnie’ Prince Charles Edward and he too narrowly escaped execution. Our Sir Eliab fought for his King, George III, and then came home to Chigwell to be Squire again, reduce his tenants rents and put the School to rights.
The Burford family
William John Burford From a pencil sketch about 1840
The BURFORD family have commanded over a 100 years of School’s history. According to Lt.Col Burford files their ancestry was in France. The gravestones of these Headmasters and their wives can be seen in a row outside St Mary’s church, moved there when the extension of 1886 was built. One of them is thought to have served in the household of Charles 1. GEORGE BURFORD, was elected Master of the English School in 1728, there being no pupils in the Latin School. He undertook to support the previous Master’s (Showbridge’s) widow at Harsnetts and he served here until 1768. He died on July 16th 1768 aged 67. JOHN BURFORD, his elder son followed him as English Master, aged only 19. He served until his early death in 1777. School was divided into Latin (Classics) and English studies until 1868.
Reverend PETER THOMAS BURFORD LL>B> George Burford’s younger son was nominated as Master of the Latin School in 1762. Aged 22 he had just entered Magdalene College as a Pensioner. There is no record of who taught Classics at School during his absence, perhaps his father and later his elder brother covered for him, but he served as Latin Master for the next 30 years until 1792. In 1774 the need for a New House was recognised by the School Governors and this elegant style building was commissioned in order to house the boarders and Peter Burford’s growing family. £200 was raised on a life annuity for Mrs Cazalets, wife of one of the Governors, with the Headmaster paying part of the sum annually. As she lived a very long life this payment proved to be an unexpected strain on School’s resources. School flourished in this Georgian period. James and Horace SMITH came as pupils. Their ‘Rejected Addresses’ and Horace’s novels became famous.
Horace Smith O.C. 1787-91
William COTTON O.C. 1795 became Governor of the Bank of England 20
Charles and Walter BURRELL became M.P’s for Sussex and William John BURFORD (Peter Burford’s son) obtained his D>D> at Christ’s College and later became Head himself.
Sir Charles Burrell O.C. 1787
Horace Smith described Burford as dignified and kindly, ‘honoured’ is a word he uses. James Smith seems to have enjoyed mimicking the Head. Caught in the act he was reprimanded, but not caned. We have in the archives copies of letters written between 1788-96, which were discovered in St Mary’s Church, from boys describing their schooldays here. Peter Burford resigned in 1792. He died in 1794. ELIZABETH BURFORD. After the early death of John Burford the Mastership of the English School was given to John Vickery, who had married George Burford’s daughter Elizabeth in 1669. He was widowed just 2 months later. Between 1777 and 1815 he brought order to the somewhat ill disciplined ‘English section of School’. His fine handwriting in the Parish Records remains to show his scholarship and he helped to steer the Latin section of School through no fewer than EIGHT Headmasterships, one of whom was the notorious Edwards (who closed the school and ran the King’s Head instead!) and two of whom were his brothers-in-law.
Reverend WILLIAM JOHN BURFORD M.A., D.D. son of Peter Burford, was selected Latin Master in 1813, serving until just before his death in 1850. There seem to have been 30 boys in School in 1813 and later there were some 10 scholars in the Latin School and 67 boys ‘on the foundation’ that is, free pupils in the English section. However after a ‘golden period’ in the 1820-30’s School seems to have deteriorated, there being only one boy here in 1840 – John ELCE. After John Vickery died a new English Master E M Adams had problems in keeping order and became subject to litigation in the Adams/Miller flogging case. William Burford’s failing health gradually became a problem until his retirement and death in 1850. However during his years here he had held the incumbency of Tottington, had supported three new English Schoolmasters, and produced, with governors, a NEW scheme of Management which eventually resulted in the separation of the English and Latin Schools and was the foundation of School as it is today. He encouraged many lively and clever pupils, among them the Caswall’s (Edward Caswall is the noted Hymn writer), the Pelly’s, the Powell’s (Nathaniel Powell later became a governor for some 50 years) and Charles Goodhart (whose grandson became a hero of the First World War). William Burford’s comments in his copy of the Ordinances are humorous . His portrait shows that humour. Of his sons, William was ordained and worked in Madras, John became a solicitor and Arthur a banker. His grandson B S de W Siffken attended School from 1894-1900, gained his degree at Magdalene and later taught at Bancroft’s and St Dunstan’s schools where he endowed a scholarship. We owe a hundred and twenty years of our history to our BURFORD family whose dedication, scholarship, hard work… and humour helped to make the foundations of School as it is today.
