Page 1

in of from


project by

Lauren Diaz Sowmya Mahesh Bernardo Dias Chiaki Yatsui

15.3.2013


index. fragments

1 1st term individual project

Chiaki Yatsui Sowmya Mahesh Lauren Diaz Bernard Dias

aggregation

2 6 8 12

17 2nd term team work

19 1. Design process 28 2. Fusion 3: from Component to Design 36 46 5. Real Scale 48

making

3D printer

1: Assembly process 2: Fused deposition Modeling 3: Material 4: Scale suitable for machine

53

54

Joints

1: Clipping study 2: Glue test 3D printer

interlocking

64 72

1: Error typology 2: Error1-28

82 110

Possible design outcome

129

transformation Material study/ Casting

no.4. Cement Final idea

166 172 174 182 219

Final design subject L & XL senario

225 237

no 1. Bio resin no.2. Wax, Oilbased Clay


1: Chiaki Yatsui

Basic geometry

Fiber basic Y shape model

Geometry output

Different densities were studied by reducing the size of the connection and widening surfaces.

Speculation on possible scenario

2 - fragment


reveled to be light and strong enough for the weightless design purpose.

fragment - 3


4 - fragment


fragment - 5


2: Sowmya Mahesh

Basic geometry

Table scenario

Big scenario

6 - fragment


fragment - 7


3: Lauren Diaz

Basic geometry

Geometry output

Unfolded mold

Melted wax

8 - fragment


Melted wax section perspective.

fragment - 9


Urban scenario

10 - fragment


fragment - 11


4: Bernard Dias

Mock ups

12 - fragment


fragment - 13


14 - fragment


fragment - 15


16 - aggregation


aggregation “...If more than one designer/craftsman is responsible for the work as a whole then it is plausible that their conversation will be visible in the work, and enhance the internal “conversation” ... This approach leads us to consider the twin ideas of themes and seams being strategies of dealing with boundaries between the works of the different designers who are working together. Are there traditions that might guide us? Like Ruskin and William Morris we may need to return to the medieval for our inspiration. But we could also look to the role that improvisation plays Protocols of improvisation in time-based group work and the understanding of commonlanguages. Less is known about group improvisation to give a compound result in three_dimensional spaces...” Manufacturing the bespoke - AD Reader, Stephen Gage

2nd term

1: Design process 1.1: primitive 1.2: aggregation 1.3: scenario 2: Fusion 3: from Component to Design 3.1: furniture 3.2: splitting component 3.2.1: furniture

5: real scale

aggregation - 17


18 - aggregation


1. Design process 1.1 : Primitive

option 1

option 2

option 3

option 4

aggregation - 19


Design process 1.2 : Aggregation option 1: Bernardo Dias

Aggregation process 1

Component development

20 - aggregation


Aggregation process 2

Component development

aggregation - 21


22 - aggregation


Richard Deacon

aggregation - 23


Design process 1.3 : Scenario option 3: Lauren Diaz

Aggregation experiment

Component I

24 - aggregation

Component II

Aggregation


Primitive...

...Component

aggregation - 25


26 - aggregation


aggregation - 27


2. Fusion

Mixing chunky and branch component

28 - aggregation


aggregation - 29


30 - aggregation


aggregation - 31


32 - aggregation


aggregation - 33


34 - aggregation


aggregation - 35


3. From Component to design 3.1: furniture

36 - aggregation


aggregation - 37


Splitting Component 3.2

38 - aggregation


aggregation - 39


Splitting Component 3.2.1: furniture

40 - aggregation


aggregation - 41


42 - aggregation


aggregation - 43


44 - aggregation


aggregation - 45


4. Final design approach

46 - aggregation


aggregation - 47


5. Real Scale Stage 1 : 100%

(400mm x 400mm)

Pattern for Component 1

Pattern for Component type 2

48 - aggregation


0

100

200mm

Component type 1: branch

0

100

200mm

Component type 2: Chunk

aggregation - 49


50 - making


making “...In a similar vein to the DIY ethos of the 3d printer, the studies were used as the means to develop and explore the creation of unique digital modelling tools with custom graphic user interfaces. Using open source, and widely available libraries, the tools were able to simulate and predict material successes and failures within an acceptable tolerance given the scope of the project. The software and hardware are not meant to replace existing technologies but rather are extensions of the concept of monolithicity in contemporary process. By developing and building our own tools we hope to achieve something closer to what we termed a “monolithic”(or singular process)....” Matter Material Processes In Architectural Production- p207 W.Andrew Atwood, Gail Peter Borden and Michael Meredith

3D printer

1: Assembly process 2: Fused deposition Modeling 3: Material 4: Scale suitable for machine 4.1: scale adjustment

making - 51


52 - making


1:Assembly Process

2: Fused Deposition Modeling

3: Material

Finish texture

1st PLA

2nd PLA

less warping

making - 53


4. Scale suitability for machine

54 - making


making - 55


Scale adjustment: 4.1 72% (From stage 1 and stage 2) : Biggest faces down, minimal undercut faces.

Position of components on 3D printer bed.

0

110

Four components combined to form single unit.

56 - making

220mm

Unit split into four components.


Position of components on 3D printer bed.

0

110

Four components combined to form single unit.

220mm

Unit split into four components.

making - 57


Final scale: 4.2

0

58 - making

200

400mm


0

110

220mm

making - 59


0

60 - making

200

400mm


0

110

220mm

making - 61


Joints

62 - making

1: Clipping study 1-2: Physical clipping study 1-3: Final clip idea 2: Glue test 2-2: Final glue descidion


Design process 1: Clipping study

1

4

7

10

2

5

8

11

3

6

9

12

making - 63


Design process 1-2: Physical Clipping study

Preliminaly idea 1 Interlocking Joint material: clay, wire

Preliminaly idea 2 Tie Joint material: clay, wire, plastic zip tie 1: branch to surface

