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CASE STUDY PROJECT PROFESSOR IRMA RAMIREZ ARC 3020

Cheyenne Capener Dariush Seddighzadeh Hannah Leigh Viana

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TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 PETER ZUMTHOR - RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY LE CORBUSIER - UNITE D’HABITACION RENZO PIANO - RUE DE MEAUX STEVEN HOLL - NEXUS WORLD HOUSING CONCEPT / IDEA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 SCALE -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 CIRCULATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 UNIT ANALYSIS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 PEDESTRIAN / AUTOMOBILE RELATIONSHIPS -----------------------------------------------------------------28 MATERIALS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32 STRUCTURAL AND ORDERING SYSTEMS ------------------------------------------------------------------------36 HUMAN SAFETY + ACCESSIBILITY -------------------------------------------------------------------------------40 NATURAL / VENTILATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43 CONCLUSION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46

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PETER ZUMTHOR - RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY MASANS

Architect: Peter Zumthor Year: 1993 Purpose: Homes for Senior Citizens Location: Chur, Masans, Graubünden, Switzerland

Typology: Row housing / Courtyard / Party-wall housing Total Dwelling units: 22 Area: 11,480 sf x 2 stories = 22,960 sf Acres: 11,480 sf / 43,560 sf = 0.46 acres Density: 22 units / 0.26 acres = 84.61 Du/acre

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LE CORBUSIER - UNITE D’HABITACION Architect: Le Corbusier Location: Marseilles, France Building Type: Multifamily housing Construction System: Concrete Style: Modern Date: 1945-52 18 Stories 337 Apartments For 1,600 people Typology: Slab / Block It was built to alleviate a severe postwar housing shortage. Inspired by socialist ideals. Le Corbusier chose the ocean liner, which housed, fed, and entertained thousands of passengers in a very restricted space to help him create Unite d’Habitation. His goal was a total environment, enhanced with all the amenities of civilization, so one would never need to leave. EXTERIOR: -The Unite block is set in a landscaped park and raised on pilotis. -The apartments are designed to have frontage on both east and west side. -Balconies have deep overhangs for sun protection and surfaces are painted different colors to enliven the bleak mass of concrete. -The concrete is rough, marked with knots and grain of its wood forms. -The strong pilotis create circulation space beneath. -The roof, offers space for recreation and relaxation in its gymnasium, 300m track, outdoor stage, and children’s play area. -Single and double story balconies.

INTERIOR: -15 Floors are residential. -Floor 7 and 8 are communal levels where you find commercial services to provide daily needs such as shopping, laundry, catering, medical offices, and hotel rooms for guests. -The units are offset in this pattern, forming a series of vertical interlocking “L” shapes. -The apartments are very narrow, particularly when they are divided into hall like bedrooms. -Corridors are where you find less quality, they are dark, and the only light sources are the lights above every front door. -The corridors run through the center of the building every third floor.

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RENZO PIANO - RUE DE MEAUX Project Name: Rue de Meaux Architect: Renzo Piano Date Built: 1988 to 1991 Location: Paris, France Typology: Courtyard Project Density: Number of Units: 220 apartments Private outdoor space per dwelling unit: Parking Space per dwelling unit -All face a central internal garden planted with birch trees -multifamily housing -Perimeter block -Dwelling Types 40 diff. Types of flats, typically 2-3 bra. Flats No. Floors 5 Section Type flats -Ancillary Services balconies, a few shops along the street SITE: 73,401 SF SITE COVERAGE: 75.6% FAR: 1/4.5

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STEVEN HOLL - NEXUS WORLD HOUSING Architect: Steven Holl Location: Fukuoka, Japan Building Type: Multifamily Housing Construction System: Concrete Style: Modern Date: 1988-1991 5 Stories 28 Apartments 45,671 sq. ft. For Changing Families Typology: Detached/Courtyard Void and Hinge Apartments was apart of proposed detached housing typology experiment known as Nexus World. This project was overseen by famous Japanese architect Arata Isosaki. Architect Isosaki selected many famous architects to take part, one of them being American architect Steven Holl. Holl developed a scheme that took traditional Japanese values into context of Western Modernism. The main objective of project was to create a space adapted to the growth of family dynamic.

