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SUTD : Singapore University of Technology and Design ASD : Architecture and Sustainable Design

LANDSCAPE URBANISM UNIT "Nepal Agenda - Iteration 2018" Studio Masters : Eva Castro and Federic Ruberto Team : Lim Wan Rong (Iris) / Cheryl Lim Jia Li / Joei Wee Shi Xuan / Michel Sim / Zhao Zhqing

L AL BAKAIYA THE ASSEMBLAGE OF AGRICULTURAL CITIES

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Studio Agenda

The unit has “landscape urbanism” at its core methodology and focuses on mapping/indexing three of Nepal’s rural areas, their risks, trends, political and geopolitical actors that define their material logics and structures. With this methodology we aim at defining synthetic design strategies —cutting through data—to develop "autonomous" communities, locally grounded but unconditionally committed to see nature as a “second (technological) nature”— committed to invent the possibility of a different, and common, “future”. Specifically the Unit’s aim isto investigate “sustainable” logics of development of a community from 20000 to 500000 people detached from main centers of urbanization that must utilize the site as its financial opportunity to determine its own, relative, independence, therefore tobe able to decide its own rules of development: the synthesis of local-material opportunities and socio-cultural demands. The sites of intervention and the territorial “strategies” deployed are the following: - Madi River (micro-dams, terracing for water harvesting, reconnecting existing villages); - Lal Bakaiya (agricultural intensification, urbanization according to seasonal river dynamics); - Bhote Koshi (agricultural production and urbanization on steep slopes, fostering interconnectivity between existing villages)

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Content

Background Urban Theories Urban Agenda Index River Braiding Plateau Treatment Agriculture - Phases Programmatic Allocation Road Development Residential - Expansion Model

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BACKGROUND NEPAL AND LAL BAKAIYA

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Nepal Economy Nepal is an agricultural country, with 73.9% of its population engaged in farming activities. However, despite this national focus, agriculture only accounts for 29.4% of Nepal’s total GDP.GDP per capita: ranked 165 out of 182 countries and regions. This shortfall has been attributed to lack of technological advances, lack of access to better seeds and fertilisers.

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Nepal Outward migration from Nepal, based on absent population

Labour Migration

1,921,494

As seen on the diagram on the right, labour migration out of Nepal is seeing a drastic increasing trend over the years due to high unemployment rate and low wages. Young Nepali men migrate to Malaysia, Saudia Arabia, Qatar etc, where jobs are more readily available, with higher wages.

1,800,000 1,500,000 1,200,000 900,000

Ironically, this massive labour migration actually hinders Nepal from growing its economy.

762,181 658,290

600,000

% of Total Population

402,977

1981

300,000

Total Population

Funding Foreign aid is the main source of funding for developmental projects in Nepal. Donors, such as the United Nations, the World Bank, and donor countries, coordinate development aid policy through the Nepal Development Forum. In FY 2014, total foreign aid committed was US$320 million. However, confidence in Nepal has been faltering, due to political interference, corruption, and the country’s poor capacity to utilise the funds properly.

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1981

1991

2001

2011

15,425,816

15,425,816

19,148,397

26,494,504

1991 2001 2011

2.6% 3.4% 3.2% 7.3%


Rautahat Region Population Density Rautahat covers an area of 1,126 km2 and, according to the 2001 census, has a population of 545,132 living in 88,162 households.

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed River and Main Attractions The map on the right shows the nearest airport and the river watershed regions, along with the Lal Bakaiya and neighbouring Bagmati river.

River and Livelihood The main economy in the watershed is agriculture. Due the proximity to the river giving rise to fertile land that is suitable for farming.

Topography/ Flooding As seen on the diagram on the right, there is a very clear distinction between the high lands where the source of the river is and the lowlands, where agriculture is more abundant. Also, this poses a problem where the lower regions are more prone to flood risks due to the gentle terrain. Hence we decided to look at the lowlands to resolve the pressing problem of flooding in an agriculture-driven society.

Lal Bakaiya river

Bagmati river

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Lal Bakaiya River and Bagmati River Destructive Force However, despite the huge potential for an agricultural hub, the socio-economic status of people living in the area is still relatively low. This is due to the fact that while the river brings fertile soil when flooding, the floods actually causes a lot of damage to exisiting villages as well as croplands. Thus, in order to improve living conditions, we must look into controlling the floods while still harnassing the agricultural potential of the river.

Generative Resource The reason why the Rautahat region has a relatively higher population density is a combination of both less steep slopes resulting in less harsh living conditions, as well as the economic opportunities presented by the river in the form of agricultural potential. The river floods frequently during the monsoon season, depositing fertile alluvial soil on the banks. Additionally, the river acts as the main irrigation source. The flatter terrain also allows for easier farming methods.

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Trade Routes Road Network The existing road network runs mainly from north to south, in a largely haphazard manner that clusters around existing settlement areas. The roads are usually just gravel or soil paths which are vulnerable to the flooding issues, where routes could be washed away by severe floods. Little or no hierarchy of roads is made to the nearby landmarks such as the airport other than the national highway.

Major Settlements Hypothetically, the big settlements distributed across the intervention area are assumed as the major nodes. We assume that the big settlements contain more resources as well as more advanced technology. Hence, the big settlement will become the congregation area for the adjacent small settlements

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Trade Routes International Trade Path Based on this road network, we inferred that the international trade paths are mainly related to the nearest airport. The international trade paths that are usually used by the locals would be the national highway and railway that stretches through the India region. Both paths are linked together by a secondary road and informal roads which cut through the intervention zone. Also, the big settlements distributed across the intervention area are assumed as the export nodes. Compared to the distances of travelling to Simara Airport, transporting goods towards the train stations in the south allows for shorter distances travelled. Hence less time and resources will be used on the transport of goods and people, cutting down the operating costs if the goods were to be transported to the south. This would mean it would be a more favourable option for the natives to utilize the southward road networks instead. Thus the project will focus more on the southern region of the given area.

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Potential to be an Agricultural Hub With fertile alluvial soil brought by the rivers and an existing export-oriented road network, there exists a non-exploited potential for Lal Bakaiya Watershed to become a thriving agricultural hub. However, this potential is still unrealised, as of today, due to excessive flooding that disrupts the lives and livelihoods of the people, and the lack of a robust productive system.

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Agricultural Urbanisation Dichotomy In most agricultural areas in the midst of urbanising, there exists a stark dichotomy between the high-rise of skyscrapers and towering residential blocks, and the lowlying agricultural lands. This singular form of urbanization has resulted not only in a mass clearing of crop lands globally, leaving less agriculture land to feed the world’s growing population, but also oftentimes creating a clear separation between the two distinct and disjointed urban forms within the city.

