PANNASASTRA UNIVERSITY OF CAMBODIA
The Organizations and the Functioning of the Buddhist Order of the Kingdom of Cambodia Administrative Law CHHAY Vankosal and PAO Kosal 10/31/2013
Lecturer: TAING Ratana Room: Sroksangkum Thmey Class-time: 5:30-8:30 PM (Tue/Thu)
This paper indicates about the Organizations and the Functioning of the Buddhist Order of the Kingdom of Cambodia consisted of shortly spreading of the Buddhism into Cambodia, classifying the Ranks of the Buddhist Order previously and currently, recruiting and taking responsibility of the Buddhist Orders, processing the Buddhist Administration and finally concluding and recommending.
Contents Acknowledgement..........................................................................................................................................2 I.
Hierarchy of the Buddhist Orders in the Kingdom of Cambodia ...........................................................4 2.1
Ghanak Mahanikaya .................................................................................................................4
Ghanak Dhammayuttanikaya ...................................................................................................5 Appointment, Obligations and Structure of the Buddhist Orders ......................................................5
National Level ..........................................................................................................................6
Sub-national Level ...................................................................................................................7
Therasabha (The Buddhist Assembly) .................................................................................. 10 Organizations and Functioning of the Ministry of Cults and Religions ...........................................11
Central Organ ........................................................................................................................ 12
Local Organ ........................................................................................................................... 15
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Acknowledgement We, junior students of Pannasastra University of Cambodia, would like to be thankful to Professor TAING Ratana, who spends a lot of time either physical and mental performance to teach all students and my group in the Administrative Class in order to absorb a good knowledge, personal experience, incentive participation, and general perspective concerned with Administrative Law both National and International, is helpful and compassionated. Principally, he gave us a noble opportunity to take responsibility for assignment that based on the Organization and the Functioning of the Buddhist Order of the Kingdom of Cambodia. In spite of the gratitude with teacher, we are absolutely grateful with our parents who gave birth, reserved and sent us to school in order to gain knowledge and wisdom, accompanied by four sublime states (loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and tranquility), study material supporting, fee and conscientious carefulness almost of the time are named as pre-guidance, pre-teacher, Brahma and scarified persons of all sons and daughters in the world. Additionally, both of them are honorable by means of hopefulness in sonsâ€™ and daughtersâ€™ mind hereafter. Furthermore, we are appreciated together in team work after we have done what we succeeded like tolerance, admiration, participation, mutuality, and honesty. We are straightforward while researching if we have barriers, we endeavor to negotiate in order to solve. If not, we keep silent and take reliable for individual obligation. Moreover, we got new concepts and experience from team work. In short, we owe in mind with strong inspiration as students, as well as meritorious act that we have fulfilled for long time offer to parents, lecturer, all classmates and living beings in the earth encountering with four blessings of the Buddha such as longevity, colorfulness, happiness and potency forever.
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Introduction The study of Buddhist Order in the Kingdom of Cambodia is a narrow aspect that
indicated about complication based on evolution of the Buddhism in the Khmer society, separation of the Buddhist sec, hierarchy of the Buddhist Order and functioning of the Buddhist Order as well. According to Buddhist scholars mentioned that Buddhism came into Suvanna Bhumi in 3 centuries BC (2500 Buddhist 1957). This era didn’t succinctly explain about Buddhist Order. After then from 1st century until 19th centuries didn’t also have any document which had detailed about Buddhist Order but just only showed the Buddhist Development in those eras (Siv 1972). Additionally, Buddhism appeared again after Khmer society had gotten Independence from Siam. At that time King Ongduong who used to live in Siam and study Buddha’s theory over there considered to establish a current Buddhism in his era at 19th centuries. Especially, he, Ongduong, asked permission from Siam King sends Tripitika in Pali term into Cambodia in 1854, accompanied by two Buddhist Monks who used to learn in Siam came back Udong City in order to control, teach and develop Buddhist Order in