CONCEPT: The major concept that drove the DNA of the project is Fusuma. Fusuma is a traditional multifunctional concept of Japanese housing layout. The reason Holl selected this theory is not only due to cultural norm, but it understands the growth of family through flexible architecture. The exterior image of Void & Hinge Apartments is a Western Modern appealed to an urban context. A simplistic facade, is to execute an idea of forming space within an urban context and not simply architecture of object. The form of project is interlocked empty void spaces used for meditation and communal gathering. Emptiness of voids are inhabitated by reflecting pools and landscapes. Surrounding these voids are five south-facing unit towers, and a six unit block running along the north.

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CONCEPT / IDEA + SITE ANALYSIS

SITE PLAN 1/128” = 1’-0”

The design objective is to create rural atmosphere in a suburban setting - to make the building seem relaxed and informal (Muller, 67). The new building and existing complex (nursing home behind the elderly home) form kind of like a suburban “farmstead” arranged around a spacious courtyard (Muller, 67). RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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CONCEPT / IDEA + SITE ANALYSIS

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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CONCEPT / IDEA + SITE ANALYSIS

MASSING

FACADE MOUDLE

ORDER

RUE DE MEAUX RENZO PIANO

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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SITE ANALYSIS The housing project is located in Fukuoka in Kyushu region of southwest Japan. The front facade faces the main street towards the southwest. The building’s orientation and shape are articulated to the streetscape. All sides of the plan and form of the project address the surrounding site as views take in the urbanscape, courtyards, and city parks.

NEXUS WORLD HOUSING - STEVEN HOLL

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SCALE 280"-0"

41'-0" PLAN 1/32” = 1’-0”

25'-0"

25'-4"

10'-6" 9'-6"

PLAN 1/16” = 1’-0”

SECTION 1/16” = 1’-0”

The home for the elderly is a complex, consisting 21 apartments, a guest room and staff room.

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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SCALE

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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SCALE

UNIT TYPES

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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CIRCULATION 280"-0"

41'-0" PLAN 1/32” = 1’-0”

10'-6"

CORRIDORS + STAIRS

9'-6" SECTION 1/16” = 1’-0”

The private apartments are all connected by external corridors.

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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CIRCULATION

  

1

 

5

3



4

 2

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DOUBLE LOADED CORRIDORS

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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CIRCULATION

HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION

ACCESS TO DWELLING

VERTICAL CIRCULATION

VEHICULAR ROADS

GREEN AREA

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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CIRCULATION

SINGLE LOADED CORRIDOR DOUBLE LOADED CORRIDOR DOUBLE LOADED CORRIDOR

FIFTH FLOOR

MIDDLE FLOOR

FIRST FLOOR The building has vertical circulation from exterior stairs from the ground floor to the top floor. There are three sets of exterior corridors, two along the south are double loaded and the nothern corridor is single loaded. All the units have an exterior door that opens to a corridor looking at the relationship of inside or above, or inside and adjacent courtyards.

NEXUS WORLD HOUSING - STEVEN HOLL

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PUBLIC VS PRIVATE 280"-0"

41'-0" PLAN 1/32” = 1’-0”

10'-6" 9'-6"

PUBLIC PRIVATE

SECTION 1/16” = 1’-0”

Public:There is a large common space that seem to distribute the inhabitants into their private living spaces. Instead of a hallway this space is more like a long living room which has been subtly parceled by thee repetition of apartments. Private: Each of the private rooms are more like big pieces of furniture themselves because their volume and partitioning doesn’t seem to touch the ceiling and floor (Abache, 1).

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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PUBLIC VS PRIVATE

SHOPS GROCERY STORE LIVING AREA OFFICE GYM STREETS

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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PUBLIC VS PRIVATE

PUBLIC / SERVICE SEMI-PUBLIC PRIVATE

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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PUBLIC VS PRIVATE

PUBLIC SPACE PRIVATE SPACE

-Public Space: Located at Street Level, Commercial space subdivides each of the five towers of private apartment spaces located above. -Public Spaces Accessible from Public Street/Sidewalk, each of these space comprise of stores, cafes, music schools, tutoring centers -Private Space: Four South facing patios spaces, located within the void spaces in between the 5 block towers, within these spaces are reflecting pools attached to a flight of stairs that leads to a community garden along north side of the site. These gardens are intended for adolescent play areas or communal gathering. Each reflecting pool receives light from the south and illuminates the courtyard to the north. -In addition there are block units that run along the north end of site facing the park view.