School’s many historical buildings
Harsnetts This timber framed house, built in the late 16th century was purchased for School in 1627 by Archbishop Harsnett for £141 from John Pennington. It had been occupied by Alexander Stowell, a glove-maker and part of the orchard and land sublet to the Blacksmith, William Knight. It still has its original well in the basement. The Deeds note that the house is next to the White Hart, the old name for the King’s Head, renamed for the martyr King Charles I. Harsnetts first use was as home for Headmaster Mease, appointed in 1623 and later as an elementary school for the boys from the village. Extended in 1870, 1896 and 1906 it became home to the boarders. Several O.C’s remembered 3 weeks of frustration there, in 1924, with chickenpox. In 1907 many had scarlet fever and were in isolation. The rest of School went temporarily to Luctons, a house in Loughton. Letters in the Archives hold memories of Mr Cobb, of Arnold Simpkins and his wife ‘the beauty of Chigwell’, of Mr Adams who died suddenly after a Christmas meal with Headmaster Swallow, and of Mr Escolme who died there also and 23
of Arnold Fellows ‘A.E.F’ who sturdily survived and of Rev Grant and Mary with their baby Pamela who made a pretty garden there in the 1920’s. Latterly Paul Bowden and then the Chaplains have lived there. Now it returns to life as a Boarders’ House again. The White House Bought for School in 2006 the White House is an 18th century weather boarded, timber framed house. As ‘Radley’s Cottage’ it had been a builder’s business and yard for many years. In 1901 Thomas Dawkins, a tailor, lived next door and ‘Carpenter’ Gibson the other side. Chigwell in 1901 was still a thriving self-contained village with farmers, bakery, laundry, haberdashers and coaching Inn. The Census shows stablemen, gardeners, nursemaids and footmen as well as a Surgeon and many craftsmen. The White House is now the Chaplain’s home. Grange Court Is on the site of a very early house (King Harold had a Hall nearby in Roding Lane) and was in the 15th century called ‘Ringleys’. In 1774 the present beautiful house was built on this site. Hatchments in St Mary’s Church show the Urmston family living there. In 1841 William Maitland, J.P. Deputy Lieutenant for Essex had a big family and many servants there and in 1861 William Earle kept it as a School with more scholars than we had at Chigwell. The Census of 1871 shows just a gardener in residence, everyone else being away. In 1881 Bernard Brodhurst lived there. In 1915 the Hon Sir Charles Baring of Barings Bank purchased the house and had it refurbished by Sir Edwin Lutyens. It has long Georgian windows and painted cornices.
The Lyle family, of Tate and Lyle sugar, held it until 1940 when it was purchased by the Argent family. During World War II it was requisitioned by the Irish Fusiliers. Grange Court was purchased by School in 1948 as a memorial to all the Old Chigwellians who had died in action in the war. Since then it has been used as a Boarders’ House and for classrooms. Church House The central part of this house is possibly Tudor. It has been built about with 18th and 19th century extensions. The porch fanlight is Georgian. The house is mentioned in the deed of purchase for School in 1619. In 1790 Headmaster Peter Burford rented Church House field for his boys. James Smith O.C. 1785 writes in his poems of Dr Robert Denham, a Governor, ‘Sage Denham, Galen’s son, who deals in squibs of tartar’, living there. In 1813 William Copeland, the Surgeon, living at Church House complained to the governors of Headmaster Edwards who closed the school and ran the Inn instead. The Census shows several physicians lived there. In 1841 Dr George Rowe and family with Henry Howlett an Apothecary and in 1851 George Turner and Charles Morris, surgeons. In 1861 widow Charlotte Woods, her little children and Mary Barrett their nurse and in 1871 Ann and Catherine Howell, school mistresses. In 1876 School purchased Church House (or ‘Rowe House’) from the ‘heirs of Dr Rowe’ and its meadow also. In 1886 part of the front garden was sold for a road widening. There was no road to Buckhurst Hill and fording the river or driving pony and trap around to Woodford was usual. Church House has variously been used as Headmaster Swallow’s library and study, a staff boarding house and classrooms. Mr Venn died there in 1968 and part of the house was accidentally set on fire by a perfumed candle in 2000.