Cambodia. King Ongduong appointed both of them as Supreme patriarch; Samdech Tep Tieng governed the Ghanak Mahanikay, and Samdech Koeut Pann governed the Dhammayuttanikay (Harris 2005). On the other hand, hierarchy of the Buddhist Order in this time didn’t define except two Supreme patriarchs. King Norodom issued the Royal decree on October 2, 1881 to organize the Buddhist Structure the same as ancient tradition of his father (King Ongduong). By contrast, he suggest to two high Buddhist Monks to create the hierarchy of the Buddhist Order. Furthermore, Royal decree on November 24, 1904 defined the new monastery must registers as formality (Harris 2005). In this innovation merely expressed on how to establish Buddhist institution, to appoint the Buddhist Order and defied about functioning of the Buddhist Order. More, in reference with Royal Kram No12 N.S issued on February 9, 1943; it provided more detail about the Buddhist Orders (Buddhist Documentary on Recruitment, Heirarchy, Functioning and Duty of High Buddhist Monks of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2006). In short, this paper will clearly explain about hierarchy of the Buddhist Orders, appointment, obligations and structure, Buddhist Assembly and Organization and Functioning of the Ministry of Cults and Religion in the past and in the present. The evolution of the Buddhist Order seemed to be abroad concepts which depended on history, Law and legal regulation will discuss as following:
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Hierarchy of the Buddhist Orders in the Kingdom of Cambodia Since 1855 Buddhist Order of the Kingdom of Cambodia divided into two sects after
King Ongduong brought from Siam. Reasonably, the hierarchies have to separate between Mahanikay and Dhammayuttanikay both previously and currently (Harris 2005). 2.1
In the past, hierarch of the Buddhist Orders categorized four sectors: High Buddhist Monks such as Supreme Patriarch and Chief of Buddhist Monk who can be Samdech was appointed by King. Rajaganak has four positions like First Level of Rajaganak which consisting with eleven ranks, Second Level of Rajaganak which agglomerating with seven ranks, Third Level of Rajaganak which gathering with seven ranks and Fourth Level of Rajaganak which concerning with seven ranks. Additionally, Rank of Thananukram has six levels concluding Preah Palat, Preah Vinaydhara, Preah Dhammadhara, Preah Kro, Preah Dhammakathik and Preah Samuha. These Ranks can be called special ranks. Finally, Rank of Maha didnâ€™t limit a number of levels (Khmer Dictionary 1967). In the middle, the hierarchy of the Buddhist Order changed the system due to the need of the Kingdom of Cambodia. According to Royal Kram No 1 R.P issued on May 26, 1948. Cambodian Buddhist Order recognized as follow: High Buddhist Monks were appointed as Samdech Preah Sangaraja. First Level of Rajaganak has three ranks. Sometimes these ranks can be Samdech, Second Level of Rajaganak has six ranks, Third Level of Rajaganak has six ranks and Fourth Level of Rajagank has twenty ranks (Khmer Dictionary 1967). In the present, the hierarchy of the Buddhist Order has updated as modernization but cannot see legal regulations which concerned with. Contrary, Royal decree of Individual that appointed Samdech Preah Mahasumedhaadhipiti as Samdech Aggamahasangharajadhipiti Samdech Preah Mahasagharaja of the Kingdom of Cambodia (Royal Decree/P.S/0406/200 on appiontment 2006). First Level of Rajaganak has three ranks and has four honorable Buddhist Monks as candidate of Samdech, Second Level of Rajaganak has six ranks, Third Level of Rajaganak has six ranks, and Fourth Level of Rajaganak has twenty ranks. More, in this rank has 83 as honorable ranks of Rajaganak as well (Buddhist Documentary on Recruitment, Heirarchy, Functioning and Duty of High Buddhist Monks of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2006). These databases are prepared by director of Supreme patriarchâ€™s cabinet in Unnalom monastery that is signed by Samdech Preah Uttamcariya CHHOENG Bunchhea.
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Previously, the hierarchy of the Buddhist Orders of the Dhammayutanikay didnâ€™t mention. However, after then this sect was made in reference with Royal Kram No 12 N.S issued on Feburay 9, 1943, and Royal Kram No 1 R.P issued on May 26, 1948. Both of Royal Krams declared on the Hierarchy of the Buddhist Orders of Dhammayuttanikay as following: Supreme patriarch was appointed only one. First Level of Rajaganak has two ranks, Second Level of Rajaganak has three ranks, Third Level of Rajaganak has four ranks and Four Level of Rajaganak has twelve ranks (Khmer Dictionary 1967). Presently, this sect seemed to be inadequate of Buddhist Monk Resources in order to lead a whole institution. According to Buddhist Documentary on Recruitment, Hierarchy, Functioning and Duty of the High Buddhist Monks of the Kingdom of Cambodia defined Supreme Patriarch of Dhammayuttanikay has only one. First Level of Rajaganak has only one, Second Level of Rajaganak has only one, Third Level of Rajaganak has two ranks and Fourth Level of Rajaganak also has two ranks. The importance of this sect was appointed two honorable ranks of Rajaganak to be assistance of Sangharaja.