-Exit Routes: The units all have exterior corridors that lead to a double loaded corridors vertical flight stairs are within at least 50 feet radius or less. All stairs exit onto the 18’ side alley or open garage parking on the ground floor. These open garages lead out into outdoor parking area of 8,368 ft^2. On the north side of apartments there is a single loaded corridor with flights of stair leading down to the ground parking.

NEXUS WORLD HOUSING - STEVEN HOLL

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UNIT ANALYSIS 280"-0"

41'-0" PLAN 1/32” = 1’-0”

25'-0"

25'-4"

10'-6" 9'-6"

PLAN 1/16” = 1’-0”

REGULATING LINES DATUM LINES

SECTION 1/16” = 1’-0”

There are 21 apartments, a guest room and a staff room. The units are organized repetitively in a horizontal row There are 1 basic unit type shown in plan. The interior of each unit are all the same.

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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UNIT ANALYSIS

8

7 9

6 7

2 9

5

4 1 3

3

7

8 10

11 7

12

Plans of typical duplex apartments entered from levels 2,5,10,13 and 16 1 interior street 2 entrance to apartment 3 kitchen 4 dining area and living room 5 dining area and gallery 6 Parent's bed room with bathroom

7 children’s bedrooms 8 balcony 9 void 10 parent’s bedroom and living area 11 stow-able ironing board 12 shower and WC

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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UNIT ANALYSIS

1

5

3

4

2

6

located on levels 2, 5, 10, 13 and 16 1 duplex apartment entered at terrace level 2 duplex apartment entered at gallery level 3 escape stair

4 interior street 5 lift lobby 6 single aspect duplex apartment 6 11 7 8 3

1

9 5 2

2

10

4

Plan at roof level 1 wind- breaker open air theatre 2 ventilation stack 4 300 metre long running track 5 upper terrace level 6 balcony

7 lift tower 9 children’s pool 10 children’s play area

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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UNIT ANALYSIS

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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UNIT ANALYSIS

UNIT GROUPINGS AND TYPES

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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UNIT ANALYSIS

UNIT ANALYSIS: Total: 28 Apartments 18 varients of 5 Basic Unit Types - L Floor Plan, I Straight, D Two Level, DI, DL These variants are interconnected in plan and section to generate different residual courtyard zones. Units are unitary blocks composed of joint and void space.

NEXUS WORLD HOUSING - STEVEN HOLL

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PEDESTRIAN / AUTOMOBILE RELATIONSHIPS

SITE PLAN 1/128” = 1’-0”

In visiting the elderly home, one may take the bus from Chur train station to the Cadonaustr station which is a few meters away from the elderly home. One may also visit by the use of a private car where you can arrive right in front of the elderly home. The home can only be visited from the outside to maintain the privacy of the tenants of the building. The tenants enter through the east side which holds 2 entrances to the building leading to the long public living room.

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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PEDESTRIAN / AUTOMOBILE RELATIONSHIPS

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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PEDESTRIAN / AUTOMOBILE RELATIONSHIPS

PEDESTRIAN ACCESS VEHICLE ACCESS ACCESS TO SHOPS Escala 1:500

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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PEDESTRIAN / AUTOMOBILE RELATIONSHIPS

SCALE: 1/32” = 1’- 0”

SCALE: 1/32” = 1’- 0”

PEDESTRIAN ACCESS VEHICLE ACCESS ACCESS TO SHOPS

NEXUS WORLD HOUSING - STEVEN HOLL

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MATERIALS

Tufa and glass cover most of the facade. Larch wood is used for framing of openings and the interior paneling. Exposed concrete at fewer points remind us of the existence of a physical structure.

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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MATERIALS

• The materials used are reinforced concrete and glass, without ornaments and elegance • This reveals the greatness of possibilities using reinforced concrete as a natural material • Often referred to as the original inspiration of the Brutalist architecture and philosophy

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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MATERIALS

FACADE MOUDLE

ORDER

RUE DE MEAUX RENZO PIANO

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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MATERIALS

ELEVATIONS 1/32” = 1’-0”

EXTERIOR: Main exteriror material is concrete. The front facade is stained dark blue concrete contrasting to the rest of the facade. The stem walls create a monolithic face to the apartment complex. The secondary material used is corrugated metal along more opac east facades. The east facades show the movement of the units by extended floor slabs and circulation.