Haylands Built about 1800, a well-proportioned square house with unusual side chimney stacks. A cottage is attached at the rear. In 1861 Thomas Evan, Surgeon and his family, servants and footman occupied it. By 1871 according to the Census his son had been ‘invalided by scarlet fever’. Purchased in 1939, from the Savill family, in Headmaster Walde’s final year, Haylands became the Headmaster’s House. Mr Walde had previously lived in ‘New House’ built 1775 for Headmaster Peter Burford. Part is now called the ‘Burford Room’. During World War II trenches were built in the field and an Anderson shelter in Hayland’s garden. The Headmasters living there later kept ALL the keys of every room and building in School, which meant continual, day long interruptions until Headmaster Wilson, amazed at this practice, changed it. It has now become a proper family home with an outreach of hospitality and quiet counselling. Hainault House Mentioned in the Domesday Record 1086 this old farm house was rebuilt by a Mr Knight. Robert Knight, cashier to the South Seas Company had this house and estate seized when the South Sea’s Bubble burst in 1720 and he fled abroad. His son managed to buy it back again and in 1874 the old house was pulled down and rebuilt in its present Victorian Gothic style of yellow brick and pointed slate roof by another Mr Knight, a partner in Knights Castille Soap. He is remembered by Canon Meredith O.C. 1858-63 (who also remembered coming by stagecoach), as a ‘nice old man who gave us sweet- meats’. Mr Knight is now said to ‘haunt any boys who don’t wash behind their ears’. Purchased by School in 1917 from Emma Rawe’s (or Rowe) family it is used as a Boarders house.
Sandon Lodge There was an old house already on this site in 1777, marked on the Chigwell map. The present house was built in 1870 and called ‘Moire House’. Some dispute over Rights of Way occurred between Charles Sanders the owner and John Bonney who had bought ‘Ecclesiastical land’ from the church and rectory. Sold in 1874 to Charles Clark of Sandown Villas, Putney it was renamed ‘Sandon’. In 1878 Charles Sanders purchased the house and land, and so now had his own ‘Right of Way’. It is advertised with orchard and outbuildings and the ‘cottage houses a groom’. In 1915 Sanders’ widow Laura Ann rented the house to an Insurance Shipping agent Alexander White. In 1924 her son sold the house to School Governor Lieutenant General Sir Francis Lloyd of Rolls Park (who had bought home the fragment of shattered window from Ypres Cathedral after the First World War which is now incorporated in Memorial Chapel’s ‘Holy City’ window). The fund for this purchase came from ‘The Charity known as Chigwell School’ and Sandon Lodge became School’s Sanatorium. In 1973 Mr Coventry the Bursar lived there with his family and now it is the girls’ Boarding House. ‘Bell rope acre’ its meadow, better known as Joan Simpson’s Field used to be rented to School and the rent funded the Church Bells. The School Complex has grown from one ancient house to ½ mile of buildings. In 1619 Archbishop Harsnett bought the old Tudor Guild House and pightle of land for £16 10s from John Wroth of Luxborough Hall. By 1623 Big School had been built. In 1627 Harsnetts was purchased. School was officially founded in 1629.
Building History 1775 New House was built in front Quad for Headmaster Burford. 1868 An ‘English School’ now ‘Dickens Lodge’ was built for elementary teaching. Classics remained in Big School. 1873 An Iron Chapel was erected in the Quad. 1876 Church House was purchased. 1885 The Swimming Pool built, the oldest wooden pool in England. 1911 The Dining Hall was built. 1924 Memorial Chapel replaced the Old Iron Chapel. 80 O.C’s had died in action WWI. Sandon Lodge was bought. 1929 School’s Tercentenary New Hall opened. 1939 Haylands added to School. 1948 Grange Court purchased in memory of the 50 O.C’s who had died in WWII. 1962 Walde Music School built. 1967 Princess Margaret opened the new Gymnasium. 1976 Science Lab and Junior School built. 1978 Big School made into the School Library. Sandon Lodge became the Girls’ Boarding House. The Archive Library begun. The Queen Mother visited the new Art School. 2004 The Drama Theatre was opened by Sophie, Countess of Wessex. 2006 Radley’s was purchased. The All Weather Pitch begun. 2010 A VI form complex planned. 2013 The Pre-Prep School opened.