Complete Segregation of Production and Living At the same time, while developed economies have leveraged on technological advances in attempts to increase agricultural production, these often see the transformation of agriculture into a laboratory or factorylike production, having little to no relationship to the topology and climatic conditions that it exists within. The production of agriculture has thereby completely lost its relationship with the ground it sits on.

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Agricultural Urbanisation An Alternative To imagine an alternative to the global trends of urbanisation, particularly of countries or cities that rely on agricultural production as a means for self-sufficiency or economic development, we began by asking these questions, to which we attempted to answer by analysising utopic projects. Utopic projects were chosen as a starting reference point because of their courageous attempts in imagining not only new forms of urbanisation but also new forms of social organisation. So in order to even begin conceptualising how any alternative form of agricultural urbanisation could materialise, we looked to utopic projects to understand the conditions that generated their potentials and failures.

AN ALTERNATIVE? What does it mean to urbanize a historically agriculture area? Is agriculture and the process of urbanisation mutually exclusive? How can we reconnect with the ground such that it may be better used as a productive system?

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URBAN THEORIES UTOPIAN VISIONS IN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM

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Urban Theories Constant Niewenhuys, New Babylon

“A limitless horizontality and a total occupation of social life” New Babylon, 1963

New Babylon was imagined to be an endlessly sprawling labyrinth of planetary scale, devoid of the artifical boundaries of class, status and geopolitics. It was much less a structural or architectural project, than an envisioning of new mediums and atmospheres for the manifestation of mass creativity in daily life. Constructed in a world in which all work that was needed to fulfill human physicological needs have become fully automated and freely shared by all, the primary needs of humans thus becomes one of play, adventure and mobility— conditions that facilitate the free creation of ones own life. All work was essentially purposeful and self-directed play, and all spaces were social spaces. New Babylon was, as such, to be made by New Babylonians, a mere structural framework in which new environments and lifestyle could be conceived. It was to be an architecture, and consquently an urban environment, in constant change. To be shaped and re-shaped by the experiences of each inhabitant passing through each space, to stimulate a creative lifestyle rather than impede it. It was to be a horizontal architecture for a horizontal society.

New Babylon Sectors, 1971

New Babylon Model, 1959

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Urban Theories Constant Niewenhuys, New Babylon

Post-War Europe and its Anxieties Le Corbusier, Ville Radieuse, 1924

Against the backdrop of war and destruction, New Babylon was at once a response and a reflection of the rage and anxieties of and toward the post-war, capitalistic society. Driven by mechanisation and population explosions, the modern city became a uniquely utilitarian and exploitative machinery of production and consumption. Economic efficiency demanded a pervasive standardisation and repetition, through which the city became a generator of social exteriority and isolation, of the conditions of permanent social exile increasingly imposed upon these dispossessed people. Cities were cemeteries of reinforced concrete, the essence of which was the heterogenity of space. As a critique against the hegemony of post WWII architecture, New Babylon's programmatic radicality— the unlimited labyrinth and impermanent dwelling— was, at once, a response to and a reclaimation of the fundamental problems of social mobility of populations in the wake of the war. Its architectural openness was a conceptual transformation of the conditions of deprivation imposed upon these people into a kind of sensorial richness, fulfilling and superseding the function of dwelling. New Babylon was, as such, a questioning, politically and socially, of the city, as well as its habitability under capitalism.

Le Corbusier, Cartesian skyscrapers, 1938

Ludwig Hilberseimer, Vertical City, 1924

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Urban Theories Constant Niewenhuys, New Babylon

The ‘Iconic Building’: Architecture of the Spectacle

‘The whole of life of those societies in which modern conditions of production prevail presents itself as an immense accumulation of spectacles. All that was once directly lived has now become mere representation.’ 'The Society of the Spectacle', Guy Debord

Rem Koolhas, The City of the Captive Globe, 1972

The contemporary reincarnation of economic optimisation in architecture is the glamour of 21st century post-political architecure, stripped bare of any meaning other than the celebration of corporate economic performance.

In 'The City of the Captive Globe' by Rem Koolhas, one sees iconic buildings of competing ideologies that, subsumed by the managerial order of urbanisation, antagonises yet reinforces the urban grid. These pseudo natures created, contained and subjected to the economic reality of urbanisation, characterises the forces of capitalist urbanisation taken to the extreme.

The reign of the spectacle is "the economic realm developing for itself"1, by ensuring the ceaseless need for the production and consumption of commodities, both material and cultural. The continual generation and glamourisation of 'iconic buildings' embodies this global preoccupation with the visual, and the culture of excessive consumerism. Contemporary architecture as a spectacle, as such, primarily concerns itself merely with alterations to aesthetic and spatial conditions rather than any kind of transformation in the conditions of production itself. It thereby embeds itself deep within the systems of production and capitalism, becoming a significant contributor to a cultural production that serves to sustain the predominant global hegemony.

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The ideological orientation of commodification post WWII was not simply a generalisation of the sale of commodities and luxury items beyond those of simple subsistence or social production, its most potent effect was to position itself, and by extension capitalism, as indispensable. What this means is that criticisms of Capitalism, as with imaginations of Utopia, are today meet with a derisive scorn that seem to stem from some deep sense of certainty, of truth, in the current model of our world. To this end, it has become "easier to imagine the end of the world than to imagine the end of capitalism."2

Guy Debord, 'The Society of The Spectacle', 1973

2

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Federic Jameson, 'Future City', New Left Review, 2003


Urban Theories Constant Niewenhuys, New Babylon

Against a Consumerist Model ‘New Babylon presupposes socialisation, the common ownership of land and the means of production.’ 'World History of Modern Architecture and Urbanism', Michel Ragon

The problem with utopian ideas like New Babylon however, is that it at once reeks too much and yet too little of urbanity— of its deep desire for the simpler, more communal and nomadic ways of the past. As such, despite its overwhelming technological determinism, one of its biggest failures was not that it was too metropolitan but that it was not metropolitan enough— too inclined towards an ultimate ‘nostalgia’ for “a communion of subjects who do not know the anguish of metropolitan alienation”.3

Guy Debord, The Naked City, 1957

The utopian impulse is, in essence, one of hope, and it remains a valuable conceptual standpoint for evaluating and reimagining our world today. But the concept of utopia is only worth reclaiming if we begin to steer them away from its past imaginations— the nostalgias for a nomadic life, and an escape from the anguish of urban alienation— and begin to confront the capitalist system in which we are immersed. Ultimately, the value of New Babylon lies in its, although incomplete but nevertheless bold, reimagining of social life.