In spite of Mahanikay,
Dhammayuttanikay has been recognized twenty one hierarchies of Supreme patriarch in order to relate with National Level (Buddhist Documentary on Recruitment, Heirarchy, Functioning and Duty of High Buddhist Monks of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2006).
Appointment, Obligations and Structure of the Buddhist Orders Both sects shall organize an institution and appoint the value Buddhist Monks, who
have high education, became a monk-hood for many year and truism with others. Additionally, Ghana Mahanikay has many Buddhist Monks in own institution from National to International Level. It meant that this sect recognized and clarified own Administration. National Level concluded one Supreme patriarch, three chiefs of high Buddhist Monk, Rajaganaks, and Thananukrams. Sub-national Level consisted of Megan (chief of Capital City and of Provincial Buddhist Monks), as well as four other ranks: Preah Palat, Preah Vinayadhara, Preah Dhammadhara, Preah Samuha and Assistant, Anugan (chief of District Buddhist Monks) consisted of Preah Vinayadhara, Preah Dhammadhara, Preah Samuha and Assistant, and Choa Adhikara (chief of Communal Buddhist Monks) consisted of First Vicechief of Buddhist Monk, Second Vice-chief of Buddhist Monk and Assistant. By the way, Dhammayuttanikay is not similar with Mahanikay but concerned with Supreme patriarch as Preah Sanghaniyak, Rajaganaks, Thananukrams and Maha. Chief of the Capital Buddhist Monks, Chief of Provincial and Communal Buddhist Monks shall be assistance of Supreme. Page | 5
In the National Level both Ghanak Mahanikay and Ghanak Dhammayuthanikay divided into Supreme patriarch has one cabinet gathering First Ranks of Rajaganak, Second Ranks of Rajaganak, Third Ranks of Rajaganak and Fourth Ranks of Rajaganak. Later on this system shall change in reference with Royal decree No 207 N.S/0506 in organization of the Sangha Committee of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Supreme patriarch shall lead a whole National Level, accompanied by three first ranks of formal Rajaganak and three first ranks of rescued Rajaganak. Supreme patriarch was appointed by Royal decree of King, and three others the same. The obligation of Supreme patriarch as following: He shall govern and lead the whole Buddhist Affair both National and International with honor and dignity, signs on Certificate of appointment such as Preah Kru Anugan, Preah Palat, Preah Vinayadhara, Preah Dhammadhara, Preah Samuha and others that concerned with local administration by mean of Ghanak Sanghanayakâ€™s request and agreed by Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Moreover, all appointments or changing the position of Councilor, Honorable Rank of Rajaganak, Thananukram and other positions were relevance Royal decree which shall concerned with request of Chief of the Buddhist Monk and with agreement of Prime Minister (Sangha Pakras on the delegating duty of Supreme patriarch and Chief of the Buddhist Order 2006). The Obligation of chief of the Buddhist Oder as following: He shall perform on duty and obligation of the Supreme Patriarch both National and International Buddhist Affair, can appoint the chief of communal Buddhist Monks, first vice-chief, second vice-chief and assistant of the chief of communal governor, chief of provincial governor and his Buddhist Orders under Ministry of Cults and Religion and shall report to Supreme Patriarch to hear, shall manage the statistic of all monasteries in the Kingdom of Cambodia, shall open the Annual Buddhist Conference, shall examine and check on processing of Buddhist Sector both Administrative Act and Relating Administration. Additionally, he may perform the duty and manage the educational standard from primary to University which is guaranteed on quality and quantity (Sangha Pakras on the delegating duty of Supreme patriarch and Chief of the Buddhist Order 2006). The Obligation of first vice-chief of the Buddhist Orders as following: He shall perform the duty as representative of chief of the Buddhist Order to manage and to lead the Buddhist Affair when chief of the Buddhist Order was absent.