The Memorial Chapel The ‘YORK’ Window. Designed and made by Gerald Slowman to celebrate the Millennium This window depicts the Arms of the Archbishop of York, Samuel Harsnett, our founder with his Minster.
After the Great War ‘to end all wars’ ended, leaving 79 Old Chigwellians dead, Oswald Darch, Head of School in 1907 and joint editor of the Chigwell Register, later Manager for Shell Oil, instigated with ‘Rex’ Stronge – Head of School in 1914 – a collection in their memory. The first ‘Chapel Meeting’ took place on July 23rd 1918 at Liverpool Street Station in the Great Eastern Hotel, with Lord Lambourne presiding. The first cheque for £50, (remember that a house could be bought for £300 in 1918!) came from ‘somewhere in France. anon’ in memory of Rex Mellers O.C. ‘a topping good soldier’ who had died in 1915 ‘leading his men over the top… bowling hand-grenades as he had bowled on Top Field’. His body had been brought back under fire by his cousin Tom Leman who was himself killed in action in 1916. 30
Those present included Cannon Swallow, Rev Murray, J. Soper and also William Almond Simkins the Second Master as Headmaster Walde was ill at the time. By 1923 such was the depth of grief felt by those who had survived that School was able to build the new Memorial Chapel in their memory. The old Tin Chapel became an extra classroom. Headmaster Walde himself wrote each memorial for the brass plaques, designed the ivy which is carved on the pews, the lamps and made the first altar rug of Flanders poppies.
The APSE Windows on the left of the Altar shows ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’. Designed and made by Reginald Hallward in 1926.
‘Hallward took the theme of the “Pilgrim’s progress” for the windows and by depicting schoolboys as Christian’s companions on his pilgrimage he contextualises Bunyan’s allegory perfectly. In the left hand window Christian starts off on his journey carrying his “burden” on his back as he walks forward, leaving the “City of Destruction” for the “Celestial City”, and face the temptations ahead and schoolboys are depicted as his fellow pilgrims.’ G Lawson 2012.
The APSE Windows on the right of the Altar shows ‘The Holy City’. Designed and made by Reginald Hallward in 1926.
In the right hand window Mr Valiant hands on the sword to one of the schoolboy pilgrims. In the background Hallward depicts the Holy City (“Celestial City”) with myriad angels grouped about it, one blowing a trumpet. In a touch of great poignancy, the “Holy City” window includes a fragment of glass from the ruined Cathedral at Ypres. The fragment was a donation from Sir Francis Lloyd of Rolls Park, who was a school governor and had fought in the Great War. Interesting to note that the then Headmaster E.H.S.Walde had famously told the artist to “strengthen the boys’ knees” (Isaiah 35:3 – “Strengthen the weak hands and make firm the feeble knees”) The War Memorial Chapel had been dedicated by the Bishop of Chelmsford on the 10th October 1924 and was dedicated to the 79 Old Boys and one Master who had lain down their lives in the Great War and on each side of the altar, plaques record the names of the dead. 12 Headboys were amongst those who died and one Rector lost all three of his sons. Considering that there were only a total of 80 boys attending the school in 1914, one realises how the Great War must have impacted on so many families throughout the land.
Christ Pantocrator The great painted Icon from the Orthodox Church of Cyprus which shows the closed book of Judgement was given in memory of Michael BRANDON 1933-2001. Master 1963-96.
The Tim PRUSS Memorial Window. Timothy David Quin Pruss 1987-2004 O.C.1994-2004.
Designed and made by Michael Clinch. Staff 1995-2006.