64 - making

2: branch to branch


Preliminaly idea 3 Cap joint material: clay, wire

Preliminaly idea 5 Injection material: PLA(3d print), foam polymethylenepolyphenylisocyanate

making - 65


Preliminaly idea 1 Interlocking Joint material: clay, wire

66 - making


Preliminaly idea 2 Tie Joint material: clay, wire, plastic zip tie

1: branch to surface

2: branch to branch

making - 67


Preliminaly idea 3 Cap joint material: clay, wire

68 - making


making - 69


Elevation 1

Elevation 2

Section

Preliminaly idea 5 Injection material: PLA(3d print), foam polymethylenepolyphenylisocyanate

70 - making


making - 71


Design process 1-3: Final clip idea

Final idea Interlocking Clip material: PLA(3d print)

Clip joint with component

72 - making


making - 73


Design Process 2 : Glue test

VITAL BOND CA THICK

Copydex, Pritt

Z-POXY QUICK-SHOT 5min Epoxy

Hot glue gan / Poly rethane

Glu&Fix

Super Glue, UHU

Component detail: Filing surface before

material: PVA, sand paper

74 - making

after

Clear School Glue


VITAL BOND CA THICK

Z-POXY QUICK-SHOT 5min Epoxy Hot glue gan / Poly rethane Copydex, Pritt Glu&Fix Super Glue, UHU Clear School Glue

making - 75


Design Process 2-2: Final Glue descidion

GORILLA

100%waterproof

MAMMOTH Tape Ever Build

76 - making


Slow drying, strong sticking

Quick stick

making - 77


Clamps used for gluing components together.

78 - making


making - 79


3D print

80 - making

1: Error typology 2: Error1-28


Glossary

Time

Duration of print

Weight

Amount of material consumed

Cost

Price per print

Software

Generates toolpaths; written as gcode

Temp. Layer heightt

Determinate for resolution. smaller layer height, better resolution Amount of material inside a print

Retraction Raft

Wide base used to prevent warping and add stability to a print

Support

Additional material needed to achieve undercut geometry

Wall thickness

Width of vertical print surface

Bottom/Top

Width of horizontal print surface

Contours

Number of surfaces

Speed Material

making - 81


Design process 1: Error typology

hardware

software

geometry design

Common error 1 Material 2 Software, Hardware 82 - making

mechanical

material


making - 83


Error 01

Branch

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

10. jan. 2013 layer height

time

wall thickness

.5mm

50

bottom/ top

.2mm

no

contours

1

raft

no

speed

100 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA gray

43 g

cost

.65 ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

temp

215 C

tation on the printer bed and messy geometry.

Geometry analysis and correction in netfabb

84 - making

.2 mm

weight


Error 02

Red piece

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

11. jan. 2013 time

3hr 30min

weight

46 g

cost

.68 ÂŁ

software

netfabb

temp

215 C

.2 mm

wall thickness

.5mm

40

bottom/ top

.2mm

retraction

no

contours

1

raft

no

speed

90 mm/s

support

yes

material

PLA gray

layer height

Too thiin of upskin and downskin caused by inaccurate settings in netfabb.

making - 85


Error 03

Red base

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

10. jan. 2013 .2 mm

wall thickness .2mm

50

bottom/ top

retraction

no

contours

1

netfabb

raft

no

speed

100 mm/s

215 C

support

no

material

PLA gray

time

20min

weight

2.1 g

cost

.03 ÂŁ

software temp

layer height

.2mm

Too thin of upskin designed in netfabb.

Thin skin and messy support 86 - making


Error 04

Green piece

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

13. jan. 2013 layer height

.2 mm

wall thickness .5mm

60

bottom/ top

.2mm

no

contours

1

raft

no

speed

100 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA gray

time

6hr 20min

weight

24 g

cost

.30 ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

temp

215 C

chosen in netfabb in combination with shape of piece.

making - 87


Error 05

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

Base .2 mm

wall thickness .9mm

90

bottom/ top

.5mm

retraction

no

contours

1

netfabb

raft

no

speed

90 mm/s

215 C

support

no

material

PLA white

time

12min

weight

21g

cost

.3ÂŁ

software temp

layer height

Over oozed material due to cheap PLA and toolpaths created for this component.

88 - making


Error 06

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

Base 02 time

18min

weight

12g

cost

.21 ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

temp

215 C

layer height

.2 mm

wall thickness .9mm

50

bottom/ top

.2mm

no

contours

1

raft

no

speed

90 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA white

Over oozed material due to cheap PLA and toolpaths created for this component.

Layers of a print: contour, downskin,

making - 89


Fan software material mechanical design geometry hardware

layer height

time

5min

weight

6g

cost

.1 ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

temp

215 C

.2 mm

wall thickness .9mm

50

bottom/ top

.2mm

no

contours

1

raft

no

speed

90 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA white

Wrong toolpath settings used for this geometry test.

Thick extrusion and gooey melting

90 - making


Base 03

Error 08

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

layer height

.2 mm

wall thickness .4mm

80

bottom/ top

.5mm

no

contours

1

raft

no

speed

80 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA white

time

34min

weight

5.2g

cost

.08 ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

temp

215 C

Netfabb skipped layers resulted in inconsistent sticking to bed.

Partial success laying the downskin

making - 91


Error 09

Base 04

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

18.feb. 2013 layer height

time weight

wall thickness .4mm

90

bottom/ top

.4mm

cost

.21 ÂŁ

retraction

no

contours

1

software

netfabb

raft

no

speed

90 mm/s

temp

215 C

support

no

material

PLA white

Over oozed material due to cheap PLA and faulty feeding mechanism as well as poor judgment with toolpath settings.

Components of a print- contour, downskin, hatch, upskin

92 - making

.2 mm


Error 10

Orange 01

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

19.feb. 2013 layer height

time

3hr 20min

weight

89g

cost

1.40ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

temp

220 c

.2 mm

wall thickness ..8mm

20

bottom/ top

.4mm

no

contours

1

raft

no

speed

90 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA white

Over oozed material results PLA and Arduino board tripped due to over heating.

Toolpaths generated from software

making - 93


Error 11

Orange 02

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

19.feb. 2013 6hr 33min

weight

89g

cost

1.40ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

raft

temp

220 C

support

cheap PLA and warping due to unheated bed and/or cheap PLA.