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He shall perform as president of the Buddhist Assembly of the Kingdom of Cambodia and may examine and check on text, document, sermon, book, and press media that were published (Sangha Prakas on delegation the duty of Chief of Buddhist Commitee of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2006). The Obligation of the second vice-chief of the Buddhist Order as following: He shall take responsible for Administration, stamp, legal regulations and make public relationship with Ministry, Department and Organization in the Kingdom of Cambodia both Buddhist and State Affair. Especially, he may manage on the statistic of a number of Buddhist disciples in the Kingdom of Cambodia either annually or few monthly (Sangha Prakas on delegation the duty of Chief of Buddhist Commitee of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2006). The Obligation of the third vice-chief of the Buddhist Order as following: He shall implement the general duties on appointing, changing, examining the Letter of request for ordination, the construction, environment and shrine which are National Heritages, Tradition and Cultures, may perform on appointing sub-national Buddhist Orders (Sangha Prakas on delegation the duty of Chief of Buddhist Commitee of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2006). The Structure of the National Level of Buddhist Orders as following:
Chief of Buddhist Order
First vice-chief of th Buddhist Order
Second vice-chief of the Buddhist Order
Third vice-chief of the Buddhist Order
In the Sub-national Level divided from Megan in Capital and Provincial Level, Anugan from District to Sangkat Level, and Choa Adhikara from communal to village Level. Page | 7
The chief of the Capital and provincial Buddhist Orders were appointed by Sangha Prakas of the Supreme Patriarch concerning Royal Decree of King and the agreement of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia (Buddhist Documentary on Recruitment, Heirarchy, Functioning and Duty of High Buddhist Monks of the Kingdom of Cambodia 2006). Preah Palat, Preah Vinayadhara, Preah Dhammadhara, Preah Samuha were appointed by Sangha Prakas of Supreme Patriarch or Chief of the Buddhist Orders (Preah Sanghanayak) and Assistant of the chief of the Capital and Provincial Buddhist Orders didnâ€™t define on this Prakas. The Obligation of the Capital and Provincial chief of the Buddhist Monks as following: He shall control the whole chief of the district Buddhist Orders, may examine and check on Buddhist Affair under his authority, make the reports on Buddhist Affair to Subnational Level, shall be arbitrator to solve the problems in his authority and territory, upholds the principles of leadership and obligation concerned by legal regulations, makes relationship with chief of the Buddhist Orders in the National Level and also perform the Administrative Act which is possible (Sangha Prakas No 33 K.S.R.V of the Suprem Patriach on Obligation of Village or Communal/Sangkat, District /Khan, and Capital and Provincial Buddhist Order 1993). On the other hand, Preah Palat, Preah Vinayadhara, Preah Dhammadhara, Preah Samuha and Assistants have no legal regulations which defined about Obligations of them. The Structures of the Capital or Provincial Level of the Buddhist Order as following:
The Capital and Provincial Chief of the Buddhsit Monk
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The District chief of the Buddhist Order was appointed by Sangha Prakas of the Supreme Patriarch, was selected by the capital or provincial chief and the agreement of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia (Sangha Pakras on the delegating duty of Supreme patriarch and Chief of the Buddhist Order 2006). The Obligations of the District chief as following: He shall control on the whole chiefs of the communal/sangkat level, may examine and check on Buddhist Affair in his authority, shall report on the Buddhist Affair to the provincial chief, takes responsible for solving the problems in his authority and territory, upholds the principles of leadership and the obligations related by legal regulations, makes relationship with the provincial chief, and also performs the Administrative Act which is possible (Sangha Prakas No 33 K.S.R.V of the Suprem Patriach on Obligation of Village or Communal/Sangkat, District /Khan, and Capital and Provincial Buddhist Order 1993). Additionally, Preah Vinayadhara, Preah Dhammadhara, Preah Samuha and Assistants have no legal regulations that clarified about their obligations. The Structures of the District chief as following:
The District Chief of the Buddhist Monk
The Communal chief of the Buddhist Monk was selected by own disciples both Buddhist monks and householders in commune. And the he was appointed by Sangha Praskas of the Provincial or District chief of the Buddhist Monks concerning the Department of Cults and Religion in province. In this level have four ranks such the communal chief of the Buddhist monk, first vice-chief, second vice-chief and an assistant was appointed the same. Page | 9
The Obligations of the communal chief as following: He shall manage the whole monastery, maintains the immoveable property in the pagoda, upholds the principles of the leadership and was skillful with Bhikkhupatimokha, controls all disciples who stayed in the monastery, makes relationship with householder surrounding own monastery, and also makes relationship with the district chief of the Buddhist monk (Sangha Prakas No 33 K.S.R.V of the Suprem Patriach on Obligation of Village or Communal/Sangkat, District /Khan, and Capital and Provincial Buddhist Order 1993). By contrary, first vice-chief, second vice-chief and assistant have no legal regulation which defined on their obligations. The Structures of the communal chief of the Buddhist Orders:
The communal chief of the Buddhist Monk