‘The Centre panel shows the Christian basis of Tim’s life. He was a chapel acolyte at School. The Chi Rho symbol was taken from the altar frontal and represents Christ. The candle which Tim would have carried is the Light of the World, its rays spread out to the four corners of the world, bringing light and peace. The Left panel roundel contains a tree representing that which has been planted in Tim’s memory. The bottom of the panel represents a Penn’s school tie. Tim was proud to be a member of Penn’s. The Right panel roundel shows the old entrance to the School Library. The shadow is thrown at 4 pm and is the time and place where Tim would wait to be picked up after school. The bottom of the panel shows Tim’s violin.’ M Clinch
The OXLEY Memorial windows Designed and made by Paul Quail 1975 In memory of Brian Linton Oxley 1896-1969. O.C.1930-40. Chair of Governors.
â€˜This shows the Pentecostal outpouring of the Holy Spirit Acts 2. The dove is used as the traditional symbol of the Holy Spirit and the flowing movement crossing the 3 lights is the Pentecostal wind and shows the power of the Divine Being as a restless energy. The seven flames of fire are symbolic of the purifying energy of love and the seven gifts imparted by the Holy Spirit. 1 Corinthians 12.â€™ In memory of Winifred Oxley 1897-1968.
‘The theme of this window is that of the great Wisdom literature in the Bible. In Proverbs 18 Wisdom is compared to a well from which flows a stream in full flood. In the Apocrypha, Ecclesiasticus 24 the beauty and power of Wisdom is shown as a cedar of Lebanon and as a rose bush of Jericho which, in addition to the idea of the growth of wisdom suggests her loveliness and beauty.’ D C L Oxley. *The Eagle Lectern was brought from School’s ‘Old Tin Chapel’ of 1872. *The wooden icon of the Madonna and Child was carved at Oberammergau and given by Mrs Philippa Gibbs in 2001. *The great wooden Cross which is used at Eastertide was made by Martin ‘Chippy’ RAISBECK. Member of staff 1982-88. *The wooden crucifix above the entrance door was carved by Joseph Mayer, Christus of Oberammergau, and given in 1924 by John ffolliat Baker PENOYRE. Master 1895-99. *The Altar Cross and candlesticks were given in memory of David Legg O.C.1945. *The Communion Pyx is given in memory of Charles Kay Chaplain who is buried at St Mary’s.
The Chapel. William Newton 2000.
A Summary of School History – so far
JAMES I and VI 1603-1625. 1619 Archbishop Samuel Harsnett of York- purchased the land and Old Guild School bought for School £16 10s. Latin Master P. MEASE 1623-33. MA BD Jesus, Cambridge. 1624 Tottington Endowment. 1627 Harsnetts bought. Big School built. [20 scholars}. 1629 Foundation of School. English Master R. Willis 1629-33. Gallery for scholars built in St Mary’s Church (dem.1886). 1631 Archbishop Harsnett died. Buried at Chigwell. Latin Master R. Willis 1633-38. English Master D. Hughes 1634-38 Latin Master E. Cotton 1638-59 MA University, Oxford. English Masters W. Morrice 1638-43, N. Spackman 1643-44 J.Snell 1644-1669. COMMONWEALTH 1650-1659. 1655 WILLIAM PENN at School, Founder of Pennsylvania, Quaker. Headmaster Cotton ‘was not of his persuasion’. 1658 A cousin of Headmaster Hewitt executed by Cromwell. CHARLES II 1660-1685. Latin Masters J. Phillips 1659-61, MA Cantab. S. Rymill 1661-75 MA Pembroke, Cambridge. English Master A. Halling 1669-1727. 38
