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Improving the recycling rates of cooking oil for biofuel use.

Improving the Recycling Rates of Cooking Oil for Biofuel Use. Major Project Design / Research Report By CHIA-CHIEN YUAN / YUA12367730 13th November 2013 Mdes Service Design Innovation University of the arts london / London College of Communication

C o n ten t s Acknowedge 1.0 Introduction



Report Summary





1.2.1 Personal Premise and Cooperation with a recycled Used Cooking Oil Company


1.2.2 Creating Awareness of Recycled Used Cooking Oil.


1.2.3 Waste Cooking Oil Turned into Biofuel in the UK


1.2.4 Community Participation in Recycling Schemes 1.2.5 Sustainability in Local Business

P.20 P.22

1.2.6 Young People’s Conceptions of the Environment: Recycling



Area of Research



Research Aim


2.0 Research Methods 2.1

Primary Research


2.1.1 Shadow Study with a Proper Oil Driver


2.1.2 Champion Interviews


2.1.3 Observation of Local restaurants and




Secondary Research


2.2.1 News of Serious Clogged Sewer Caused by Used Cooking Oil in London


2.2.2 Mayor of London Encourages Public Transportation in London to Use Biofuel


3.0 Research Findings and Analysis 3.1

Driver Tour



Champion Interview



Local Restaurant Interview



Impact of Setting Collected Container in the Community



School Interview



Research Conclusion


4.0 Design Process 4.1

Concept Generation



Concept Development


4.2.1 Storyboard


4.2.2 Persona


4.2.3 Stakeholder


4.2.4 Competitor Matrix


4.2.5 Prototype



User Testing and Feedback



Design Outcome


5.0 Project Conclusions


Bibliography : [a to z by writer’s last name]


"Once you understand the destruction taking place, unless you do something to change it, even if you never intended to cause such destruction, you become involved in a strategy of tragedy. You can continue to be engaged in that strategy of tragedy, or you can design and implement a strategy of change." (Cradle to Cradle, p.44)

A c k n o w l e d g e m e nt s I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide Dr. Alison Prendiville and Cordula Friedlander for both of their exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this report. The blessing, help and guidance given by them time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to embark. I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Company Proper Oil, for his cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completing this task through various stages. I am obliged to classmates from 2013 MDes Service Design Innovation, for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my assignment. Lastly, I thank almighty, my parents and friends for their constant encouragement without which this assignment would not be possible.


1.0 Introduction 1.1

Report Summary




Area of Research


Research Aim

1.1 Report Summary There are two foci to this project – the first is

develop a system within communities and

to build the connection between

local businesses via a good reward system.

people. The aim is to encourage people to

The Design Process presents the

cooking oil. In addition Proper Oils need to

by the use of Design Methods such as

local schools and communities.

matrixes, visualizations and rough prototyping

This service design project is being

process was employed to solidify design

a company that recycles used cooking oils

target’s rewarding system.

of used cooking oil for Proper oil is from local

To achieve this goal, we used co-design with

people to recycle used cooking oil.

champions of communities. According to

Nowadays, there are various oil recycle

we filmed the recyclable activities to improve

cooking oil in London; it is not uncommon

the particularity of this service is that it offers

new oil for used. Therefore, building up a new

awareness of recycling used cooking oil.

Proper Oils and environmentally conscious become community champions for reusing

conceptualization and development process

develop new business partnerships between

personas, storyboards and competitors

undertaken in conjunction with Proper Oils and turns it into biofuel. The main collection

businesses, buying it in bulk to encourage

to develop the ideas. An iterative design

of primary service touchpoints for different

local restaurants, local schools and current observation of daily life of user experience,

companies undertaking the recycling of used

the collection waste oil at home. In short,

that a recycling oil company may exchange

the “attractive” platform generating people’s

rewarding system between local businesses

and communities is an opportunity for Proper oil.

The goal of this project is provide

mechanisms – to support and enable

individuals and organizations to become

community champions for the recycling of

cooking oil. Through user centered design methods, insights were gathered. The result is for a new opportunity for Proper oil to


1.2 Background

1.2.1 Personal Premise and Cooperation with a recycled Used Cooking Oil Company The initial project proposal arose from

benefits and an economic return. They

oil in the kitchen. Nowadays, there’s a

buying it in bulk to encourage people to

curiosity about how to deal with used cooking

serious problem in London with all the oil and grease that is clogging up the sewers of. London is a multi-cultural city and given the different cooking habits

it is important for

people to be taught how to dispose of used cooking oil at home. Proper Oil wants help in developing such methods and creating

more community champions. To this end, Proper Oil has an unblocking the community

webpage which also gives information on how to become a champion of the community

collected cooking oil from local businesses, recycle their used cooking oil through

their community champion. Proper Oil has a license issued by the Environment Agency to ensure waste carriers comply with environmental regulations as laid

down in The Environment Act 1990. Having accomplished a great deal since its launch,

Proper Oils continues to build on its success

with an exciting new collaborative project to optimize biodiesel production.

and collect points. However, the webpage is

The project began with Proper Oil’s first

to boost the project outcome by developing a

community scheme. They launched the

not particularly appealing and I was hoping sustainable, reward-based model that could offer a new business model for Proper Oil.