Tape to hold the corners down

94 - making

layer height

time

.15 mm

wall thickness .8mm bottom/ top

.4mm

no

contours

2

no

speed

90 mm/s

no

material

PLA white


Error 12

Orange 03

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

19.feb. 2013 layer height

time

.15mm

wall thickness .9mm

weight

89g

20

bottom/ top

.5mm

cost

1.40 ÂŁ

retraction

no

contours

2

software

netfabb

raft

no

speed

60 mm/s

temp

225 c

support

no

material

PLA white

cheap PLA and unheated bed. Corner needed extra support.

Oozey layers and warping

making - 95


Error 13

Red 01

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

21.feb. 2013 time

22min

weight

14g

cost

.06 ÂŁ

software

netfabb

temp

215 C

due to feeding mechanism and skipped toolpaths due to miscommunication between netfabb and printer.

Fill 45 degree, 2 layers

96 - making

layer height

.15 mm

wall thickness .8mm

15

bottom/ top

.4mm

retraction

no

contours

1

raft

no

speed

support

no

material

mm/s

PLA white


Error14

Orange 04

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

22.feb. 2013 layer height

time

1hr 20min

weight

25g

cost

.38 ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

temp

235 C

.15mm

wall thickness .8mm

20

bottom/ top

.4mm

no

contours

2

raft

no

speed

100 mm/s

support

yes

material

PLA white

settings used for nearly horizontal surfaces (test).

making - 97


Error 15

Red 02

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

22.feb. 2013 .15 mm

wall thickness .8mm

20

bottom/ top

.4mm

retraction

no

contours

1

netfabb

raft

no

speed

215 c

support

no

material

time

8hr 14 min

weight

83g

cost

1.25ÂŁ

software temp

layer height

Miscommunication between netfabb and printer hardware resulted in dislocated prints. Material warping as well.

Disjointed, layering process revealed

98 - making

mm/s

PLA white


Error 16

Orange 05

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

23.feb. 2013 layer height

time 108g

.15 mm

wall thickness .9mm

10

bottom/ top

.5mm

retraction

no

contours

2

software

netfabb

raft

no

speed

100 mm/s

temp

215 ยงc

support

no

material

PLA white

weight cost

Miscommunication between netfabb and printer hardware resulted in dislocated prints.

Disjointed chaos

making - 99


Green 01 24.feb. 2013

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

layer height

time

42min

weight

5g

cost

.04ÂŁ

retraction

software

netfabb

temp

215 c

.15 mm

wall thickness .8mm

20

bottom/ top

.4mm

no

contours

2

raft

yes

speed

support

no

material

mm/s

PLA white

;TYPE:CUSTOM M92 E865.888000 M109 S220.000000

;Basic settings: Layer height: 0.15 Walls: 0.9 Fill: 15

;Filament cost: Unknown G21 ;metric values G90 ;absolute positioning G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to min endstops G28 Z0 ;move Z to min endstops G92 X0 Y0 Z0 E0 ;reset software position to front/left/z=0.0 G1 Z15.0 F180 G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length G1 F200 E3 G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again ;G1 X100 Y100 F9000 G1 F9000 ;LAYER:0 ;TYPE:SKIRT G1 F2400.0 G1 E4.5 G1 F9000.0

G1 X129.41 Y82.8 E20.9032 G1 X151.682 Y82.8 E21.3616

G1 X130.089 Y84.6 E21.8505 G1 X151.699 Y84.6 E22.2952

G1 X129.41 Y82.8 E20.9032 G1 X151.682 Y82.8 E21.3616

G1 X119.153 Y118.8 E48.8648

G1 X115.391 Y120.6 E48.9969 G1 X119.39 Y121.5 E49.0964 G1 X115.969 Y121.5 E49.1668

G1 X152.934 Y86.4 E23.2434

G1 X103.135 Y104.586

G1 X153.511 Y88.2 E24.1834 G1 X154.128 Y89.1 E24.2059

G1 X65.451 Y112.99

G1 X64.354 Y60.394 E35.5069 G1 X59.891 Y55.931 E35.6368 G1 X60.016 Y55.491 E35.6462

G1 X130.089 Y84.6 E21.8505 G1 X151.699 Y84.6 E22.2952

G1 X152.934 Y86.4 E23.2434

G1 X65.311 Y60.22 E38.266 G1 X60.142 Y55.051 E38.4164

G1 X153.511 Y88.2 E24.1834 G1 X154.128 Y89.1 E24.2059

G1 X61.698 Y116.1

Jumped print due to bad gcode from software communicating with harwarde.

G1 X108.216 Y102.559 E39.8214

G1 X66.268 Y60.046 E41.0662

G1 X148.22 Y91.8 E24.6904 G1 X155.322 Y91.8 E24.8366

G1 X14.221 Y115.2 E52.0829 G1 X14.689 Y114.3 E52.1038

G1 X102.944 Y96.156 E42.4815

G1 X149.863 Y93.6 E25.0205

G1 X60.649 Y114.3 E53.0496 G1 X60.125 Y113.4 F9000.0

G1 X88.439 Y81.085 E43.2902

G1 X148.22 Y91.8 E24.6904 G1 X155.322 Y91.8 E24.8366 G1 X95.068 Y162.044 E6.5602 G1 X149.863 Y93.6 E25.0205

G1 X132.808 Y91.8 E25.4161

G1 X132.128 Y90.0 E25.9836 G1 X131.814 Y89.1 E26.0033 G1 X145.94 Y89.1 E26.294 G1 X143.288 Y90.9 F9000.0 G1 X132.493 Y90.9 F1200.0 E26.5161

G1 X132.808 Y91.8 E25.4161

G1 X60.643 Y53.289 E44.0992 G1 X15.624 Y112.5 E53.996 G1 X45.624 Y112.5 E54.6134 G1 X59.6 Y112.5 E54.901 G1 X32.844 Y111.6 E55.4623

G1 X110.131 Y102.211 E45.4968 G1 X110.61 Y102.124 E45.5068

G1 X132.128 Y90.0 E25.9836 G1 X131.814 Y89.1 E26.0033 G1 X145.94 Y89.1 E26.294 G1 X143.288 Y90.9 F9000.0 G1 X132.493 Y90.9 F1200.0 E26.5161