JAMES II 1685-1689. Latin Master R. Hewitt 1686-7. MA Gonville and Caius, Cambridge. Hewitt was a Royalist, also Headmaster of North Weald Grammar School. Latin Master S. Sampson 1687-1701 BA Queens, Cambridge. WILLIAM AND MARY 1689-1702 1690 Rev. Samuel Dodd, Rector of Chigwell, evicted from his living for refusing to take oath of allegiance to William. Latin Master W. Coyte 1701-2 BA Balliol, Oxford ANNE 1702-14 Latin Master P.Noblett 1704-15 a French Protestant Exile. MA Kings, Cambridge. 1702 Latin School closed. 1713 ‘Prince’ George, Yemesee Indian, at School GEORGE I 1714-27. Latin Masters T. Johnson 1715-18 MA Kings, Cambridge. Expelled by Governors. J. Hutchins 1718-24. English Master J. Shrowsbridge 1727-28. Latin Master J. Sparks 1724-29. GEORGE II 1727-1760 Latin Master C. Brockwell 1729-37. Brockwell spoke against the Dissenters and John Wesley. English Master G. Burford 1728-68. Latin Masters J. Greaves 1737-48, G. Lloyd 1743-62 University, Oxford. GEORGE III 1760-1820. Latin Master P.T. Burford 1762-92 LLB Magdalen C. Cambridge. English Master J. Burford 1768-77. LL.B Magdalen, Cambridge. 1775 New House built. English Master J. Vickery 1777-1815 Latin Master W.J. Carless 1792-94 BA Merton, Oxford. Sir Eliab Harvey, Governor 1788-1830. He captained The Temeraire at the Battle of Trafalgar
1795-1801 William Cotton at School – set fire to Headmaster’s garden, later Governor of the Bank of England. Latin Master J.S. Freeman 1794-1808 MA DD St John’s, Oxford 1797 Governors banking with Drummonds of Charing Cross, also using iron chest. 1804 Edward Stephenson in court for challenging Etien du Cas to a duel (Stephenson was a very small boy!) Latin Masters J. James 1809 MA St John’s, Oxford. T. Layton 1809 MA Trinity, Oxford. R. Naylor 1809-10 Lincoln, Oxford. Latin Master J.Edwards1810-13 Oriel, Oxford. 1810 Edward’s scandal. He closed the school and ran the King’s Head Inn instead. Iron box removed to Vickery’s house. The Copelands and Caswalls at School (Hymn writers). Latin Master W.J. Burford 1813-1850 MA DD Christs, Cambridge. English Master T. Cole 1815-26.
GEORGE IV 1820-30 English Master E.M. Adams 1826-41. Adams v Miller corporal punishment case. WILLIAM IV 1830-37 1834 Forest School built. 1839 [Committee for Education set up. State aid for schools – small grant for buildings]. The James bothers at School, author ‘Rejected addresses’. 40
VICTORIA 1837-1901 1840 John Elce of Chigwell Row was the only boy in the Latin School. Mrs Elce pleaded to the Bishop of London for School to be kept open. English Master T. Collier 1841-65 1841 New Scheme of Management. 1845 Road widened between School and Harsnetts. Latin Master E. S. Crooke 1856-63 BA Pembroke Cambridge. Crooke controversy, flogging of Mumford, Crooke’s resignation. School fields used by farmers. Vicarage built at Tottington. Railway built in 1860 to Woodford. 1856 [Education Department set up. 1858 Oxford and Cambridge examinations]. Latin Master S.B. Roose 1863-68 BA Jesus, Cambridge. English Master W. Basham 1865-67. 1867 New Scheme of Management. English Master W.G. Davies 1867-68. 1868 School divided. Separate English School built in Harsnetts grounds. Big School (for Classical studies) redecorated.