Therasabha (The Buddhist Assembly)
This institution had established in order to solve the problems both National Level and International Level which has four levels. For example, communal level is led by the communal chief of the Buddhist monk, district level is led by the district chief of the Buddhist monk who was president of District Council, provincial level is led by the provincial chief the Buddhist monk who was president of the Provincial Council as well as Preah Palat, Preah Vinayadhara, Preah Samuah and Assistant. These levels can be called â€œCourt of First Instanceâ€? of the Buddhist Assembly. By the way, Appeal and Supreme Court was held by high Buddhist monks. Only Supreme Court which has the rights to disrobe the Buddhist monks who committed the serious crime as felony, stealing much more than 5 Masaka etc, was wrong with Buddhist Vinaya. This institution had established in 1942 (Harris 2005).
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In this institution appears again according to request of the Supreme Patriarch of the Kingdom of Cambodia through Sub-decree No576 on establishment the Buddhist Assembly in the Kingdom of Cambodia. It has nine members (Sub-decree No576 on the astablishment of the Buddhist Assembly of the Kingdom of Camobid 2006). -Samdech Preah Dhammalikhitta was a president -Samech Preah Uttammuni was first vice-president -Samdech Preah Vanrat was second vice-president -Samdech Preah Bodhivonsa was third vice-president -Samdech Preah Uttamvansa was secretary -Samdech Preah Uttampanna was member -Samdech Preah Uttamcariya was member -Samdech Preah Munikosala was member -Samdech Preah Sirisammativansa was member. The Obligation of the Buddhist Assembly as following: solve the problems in Buddhist Order, appoint one of members as investigator to find the fact and legality, set up the strategies to order, settle the party of conflict, held the whole of Buddhist Assembly to check and examine the legal enforcement, give justice to conflict party, guarantee on transparency and on accountability on settlement, and fulfill the duty of the Supreme Patriarch who appointed of the Kingdom of Cambodia (Sub-decree No576 on the astablishment of the Buddhist Assembly of the Kingdom of Camobid 2006).
Organizations and Functioning of the Ministry of Cults and Religions The organization and functioning of this institute is created by sub-degree in 2006 in
order to determine all units of ministry of cult and religious affairs to contribute its own mission and divide the roles and duties to director general department and direct of department. Moreover, this institute has obligation to insure their procedure and management of any activities all religions in Cambodia; particularly, there should concentrate Buddhism is the religion of state. Pagodas religion temples research centers religions and all associations which creed character should follow the own belief roles and Cambodian law, on the other hand these are under controlled by ministry. Therefore, this organ strengthens to educational management and integrity Buddhism and other religions to obey the creedâ€™s roles and disciplines; then, this instant shall prepare and organize the monkâ€™s structures exercise to Page | 11
Buddhist principles by cooperate with inter-institutions. In order to improve the human resources, this institution has set the dharma studying program broadcast dharma books news that related to religion which collaborates with inter-organs. Ministry encourages establishing Library to all pagodas in Cambodia for public interest include venerable Buddhist monks and lay people. Otherwise, ministry of cult and religious affair has right to build and insure these sections, they also have partial authority to close or stop any activities or religion posts1 (Religion 2006). 4.1
1. Director General Department of cult This organ has function to control and manage to all cults and other religions sector. Director of department is under controlled and investigated of director general of department of cult. Therefore, there will responsibilities law education in own unit cadre and giving advice to the chief of institution and bring up, publish or announce the information that related to Buddha teaching fields and it make technique inspection on religion areas. For this institution is leading a general director and vice general director as secretary if they are necessary. Director General of department has three departments as following: 1.1
Director of Department of cult
This area is not only charging of organizing, controlling and following to Buddhism which is the state religion, but they teach the Buddhist followers to respect religion discipline properly also. Therefore, it communicates with Royal palace’s cabinet and closely cooperates with both supreme monks’ in the field in order to improve the Buddhist monks’ prestige to carefully practice to the Buddha permission and Buddha rule. Additionally, pagodas where is the religion homage, knowledge publicity and keeping all rules and principles, culture and national tradition. All promotion requests, high ranking of monk, Chief Buddhist monk of a provinces and assembly of monk, organize Buddhism ceremony and national ceremony and make international agreement and cooperation on Buddhism is under controlled by Director of Department of cult. On the other hand, this function charge of guiding to pagoda construction, pull down and move away and exchange. 1.2
Director of Department of distinguishable Religions
There are many parts for this organ play. It supervises religions that ask for build destination in the Kingdom of Cambodia. Those religions must strictly follow their own religion belief agree with Cambodian law. Moreover, each religion shall be solidarity to improve the country to be more development and obey to the right of citizen’s belief. All