G1 X144.982 Y40.63 E11.5255

G1 X142.929 Y98.1 F9000.0

G1 X142.929 Y98.1 F9000.0

G1 X149.239 Y96.3 F9000.0

G1 X149.239 Y96.3 F9000.0 G1 X32.905 Y108.0 F9000.0

G1 X14.998 Y105.294 E15.2584

G1 X150.901 Y94.5

G1 X150.901 Y94.5

G92 E0 ;TYPE:SUPPORT G1 X19.835 Y104.4 E58.2655 G1 X20.303 Y103.5 E58.2864 G1 X63.511 Y26.1

G1 X33.536 Y100.8 E59.1213

G1 X152.201 Y100.8 E28.0831 G1 X158.165 Y100.8 E28.2059

G1 X152.201 Y100.8 E28.0831 G1 X158.165 Y100.8 E28.2059

G1 X60.611 Y30.6 E0.9304

G1 X160.1 Y102.6 E28.534

G1 X23.11 Y98.1 E59.8888 G1 X33.811 Y98.1 E60.109

G1 X168.095 Y102.6 E28.6986 G1 X66.028 Y32.4 E1.1161 G1 X59.249 Y32.4 E1.2556

G1 X64.909 Y34.2 E1.4313 G1 X58.183 Y35.1 E1.5891

G1 X24.046 Y96.3 E60.3614 G1 X33.995 Y96.3 E60.5661

G1 X45.982 Y98.1 E61.1919 G1 X36.833 Y98.1 E61.3802 G1 X38.359 Y99.0 E61.4166

G1 X166.468 Y108.0 E29.9541 G1 X156.258 Y108.0 E30.1642

G1 X53.831 Y102.6 E62.5394 G1 X54.355 Y103.5 E62.5609 G1 X41.669 Y103.5 E62.8219 G1 X40.485 Y104.4 E62.8525 G1 X54.88 Y104.4 E63.1488

G1 X80.404 Y39.6 F9000.0

G1 X161.486 Y115.2 E31.8249

G1 X38.561 Y106.2 E63.5242 G1 X55.929 Y106.2 E63.8816

G1 X80.34 Y40.5 E4.5552

G1 X166.344 Y116.1 E31.9462 G1 X162.42 Y116.1 E32.0269

G1 X80.15 Y42.3 E5.1629 G1 X80.085 Y43.2 E5.1815 G1 X65.368 Y44.1 E5.4966

G1 X154.582 Y106.2 E29.6419 G1 X166.468 Y108.0 E29.9541 G1 X156.258 Y108.0 E30.1642 G1 X106.612 Y88.51 E59.0284

G1 X166.868 Y111.6 E31.2959 G1 X166.822 Y112.5 E31.3144 G1 X158.684 Y112.5 E31.4819 G1 X159.618 Y113.4 E31.5086

G1 X81.293 Y31.5 E3.6902

G1 X153.884 Y104.4 E29.0382 G1 X162.316 Y104.4 E29.2118 G1 X162.316 Y104.4

G1 X44.345 Y100.8 E61.8838

G1 X80.913 Y35.1 E2.9108

G1 X81.103 Y33.3 E3.3206 G1 X81.153 Y32.4 E3.3391

G1 X168.095 Y102.6 E28.6986

G1 X105.651 Y90.943 E55.1524

G1 X84.824 Y69.551 F1200.0 E55.9119

G1 X153.884 Y104.4 E29.0382 G1 X162.316 Y104.4 E29.2118 G1 X162.316 Y104.4

G1 X154.582 Y106.2 E29.6419

G1 X160.1 Y102.6 E28.534 G1 X84.05 Y69.908 E54.5262

G1 X161.85 Y100.8 E32.3328 G1 X161.913 Y99.9 E32.3514 G1 X168.964 Y99.9 E32.4965

G1 X105.395 Y85.03 E61.156

G1 X161.486 Y115.2 E31.8249 G1 X166.344 Y116.1 E31.9462 G1 X162.42 Y116.1 E32.0269

G1 X35.883 Y108.9 E65.198 G1 X34.984 Y109.8 E65.2242

G1 X91.016 Y66.691 F1200.0 E64.1005 G1 X91.402 Y66.512 E64.1093

G1 X169.885 Y98.1 E32.8024

G1 X161.85 Y100.8 E32.3328 G1 X161.913 Y99.9 E32.3514 G1 X168.964 Y99.9 E32.4965 G1 X163.011 Y99.0 E32.6495

G1 X163.011 Y99.0 E32.6495

G1 X66.082 Y45.0

G1 X166.868 Y111.6 E31.2959 G1 X166.822 Y112.5 E31.3144 G1 X158.684 Y112.5 E31.4819 G1 X159.618 Y113.4 E31.5086

G1 X22.514 Y121.5 F1200.0 E66.5229 G1 X23.402 Y120.6 E66.5489 G1 X41.986 Y120.6 E66.9314

G1 X169.885 Y98.1 E32.8024

G1 X63.154 Y45.9 E6.1959 G1 X164.626 Y95.4 E33.2592

G1 X164.626 Y95.4 E33.2592

G1 X21.623 Y122.4 F9000.0

G1 X94.111 Y65.261 F1200.0 E66.2638

G1 X165.335 Y93.6 E33.5633 G1 X29.524 Y123.3 F9000.0 G1 X94.885 Y64.904 F1200.0 E66.6035 G1 X39.682 Y129.6 F1200.0 E69.3995 G1 X166.498 Y90.9 E33.8854 G1 X111.341 Y114.3 E48.1658

G1 X48.096 Y134.1 E69.6438 G1 X166.951 Y90.0 E34.1645

G1 X118.989 Y115.2 E48.3333 G1 X119.056 Y116.1 E48.3519 G1 X112.498 Y116.1 E48.4868

G1 X34.516 Y135.9 F9000.0

G1 X35.369 Y135.9 F9000.0 G1 X45.986 Y106.212 F9000.0

G1 X114.234 Y118.8

G1 X68.938 Y54.0 E9.1191 G1 X69.581 Y54.9 E9.1419 G1 X103.429 Y103.429 E68.4559 G1 X193.538 Y82.8 E35.6049 G1 X169.984 Y82.8 E36.0896 G1 X193.635 Y81.9 E36.5903