Headmaster H.M. Robinson 1868-76 MA Pembroke, Oxford. 1868 New Headmaster’s study and servants’ hall. 1869 Public meeting and petition to retain teaching of Greek. [Endowed Schools Act]. 1870 [Education Act-School Boards set up]. 1871 Revised scheme of management. 41
1873 Iron Chapel built. Girls Exhibition offered: nb. For girls to attend at a Girls’ School. 1874 Old Hainault House and Stickmers used for boarders. Field opposite Hainault House rented. 1875 First cricket season. Praefect boards set up. 1876 Robinson resigned and took all the boarders away with him. Headmaster R.D. Swallow 1876-1912 MA Corpus Christie, Cambridge. 1876 [Sandon’s Education Act and 1880 Education Act making education compulsory]. 1876 Church House bought. 1877 First reports from Oxford and Cambridge examination board on Chigwell School. Bishop Wordsworth gave School its Motto. ‘Aut viam Inveniam aut faciam’. 1878 Wooden classroom built near old chapel. 1879 First issue of The Chigwellian. Levée formed. 1885 Swimming pool built. First school play. Bancroft’s School moved to Woodford. 1886 New School song. 1887 First official Old Chigwellian dinner held (tradition precedes this date). Gallery in St Mary’s Church removed. 1889 First Gymnasium and Fives Court built. 1892 Governor Colonel Lockwood elected to Parliament. 1893 [Free elementary Education Act]. Corps set up. 1896 Harsnetts used for boarding, it had been rented out. 1899 [Board of Education set up]. EDWARD VII 1901-1910 1902 [Balfour Act]. 1903 New scheme of management approved by Board of Education. Railway loop line built, station at Chigwell 1905 Loan from Essex County Council. New classrooms built at Harsnetts. 1906 [School meals and medical inspection acts]. 1907 New Dining Hall, woodwork room and drainage. 1909 New Scholarships for Boys. Harsnett and House Scholarships. New scheme of management. Free places. Prep School. Register compiled by O.W.Darch. 42
GEORGE V 1910-1936. Headmaster E.H. Stewart Walde 1912-39 MA Hertford, Oxford. 1912 Board of Education Inspection Report. St Mary’s Church cleaned by Vacuum cleaner for £50. 1914-18 World War I. 400 Old Chigwellians serving. 79 were killed equalling the number at School in 1900. 1914 Tuck shop built. Lower Field bought. 1918 [Fisher Education Act]. 1919 [Burnham Committee – Secondary education to be available to all children]. 1920 [Superannuation for teachers]. 1924 Memorial Chapel built. Big School had a new roof and floor. 1926 [Hadow report]. 1927 Sandon Lodge built. 1929 Tercentenary celebrations. New Hall built. Cottage, Armoury and Pavilion built. 1932 Fives Court built.
EDWARD VIII 1936. GEORGE VI 1936-52. 1936 Extensions. Tin Chapel demolished. 1937 Swallow Library. 1938 [Spens report]. 1939 Haylands leased. 1939-45 World War II.
1940 Battle of Britain. Balloon Barrage along the River Roding. Blitz. Evacuations. School stayed at Chigwell. Trenches dug in playing fields. Air raid shelters built at Haylands. 1943 Censorship of Press – instructions to Chigwell. [Norwood Report on Education]. 1944 Masonic Lodge set up for Old Chigwellians. [Butler Education Act. Ministry of Education]. 1945 MP Winston Churchill visits Chigwell village. [Direct grants controversy]. During World War II 50 Old Chigwellians killed in action. 80 Civilians killed by bombing [40 at Prince of Wales, Manor Road on April 19th 1941]. 694 High explosive bombs, 34 Phosphorus bombs, 14,000 Incendiaries, 22 Flying bombs and 45 Oil bombs were dropped in the area. During the same period Chigwell School obtained 9 Open Scholarships and awards to Universities. Headmaster D.H. Thompson 1947-71 MA Merton, Oxford. 1949-50 Grange Court purchased in memory of those lost in World War II. 1952 New classrooms built. Grange Farm opened. 1953 Field Marshall Montgomery’s visit. 1955 [Duke of Edinburgh Awards]. 1956 New classroom added to Centenary Hall. 1958 Science Laboratory built. 1959 [Crowther report. Beloc report on Education]. 1960 Godfrey Stott’s ‘History of Chigwell School’ published. 1961-2 Gymnasium built 1962 Walde Music School built. Pool at Grange Court 1963 [End of Direct Grant to Chigwell School]. [Newsom/Robbins reports. Department of Education and Science set up. C.S.E. established]. 1967 Princess Margaret’s visit.