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belief constructions and temple exchange must request to department. Otherwise, institute can prohibit those activities when this department found guilty that affect to public order, social security and Cambodian law. Any international cooperation agreement that related to religion is charge of department of cult. This department will inspect all temples. 1.3
Director of Department of Research, Education and issue the Dharma
It is very vital role for this to do research and compilation Buddha book, prepare and facilitate to publish and educate the Buddhist followers by broadcasting through radio and television. It is not only to supervise the Buddhism activity but also it makes sure that all religion communities are safe. If there have some issues in this area, there would work partner with cabinet of supreme monk to settle this problem. This function will propose and provide the venerable Buddhist monk or lay people who support Buddhism sector a high dignitary. After that, institution will make any convention on religion relationship, experienced exchange and look for the scholarship for monks. 2. Director of Department of Administration and Finance 2.1
In this department are divided into four operations in order to easier manage. a) General administration
The first instant is facilitating ministry activities in central level and make comfortable between with higher organ and lower organ. It controls and circulates the ministry administrative document and insures administrative efficiency and safety. This operation is responsible for overall, record the report and all ministry activities. b) Staff management This manages civil servant and ministry agency that work with secretary as public affair and organize administrative bill for business management. And, then, there will valuate first training and strengthen communication with secretary that has position as public affair and follow the policy. Moreover, this instant has to supervise the statistic of staff management, activities table and social activities of ministry. c) Materials and supplies management It plays important role to establish the payment program and find the best to repair the ministry equipment and supplies. It controls the garage and vehicles that state delegate to the ministry, appropriately establish payment program and share petroleum and spare parts. The operation is responsible to divide all supplies to cities and provinces. Therefore, there would charge of controlling the technique of the public acquisition, information technology and financial payment. d) Account and financial management
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Final instant is in charge of raising the ministry budget program, observe daily activities and properly collect income accordance with financial law. Even though, they compile and well done on budget section, they still revise the special account. It is not only compilation, facilitation all ministry payment, but also manages account of practicing the public acquisition. 3. Inspectorâ€™s headquarters of Buddhist school There is responsible for controlling and checking Buddhist primary school, Buddhist high school, and Buddhist University in Cambodia, watching and executing of Buddhist institution and giving advice to all duties that related to Buddhist school. This department has to recruit, train and instruct to teacher who teach at Buddhist school by working with department of administration and finance. Moreover, there would arrange examination and competition to Buddhist schools through communicating with ministry of education, youth and sport. Therefore, this operation must coordinate with ministry of education, youth and sport and other inter-institution work on technical training. Additionally, this teaches Sangsa Krit, Pali language and Buddhist subject. Buddhist magazine is compiled and broadcasted as well. 4. Preah Sihanouk Raja Buddhist University is equal to Director of Department Here means the Preah Sihanouk Raja Buddhist University is in charge of training to all level of monk students. 5. Buddhist Institute is equal to Director of Department Organization and functioning of Buddhist institute to be a public enterprise is defined in sub-degree, so this institute has played main role to organize and direct Buddhist canon assembly, Khmer tradition association, and belief theory and religion literature research. Besides, the old and new authors are published and checked, it would supervise Dharma books and related books. The articles of belief, literature, disclosure paragraph and seminary are propagated. There work international coordination in the Buddhist institution sector and compile and spread the Sorya Kampuchea magazine. 6. Inspection (Inspectors of headquarters) This organ will inspect to units under ministry of cult and religions affairs and report to secretary of state on functioning of units that had inspected and finalized valuation. Inspection must follow the secretary of state delegation. The inspection leads by an inspector and a vice inspector as assistant if necessary. 7. Cabinet of the chief of institute
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This operation is responsible for all activities that are defined by executing of subdegree, Sub-Degree No 02 ANKR.BK, dated 30 April 1996 accordance with the preamble above that is in term of organization and functioning of ministry and secretary of state. 4.2 ď‚ˇ
Local Organ Department of Cults and Religions, provinces and city
This is a decentralization power to local organ in order to make more comfortable management. For example, they provide department of cult and religion to each cities and province. Office of cult and religion is delegated to district and khan, so these departments and offices are responsible and facilitative of ministry (Men 2006).