G1 X24.513 Y95.4 F9000.0 G1 F2400.0 G1 F1200.0 G92 E0 ;TYPE:WALL-OUTER G1 X60.205 Y54.498 G1 X58.424 Y54.0

G1 X193.136 Y85.5 E40.0552

G1 X61.86 Y46.216 G1 F2400.0 G1 E4.5 G1 X61.928 Y46.205 Z0.3 F1200.0 E4.5014

G1 X53.366 Y54.0 E10.4913

G1 X56.432 Y54.9 G1 X58.168 Y54.9 E10.6345 G1 X103.852 Y104.13 E6.6049 G1 X192.454 Y90.0 E41.4232

G1 X192.114 Y91.8 E42.0291 G1 X54.155 Y62.1 F9000.0 G1 X45.804 Y62.1 F1200.0 E11.1141

G1 X44.456 Y63.9 E11.5356 G1 X45.123 Y64.8 E11.5586 G1 X53.301 Y64.8

G1 X191.808 Y93.6 E42.5882 G1 X180.086 Y93.6 E42.8295

G1 X96.683 Y158.914 E11.0905

G1 X191.59 Y95.4 E43.0995 G1 X180.95 Y95.4 E43.3184 G1 X181.481 Y96.3 E43.3399 G1 X191.345 Y96.3 E43.5429 G1 X61.86 Y46.216 E14.0955 ;TYPE:WALL-INNER

G1 X112.86 Y120.214 E85.6128

G1 X49.501 Y66.6 F9000.0 G1 X54.838 Y66.6 F1200.0 E12.0493

G1 X113.885 Y121.805 E88.8849 G1 X114.91 Y123.395 E88.9238

G1 X190.908 Y99.9 E44.3308 G1 X190.664 Y100.8 E44.35 G1 X183.543 Y100.8 E44.4966 G1 X121.69 Y133.314 E16.8825 G1 X58.68 Y53.1 F1200.0 E12.3212 G1 X58.936 Y52.2 E12.3893

G1 X155.899 Y93.6

G1 X99.435 Y108.486 E91.8496 G1 X115.934 Y124.985 E92.3298

G1 X142.344 Y95.4 F1200.0 E44.9465

G1 X59.192 Y51.3 E12.4563 G1 X60.948 Y51.889 F9000.0 G1 X106.185 Y149.398 E20.8885 G1 X93.83 Y65.292

G1 X115.233 Y66.6 F9000.0 G1 X103.593 Y66.6 F1200.0 E13.0402 ;TYPE:FILL G1 X109.598 Y64.8 F9000.0 G1 X121.058 Y132.938 E99.6602

G1 X101.635 Y68.4 F9000.0 G1 X123.686 Y69.3 F9000.0 G1 X101.95 Y69.3 F1200.0 E14.2263

G1 X56.382 Y68.262 E101.5426

G1 X130.882 Y36.9 G1 X124.691 Y36.9 F1200.0 E45.9255 G1 X130.516 Y36.0 E46.0605 G1 X119.802 Y36.9 F9000.0

G1 X69.652 Y58.339 E24.6494 2 G1 X118.625 Y108.0 E46.8583

G1 X61.144 Y51.528 F1200.0 E25.0204

G1 X60.894 Y52.408 F1200.0 E25.8165 G1 X61.019 Y51.968 E25.8259

G1 X103.908 Y103.342 G1 X82.695 Y82.129 F1200.0 E26.8591

G1 X119.646 Y133.222 E109.305 G1 X140.859 Y154.436 E109.9224

G1 X135.689 Y149.831 E111.02

G1 X153.66 Y80.1 E19.3405 G1 X128.416 Y80.1 E19.86 G1 X153.083 Y81.0 E20.3808 G1 X152.389 Y81.9 E20.4042 G1 X129.095 Y81.9 E20.8836

G1 X111.341 Y114.3 E48.1658 G1 X118.989 Y115.2 E48.3333 G1 X119.056 Y116.1 E48.3519 G1 X112.498 Y116.1 E48.4868

G1 X129.41 Y82.8 E20.9032 G1 X151.682 Y82.8 E21.3616 G1 X114.234 Y118.8

G1 X119.395 Y134.103 E115.2044 G1 X140.608 Y155.316 E115.8218

G1 X105.344 Y103.081 E31.5441 G1 X105.823 Y102.994 E31.5541

G1 X92.988 Y108.262 E118.1535

G1 X59.641 Y56.812 E32.8982

G1 X130.089 Y84.6 E21.8505 G1 X151.699 Y84.6 E22.2952 G1 X152.316 Y85.5

G1 X119.145 Y134.984 E121.1024 G1 X140.358 G1 X64.354 Y60.394 E35.5069 G1 X59.891 Y55.931 E35.6368 G1 X60.016 Y55.491 E35.6462

G1 X65.311 Y60.22 E38.266 G1 X60.142 Y55.051 E38.4164

G1 X108.216 Y102.559 E39.8214

G1 X66.268 Y60.046 E41.0662

G1 X102.944 Y96.156 E42.4815

G1 X88.439 Y81.085 E43.2902 G1 X60.643 Y53.289 E44.0992

100 - making

Gcode sample


Error 18

Red 03

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

25.feb. 2013 .2 mm

wall thickness .8mm

20

bottom/ top

.4mm

retraction

no

contours

2

cura

raft

yes

speed

220 c

support

no

material

time

10hr 31min

weight

89g

cost

1.40ÂŁ

software temp

layer height

mm/s

PLA white

Miscommunication between netfabb and printer hardware resulted in dislocated prints. Material warping and gooeyness as well.