Founded by Londoner Stephen Hurton in

meeting about the new unblocking the scheme in March 2013 and less than ten

champions have so far become involved.

The current champions only knew about

2007, Proper Oil is an innovative business venture that set out to prove that working

locally was better and that a sustainable

business could produce both sustainable


Proper Oil via council mail, the website and word of mouth, therefore it is essential to

find more opportunities of promoting the concept of Proper Oil champions. The first

thing that came to my mind was what sort

of reward mechanisms would encourage people to sign-up and become involved? I

had t0 then understand what motivated the current champions and what were the

barriers stopping others. By visualizing the daily practices involving cooked oil, I could understand where the obstacles might lie,

such as finding space to keep the container

and how to deal with the grease and smell. Next, I asked how could I increase the visibility of Proper Oil in order to encourage the community to become involved and discuss the project.

Gaining a deeper

understanding of local business that had

already cooperated with Proper Oil and

why was also important research for this report. To make people aware of the need

to recycle used cooking oil involves raising

awareness of how used cooking oil causes environmental problems and of the benefits of biofuels in the environment.


1.2.2 Creating Awareness of Recycled Used Cooking Oil. The negative effect caused by previous means of getting rid of waste oil at home.

In August 2013, BBC News reported that

the biggest ever “fatberg” had been found in a London sewer, stating that: “Thames

Water says a ‘bus-sized lump’ of food fat mixed with wet wipes formed in drains under London Road in Kingston upon Thames.”

The blockage was discovered after residents

in nearby flats complained that they couldn’t flush their toilets. This shows how household behavior caused a negative impact on the

environment which in turn rebounded on the people. ‘It was so big it damaged the sewer

and repairs have taken up to six weeks.’ [BBC (August 6, 2013)

‘Britain’s biggest “fatberg” removed from London sewer’. (BBC News), 22 October, 2013]

One research has shown that “There are

around 250 million liters of Used Cooking Oil produced in the UK every year. In

the past, the UK has had no collection of

UCO from domestic premises provided by a national body or by a majority of local authorities, and so a high proportion of this

oil is disposed of down the drain or sent


to landfill. DEFRA estimates that 150,000 blockages per year are caused by fat, oil and

grease being poured into the drains, at cost to utility companies of £15 million per annum.

Meanwhile, landfill sites produce 40% of the UK’s methane emissions and 3% of the UK’s

greenhouse gas emissions.” In the past most households drained the used cooking oil into

the sink basin as they were unaware of what that would cause. Since the UK government has become aware of the problem, it has

started to encourage people not to drain the oil into the sink basin and has launched a recycle used cooking oil scheme with councils and local businesses. However, recycling

used cooking oil first needs to change people’s behavior and evoke environmental

awareness. An awareness of recycling waste cooking oil needs to be promoted in the

local community and local schools. People

from many different countries live in London and the easiest way to create awareness is through school education. This would be an

important influence in teaching people how to recycle used cooking oil at home.

Waste to energy

....and energy is created to heat and power to the society

1.2.3 Waste Cooking Oil Turned into Biofuel in the UK Agri Energy is the UK’s largest distributor

have discovered the recycling scheme

and the largest collector of waste cooking

organizations. Proper Oil has been officially

of fresh cooking oil to the catering industry

oil, collecting from over 60,000 catering establishments in the UK It’s Chief Executive, Dick Searle said: “Latest reports from the

Renewable Fuels Agency show that in just over a year, used cooking oil has become the primary fuel source for biofuel used in

UK transport, delivering one third of the volume of biofuel used on Britain’s roads.”

(“Environmental Audit Committee-Green

Economy”, 23 August,

2011. Web 22 October, 2013.) Furthermore, the Mayor of London wants to see 20%

of the 250 million liters of fuel used per

year to run the city’s buses be biodiesel.

(Environmenttimes 22 July 22,2013): ‘Mayor of London wants city’s waste cooking oil to run its bus fleet’. (Environmenttimes, 22 October, 2013]

The news shows the recycling waste cooking oil is a critical issue for the government. The government’s attitude on this issue is

an important key point in assisting Proper Oil in developing more potential community

champions as most of the current champions


through local councils or similar credible

approved by the Environment Agency.

However, one oil company, Olleco, estimates

that 20% of the used cooking oil produced by the UK catering industry is stolen every

year and traded on the black market. Some stolen cooking oil was sold to unsuspecting

processing plants for conversion to biofuel. The development of biofuel is a way of reducing lifecycle carbon emissions by up

to 90% and its widespread use has enabled

the Government to exceed its greenhouse gas savings target in road transport by 5%.

However, it is important that people choose a

credible recycled oil company with a proper legal process of making biofuel.

1.2.4 Community Participation in Recycling Schemes As early as 1918, Mary Parker Follett

in a recycle used cooking oil scheme. We

achieving democratic legitimacy through the

recycling used cooking oil at home is related

(1998, p. 245) proposed a “new method� of development of neighborhood organizations.

"Every neighborhood must be organized;

the neighborhood groups must then be integrated through larger intermediary

will also discuss how creating the habit of to past behavior.

Past Behavior and Habit

groups, into a true state. Neither our

Past behavior tends to predict intentions

administered until representatives from

1979; Ouellette & Wood, 1998; Terry et

cities nor our states can ever be properly

neighborhood groups meet to discuss and

thereby to correlate the needs of all parts of the city, of all parts of the state."