New Babylon further assumes material spaces to be neutral backgrounds or containers, to be acted upon never acting on. It lacks an understanding of power-knowledge-space relations— that knowledge is formed from the practice of power and accepted systems of knowledge affect the production of space, and through its production it in turn influences conceptions of power and knowledge. As such, its presupposition of a fully automated and completely egalitarian society is one of its greatest conceptual gaps. Rather than contend with forces of economic production and the hegemony that produces it, New Babylon simply does away with it. By simply rationalising away the institutions of power and knowledge that prevent the new forms of social organisation from becoming reality, New Babylon provides little capacity to imagine different kinds of engagements with current state forms and institutions, and its possible reconfigurations in a highly technological, automated world. In so doing, regardless of its aspirations, it falls easily into the category of escapism.

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Underscoring New Babylon is a cooperative organisational structure that is envisioned to enable an active citizenry which, in turn, produces a genuine invesment of a people in their place and their production. As such, New Babylon's political ideals and vision for a new social organisation remains an important basis from which we can generate an alternative hypothesis for dwelling, circulation and spatial relations.

Manfredo Tafuri, 'Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development', 1976

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URBAN AGENDA A MULTI-LAYERED URBANISM

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Urban Agenda Multi-layered Urbanism

SYSTEMS

“Any structure intended to challenge commercial urbanisation must be an adaptive, finite structure, which by being straight-forward in its function, allows for its appropriation by the inhabitants”

TIME

The Architect as an Enabler: A Multi-Layered Urbanism

'Planning Criteria', O.M. Ungers

COMMUNITY COOPERATIVES

infrastructural

PRIMARY DRIVER OF LIVING & PRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

common ownership of land and productive resources

river management and road networks

In order to bridge the gap between New Babylon's ideals and the current model of our world, we must begin to imagine the architect beyond being a mere organiser and optimiser of disparate elements in production cycles— a system in which the architect, as of today, has no control whatsoever over. We must begin to imagine the architect as an orchestrator and enabler of human interaction and social progress through re-establishing the sense of the city as the site of political confrontation and intervention.

productive

PRIMARY DRIVER OF SELF SUFFICIENCY & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT intensification of agricultural production and development of secondary industries to support the move toward tiertary industries

SPACE

To this end, we propose a multi-layered urbanism that is developed in spatial, temporal and, most importantly, systemic terms. Through the development of new systems of infrastructure and production, that serves as the main driver and support system, the materialisation of an alternative economic, social and political model can then arise.

social

economic

MEANS FOR COMMUNAL DEVELOPMENT

education

ENABLER OF SOCIAL PROGRESS

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incremental expansion and diversification of production chains

transition to a knowledge base economy


social COMMUNITY COOPERATIVES communal ownership of land, productive resources and end products

productive infrastructural

education

economic

TERRAIN & ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE

PRODUCTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE & RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT

SECONDARY INDUSTRY MANUFACTURING

MODES OF EXCHANGE SUBSISTENCE CROPS SELF USAGE generation of surplus

PRIMARY INDUSTRY AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

CASH CROPS COMMUNAL EXCHANGE INDUSTRIAL CROPS LOCAL / GLOBAL EXPORT PRODUCTION OF HIGHER VALUED GOODS

AUTONOMY

EXPANSION MODEL & SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

TIERTARY INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE

political

self-sufficiency

PRODUCTION OF POLITICS, CULTURE & KNOWLEDGE

SOFT POWER ideology

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HARD POWER economics


Urban Agenda Project Proposal

Our agenda for a multi-layered urbanism is predicated on the development of a robust infrastructural and productive system as the main support systems through which higher agendas for political and social transformations could materialise. As such, there is a need, first and foremost, to secure the lives and livelihoods of the people by developing an infrastructural system that can manage the rivers, harness them as generative resources and relocate the settlements in flood risk zones. For the Lal Bakaiya watershed to grow further into an agricultural hub, a robust productive system needs to be implemented, with networks linking each step of the productive system to the next. To become a sustainable model for growth, phasing development needs to be planned for, to account for agricultural and industrial development, and the resultant population growth. The strategies that we will employ to achieve this vision are:

1 River Braiding 2. Plateau Treatment 3. Agriculture 3.5 Phases 4. Spatial Adjecency / Programmatic Allocation 5. Road Development 6. Residential 6.5 Expansion Model 23


INDEX LAL BAKAIYA WATERSHED SITE

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site Settlements Bairiya Sawagada Hajminiya

Sirisia

Mudwalawa Guar

Brahmapuri

Laxmipur Dostiya

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site Topography

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site Slope Analysis

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site Elevation Field

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site Surface Runoff along the rivers

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site Surface Runoff along the rivers

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site Settlements at Flood Risk

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site River Timeline

2003

2013

2010

2017

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Lal Bakaiya Watershed Site Flood Plains Timeline

2003

2013

2010

2017

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RIVER-BRAIDING NATURE AS SECOND NATURE

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“Infrastructural assemblages are involved in the active social production of urban natures, for example when the hydrological systems of entire continents are shaped over centuries by practices of urban water engineering and river management, or through the ways in which capitalism sustains long-distance resource-grabs – for food, energy or water --that add to the power of political or economic urban elites. Such productions of nature are profoundly political, even though these politics are often obfuscated by conventional ways of thinking about infrastructures as being wholly technical, separated from the entirely different and equally asocial domain of nature” . “In sum, the city embodies produced socio-ecological processes and, consequently, the process of urbanization is an integral part of the production of new environments and new natures in which socio-natural processes combine to produce historically specific geographical configurations ”. - Stephen Graham: “Between Nature, Culture, Society, Technology and Politics: The ‘Infrastructural Turn” & Erik Swyngedouw - “Circulations And Metabolism: (Hybrid) Natures and (Cyborg) Cities

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Flood Control Measures Flooding is a major problem in the Lal Bakaiya Watershed, due to its relatively flat terrain. The floodplains have expanded over the years, decreasing the amount of arable land. Thus it is of paramount importance to investigate how to control and manage the flood to improve the livelihoods and living conditions of the people.

Types of Comparison

Dams

Embankments

Dredging

River-braiding

Description

Construction of a basin to contain Fortification of banks to increase riv- Removal of sedimentation and silt Diversion of water away from the the excess water in flood events er capacity from the riverbed to increase river ca- main river into smaller rivers pacity with a dredging machine

Advantages

• Water can be stored and used for • Easily increases capacity of river • Removal of pollutants in water other purposes

Disadvantages

• Loss of arable land • High infrastructural cost

• Prevention bank-cutting by river • Increase area of arable land and irrigation sources • Soil excavated in the process of creating new rivers can be piled onto existing topography to form plateaus for housing and farming of flood-sensitive crops

• Frequent maintenance required • Frequent excavation required, es- • Time required to excavate trenchto prevent breaching and subsepecially during monsoon season es for the river quent flash floods • Short-term solution • When running perpendicular to river flow, actually constrains river flow and leads to flooding

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Flood Control Measures River-braiding Potential 1.Increase in arable land

- Greater production potential - Settlements can spread out from the main rivers

2. Creation of plateaus

- using soil from river-trench excavation - Safe grounds for housing - Opportunities to farm delicate high-value cash crops, and house processing factories

River Braiding River-braiding, as a strategy to mitigate floods, has a lot of potential benefits for the Lal Bakaiya watershed. River-braiding is the diversion of a main river into smaller rivers at diversion points. To investigate how best to river-braid, a catalogue is set up, exploring the parameters of surface area covered by the river-braids as well as number of connections from each diversion point. Both parameters relate directly to the length of the river-braid and the extent of creation of arable land. Firstly, the catalogue will explore iterations for surface area, ranging from the minimum to the maximum. The river-braids are shaped by the contours, with no river-braids crossing any contour lines to ensure efficiency of the river-braiding process. The width of the river is also kept constant at 20m.