Disjointed piece

making - 101


Error 19

Orange 06

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

26.feb. 2013 layer height

time weight

108g

cost

1.90ÂŁ

.15 mm

wall thickness .8mm

20

bottom/ top

.4mm

retraction

no

contours

2

speed

100 mm/s

material

PLA white

software

netfabb

raft

yes

temp

220 c

support

no

Design change to accommodate for warping effect due to an unheated bed and the PLA. Used a thin raft that could be removed

Axon and left view of model

102 - making


Warping effect. combat with removable raft

making - 103


Error 20

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

Green 03 4h4 56 min

layer height

cost

1.10ÂŁ

retraction

no

software

netfabb

raft

yes

temp

220 c

support

no

time weight

.15 mm 15 wall thickness .8mm bottom/ top

.3mm

contours

1

speed material

Split one component into 3 pieces in hopes of no miscommunication for shorter prints between printer and software. Pieces were warped due to unheated bed and PLA.

Before and after ironing test

104 - making

mm/s

PLA white


Post- warp correcting strategy: iron

making - 105


Error 21

Orange 07

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

01.march. 2013 layer height

time

4hr 12min

weight

108g

cost

1.90ÂŁ

retraction

software

cura

temp

220 c

.15 mm

wall thickness .9mm

20

bottom/ top

.5mm

yes

contours

2

raft

yes

speed

80 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA white

Printed successfully but not in the right location.

Geometry/ toolpath view

106 - making


Error 22

Orange 08

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

02.march. 2013 layer height

time

5hr 49min

weight

108g

cost

1.90ÂŁ

retraction

software

cura

temp

223 c

.15 mm

wall thickness .9 mm

20

bottom/ top

.5 mm

yes

contours

2

raft

yes

speed

80 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA white

Printed successfully but not in the right location.

Hollow method looking through bottom

making - 107


Error 23

Green 04

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

02.march. 2013 time

6hr 12min

layer height

weight

.15 mm

wall thickness .9mm

15

bottom/ top

.5mm

cost

.90ÂŁ

retraction

yes

contours

2

software

cura

raft

yes

speed

60 mm/s

temp

220 c

support

no

material

PLA white

Slight warping due to material used otherwise successful print.

Successful piece

108 - making


Cost

Cost

Time

Time PLA

PLA

97g PLA 370 min 1.45ÂŁ

Solid

49g PLA 256 min .74ÂŁ

Hollow

Diagram explains the optimization of the printer achieved through reducing material, cost, and time for each print.

making - 109


Error 24

Blue 01

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

03.march. 2013 time

12hr 10min min

weight

140g

cost

2.10ÂŁ

retraction

software

cura

temp

220 c

layer height

.15 mm

wall thickness .8mm

15

bottom/ top

.5mm

yes

contours

1

raft

yes

speed

65 mm/s

support

yes

material

PLA white

Needed more suport for undercut surfaces in order to be built up smoothly.

Support needed for undercut surfaces

110 - making


Error 25

Green 05

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

03.march. 2013 .15 mm

wall thickness .9mm

12

bottom/ top

.5mm

retraction

yes

contours

1

cura

raft

yes

speed

55 mm/s

220 c

support

no

material

PLA white

time

8hr 6min

weight

134g

cost

2.01ÂŁ

software temp

layer height

Successful print. Minor surface issues to due extruder head scraping the top wall.

Clean connection

making - 111


Error 26

Red 04

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

04.march. 2013 layer height

.15 mm

wall thickness .9mm

15

bottom/ top

.5mm

yes

contours

2

raft

yes

speed

60 mm/s

support

no

material

PLA white

time

9hr 39 min

weight

161g

cost

2.41ÂŁ

retraction

software

cura

temp

220 c

Successful print except for minor surface issues

Second successful piece

112 - making


Branches 01 software material mechanical design geometry hardware

3. March. 2013 layer height

.15 mm

wall thickness .8mm

15

bottom/ top

.5mm

yes

contours

1

raft

yes

speed

65 mm/s

support

yes

material

PLA white

time

12hr 10min

weight

180g

cost

2.30ÂŁ

retraction

software

cura

temp

220 c

rial used.

making - 113


Error 28

Pink Clips

software material mechanical design geometry hardware

18.march. 2013 time

layer height

.15 mm

wall thickness .9mm

9

bottom/ top

.5mm

cost

1.45ÂŁ

retraction

yes

contours

1

software

cura

raft

yes

speed

60 mm/s

support

yes

material

PLA white

temp

Clips to connect pieces

114 - making

6hr 10 min

weight

220 c


making - 115


116 - making


B

A

C D

making - 117


A

118 - making


B

making - 119


C

120 - making


D

making - 121


122 - making


b

a

c

d

making - 123


a

124 - making


b

making - 125


c

126 - making


d

making - 127


interlocking “...Intimate knowledge of how something comes together, that is, the fundamental make-up of material, also provides us with insights on how it can come apart, an examination that is a question of scale. Design decisions may travel back and forth many times before any satisfactory outcome is achieved. To be able to execute even the simplest of operations takes pratice, and experimentation with materials is a direct and immediate way to push design process further. The process should not only include information gathered from what works, errors, mistake and failures can also contain a myriad valuable clus...� LOOP, Guan Lee

6 hours printing,

Possible design outcome average per piece at a ÂŁ2

interlocking - 129


130 - interlocking


interlocking - 131


Understanding scale produces a better design and therefore enhances possible outcomes. A chair has always been a part of a broad scenario. Thus, after realising machine capacity and scale limitations, the design process was changed and adjusted to meet this goal.

132 - interlocking


interlocking - 133


134 - interlocking


interlocking - 135


136 - interlocking


interlocking - 137


138 - interlocking


The Cube, Alberto Giacometti

interlocking - 139


140 - interlocking


interlocking - 141


Speculating on scenarios led to other possible outcomes either a table or cabinet.

142 - interlocking


interlocking - 143


144 - interlocking


interlocking - 145


146 - interlocking


interlocking - 147


148 - interlocking


interlocking - 149


Skull by Alberto Giacometti

150 - interlocking


Star IV by Lynn Chadwick

interlocking - 151


152 - interlocking


Possible design outcome 2

To make the design process more eficient, the components have been changed from massive piece to an hollow design approach.

interlocking - 153


During the design process, creating a hollow piece reduced material consumption and printing time expenditure.