By the late twentieth century, it would appear that Follett’s vision of neighborhood

democracy was beginning to take hold,

as systems for neighborhood democracy were beginning to become established

and organizations for neighborhood consultation developed within many American and European cities. As we know,

the communities in London are governed by

their district councils, so it is vital to have a good relationship with the council if Proper

Oil wants to approach these communities.

How people can be encouraged to become a community champion is something this research will discover. as well as ask what is the incentive for people to become involved


and future behavior (Bentler & Speckart, al., 1999; Conner, Sheeran, Norman, & Armitage, 2000). Nevertheless, the role of

past behavior in the prediction of intentions

and future behavior has continued to attract a great deal of attention from other authors

(e.g. Eagly & Chaiken, 1993; Sutton, 1994;

Conner & Armitage, 1998; Ouellette & Wood, 1998). The extent to which past behavior may be habitual also has implications for the prediction of intentions, and these are discussed below.

Habits are typically construed as learned acts that become automatic responses in specific situations (Triandis, 1977, 1980); repetition of

the behavior is not therefore dependent upon conscious intention to repeat that behavior,

but on stimulus cues (Aarts, Verplanken &

van Knippenberg, 1998). Habits are most easily envisaged as simple routine behaviors,

like how people now know that plastic bottles

need to be recycled. Behaviors that are more

complex but that have become ‘routinized’ may be better described as habitual behavior patterns (Verplanken et al., 1998) The

behavior involves a sequence of actions

and responses and while responses within each phase may be relatively automatic,

some control or thought is required between each phase (Bargh, 1989). Such a model is

appropriate in this report for understanding any habit developed for recycling used

cooking oil: containers for used oil would be retained and stored properly in the kitchen,

at a later stage they would be taken to the recycling barrels of the community or local school. According to Bem’s (1972)

self-perception theory, if people are in the habit of performing a particular behavior, they are likely to assume that they have

intended to do this, and they will therefore hold positive intentions to perform that

behavior in the future. This would explain the strength of the relationship between past behavior and intention. The intention and attraction of recycling oil for people is an

important connection between Proper Oil and households.


1.2.5 Sustainability in Local Business Sustainable development is the means

chips shops and restaurants of various

achieving an identified set of sustainable

similar common cooking methods that are

by which a company progresses towards goals and harnessing competitive advantage. Sustainability developed as a response to

quantitative environmental and economic

data that indicated that current trends

in economic growth were not viable in the long run (Gibson, 2006). The futureoriented nature of sustainable development

involves education and requires community participation. Restaurants are more than

material inputs and outputs, they are a people-oriented industry and building a good reputation is an important part of being a sustainable company.

In today’s political and economic climate,

consumers are more and more frequently demanding sustainable business practices from the restaurants they frequent.

Recycling is often a simple place to start.

In particular, recycling cooking oil into biodiesel can pay multiple dividends by

benefitting the environment. By consuming in an environmentally friendly restaurant, consumers believe they are doing something

good for the environment. Most local

businesses such as kebab shops, fish and


nationalities use deep fryers and other

an excellent source material for biodiesel.

In addition to benefitting the environment by

offsetting petroleum and reducing carbon

emissions, recycling cooking oil into biodiesel

can have a significant positive impact on the local economy.

1.2.6 Young People’s Conceptions of the Environment: Recycling Schools are environments that establish a

series of developmental tasks for children. Therefore, school education is an important

way to build up knowledge of recycling oil at home. Environmental education

in schools is an important strategy in

achieving environmental improvement. However, it needs to be based on children’s understanding of environment rather than

on assumptions of what children know and believe. By developing their knowledge about recycling oil at home, it will also create

awareness among parents. Proper Oil has launched workshops in primary schools and this research seeks to discover the how children’s interest is motivated.

It is also in the interests of the research conducted to discover how to reach more potential community champions who will

cooperate with Proper Oil and how to

maintain a long term relationship with local restaurants now and in the future.


1.3 Area of Research There are three aspects of research in

this report. First of all, various research methodologies have been employed to

understand what local restaurants do and the expectations that. Secondly, we have

interviewed current community champions to understand any difficulty they might face in

being a champion. For this, we visited a local primary school to interview a teacher about how children and parents reacted to the oil

recycling scheme set up at the school. All of this was to help Proper Oil gain greater understanding about their unblocking the

community scheme and how to attract people to become involved.


Local Restaurant Research This part of the study analyses the possibility

of forming connections between the local

community and local restaurants. This

involves investigating the attitudes and expectations of local restaurants regarding

more local restaurants to join this scheme

and maintain their current business partners.

It would seem that a rewards scheme would be a great incentive to attract more local business partners to Proper Oil.

what they might want to do and how they

The Barrier of Champion in the Community

Proper Oil. Most of the local restaurants

The research carried out aimed to resolve

suitable and safe location and understand

they launched the used cooking oil recycling

can connect to the local community through

store the barrels of used cooking oil in a the benefits for both their business and

environment if they recycle the used cooking

oil. As well as creating greater opportunity for their business, the local restaurants

are willing to help various charities and

the local community. Establishing a good

reputation in the community is essential for a local restaurant to make their business sustainable.