Conclusion After we discuss detail points above, we understand that Buddhism have played main
role in our society. So, Cambodia Constitution has mention that Buddhism is the religion of state. As we are aware, Buddhism has been refuge for daily life of Cambodian people. Therefore, Buddhism is the basic of Cambodian culture and spirit identity because vast majorities of citizen believe in deed and result evil and merit kindness and fault, cause and affects that accordance with science. If this believe violence something truth, Khmer cannot be acceptable. On other hand, Cambodia believes in Buddhism, because Buddhist clarifies that person who do misconduct you will get misfortune, people who born old and sick is nature. Furthermore, Cambodia tries on the best to strengthen Buddhism as well as record into the constitution as religion of state. This wants to show that Buddhism is very important one for improve education sector and cultural foundation for develop society. Buddhism not only presents in supreme law, but also mention and clarifies in national level and sub-national level. As a real example, sub-degree, that issued on 2006, Law on organization and functioning of ministry of cult and religion which has own structure from central level to local level. These administrations is guarantee to easy management and accessible. Recommendation -
Government should be guarantee the completely separated between religion and politics,
To encourage and strengthen law enforcement and to be strict punishment to Buddhist monks who breach the religious law,
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To promote the Buddhist teaching by providing Dhamma to schools and universities,
To provide the priority to monks to be teacher to school and universities as well,
The Ministry of Cults and Religious Affairs should establish a more permanent mediation procedure to address issues.
Ministry which responsible and inter-institution should be active participation without partiality and,
To reduce or get rid of any corruptions and nepotisms into own institution
Should recruit the experienced staff and skill
Ministry should provide workshop related to public
To add more broadcast system public libraries and Buddhist school to remote areas or pagoda.
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Bibliography 2500 Buddhist. Phnom Penh: Buddhist Institute, 1957. Buddhist Documentary on Recruitment, Heirarchy, Functioning and Duty of High Buddhist Monks of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Cults and Religion, 2006. Harris, Ian. History and Buddhist Performance in Cambodia (Khmer Version). Phnom Penh: Norkor Wat, 2005. Khmer Dictionary. Phnom Penh: Buddhist Institute, 1967. Men, Khen. Buddhist Compilation On Organization and Functioing of Higher Venerable Buddhist monks of Cambodia. Phnom Penh, 2006. Religion, Ministry of Cult and. Sub-degree on organization and functioning of ministry of Cult and Religion affairs. 2006. http://www.mocar.gov.kh/index.php/anukret (accessed October 23, 2013). Royal Decree/P.S/0406/200 on appiontment . Phnom Penh: Royal Palace, 2006. Sangha Pakras on the delegating duty of Supreme patriarch and Chief of the Buddhist Order. Phnom Penh: Cabinet of Supreme Patriarch (No005.S.N.K.C), 2006. Sangha Prakas No 33 K.S.R.V of the Suprem Patriach on Obligation of Village or Communal/Sangkat, District /Khan, and Capital and Provincial Buddhist Order. Phnom Penh, 1993. Sangha Prakas on delegation the duty of Chief of Buddhist Commitee of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh: Cabinet of Supreme Patriarch (No005), 2006. Siv, Sung. Buddhist and Science. Phnom Penh: Triratana Bookshop, 1972. Sub-decree No576 on the astablishment of the Buddhist Assembly of the Kingdom of Camobid. Phnom Penh, 2006.
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