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River-Braiding

Sinuosity of the rivers Along the relatively flat terrain that Lal Bakaiya and Bagmati River flows through, the sinuosity of the river reflects the tendency of where floating will occur and subsequently help in predictingx the course of the river will alter. Length of meander Sinuosity =

Displacement of meander

River Braiding Process The higher the sinuosity of the river. The more likely it is for the river to further deviate from its course and flood. Points on the river whereby the tangent vectors starts to increase in its rate of change of direction are used as possible opening points of on the river. These points are where water is re-channeled towads a new path. Parameters to be explored: 1. Surface area of new river system (related to distance of irrigation points from crops) 2. No. of connections from one diversion point to the next (creates more smaller-sized islands) The catalogue will push the parameters to the min and max, while evaluating the impact of the tested parameters on the other parameters.

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Index Diversion Point Clustering

The diversion points are decided based on sinuosity of the river.

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River-Braiding Catalogue Surface Area Iterations (1 - min, 4 - max)

Assumptions: Minimal breach of contours RIver braiding width is constant at 20 m Note: Surface Area: Area of Islands snclosed by river system

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Assumptions: Minimal breach of contours RIver braiding width is constant at 20 m Note: Surface Area: Area of Islands snclosed by river system

Surface Area Iterations (1 - min, 4 - max) During the monsoon season, when flooding occurs frequently, there is an 33.9% increase in the water volume from the total river capacity. Thus our riverbraids has to contain this increase in volume to prevent flooding. In order to do so, the required surface area of the river braids (assuming uniform depth) are as follows: Intended Surface area of BR braids > 0.315km2 Intended Surface area of LB braids > 0.199 km2 Iteration 4 is the iteration that fulfils the above criteria and will be further developed.

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Assumption: Minimal breach of contours RIver braiding width is constant at 20 m Note: Surface Area: Area of Islands snclosed by river system

Max no. of Connections from Diversion Points From Iteration 4, we iterated to get the maximum number of connections possible from each diversion point. This increases the extent of arable land created.

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PLATEAU TREATMENT

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Flood Risk The existing settlements are mainly made up of makeshift and temporary housing that is not extremely robust, due to the frequent floods that damages buildings. Majority of the roads are dirt paths as well, with only a few paved main roads. There is also a general lack of public amenities in these settlements as well. Thus, this project proposes to improve the living conditions of these settlements by relocating them to higher plateaus, formed from existing topography and left-over soil from the river-braiding excavating process.

Topography targeted

Existing Population

To select the existing topography to be built upon, a hierarchy of priority was established. Firstly, only existing topography that is of a reasonable size, 200m2, in area and of at least 2m in elevation height will be considered for selection. This is to ensure that the chosen topography to be built upon is big enough and of a high enough elevation to ensure no flooding will occur.

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Proximity to rivers Then two criteria were selected: proximity to rivers and roads, in that order of importance respectively. The new plateaus had to be close to the rivers, as high-value and low flood-resistant crops were planned to be planted on these new plateaus, and the river was to be used as a source of irrigation. Roads had to be nearby, for easy exporting of high-value crops and goods from the processing factories, as well as imports of goods for the residents. With these two criteria in mind, the proximity of existing topography to rivers and roads within 1km were indexed. With the overlay of the two proximities, the priority of soil infill for the existing topography can be established.

Scenarios for plateau treatment

Priority of soil infill

Once the priority of soil infill is established, due the proximity of existing topography to one another, the existing topography will be merged together. There are two main scenarios for the merging of existing topography through soil infill. Scenario A is when the nearby topography is of the same size, while Scenario B is the nearby topography is made up of one ÂŹlarge one and a few small ones. The diagrams show the steps taken for each scenario for soil infill to achieve the final form.

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Soil Infill (Part I)

Final Plateaus (Part I)

Soil Infill (Part II)

Final Plateaus (Part II)

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Final Plateaus

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New vs Existing

Population of New Settlements

LEGEND Main Roads 0

1km

2 km

4 km

N

Nepal-India Border

Shifting of Settlements

Population density

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AGRICULTURE SUSTENANCE AND ECONOMY

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Crop Selection Exisiting and New At present, a variety of food crops and cash crops are grown in Rautahat.These crops vary in productivity (USD/m2). The crops was selected with the intention of achieving a combination of food and cash crops for subsistence and productivity. Rice and Maize are flood resistance and are selected as food crops to be planted in lower regions of the plateaus which are at higher flood risk (<2m). Cash crops from the existing pool are evaluated based on productivity. Potato is selected. To spur productivity at the Lal Bakaiya watershed, new high value crops need to be introduced. Bamboo, Ginseng, Elephant Garlic and Basil were identified as suitable options, with the final choice being that of Bamboo, Ginseng, Elephant Garlic and Basil, based on the criteria of High Profitability and potential spin-off secondary and tertiary industries.

Existing Crops Selection

Food Crops Barley Rice Maize Millet Wheat

Cash crops Chilli Garlic Ginger Oil Seed Potato

New Crops Selection

Types of Crops

Bamboo

Ginseng

Elephant Garlic

Basil

Profit (USD/m2)

71

89+ (mature roots only)

89

0.60

Crop Area (Crops/m2)

2.37

711

172

80

Harvesting cycle (years)

3-4

3-6

1

10-12 weeks

Crop spacing (cm)

500 x 500

7.5 x 7.5

15 x 15

20 - 25

Compatible to grow with

Sugarcane

Hardwoods trees (to provide shade)

Beets, Carrots, Cucumbers, Dill, Tomatoes, Parsnips

Tomato

Minimum area (acres)

0.25

0.15

-

-

Building material Landscape Food Paper Medicine

Flowers (fresh/dried) Sachets Soap Candle Oil Skin care products

Garlic food products Garlic insecticide Garlic scapes Deer repellant spray Medical extract