The questionnaire showed Proper Oil had several competitors, thus providing a comparison matrix to demonstrate the company’s strengths and weaknesses. The

comparison matrix also demonstrates the opportunities for Proper Oil to establish the

scheme in the community. Finally, Proper Oil has to determine how to both persuade


any difficulties the champion might face when scheme in their community. Initially, the

community champion might face opposite

opinion from members of their community

over concerns of cleanliness in regard to where the barrel was located. Then, there is

the central issue of how people collect the oil at home. According to household interviews,

most do not fry food every day; therefore they might only collect the oil little by little.

The issue to be resolved is how to keep the

oil-free container in the kitchen and what happens when they carry the container to the

community barrel. There are two different types of community, gated and non-gated. In order to follow Environment Agency rules,

the community needs to have suitable place to store the barrel, however as there are oil

thefts by illegal oil companies, the community

play an increasingly dynamic and pivotal

observing a barrel that had been set up in the

However, developing the new business

needs to be gated. We spent some months community and found it was contaminated by

residents’ badly packaged containers. Inside,

without a dividing system, the barrel easily became oily and smelly. We found that an important issue in order for the champion

to encourage people to become involved was to ensure the barrel was in a clean and convenient surrounding.

Involving the Local Primary School Proper Oil has become involved with some

local primary schools in the southwest of London.

Some of the primary schools have Proper Oil educational workshops, but do not

have follow-up assignments. One of the

primary schools recently set up a recycling barrel on its campus and teacher put the

Proper Oil flyer in the parent contact book. After interviewing the primary school, we identified a creative opportunity for a new

business model for Proper Oil which could also link with local businesses and the local

community to recruit potential community champions. The new business model should

role in today’s knowledge-based economies. model through primary school students

requires the careful consideration and

planning. How to attract the interest of the young generation and get them talking about things is an important concern in growing

the connection through the new model. Building up knowledge about recycling oil at home is similar to the launch of recycling

plastic bottles. It is essential to stimulate knowledge about recycling oil at home in

order to establish a continuous activity. There are three main targets we will discuss in this

research to create a new business model for

Proper Oil. Firstly, after the primary school launches the scheme, there needs to be

an added attraction, such as a work sheet. Next, we need to help the school keep the oil secure and safe. Finally, we will discuss

dividing a rewards scheme in the school into

two parts: a competition between different years in the school and a comparison scheme between other schools.

All in all, the three leading targets mentioned above illustrate ways to expand the f

unblocking the community scheme through


an organized rewards scheme. The new

business model will lead to Proper Oil

collecting more barrels and expanding their business.

Case Study- Workshop of Love Food Hate Waste Observing a similar scheme provides great insight for this research. There are various

recycling websites and after analyzing them we found that Love Food Hate Waste, a well-

known and well-organized body, provided

a similar scenario related to our future prototype. Love Food Hate Waste is a related branch of WRAP, which is a UK recycling

organization. Their website teaches people how to reduce food waste at home and they hold regular workshops to teach people how to reduce food waste and how to become

a champion in their community. In the

workshop, they show what happens if people

don’t become involved in this scheme and additionally provide many useful methods

of preserving food at home. It provides

this research with strong evidence that understanding customer needs and providing a service stimulates potential champions.


The information to teach people how to reduce food waste.


1.4 Research Aim

The aim of conducting the research is to explore ways of designing interventions and motivators which prompt householders to engage in the recycle oil scheme with Proper Oil.


2.0 Research Methods 2.1

Primary Research


Secondary Research

2.1 Primary Research

2.1.1 Shadow Study with a Proper Oil Driver After the first meeting with Proper Oil, this

After two extensive journeys with a driver

Oil driver and interviewing community

the important insights derived. The shadow

research began by shadowing a Proper

champions. It also observed local restaurants and communities. For the above research,

information about used cooking oil on the Internet provided essential knowledge.

from Proper Oil, our shadow study organized study with a driver from Proper Oil was

carried out to gather in-depth information on the current service the company provides for their customers. For example, they provide

the lid and flyer for the community. But it is easily ignore by People. It also showed how

the company’s internal structure organized their drivers, such as by providing information

about the local restaurants and the route of the collection as well as points that need

to be considered like opening times and parking spaces of the local restaurants. In

order to provide a more efficient service for

local business, Proper Oil needs to overcome

any difficulties the driver might face during

their journey. However, how the drivers measure and diagnose the quality of the

used oil is vague. Nor does the website make it clear how to distinguish the quality of the

used oil. If the customer knows the method of determining the condition of the used oil, they will better evaluate and trust the company

they are cooperating with. Shadowing

the driver played an important role in this

research and revealed that establishing connections with the local restaurants is both an efficient and valuable method for the business.