154 - interlocking


interlocking - 155


156 - interlocking


interlocking - 157


transformation “...in this exhibition, all of our models and experiments with materials have been carefully numbered, labelled, and displayed on tables: we are exhibiting an archive, that is, a physical accumulation of documents that we have produced in order to initiate and accelerate mental processes or, on the contrary, to arrest and propel them in another direction. They bear mute and lifeless witness to the considerable energy that we as a group, in varying combinations, have invested over the years in order to set such intellectual processes in motion. In some cases buildings have actually emerged as a result. These archived objects are therefore noting but waste products, since the immaterial, mental processes of understanding, learning and developing always have priority. We have never been interested in producing objects invested with an aura in the nature of an artwork. These objects are not works of art; in this respect, they have something in common with natural history, as explicitly foregrounded by the curators of this exhibition: accumulated archival documents or accumulated bones and fossils - whatever the case, it would all be lifeless waste were it not for the special gaze, the creative, attentive sometimes even loving gaze of the interested beholder who is able to interpret and interrela-te the moulded shapes, grooves, indentations and discoloration. In and among all the waste products, the curaters have cleverly smuggled a few reak works of art, such as a genuine object by Beuys, an original Yves Klein Blue, and a hand-sculpted figures by Giacometti. Are these simply more waste products or does the panoply of archived waste seek to enhance its status by basking in the radiance of a familiar, brand-name aesthetic? Or conversely, are the works of art, as victims of name-recognition, trying for once to escape the tyranny of the white cube, so that they may be seen and appreciated in the new light cast in them by the unusual context? ...� Just Waste, 2002, Herzog & deMeuron

Casting

Because of time consumption to increase production casting started to be adressed as a possibility for the design process.

transformation - 159


160 - transformation


Material study - index

transformation - 161


162 - transformation


Transformation / Casting

Because of time consumption to increase production casting started to be adressed as a possibility for the design process.

transformation - 163


18.Feb.2013 Mould Material

2-part silicone mould. Silicone rubber (part A and Part B)

Mixing ratio 1partA : 1partB Curing time 4 - 6 hours

164 - transformation


transformation - 165


19.Feb.2013 test no.1 Material

Bio resin

Ingredients

Biodur hardener 330 + Biothan bioresin 616 Rssss

Tool used Mixing ratio Curing time Size Weight Cost

clamps, weighing scale 1.5 : 1 5 hours 165x110x75mm 261g ÂŁ5.2

Advantage light-weight Disadvantage High material cost

166 - transformation


transformation - 167


The above image illustrates the rough surfaces of the geometry.

168 - transformation

The above image illustrates clean edges of the geometry.

The above image illustrates bubble formation on the surface due to inconsistent mixing.


transformation - 169


20.Feb.2013 test no.2 Material

Wax , Oilbased Clay

Ingredients

Wax, Oilbased cray, boiled water.

Tool used Curing time Size Weight Cost

Heat gun 2 -3 hours 165x110x75mm 446g ÂŁ3.34

Advantage low cost Disadvantage Breaks easily

170 - transformation


transformation - 171


The above image illustrates opening on the surface for pouring wax.

The above image illustrates clean edges and surface of the geometry.

The above image illustrates multiple layer formation in the component.

The above image illustrates translucency of the material.

172 - transformation


transformation - 173


Foam

21.Feb.2013 test no.3 Material Ingredients Mixing ratio Tool used Curing time Size Weight Cost

1 : 0.26 Clamps 30 seconds 165x110x75mm 87g ÂŁ1.40

Advantage Light-weight, Quick fabrication Disadvantage Less precise joints

174 - transformation


transformation - 175


The above image illustrates the

The above image illustrates the

The above image illustrates patch formation on the surfaces due to improper mixing.

176 - transformation

The above image illustrates the clean edges and surface of the geometry.


transformation - 177


21.Feb.2013 test no. 3.1 Material Ingredients Mixing ratio 1 : 0.26 Tool used Clamps, Weighing scale Curing time 30 seconds Size 195x140x100mm Weight 205g Cost ÂŁ3.32 Advantage Light-weight, Quick fabriation. Disadvantage Less precise joints

178 - transformation


3-3 foam

transformation - 179


the component.

The above image illustrates the location of the joint within the component.

The above image illustrates damaged surface caused during removal of the component from mould.

180 - transformation


transformation - 181


Cement

23.Feb.2013 test no. 4 Material Ingredients

Concrete Cement (Jetcem - Rapid setting sand and cement), Water

Mixing ratio 70% cement , 30% water Curing time 8 hours Size 195x140x100mm Weight 925g Cost ÂŁ 1.53 Advantage Low-cost, Quite strong Disadvantage Heavy-weight, Slow curing time

182 - transformation


transformation - 183


23.Feb.2013 test no. 4.1 Material Analysis of component

184 - transformation

Concrete (24 hours later) Color change, Cracks formed on surface


transformation - 185


2.March.2013 test no. 4.2 Material

Cement

Ingredients

Cement( Pronto - Quick setting cement), Water

Mixing ratio Tool used Curing time Size Weight Cost

70% cement , 30% water stirrer 8 hours 195x140x100mm 871g ÂŁ0.57

Advantage Low-cost, Quite strong Disadvantage Heavy-weight, Slow curing time

186 - transformation


transformation - 187


The above image illustrates formation of air bubbles on the surface.

The above image illustrates formation of cracks on the surface.

The above image illustrates crude edges of the component.

188 - transformation

The above image illustrates well -defined surfaces of the component.

The above image illustrates opening on the surface for casting.


transformation - 189


ber)

Cement

24.Feb.2013 test no. 4.3 Material Ingredients

Cement( Pronto - Quick setting

Mixing ratio Tool used Curing time Size Weight Cost

Stirrer,Weighing scale 8 hours 195x140x100mm 802g ÂŁ0.61

Advantage Fibre increased strength and reduced weight Disadvantage Long curing time.

190 - transformation


transformation - 191


24.Feb.2013 test no. 4.4 Material Ingredients

Cement( Pronto - Quick setting water

Mixing ratio Tool used Curing time Size Weight

192 - transformation

Stirrer, Weighing scale 8 hours 60 x 60 x 30 mm 112g


transformation - 193


24.Feb.2013 test no. 4.5 Material Ingredients

Cement( Pronto - Quick setting cement), Styrofoam balls, Water

Mixing ratio Tool used Curing time Size weight Cost

60% cement , 40% Styrofoam balls Stirrer, Weighing scale 8 hours 195 x 140 x 100mm 815g ÂŁ0.62

Advantage lesser weight. Disadvantage imperfect surfaces and edges.