Food Basil Essential Oil Basil extract for medicine

Spin-off industries

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Crop systems Crop Pattern: Monocropping

Sugar

Maize

Wheat

Sugarcane

Potato

Lentil

Soya bean

Depth/cm:

~ 25

~ 25

~ 25

~ 25

~ 50

~ 25

~ 25

Distance between Plants/cm:

~ 10-20

~ 10-20

~ 10-20

~ 10-20

~20-30

~ 10-20

~ 30-40

Distance between Rows/cm:

~ 10-20

~ 10-20

~ 10-20

~ 10-20

~20-30

~ 10-20

~ 30-40

Intercrop distance/cm:

~20-30

~20-30

~20-30

~20-30

~45-70

~25-35

~90-150

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Crop Pattern: Monocropping Different intercropping pattern and configuration are explored to determine which pattern and crops are compatible for intercropping. Intercropping allows for more crops to be farmed in a given area. Intercropping of certain combination of crops also prevent soil disease outbreak, increasing productivity and output. From this exploration, lentils and soybean are added to the list of selected crops as they are found to aid the growth of other crops when intercropped. Intercropping combinations: Bamboo x Sugarcane Ginseng x Pinetree Soybean x Sugarcane Lentil x Potato Soybean x Lentils The different possible geometric patterns, such as grid and hexagons, for each intercropping combination were then explored. The most suitable results from the geometric exploration were chosen and will be used in the inter-cropping system.

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Phasing of Development P PHASE 0

RIVER BRIADING + CREATION OF PLATEAUS

P PHASE I PHASE II

PHASE III

P PHASE IV

FOOD SECURITY INTRODUCTION OF HIGH-VALUE CROPS + PROCESSING FACTORIES INTRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL TREATING INDUSTRIES INTRODUCTION OF DELICATE CROPS + FERMENTATION INDUSTRY

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Phasing Overview Project Timeline

TIME

TERRAIN AND INFRASTRUCTURE HOUSING FOOD SECURITY

Food crops (Subsistence): Rice | Maize | Bamboo | Potato | Soybean

Food crops (Subsistence): Rice | Maize | Bamboo | Potato | Soybean

KNOWLEDGE HIGH-VALUED CROPS + PROCESSING FACTORIES CHEMICAL SOLVENT PRODUCTION

Higher valued crops: Sugarcane | Elephant Garlic Processing Factories: Sugar | Food | Animal Feeds

Food crops (Subsistence): Rice | Maize | Bamboo | Potato | Soybean

Higher valued crops: Sugarcane | Elephant Garlic Processing Factories: Sugar | Food | Animal Feeds

Chemical Industries: Furnitures | Paper | Textile

Food crops (Subsistence): Rice | Maize | Bamboo | Potato | Soybean

Higher valued crops: Sugarcane | Elephant Garlic Processing Factories: Sugar | Food | Animal Feeds

Chemical Industries: Furnitures | Paper | Textile

Food crops (Subsistence): Rice | Maize | Bamboo | Potato | Soybean

Higher valued crops: Sugarcane | Elephant Garlic Processing Factories: Sugar | Food | Animal Feeds

Chemical Industries: Furnitures | Paper | Textile

Higher valued crops: Sugarcane | Elephant Garlic Processing Factories: Sugar | Food | Animal Feeds

Chemical Industries: Furnitures | Paper | Textile Chemical Industries: Furnitures | Paper | Textile

DELICATE CROPS + FERMENTATION INDUSTRY

Dedicated Crops: Ginseng Fermentativon Industries: Medical | Ethanol | Candles | Whiskey | Syrup

54

Dedicated Crops: Ginseng Fermentativon Industries: Medical | Ethanol | Candles | Whiskey | Syrup

Dedicated Crops: Ginseng Fermentativon Industries: Medical | Ethanol | Candles | Whiskey | Syrup

Dedicated Crops: Ginseng Fermentativon Industries: Medical | Ethanol | Candles | Whiskey | Syrup

Dedicated Crops: Ginseng Fermentativon Industries: Medical | Ethanol | Candles | Whiskey | Syrup


Phase I: Food security Food Crops in Agriculture to achieve sustenance In Phase I, the main objective is to achieve food security and sustenance. As such, key agriculture reintroduced at this phase are food crops. These crops will also be the ones that are already existing on site so that crops can be cultivated immediately without a need for the residents to pick up new knowledge. Crops to be introduced in the first phase are rice, maize, lentils, soybean and potato.

EXTRACTION FACTORY GINSENG

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, segementing, drying, packing

ELEPHANT GARLIC

GINSENG SUPPLEMENT

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, segementing, drying, packing

GINSENG ELEPHANT GARLIC Bagasse by-product

SUGARCANE

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

PROCESSING FACTORY washing, shreddering, milling

Harvesting, packing

FERMENTATION FACTORY

ethanol

RAW SUGAR WHITE SUGAR

SOY BEAN

RIVER BRAIDING

PLATEAUS HIGHER GROUND

RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS

MORE FERTILE LAND

PLATEAUS HIGHER GROUND

BAMBOO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, threshing, drying

Harvesting, packing

ANIMAL FEEDS Landscape

Harvesting, de-branching, cutting, packing

PROCESSING FACTORY

FOOD

PROCESSING/SOLVENT TREATMENT

FURNITURE

RICE GRAIN PAPER MILLING FACTORY

PROCESSING/SOLVENT TREATMENT

FLOUR

GERM CORN

POTATO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

MAIZE

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

FOOD

Harvesting, packing

ISOLATE PLATEAUS Non-Flood Resistance Cash Crops

EXTRACTION FACTORY

PROCESSING FACTORY

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

CLOSER TO MAIN ROADS Factories

Wet Agriculture RICE

POTATO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

EXTRACTION FACTORY

STARCH

vegetable oil

CORN SYRUP

FERMENTATION FACTORY

ETHANOL

WHISKEY

55

TEXTILE

SOY CANDLES


Phase II: High-value Crops + Processing Factories + Education Expansion of Production Chain into higher-value secondary industries In Phase II, the production chain will be expanded by the introduction of higher valued crops and processing factories for secondary industry. Education will also be inject at this point to prepare the population for further expansion. In the second phase, sugarcane, bamboo and elephant garlic is introduced.