INTERIOR: -Fusuma: Traditional Japanese Multifunctional Concept -Reason: growth of family through flexible architecture -Executed: doors, soffits, partition walls and pivoting cabinets/bookshelves -Allows: Bedrooms become = Living Rooms, Rooms to Change for Seasons & Time, Change of Room Size -Outdoor Courtyard Lighting: Each reflecting pool receives light from the south and illuminates the courtyard to the north. -Exterior Corridors: ventilation and light is received from the adjacent courtyards, cityscape, city parks and sky. -Each Unit: has ventilation and light from both north and south, and some units may have ventilation from both east and west in addition to north and south Reasoning: is some units along the northside share a unit wall along the east and west. -The hinge doors and flexibility of walls within the units provides for more light & ventilation to come through diurnal cycles, and reclaim private space by night.

NEXUS WORLD HOUSING - STEVEN HOLL

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STRUCTURAL AND ORDERING SYSTEMS

The plan of the building is based on the idea of solid elements (supporting masonry piers, solid sanitary blocks non-supporting wooden boxes) placed at regular intervals in the overall ground plan within a large, flowing continuum of space. Zumthor used a basic triad of exposed concrete, tufa, and larchwood to express clarity and legibility of construction details. (Muller, 67).

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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STRUCTURAL AND ORDERING SYSTEMS

Structural section illustrating Le Corbusier’s bottle and wine bin principle of apartments

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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STRUCTURAL AND ORDERING SYSTEMS MOUDLE

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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STRUCTURAL AND ORDERING SYSTEMS

1. Concrete bearing walls shown on North, South, West Elevations 2. Secondary columns through mid floor slab which connect of the midpoints of each bay 3. East Elevation: Curtain Wall 4. Massing: Walking towards the West the building is presumed planar; Heading East the building is presumed volumetric

NEXUS WORLD HOUSING - STEVEN HOLL

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HUMAN SAFETY + ACCESSIBILITY

280"-0"

41'-0" PLAN 1/32” = 1’-0”

75 FEET RADIUS There are vertical circulation and exit routes at least every 75 feet radius. However, the vertical circulation circulation on the south side does not comply to the 75 feet distance limit per code for safety and easy access of residents during fire.

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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HUMAN SAFETY + ACCESSIBILITY

SHOPS GROCERY STORE LIVING AREA OFFICE GYM STREETS

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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HUMAN SAFETY + ACCESSIBILITY

HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION

ACCESS TO DWELLING

VERTICAL CIRCULATION

VEHICULAR ROADS

GREEN AREA

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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NATURAL LIGHT / VENTILATION 280"-0"

41'-0" PLAN 1/32” = 1’-0”

10'-6" 9'-6" SECTION 1/16” = 1’-0”

In the front corner of the wall, there is an oriel window with a view of the valley towards the evening sun. In the birchwood kitchenette, there is a window through which one can glance unto a private patio in the outdoor corridor or watch the comings and goings on the east side of the courtyard (Muller, 67). There is a veranda that is protected from the wind

RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY - PETER ZUMTHOR

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NATURAL LIGHT / VENTILATION 12PM 5PM

8AM

AFTERNOON

MORNING MORNING

Innovations which resolve isolation and light problems with concrete shutters Balcony sun protections • Shelters exceeding from the main body building Apartments are covering the whole floor but allow to natural light and Ventilation to be permeable in both sides and also surround the apartments • Each apartment is decorated with a large glass wall Internal corridors are dark. The only source of light comes from the lights above doors.