2.1.2 Champion Interviews We have interviewed three champions

might cause people to keep away from it.

provided various insights and touch-points

for being a community champion of the

since the start of the project and they have about being a community champion. Firstly,

how are potential champions informed about the recycle used cooking oil at home scheme

in their community. The current champions

However, the most attractive motivation scheme is not just the enthusiasm for being environmentally friendly but also a wellorganized and clean recycling scheme.

found out about the scheme via emails from the council or by word of mouth, there it is

important to have a well-organized system

to establish a good connection between the current champion and other potential champions. Another insight gained was how to maintain an oil-free condition at home or

in the community. From our observation, the place people store the container at home and how they collect the oil in

are the main

issues faced. According to the Environment

Agency, people need to put the containers into the barrel for which Proper Oil has

negotiated S2 exemption status for all the collection sites set up as part of Unblocking

the Community. This requirement, however, might create an oily situation which might reduce community motivation to recycle oil. As we saw in the community studied, the

barrel had been contaminated with badly packaged containers and when the barrel was opened it was smelly and oily, which


If people is first time to set up the scheme in their community, they need to fill out the form of responsibility for collecting vessel. Environment Agency S2 exemption Unblocking the Community (Proper Oils) have ascertained that in order to qualify for Environment Agency S2 exemption for the collection and storage of waste cooking and oils and fats as part of this scheme, the following conditions must apply: • • • • •

The wastes are stored within the container they are brought to the school in and not poured into another container The containers are stored in an area that has secondary containment and a sealed drainage system - this applies as long as the individual sealed tins remain sealed within the 60 litre green collection vessel The storage area is secure, preferably lockable Wastes accepted are only EWC 20 01 25 – ie edible oil and fat only Wastes are limited to 5000 Tonnes per year

For further details, see Advice from London Fire Brigade The storage vessels should be included as part of an overall site fire risk assessment. There are two essential steps to a fire risk assessment – the identification of a particular fire hazard and the minimising of any associated risk to a tolerable level. In terms of fire hazard, waste cooking oils and fats need to be exposed to a significant heat source for extended periods before they will burn, so it is essential that the green collection barrel is not exposed to sources of heat. Ideally it should be kept in a shady area. The green barrel should not be placed anywhere that might constitute an obstruction to a fire exit. For more detailed guidelines, see: Please indicate that you have read these guidelines. Date: Site name:

Name of Community Champion:

2.1.3 Observation of Local restaurants and Community The purpose of this research is to discover

bridges that link the community and local businesses. The observation of local

restaurants along with interviews and

questionnaires allowed us to obtain their various opinions. Most local restaurants

knew about the recycling company through door to door promotion and the regional branches of the London based company.

Analyzing the services that competitors provide on their website is a way for Proper Oil to add to or improve their own service.

Observation of communities was separated into two distinct groups: gated and non-

gated. The Environment Agency requires

communities to have a secure and suitable location to set up the barrel therefore a link between local restaurants, schools and community is another attractive factor to

attract more champions. Another observation of the scheme was carried out in several communities where a container was placed in the kitchen to collect the used cooking

oil. After a month, the container set up scheme showed how the cooking habits of

different cultures affected the unblocking the community scheme.


2.2 Secondary Research

2.2.1 News of Serious Clogged Sewer Caused by Used Cooking Oil in London A list of literatures was consulted to inform

In August 2013, fifteen tons of waste fat,

and analyzing the primary data that was

formed the largest ‘fatberg’ ever found in

and educate the method for understanding

collected. The secondary research offered

evidence that people should be aware of joining a scheme to recycle oil.

grease and sanitary products, which had the UK, was removed from a London sewer. The first awareness of the bus-sized lump of wrongly-flushed festering food waste came when residents in nearby flats complained that they couldn’t flush their toilets. “If they hadn’t discovered it in time, raw sewage

could have started spurting out of manholes

across the whole of Kingston,” Said Thames Water. This incident informs “Homes and businesses need to change their ways of dealing with used cooking oil.”


2.2.2 Mayor of London Encourages Public Transportation in London to Use Biofuel In July, 2013, it was reported that the Mayor

of London wanted to see 20% of the 250 million liters of fuel used per year to run the city’s buses to be biodiesel, and preferably

from locally collected and processed used cooking oil. According to the news, London

produces roughly 44 million liters of cooking

oil per year. The Mayor’s goal is to reduce carbon emissions by 50,000 tons per year.


3.0 Research Findings and Analysis 3.1

Driver Tour


Champion Interview


Local Restaurant Interview


Impact of Setting Collected Container in the Community


School Interview


Research Conclusion

3.0 Research Findings and Analysis The first meeting with Proper Oil was in their

headquarters which is located in White City. Proper Oil has two different sized vans to

collect the barrels. They collect the barrels when the customers either telephones or makes a request via the website. We

observed that the barrels we saw at their in their company were oily and smelly. The

volume of the barrel means it needs a specific and large sized location in the community.


3.1 Driver Tour We experienced two journeys with a Proper Oil driver.

The first was on 7th June, 2013; the first

stop was a first time setting up of a barrel for

unblocking the community. The champion was named Jo and she had more than seven years experience of being her community

champion. For the first time setting up of an

unblocking the community scheme, Proper Oil offers lids and A5 size flyers to the

residents and arranges the barrel in a safe area of the community.

The subsequent stops were at local

restaurants, most of which had adequate

space to store the barrels. Some had a

locked space to avoid stealing by illegal oil

companies. They knew Proper Oil via the website or word of mouth and exchanged the new vegetable oil with them.

The Storage Place (Restaurant)

There were three types of location where the restaurants set up their barrels.