EXTRACTION FACTORY GINSENG

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, segementing, drying, packing

ELEPHANT GARLIC

GINSENG SUPPLEMENT

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, segementing, drying, packing

GINSENG ELEPHANT GARLIC Bagasse by-product

SUGARCANE

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

PROCESSING FACTORY washing, shreddering, milling

Harvesting, packing

FERMENTATION FACTORY

ethanol

RAW SUGAR WHITE SUGAR

SOY BEAN

RIVER BRAIDING

PLATEAUS HIGHER GROUND

EDUCATION RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS

MORE FERTILE LAND

PLATEAUS HIGHER GROUND

BAMBOO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, threshing, drying

Harvesting, packing

Landscape

Harvesting, de-branching, cutting, packing

PROCESSING FACTORY

FOOD

PROCESSING/SOLVENT TREATMENT

FURNITURE

RICE GRAIN PAPER MILLING FACTORY

PROCESSING/SOLVENT TREATMENT

FLOUR

GERM CORN

ANIMAL FEEDS

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

MAIZE

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

FOOD POTATO

Harvesting, packing

ISOLATE PLATEAUS Non-Flood Resistance Cash Crops

EXTRACTION FACTORY

PROCESSING FACTORY

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

CLOSER TO MAIN ROADS Factories

Wet Agriculture RICE

POTATO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

EXTRACTION FACTORY

STARCH

vegetable oil

CORN SYRUP

FERMENTATION FACTORY

ETHANOL

WHISKEY

56

TEXTILE

SOY CANDLES


Phase III: Chemical treating industries Further expansion of production chain into chemical services In the Phase III, there is a further expansion of production chain into chemical services, including extraction and processing solvents industries.

EXTRACTION FACTORY GINSENG

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, segementing, drying, packing

ELEPHANT GARLIC

GINSENG SUPPLEMENT

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, segementing, drying, packing

GINSENG ELEPHANT GARLIC Bagasse by-product

SUGARCANE

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

PROCESSING FACTORY washing, shreddering, milling

Harvesting, packing

FERMENTATION FACTORY

ethanol

RAW SUGAR WHITE SUGAR

SOY BEAN

RIVER BRAIDING

PLATEAUS HIGHER GROUND

RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS

PLATEAUS HIGHER GROUND

MORE FERTILE LAND

BAMBOO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, threshing, drying

Harvesting, packing

ANIMAL FEEDS Landscape

Harvesting, de-branching, cutting, packing

PROCESSING FACTORY

FOOD

PROCESSING/SOLVENT TREATMENT

FURNITURE

RICE GRAIN PAPER MILLING FACTORY

PROCESSING/SOLVENT TREATMENT

FLOUR

GERM CORN

POTATO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

MAIZE

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

FOOD

Harvesting, packing

ISOLATE PLATEAUS Non-Flood Resistance Cash Crops

EXTRACTION FACTORY

PROCESSING FACTORY

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

CLOSER TO MAIN ROADS Factories

Wet Agriculture RICE

POTATO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

EXTRACTION FACTORY

STARCH

vegetable oil

CORN SYRUP

FERMENTATION FACTORY

ETHANOL

WHISKEY

57

TEXTILE

SOY CANDLES


Phase IV: Delicate Crops + Fermentation Industry + Research & Development Further expansion into agriculture and production chain + production of education In Phase IV, high-valued and delicate crops like ginseng are introduced. Fermentation industry is introduced and the beginning of production of education as well, in form of R&D.

EXTRACTION FACTORY GINSENG

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, segementing, drying, packing

ELEPHANT GARLIC

GINSENG SUPPLEMENT

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, segementing, drying, packing

GINSENG ELEPHANT GARLIC Bagasse by-product

SUGARCANE

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

PROCESSING FACTORY washing, shreddering, milling

Harvesting, packing

FERMENTATION FACTORY

ethanol

RAW SUGAR WHITE SUGAR

SOY BEAN

RIVER BRAIDING

PLATEAUS HIGHER GROUND

EDUCATION RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS

MORE FERTILE LAND

PLATEAUS HIGHER GROUND

BAMBOO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

Harvesting, threshing, drying

Harvesting, packing

Landscape

Harvesting, de-branching, cutting, packing

PROCESSING FACTORY

FOOD

PROCESSING/SOLVENT TREATMENT

FURNITURE

RICE GRAIN PAPER MILLING FACTORY

PROCESSING/SOLVENT TREATMENT

FLOUR

GERM CORN

ANIMAL FEEDS

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

MAIZE

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

FOOD POTATO

Harvesting, packing

ISOLATE PLATEAUS Non-Flood Resistance Cash Crops

EXTRACTION FACTORY

PROCESSING FACTORY

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

CLOSER TO MAIN ROADS Factories

Wet Agriculture RICE

POTATO

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITY

EXTRACTION FACTORY

STARCH

vegetable oil

CORN SYRUP

FERMENTATION FACTORY

ETHANOL

WHISKEY

58

TEXTILE

SOY CANDLES


Crop Phasing Crops, relative flood tolerance and phase of introduction

River

Rice

Maize

Lentil

Soybean

Potato

Sugarcane

Bamboo

Elephant Garlic

Ginseng

Minimum wage Farming plots

5000m2

4200m2

6300m2

5000m2

PHASE I FOOD SECURITY crops to achieve sustenance

650m2

2000m2

2000m2

500m2

300m2

PHASE IV PHASE II HIGH-VALUE CROPS DELICATE CROPS cash crops cash crops

59


CAN DESIGN CREATE AN ALTERNATIVE?

60


“In the face of modernized production techniques and the expansion and rationalization of the market, the architect, as producer of ‘objects’, became an incongruous figure. It was no longer a question of giving form to single elements of the urban fabric, not even to simple prototypes. Once the true unity of the production cycle has been identified in the city, the only task the architect can have is to organize the cycle. Taking this proposition to its extreme conclusion, Hilberseimer insists on the role of elaborating ‘organizational models’ as the only one that can fully reflect the need for Taylorizing building production, as the newest task of the technician, who is now completely integrated into this process. On the basis of this position, Hilberseimer was able to avoid involvement in the ‘crisis of the object so anxiously articulated by such architect as Loos and Taut. For Hilberseimer, the object was not in crisis because it had already disappeared from his spectrum of considerations. The only emerging imperative was that dictated by the laws of organization, and therein lies what has been correctly seen as Hilberseimer’s greatest contribution” - Manfredo Tafuri, “Towards a Critique of Architectural Ideology”

61


Programmatic Arrangement / Spatial Adjacency Productive System Our urban agenda is to push beyond the mere optimisation of the system. However, there is a need for certain degree of efficiency in every productive system in order for it to be sustainable. Therefore, our primary focus is to increment and intensify production system to achieve autonomy and economy before moving to production of knowledge.