UNITE D’ HABITACION - LE CORBUSIER

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NATURAL LIGHT / VENTILATION

RUE DE MEAUX - RENZO PIANO

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CONCLUSION PETER ZUMTHOR - RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR THE ELDERLY The design objective is to create rural atmosphere in a suburban setting - to make the building seem relaxed and informal (Muller, 67). The design objective is to create rural atmosphere in a suburban setting - to make the building seem relaxed and informal. We consider Peter Zumthor’s Residential Home for the Elderly being in the typology combination of row housing, courtyard, and party-wall housing. Row housing, because of it’s repetitiveness in unit and the way they are organized. Courtyard, because of the courtyard setting of the farm like scheme used in this project, allowing the tenants to look over a courtyard where people could gather together. Party wall housing, because of the sharing of the walls of the units. The units are all the the same allowing less opportunity for personalization. However by changing up the interior spaces on their own, the tenants will still have the chance to personalize their own space. The identity of Peter Zumthor’s home for the Elderly in Masans abides with what an elderly home looks like. Most contemporary senior houses practically have the same image - a courtyard, row housing or party wall home. The access to dwellings is very straightforward, and there is a sense of direction in terms of exit routes. The use of a long public space to distribute the accessibility to the private spaces is a very effective in encouraging community life in the home for the elderly. Peter Zumthor’s use of materials is very effective in manifesting his structural and construction intentions. In the front corner of the wall, there is an oriel window with a view of the valley towards the evening sun In the birchwood kitchenette, there is a window through which one can glance unto a private patio in the outdoor corridor or watch the comings and goings on the east side of the courtyard There is a veranda that is protected from the wind (Muller, 67). The house is east-west facing, making natural lighting very useful inside the building. This is a great advantage in Peter Zumthor’s design of the elderly home. One critical point that we notice in this project is the accessibility to the exit of those who are living in the very south unit. It is too far from the vertical circulation, and might pose some problems during an emergency. Peter Zumthor’s project has a density of a 84.61 Du/acre. LE CORBUSIER - Unite D’HABITACION The Unite D’Habitacion block is set in a landscaped park and raised on pilotis. The apartments are designed to have frontage on both east and west side this allows for natural light and ventilation. Balconies have deep overhangs for sun protection and surfaces are painted different colors to enliven the bleak mass of concrete. The concrete is rough, marked with knots and grain of its wood forms. The strong pilotis create circulation space beneath. The roof, offers space for recreation and relaxation in its gymnasium, 300m track, outdoor stage, and children’s 46


play area. This is a very effective way in creating communal space. There are single and double story balconies which create sectional variety. There are 15 floors that are residential. Floor 7 and 8 are communal levels where you find commercial services to provide daily needs such as shopping, laundry, catering, medical offices, and hotel rooms for guests. The units are offset in this pattern, forming a series of vertical interlocking “L” shapes. The apartments are very narrow, particularly when they are divided into hall like bedrooms. Corridors are where you find less quality, they are dark, and the only light sources are the lights above every front door. The corridors run through the center of the building every third floor. Le Corbusier’s project was very unique in its image as multi-family housing. It was designed to alleviate the housing problem after the war. It is very effective in fulfilling its purpose to house people and bringing in the building all the needs and amenities of people. Personalization in the units is less because of the repetitiveness of the units. Access to dwellings are too narrow. Lighting in these access are not very good. We consider this project having a typology of slab and block in the way the units are organized vertically and horizontally. Renzo Piano - Rue de Meaux The Rue de Meaux has an all face central internal garden planted with birch trees. It is a multifamily housing with a perimeter block. There are 40 different types of flats, typically 2-3 bra. flat. There are ancillary services balconies, a few shops along the street. The repetitiveness of the units is effective in serving its purpose to house many dwellers. The courtyard serves as a communal space which is very effective in bringing together the community. The terracotta cladding and its modular structural organization makes this project stand out from its neighboring buildings. Renzo Piano has efficiently design the way people will access the building by creating a courtyard that leads to the access to the units. Public, semi-public, and private are clumped together in the building, making a pattern which is used for the betterment of the quality of livability in this building. Lighting is manipulated through the facade and especially by the use of a courtyard in the middle. By doing this Renzo Piano is able to maximize the use of natural light throughout the building. One thing that is strong about this project is the use of different unit types that provide more opportunities for personalization. The access to dwellings is also pretty efficient. However, the use of a courtyard might not be too effective in bringing much of the community in. The height of the building is too high to create opportunities for natural light in the courtyard. There will be some hours during the day that people will might not want to stay at the courtyard because of its darkness. The courtyard might just be used for circulation instead of a communal space. VOID & HINGE SPACE - STEVEN HOLL The V&H Apartments have a direct tie to the building’s cultural heritage, urban landscape and influence of 47


Western Modernism. These apartments were apart of 1991 experiment in Japan, and are still hapily and succesfuly lived in after fifteen years. In all there have been no reportings from occupants that the space is uninhabitable. The typology of this project is multi-family housing consisting of 28 units, very similiar to the density of Peter Zumthor’s Residential Homes for the Elderly. The address to landscape and layout is very similar to the typology of Renzo Piano Rue de Meaux courtyard space. In the case of V&H apartments the courtyard are tucked underneath the northern units, and a reflecting pool is the center between units. Disadvantages of Void and Hinge Space are its expansive units selection, which could have been costly at the time instead of taking advantages of repitition. The main objective of this project was to create liviable space that adheres to the constant change in family development.

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