Indoor Normally, the indoor location is below ground level, thus it takes more time and effort for the

driver to collect the barrels. This environment sometimes gets smelly due to lack of air circulation.


Outdoor Less smelly, more dirt on the surface of the

Most of the restaurants had a suitable means

have a roof, therefore, the lid needed to be

could place it in a suitable location in their

barrels. Most of the outdoor spaces did not

of collecting their used waste oil, and they

properly locked on to the barrel.


General garage to store the waste This was the most convenient place for the

driver to collect the barrels, but sometimes, the barrel caused oiliness in the area.

During this journey, there was a unique case

in which a community cleaner collected the oil from the restaurants near the community.

They put the money into their pocket. This

shows Proper Oil’s reward system is not transparent.


The relationship with local council Local council has a depot to catagorize the trash, And it has proper location for the used waste oil.


How to make the information visible?


The difficulty of Driver Route of daily Open time of restaurant Traffic Parking lot



3.2 Champion Interview Jo Location: Her house - The place she puts the oil collection at home is next to the stove. - She has categorized the trash at home. - She has been a community champion for more than 7-8 years. - Good relationship with the neighbors. - Notifies the neighbors via e-mail, public board, flyers and word of mouth. - Gets information by e-mail from the council. - The oil becomes smelly if stored in the container in the kitchen for too long.



3.2 Champion Interview Edward Location: His house - The place he stores the oil collection at home is in the drawer under the stove. - It’s his first time as a community champion. - Does standard garbage separation at home. - Knows about this scheme via his brother. - Some of his neighbors said they didn’t have a container to put used waste oil in. - Because his kitchen has a big window, it was not smelly inside.



3.3 Local Restaurant Interview Location – Bermondsey There are always Fish and Chips shops in each area, therefore there are possible opportunities to involve more local restaurants in the unblocking the community scheme. - Black market - Competitor’s service - The attitude of the local restaurants to the social issue.

3.3 Local Restaurant Questionnaire

1.Name of your Restaurant

5.How did you get to know about your oil collection company?





Local authority

6.Which kind of charity do you want to support? Cancer research

School Others

2.What do you do with your used cooking oil? 7.Do you support your local community (ie. primary schools/youth/community centre)?

YES 3.How often do you recycle used cooking oil?And how many 20litre barrels?

8.Please circle the companies below that you have heard of? Proper oil Services Ltd

Once a week

Once a month Once in six months

4.Who collects the used cooking oil /who contact oil collection company?


Emil oil

Nicolas NC

Bio UK Fuels

Devon Oil Recycling MTB(Midlands)Ltd Safe Oil Systems


Sheffield Ltd

Waste Vegetable Oils We Clean Your Greasetrap Adlerandallan



The Small Firm Alliance A.M. Fuels Safetykleen UK Ltd


Thanks for your help. Chef





Mdes Service Design Innovation Jasmine

Location – Bermondsey / Liverpool Street / East Street The outcome of the questionnaires show that most the local restaurants would like to support local schools, communities & charities. It also shows most of the restaurants have acknowledged the recycling of oil and that the managers have a responsibility of dealing with recycling their used oil.


3.4 Impact of Setting Collected Container in the Community -Cooking Habit in Different Country. Chinese Dishes - No oil left.


Fried Fish Cake - Oil left.


Greek Fried Meat Ball - Oil left.


Norway Fried Fish Ball - Oil left.


3.4 Impact of Setting Collected Container in the Community Previous Community Location – Bermondsey (Southwark Park Rd.) 4 Taiwaneses


Current Community Location – Bermondsey (Jamaica Rd.) 2 Taiwanese 1 Spanish 2 Greek


Student Apartment Location – SPAL(University of the arts London) 8-10 Mixed Country Students


Friend's Apartment Location – Victoria 4 Koreans


Student Apartment Location – Hackney(University of the arts London) 4 Mixed Country Students


Friend's Apartment Location – Canada Water 5 Thais


Find Out The cooking habits in most of the families seldom involved fried food. The cooking habits of different cultures are related to oil collection. There are two types of community: Gated & Non-Gated.


Gated & Non-Gated.


3.5 School Interview The first time the scheme was set up.

How did they find out about the scheme? A representative from Proper Oil contacted the school. How did they inform parents about the scheme? They put a flyer in the parent’s contact book.


The barrel in their school showed the inside of barrel can easily become oily and messy. The community near the school is residential.


3.6 Research Conclusion The three different groups we observed have a close relationship with each other.

Therefore, the project will target parents who might be potential champions in their

community and will link local restaurants to the unblocking the community scheme. By understanding the difficulties parents might face, it is possible to provide solutions.

In order to achieve the project goal, it is

important to make the reward scheme visible

in local restaurants, the community and schools.


4.0 Design Process 4.1

Concept Generation


Concept Development


User Testing and Feedback


Design Outcome-Rewards System

4.1 Concept Generation After lengthy research, it was found that

to help Proper Oil involve more community

important route to lead the pre-service. To

more profit and benefits for the company.

linking the three targets together was the generate the idea of creating a sustainable

service, the book Cradle to Cradle was the inspiration for the prototyping in this project.