MAIZE 4000 m2 15 workers

POTATOE 800 m2 15 workers

max 280M

max 280M

600 m2 --/ workers

600 m2 --/ workers

max 400M

500 m2 15 workers

PROCESSING 5 m2 min 125000 m2 300 workers

500 m2 15 workers m

1000 m2 --/ workers

max 350M

600 m2 --/ workers

ax

45 0M

max 60

0M

SOCIAL MARKET 500M max

BAMBOO 1000 m2 25 workers

max 200M

600 m2 --/ workers

SOY BEAN - m2 15 workers

max 280M

1500 m2 --/ workers

GARLIC - m2 15 workers

max 350M

1500 m2 --/ workers

max 350M

100 m2 --/ workers

GINSENG 600 m2 15 workers

max 400M

M 00

SUGARCANE 2000 m2 15 workers

max 280M

x4 ma

Our programmatic allocation is closely related to the spatial adjacent where we studied the process and the spatial relationship of the productive system. In the example of rice, the rice wetland is spatially related to the pre-processing facilities by 280m, to the milling factories to 400m and to the social market by 400m.

RICE 5000 m2 15 workers

M 00 x4 ma

max 400M

500 m2 15 workers

PROCESSING 5 m2 min 40,000 m2 250 workers

MILLING FACTORY 50 m2 20 workers max 280M RICE FARM 5000 m2 15 workers

PRE-PROCESSING FACILITIES (>2m) 600 m2 --/ workers

max 400M

1km from main highway max 40

0M

max

SOCIAL MARKET

62

150M

RESIDENTIALS

max 150M

RESIDENTIALS


63


Index Slope Analysis to determine positions of Farmland

64


Programmatic Arrangement Pre-processing factories from Farmland

65


Programmatic Arrangement Pre-processing factories from Farmland

66


Programmatic Arrangement Milling factories from Pre-processing factories

67


Programmatic Arrangement Milling factories from Pre-processing factories

68


Programmatic Arrangement Social Market from Milling Factories

69


Programmatic Arrangement Pre-processing factories, Milling Factories, Social Markets

70


ROAD DEVELOPMENT

71


From the previous section, the processing factories are placed on the 2m elevation. Thus, the main internal roads are position on the 2m elevation around the plateaus.

Road Network Main Internal Road around each plateau

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0

+4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0 +5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0 +1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0

+3.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0 +1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+3.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+2.0 +1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0 +4.0

+5.0

+1.0 +2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0

+1.0

LEGEND Plateau Roads 0

1km

2 km

4 km

N

Nepal-India Border

72

Pre-Processing Factories


The shortest path is drawn between neighbouring plateaus and roads to form the initial road network within the river briads.

Road Network Links between Plateaus and Plateaus, Plateaus and Main Roads

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +2.0

+1.0

+4.0 +4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0 +5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0 +1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0 +1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+2.0 +1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0 +4.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +4.0

+1.0

LEGEND Main Roads 0

1km

Links to Plateaus or Roads 2 km

4 km

N

Nepal-India Border

73

Pre-Processing Factories


The road networks are expanded to connect with the existing primary highway of the site. This is to leverage on the pre-existing road networks to the trade area.

Road Network All Road Networks

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0

+4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0

+7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0 +5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0 +1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+3.0 +4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0 +1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0 +1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+4.0

+3.0 +4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0

+3.0 +2.0 +1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0

+3.0

+1.0

+2.0

+5.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0 +4.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0

+1.0

LEGEND Road Networks 0

1km

2 km

4 km

N

Nepal-India Border

74

Pre-Processing Factories


A space syntax based on road use frequency is ran to analyze the productivity of the roads.

Road Network Road Use Frequency

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0

+4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0 +5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0 +3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+4.0

+3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0 +1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+2.0 +1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0 +4.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.

0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.

0 +1.0

LEGEND Main Roads 0

1km

Frequency of Roads 2 km

4 km

N Nepal-India Border

75

Pre-Processing Factories


Based on results from the rpad syntax, the heirarchy of roads is determined. Frequency used roads will become the main roads.

Road Network Main Roads based on Frequency of Use

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0

+4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0 +5.0

+5.0

+5.0 +6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0 +1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+4.0

+3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0

+3.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0 +1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+3.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+2.0 +1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0 +4.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.

0

+1.0

LEGEND Main Roads 0

1km

Plateau Secondary Roads 2 km

4 km

Plateau Tertiary Roads N

Connections between Plateaus and Main Roads

Nepal-India Border

76

Pre-Processing Factories


To begin to determine the locations of transportation facilities, the intersection between the plateaus and main road is drawn.

Transportation Network Connections between Plateaus and Main Roads

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0

+4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0

+7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0 +5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0 +1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+3.0 +4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0 +1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0 +1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+2.0 +1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0

+3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0 +4.0

+5.0

+1.0 +2.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0 +4.

0

+1.0

LEGEND Main Roads 0

1km

Plateau Secondary Roads 2 km

4 km

Plateau Tertiary Roads

Connections between Plateaus and Main Roads

N Nepal-India Border

77

Pre-Processing Factories


A radius of 350m is drawn.

Transportation Network Radius of Proximity of Node

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0 +4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0

+7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0 +1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0 +3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+3.0 +4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0 +1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0 +1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+3.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+2.0 +1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0

+3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0

+4.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0 +4.0

+1.0

LEGEND Main Roads 0

1km

Plateau Secondary Roads 2 km

4 km

Connections between Plateaus and Main Roads

350m radius from each connection

N Nepal-India Border

78

Pre-Processing Factories


Radius that overlap are eliminated.

Transportation Network Selected Radius of Proximity of Node

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0

+4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0 +6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+3.0 +4.0

+4.0

+3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0

+3.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0 +1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+2.0 +1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0

+3.0

+1.0

+2.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0 +4.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0 +4.

0

+1.0

LEGEND Main Roads 0

1km

Plateau Secondary Roads 2 km

4 km

Transport Node (Bus Stop + Bike Stop)

350m radius from each connection

N Nepal-India Border

79

Pre-Processing Factories


Transportation Network Transport Nodes

+1.0 +2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+4.0

+4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +7.0 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+1.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0 +6.0

+2.0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+3.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0

+4.0

+2.0

+3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +1.0

+2.0

+4.0 +3.0

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+4.0

+3.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0+2.0

+3.0 +4.0 +2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+1.0

+4.0 +3.0

+3.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+4.0

+3.0

+4.0 +5.0

+3.0

+2.0 +3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+1.0 +3.0

+4.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+1.0

+2.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0

+4.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0 +1.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.0 +4.0

+5.0

+1.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

+2.0

+2.0

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+3.0 +2.0

+4.