194 - transformation


transformation - 195


Sample 1 Wight : 45g

Sample 2 Weight : 18g

Sample 3 Weight : 48g

1:1 volume

1:3 volume 55×55×36mm

1:1/3 volume 55×55×39mm

55×55×42mm

24.Feb.2013 test no. 4.6, 4.7, 4.8 Material

Experiment:

Mixture test

Ingredients

Cement( Pronto - Quick setting cement), styrofoam balls, water

Tool used

Stirrer, Weighing scale

196 - transformation


Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

transformation - 197


24.Feb.2013 test no. 4.9 Material

Experiment: Tool used Curing time

198 - transformation

Burner gun 5 min


transformation - 199


The images illustrate the formation of air bubbles and the rough surfaces of the geometry.

The images illustrate clean edges and surface of the geometry.

The images illustrate edges and surface of the geometry - cement test.

The images illustrate edges and surface of the geometry - cement + styrofoam ball test.

The images illustrate edges and surface of the geometry - combustion test.

200 - transformation


transformation - 201


202 - transformation


Matter fusion

Foam and cement powder

transformation - 203


24.Feb.2013 test no. 5.0 Material Ingredients

Cement( Pronto - Quick setting

Part B) Mixing ratio 70% foam, 30% cement Tool used Curing time Size Weight

204 - transformation

stirrer, weighing scale 4 hours 55 x 55 x 65mm 39g


transformation - 205


206 - transformation


Colour

Foam, concrete pigment

transformation - 207


1. March. 2013 test no.3.2, 3.3, 3.4 Material Ingredients Earth pigment- Red Oxide Mixing ratio Tool used Curing time

208 - transformation

1( part A) : 0.26( part B) Stirrer, Weighing scale 30 seconds


foam + red pigment 18g 55×55×55mm

foam + pigment 24g 55×55×85mm

foam + red pigment 13g 55×55×45mm

foam + red + blue pigment 16g 55×55×25mm

transformation - 209


2.March.2013 test no. 3.5 Material Ingredients Earth pigment- Red Oxide Mixing ratio 1( part A) : 0.26( part B) Tool used Stirrer, Weighing scale Curing time 30 seconds Size 195x140x100mm Weight 180g Cost ÂŁ2.90 Advantage Light-weight, Quick fabriation. Disadvantage Less precise joints

210 - transformation


transformation - 211


The above image illustrates surfaces of the component.

The above image illustrates the location of the joint within the component.

The above image illustrates color variation on the surface due to improper mixing.

212 - transformation


transformation - 213


Sample test : 1

24.Feb.2013 test no. 3.6 Material Ingredients Mixing ratio 80% : 20% , 90% : 10% Tool used Curing time

214 - transformation

stirrer, weighing scale 30 seconds

Sample test : 2


Sample test 1

Weight : 61g

Sample test : 2

Weight : 29g

transformation - 215


24.Feb.2013 test no. 5.1 Material Ingredients

Cement( Pronto - Quick setting cement), Black pigment

Mixing ratio 70% : 30% Tool used Curing time Size Weight

216 - transformation

Stirrer, Weighing scale 8 hours 55 x 55 x 65mm 40g


The images illustrate the sample of cement with black pigment.

transformation - 217


218 - transformation


Final casting decision

transformation - 219


Two-part silicon mould used for casting cement compont.

24.Feb.2013

Final idea Material Ingredients

Cement( Pronto - Quick setting cement), Earth Colour

Mixing ratio 98% : 2% Tool used Stirrer, Weighing scale Curing time 8 hours Size 140 x 90 x 120mm weight 701g Cost ÂŁ0.53 Advantage Low cost, Precise near joints Disadvantage Long curing time, Heavy weight

220 - transformation


Component - Cement casting

transformation - 221


24.Feb.2013

Final idea Material Ingredients foam( Part A and Part B) Mixing ratio 70% foam, 30% cement Tool used Stirrer, Weighing scale Curing time 30 seconds Size 160 x 70 x 150mm Weight 130g Cost ÂŁ2.1 Advantage Light-weight Disadvantage Long curing time.

222 - transformation


Component- Foam casting

transformation - 223


224 - transformation


Final design subject

transformation - 225


in

226 - transformation

of

from


in

fragments aggregation

3D printer

Matter fusion

making

from 3D printer

of

Colour

Transformation

transformation - 227


228 - transformation


Final materials

PLA

[rigid] Concrete

Foam

3d print as an object

in

3d print as a mold [rigid]

3d print as a casting

T

“... his diversion, which reroutes our perception of phenomena from the material to the immaterial, is a concept that architecture should appropriate for itself. Using these kind of concepts, we can create more than what we see. And this “more than what we see” is manifest in and through physical context (7)....” THE SINGULAR OBJECTS OF ARCHITECTURE - Jean Nouvel

transformation - 229


230 - transformation


Final model transformation - 231


232 - transformation


transformation - 233


234 - transformation


A

“... t some point, architecture is like poetry: you can provide all the interpretations of the poem you like, but it’s always there. The object is literal in the sense that it is fully exhausted in itself. You no longer wonder about architecture or poetry; you have an object that literally absorbs you, that is perfectly resolved in itself. That’s my way of expressing singularity... (67).....” THE SINGULAR OBJECTS OF ARCHITECTURE -Jean Baudrillard

transformation - 235


236 - transformation


L & XL senario

transformation - 237


238 - transformation


transformation - 239


240 - transformation


transformation - 241


242 - transformation


transformation - 243


244 - transformation


transformation - 245


RC8 Daniel Widrig Lauren Diaz Sowmya Mahesh Bernardo Dias Chiaki Yatsui

in / of / from  

The Bartlett,MArch,GAD 2nd semester work with Bernardo Dias, Lauren Diaz, Sowmya Mahesh under Daniel Widrig supervision