There is a concept in this book which influenced this project: Consider the Cherry Tree. (pp. 72-73)

Consider the cherry tree: thousands of blossoms create fruit for birds, humans, and other animals, in order that one pit

might eventually fall onto the ground, take root, and grow. Who would look at the

ground littered with cherry blossoms and

complain, “How inefficient and wasteful!” The tree makes copious blossoms and

fruit without depleting its environment. Once they fall on the ground, their

materials decompose and break down into nutrients that nourish microorganisms,

insects, plants, animals, and soil.

champions in the scheme, which would bring However, the principle of the final outcome in this research was not only about the welfare or interest of Proper Oil, but also being

environmentally friendly and raising social awareness of recycling oil at home. Whereas, the design of prototypes considers reusing

and reducing waste, the material we will

use for the prototypes is recycled paper and the rewards system is based on the original design of the website.

The rewards system is focused on three targets- local restaurant, local community

and local school. By cycling through these

three gears, this project can achieve bigger breakthroughs faster by using insights and

similar needs to inspire high-value conceptual solutions and by extracting strategic intent

from the concepts to recast new business models.

Although the tree actually makes more

Gear one- Local Restaurant: how to get

success in an ecosystem, this abundance

and how to reward current cooperating

of its “product” than it needs for its own

has evolved, to serve rich and varied

more restaurants to choose Proper Oil restaurants.

purposes. In fact, the tree’s fecundity

Gear two- Local Community: where can it

Initially, the main purpose of this project was

to collect the used cooking oil at home and

nourishes just about everything around it.

get the containers for collecting the oil? How


make it less oily and smelly. How to maintain

a clean environment using the barrel in the community.

Gear three- Local School: how to

encourage and teach pupils to ask their parents to collect used cooking oil at home.

How to collect the used cooking oil at home

and make it less oily and smelly and how to transfer the container from home to school. How to maintain a clean environment using the barrel in the school.

The connection between all of the above is how does the rewards system work to attract them to become involved in this scheme?

Building a rewards system can open up new

opportunities, set more dramatic growth strategies and evolve the business model to better seize market opportunities.


4.2 Concept Development

After the concept generation, this project used service design tools to discover the clear and important problems that the three targets might face. Additionally, the feedback of the prototypes leads us to the full concept of the rewards system.


4.2 Concept Development

4.2.1 Storyboard (Champion)

The storyboard helped us realize the

manifestation of every touchpoint and

relationship between the company and the three target users.



4.2 Concept Development 4.2.1 Storyboard (Local Restaurant)

£->Depends on quality & quantity Once a week / Once a month Once two weeks





Once a week Once a month



4.2 Concept Development

4.2.1 Storyboard (Driver)

List of collection



Open Time of Restaurant?



ÂŁ Full



4.2 Concept Development

4.2.1 Storyboard (School Teacher)

Council Proper oil


One month later

One to two


Recycle oil

Parents Contact Book


Parents Contact Book

months later


4.2 Concept Development

4.2.2 Persona

The persona is based on a fictional character

whose profile gathers together the features of an existing social group. It presents social characteristics and their needs,

desires, habits and cultural backgrounds. In

this report, our two personas are potential community champions.

The questions that our target might face. How do the champion notice the scheme? How do the champion communicate with their neighbors? How do the scheme attract the champion? How to encourage people to collect the used oil at home? Parents might need to help children to collect the oil and complete the worksheet. Parent might want to know how to collect the oil and how to bring it to the school. Why do parent want to collect the oil? Where is the adequate way for parent to store the oil at home.


Jennifer Owens 45 years old.

Has three children Jane-19 years John-16years Glan-15years Freelancer

Love cooking

She is passionate about recycling and have over the past 8 years introduced to our

housing block mixed household recycling, food waste recycling.

Olivia James 37 years old.

Has two children Ruby- 6 years John- 8 years Officer

Cooks three or four times a week

She is not familiar with recycling trash. Her husband works in the bank.

They take the children to the primary school depends on their time.


4.2 Concept Development

4.2.3 Stakeholder

According to Business Dictionary, 2007: “Persons, groups or organizations ….have

a direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by

the organization’s actions, objectives and policies.” By a series of research, it can be

mapped out that there are three targets which all connect to the environment issue.

In this project, Proper Oil has credentials

from the Environment Agency. Where as they have environmental credential to get people's

trust. Besides, this stakeholder shows the

important partnership between three targets in this project.


4.2 Concept Development 4.2.4 Competitor Matrix

Today there is not just one oil recycling company and Proper Oil has many

competitors. Analyzing similar types of

companies helps the business better understand its own strengths and

weaknesses. Also, competitive offers can provide new strategies for the company such

as using new media or finding new fields to approach. See Page 92-93


Competitor Matrix



4.2 Concept Development

4.2.5 Prototype

As Tom Kelley’s The Art of Innovation says: “A good prototype don’t just communicate-they persuade.” (p.112) In addition, prototyping can also remind you that sometimes the most obvious, simplest solution is the best.

The purpose of prototype is to attract and

arouse people’s awareness of Proper Oil’s

recycling scheme. We want to obtain three target groups’ reaction to the rewards system. The inspiration for this prototype includes the LoveFoodHateWaste workshop

which provides many tips and methods to

reduce food waste at home. At the end of this workshop, they offered educational material

such as a spaghetti ruler or zipper to remind

and help people store food properly at home. In context of the workshop, one of the prototypes will be an oil-free box that helps people carry their container to the barrel safely and conveniently.


