We have determined the fair value of our derivative instruments utilizing established index prices, volatility curves and discount factors. These estimates are compared to counterparty valuations for reasonableness. Derivative transactions are also subject to the risk that counterparties will be unable to meet their obligations. This non-performance risk is considered in the valuation of our derivative instruments, but to date has not had a material impact on the values of our derivatives. Future risk related to counterparties not being able to meet their obligations has been partially mitigated under our commodity hedging arrangements which require counterparties to post collateral if their obligations to Chesapeake are in excess of defined thresholds. The values we report in our financial statements are as of a point in time and subsequently change as these estimates are revised to reflect actual results, changes in market conditions and other factors. See Note 11 of the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this report for further discussion of the fair value measurements associated with our derivatives. As of December 31, 2016, our oil, natural gas and NGL derivative instruments consisted of the following: •
Swaps: Chesapeake receives a fixed price and pays a floating market price to the counterparty for the hedged commodity.
Options: Chesapeake sells, and occasionally buys, call options in exchange for a premium. At the time of settlement, if the market price exceeds the fixed price of the call option, Chesapeake pays the counterparty the excess on sold call options, and Chesapeake receives the excess on bought call options. If the market price settles below the fixed price of the call options, no payment is due from either party.
Collars: These instruments contain a fixed floor price (put) and ceiling price (call). If the market price exceeds the call strike price or falls below the put strike price, Chesapeake receives the fixed price and pays the market price. If the market price is between the put and the call strike prices, no payments are due from either party.
Basis Protection Swaps: These instruments are arrangements that guarantee a fixed price differential to NYMEX from a specified delivery point. Chesapeake receives the fixed price differential and pays the floating market price differential to the counterparty for the hedged commodity.