QUEEN ELIZABETH II 1952 to date. Headmaster B.J. Wilson 1971-89 MA Jesus, Oxford. 1972 Swimming Pool heated. First Summer Ball. Dining arrangements changed to cafeteria system. 1973 First resident Bursar at Sandon Lodge. Sanatorium moved to Grange Court. Old Gymnasium converted to changing rooms. Extension to Science School. Biology. CORPS closed. Day boy teas. School leaving age raised to 16. [450 scholars]. 1975 First intake of Girls into Sixth Form. Scholarships increased to six. 1976 First girl boarders at Sandon Lodge. School Shop opened. Paperback bookshop established. Car engine workshop. School house changeover to New House System. End of praefects. School House renovated. Grange Court senior boarding house renovated. New Junior School built. Music Scholarships 1978 Pews installed in Chapel. Big School converted into New Library. School Archives collected and catalogued. 1979 350th Jubilee of School. Junior School extension. New Library opened. Foundation of New Art School. 1981 HM The Queen Mother’s Visit to School. Practical Arts Centre opened. Common Market legislation. 1984 All-weather sports area. National Curriculum. 1985 Computer Laboratory. 1987 New classrooms. Old English School sold for private residence. Howard Essay Competition. [Tom Howard governor]. 1988 Barker Room, O.C’s Pavilion. 1989 Sports Hall under construction. Headmaster A.R.M. Little 1989-1996 MA Corpus Christi, Cambridge. 1989 611 pupils, 50 full time staff. Archives moved to Pavilion. 1990 Sports Hall completion. Eastern European Students into VIth form. 1992 Gordon Browning Bequest – new complex. O.C. 1920-27. [Maastricht Treaty]. 1996 The Thompson Building. Comets first visit to School Headmaster D.F. Gibbs 1996-2007 BA Durham/Emmanuel, Cambridge. 45
1997 Kirovograd Scholarships. 1st intake of Girls to Junior School. Headmaster’s visit to Penn Charter School, Philadelphia. 1998 Science Laboratory extended. 1st Penn Fellow from Philadelphia. 1999 School open for National Heritage Day. End of Saturday School. Sydenham Register compiled. 2000 Exhibition of School History from the Archives. Film made of School History. ‘Buds of Virtue’ D.K. Ballance published. 2004 Drama Centre built. Opened by The Countess of Wessex. Archives moved to Harsnetts. 2005 School becomes Incorporated. Chaplain moved to Harsnetts. Radleys Cottage purchased. 2006 New Management Scheme. New Constitution for O.C’s. Arnold Fellows Scholarship set up. Harsnetts Symposium. 2007 Tim Pruss Memorial Award instituted. Williams Project set up [O.C. Professor Sir Bernard Williams]. Scouting Jamboree – exhibition. Headmaster M. Punt 2007 to date. St Peters, Oxford. MSc Imperial College. 2008 New Junior School classrooms. Bursary Fund established. Assemblies held at Mid-Day. All weather pitch opened. 2009 Risham Saroa memorial. VIth Form complex begun. 2010 Boarders moving to Harsnetts and Church House. Archive Library to Grange Court. Chaplain moved to Radley’s. Departments changing areas. New Dining arrangements. New Kitchens. [800 scholars, 100 fulltime staff]. 2013 The Pre-prep School opened.
Labuntur anni, sed manebit omnis amicitiae voluptas.
Illustrations not detailed in the text: Page 7-12
Portraits of William Penn and the Indian Chiefs from ‘Remember William Penn’ by the Pennsylvania Society. 13 Admiral Sir Eliab Harvey from a portrait in the British museum discovered by Godfrey Stott. 20-2 Headmaster Burford’s pupils taken from Godfrey Stott ‘A History of Chigwell School 1960 Cowell. Courtesy of the British Museum. 23 Aerial view of School in Headmaster Little’s records. c 1990. 37 School in the late 18th century showing New House. anon. A framed engraving lately displayed in the Headmaster’s office. 39 Front Quad 1947, pen and ink drawing by William Finch. Art Master at School. 1946-50. 40 ‘Owen’s School’ drawing by Octavius Dixie Deacon 1886 from ‘Life and Art of Octavius Dixie Deacon’ by Chris Pond and Richard Morris, 2010 Alderton Press. 42 Chigwell School 1929. A poster used during School’s Tercentenary celebrations. 46 Mr Jopson and Paul Walde on Front Porch, from Fred Barker’s Album, O.C. 1924-34. 29-35 Chapel photographs taken by Rev. John Delfgou 2013. 18 & 27 Watercolour illustrations by M F Delfgou. Cover The Old Mitre is used in Headmaster Swallow’s publications.
Chigwell School History.