The concept of this film and the paper wrapping for the container is to demonstrate a method of reuse to teach people how to reduce the oily environment at home.

Film about avoiding oily environment in the home.


Paper wrapping of container


4.2 Concept Development

4.2.6 Co-Design

How to communicate with pupils is an

According to the concept of co-design, we

fact that it relates with building a rewarding

concept of a Learning Sheet for pupils is to

important issue when prototyping. Due to the system which is the final outcome.

Therefore, we use the painting activity in the primary school. This activity shows the pupils

develop the concept of a learning sheet. The remind parents to collect the oil at home or encourage them to consume in green-point restaurants. (See Page. 98-101)

are interested in painting and what kind of

rewards they might be interested in when they are involved in this type of scheme.

Please draw the image of used oil.

Please draw the image if you recycle the oil.

2013 Mdes Service Design Innovation Jasmine Yuan


Learning sheet for pupil (Front)



Learning sheet for pupil (Inside)

The Proper Oil might provide the sunflower seed which most of oil in UK were made from the sunflower seed.




Storyboard ( GreenPoint Passport )


4.2 Concept Development

Green-point restaurants sticker

The concept of a sticker for the restaurant

is to encourage more restaurants involving

in this scheme. And it also reminds the restaurants to cooperate with Proper Oil. (See Page. 103-105)




4.2 Concept Development

Oil-Free Box According to

Boxed and Labelled: New Approaches to Packaging Design,

“Folding is a mechanism crucial to some

of the cleverest hybrid packing-products.� Thus, the Oil-Free Box is designed based on the concept of reuse and saving energy. According to the observation, the reasons

that the barrel easily becomes oil is people don't like to hold the oily containers and put

into the oily barrel. Therefore, the concept of oil-free box is to reducetthe oily environment of barrel and transferred process from house to the location of the barrel. (See Page. 107)





The process to dispose your used oil at home Everyday





This box helps you to reduce the oily when you transfer your collection container to the barrel.



Storyboard ( Oil-Free Box )


4.3 User Testing and Feedback In the co-design part, the students

conscience of used oil and the rewards they

might want to get if they collected the used cooking oil. It is important for deciding what

kind of rewards that Proper Oil will supply. Moreover, the primary school teacher also

sdvised that it would be a good idea to change the layout to make it more appealing to the kids. The insights from the interview

and co-design also showed that the children

would be facsinated even on being given/ awarded with the smallest gifts such as stickers or pins. Besides, the year of pupils who might be interested in this learning sheet

is around year 3 to 6. The pupils within year

3 to 6, they are more willing to get involved in this activity.


4.4 Design Outcome-Rewards System

Rewards System

The outcome of this report is the building up of a rewards system on Proper Oil’s website. It is important to reward householders, students and local restaurants for doing the

right thing with their waste oil. Therefore,

we are encouraging Proper Oil to make the rewards system clear and transparent on their website. We believe that reward and

recognition can motivate people to take action.

Rewards could include financial rewards,

e.g. vouchers, donations to charities, cash or

discounts on goods and services. Recognition could, for instance, include student feedback about how much their parents have recycled

or a competition at school in the different years.

Additionally, a prize competition between different schools, communities or local

restaurants could be a stimulus to encourage more people to become involved in this

scheme. However, setting up the prize will

be based on people’s interests and the company’s profits.

This research can only provide the attractive possibility of a prize in the rewards system.




Every 6 months

Every six months, Proper Oil will calculate how much oil they’ve collected from local business, and they will give them the rewarding certification. In the same time, Proper oil will donate the money to the Charity they support.


Every 12 months

Every year, Proper Oil will calculate how much oil they’ve collected from school, and they will give them the rewarding certification. Meanwhile, Proper oil will provide the new vegetable oil to the winner school.


Every 3 months

Every three months, it has the competition between classes of different years. The winner of different years can get a medal to present they are the most environmental friendly class in school.


Rewards System To make the rewards system more visible, it

is better to show the rewards information on

the website to allow people easily involved in this scheme.




5.0 Project Conclusions

5.0 Project Conclusions Through various researches, we obtained many insights and found that a rewards

system is not the only way of attracting more people to become involved in this

scheme. However, the new rewards service can provide people with an experience they

have never had before and it is important to

make it real and tangible. It is inevitable to

use the method of co-design knowing what kind of rewards will attract people to involve in this scheme. There are different attractive

rewards for each group. On the other side, when people experience a working prototype they may react to the performance rather than the abstract concept. The new service is not only a new business module

to reach more potential champions but also

sustain and attract more local restaurants to cooperate with Proper Oil. Connecting to the

local school is the great way to reach more potential champions in the community. This

project is building up the great network with three targets. Ultimately, the new service is

accompanied by a powerful social impact,

such as reducing carbon footprint, cutting

unnecessary local authority resources and being environment friendly. These social impacts display corporate responsibility but

also build up a sustainable and innovative business.



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The End


Improving the recycling rates of cooking oil for biofuel use.  
Improving the recycling rates of cooking oil for biofuel use.  

There are two foci to this project – the first is to build the connection between Proper Oils and environmentally conscious people. The aim...