0

+1.0

LEGEND Main Roads 0

1km

Plateau Secondary Roads 2 km

4 km

Transport Node (Bus Stop + Bike Stop) N Nepal-India Border

80

Pre-Processing Factories


Transportation Network Nodes for Bus Stops and Bike Stops

81


Road Network Macro View

82


Macro View Road Network + Residential Placement

83


Macro View Site Overview

84


RESIDENTIAL ZOOM-IN PLATEAU DEVELOPMENT

85


Every crop have different characteristics in accordance to flood resistivity and slope tolerance, thus this helps in the allocation of crops across the site

Crop Systems Slope Analysis

Flood Resistant

Rice (0-1m) Maize (1- >2m)

Well-drained soil (on slope)

Soyabean Bamboo Sugarcane Elephant Garlic

Well-drained and shaded (on North/South-facing slope)

Ginseng

Proximity to water

Potatoes

86


Crop Systems Crop Allocation

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0 +1

R IC +3 +4

.0

.0

.0

AT O

R IC

+5.0

.0

.0

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

P OT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

MA

+4 +3 + 2 .0.0

+4.0

+6.0

E

+2

IZ E +2

+

5 .0

+6 .0

+1.0

+5.0 +4 .0

+5 .0

+4

.0

+ 5 .0

+5.0

+3 .0

+1.0

RI +1 .0

.0 +4

+ 4 .0

+5

.0 +3

.0

+1.0 +1 .0

SOYA BEAN

+3

.0

+2

.0

RICE MAIZE +1

SUGARCANE

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+5 .0 +4 .0

.0

RI

CE

POTATO

87

CE

.0

E


Programmatic Arrangement Varying Radius of Proximity for Different Crops

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0

+1

+4.0

+6.0

E

50

M

SO

BE YA

+2

AN

+3

+4

.0

.0

.0

AT O

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

P OT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

+4 +3 .0 + 2 .0.0

R IC

+3

MA

IZ E +2

+2

.0

TO +5

M

.0

+ 5 .0

+2

+5 .0

80

S

+4 .0 +3 .0

U

G

00

M +5.0 +4 .0

+5.0

A

R

C

A

+1.0

N

E

RI +

+5

CE

+ 4 .0

RI

.0 +4

.0 +3

80

+2

M

80

M

+ 1.

MA

IZ E

+1.0

+2

.0

SOYA BEAN

+3

.0

+2

.0

RICE MAIZE +1

SUGARCANE

.0

RI

CE

POTATO

88

0

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

M +5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

50

+4

.0

+3

.0

TA

+6

+1.0

PO

BAMBOO

+5

1. 0

CE

.0

E


Programmatic Arrangement Location of Pre-processing Factories from Farmland

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0

+1

R IC AN

+3

+4

.0

.0

.0

AT O

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

P OT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

+4 +3 .0 + 2 .0.0

+4.0

+6.0

E

SO

BE YA

+2

MA

IZ E +2

.0

.0

TO

.0

TA

+6

+1.0

+5

PO

.0

+4

.0

S

+4 .0 +3 .0

U

G

A

R

C

+5.0

A

+1.0

N

E

RI +

+5

CE

.0 +4

CE

1. 0

+ 4 .0

RI

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+ 5 .0

+5 .0

+5.0 +4 .0

BAMBOO

+5

E

.0 +3

.0

+1.0 0

MA

IZ E

+ 1.

SOYA BEAN

+3

.0

+2

.0

RICE MAIZE SUGARCANE

.0

RI

NODES

+1

CE

POTATO

89

PRE-PROCESSING


Based on the distance parameter of the production system, a radius of the respective distance required for each particular crop is drawn from the farmlands (cover as much of the farmlands as possible). From the intersections, the preprocessing factories can be located. They are placed in the area of the highest degree of overlap to optimize the number of preprocessing factories required as they can be shared across different croplands.

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 +5.

+6.0

+5

.0 +4. 0

+1

.0

+1 .0 +1

+4.0

+6.0

YA

BE

AN

+3

+4

.0

.0

.0

.0

+1. 0

PO TA

+6 .0

+5

.0

TO

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1 .0

+4

.0

+4. +3. 0 +2 .0 0

RI CE

+2

SO

M AI

E

ZE .0 +2

+5

.0

+6

TA

.0

TO +5 .0

+4

.0

S

U

G

A

R

C

+5.0

A

+1.0

N

E

R IC +1.

The same approach is applied to locate the social market.

+ 5.

E

E

0

+4 .0

R IC

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0 +2. 0

+5 .0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0

+5.0 +4.0

BAMBOO

+1.0

PO

Using the same logic, draw the radius from the preprocessing factories to locate the milling factories.

0

+ 4.

0

+ 3.

0

+1.0

0

M AI

ZE

+1.

SOYA BEAN

+ 3.

0

+ 2.

0

RICE MAIZE +1

.0

R IC

SUGARCANE

E

POTATO DEGREE OF OVERLAP 5

+7

4

3

2

.0

.0 +6 +5 .0

+6.0

+5

.0 +4. 0

+1

.0

+1 .0 +1

+4.0

+6.0

YA

BE

AN

+3

+4

.0

TO

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1. 0

PO TA

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

+4. +3. 0 +2 .0 0

RI CE

+2

SO

M AI

+2 +5

E

ZE .0

.0

+6

TO +5 .0

+4

.0

S

U

G

A

R

C

+5.0

A

+1.0

N

E

R IC +1.

+ 5.

E

E

0

+4 .0

R IC

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0 +2. 0

+5 .0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0

+5.0 +4.0

BAMBOO

TA

.0

+1.0

PO

0

+ 4.

0

+ 3.

0

+1.0 0

M AI

ZE

+1.

SOYA BEAN

+ 3.

0

+ 2.

0

MAIZE +1

SUGARCANE

.0

R IC

E

NODES

RICE

PRE-PROCESSING

POTATO DEGREE OF OVERLAP 5

90

4

3

2


Programmatic Arrangement Location of Pre-processing Factories from Farmland

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0

+1

+4.0

+6.0

E

00

M

SO

BE YA

+2

AN

+3 +4

.0

.0

.0

AT O

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

P OT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

+4 +3 .0 + 2 .0.0

R IC

+4

MA

IZ E +2

.0

.0

TO

.0

TA

+6

+1.0

+5

PO

.0

+4

.0

S

+4 .0

U

+3 .0

G

A

R

C

+5.0

A

+1.0

N

E

RI +

+5

CE

.0 +4

CE

1. 0

+ 4 .0

RI

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+ 5 .0

+5 .0

+5.0 +4 .0

BAMBOO

+5

E

.0 +3

.0

+1.0

0

MA

IZ E

+ 1.

SOYA BEAN

+3

.0

+2

.0

RICE

+1

SUGARCANE

NODES

MAIZE .0

RI

CE

POTATO

91

PRE-PROCESSING


+7

.0

.0 +6 +5 .0

+5

+6.0

.0 +4. 0

+1

.0

+1 .0

+1

+4.0

+6.0

YA

BE

AN

+3

+4

.0

TO

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1. 0

PO TA

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

+4. +3. 0 +2 .0 0

RI CE

+2

SO

M AI

+2 +5

E

ZE .0

.0

+6

TO +5 .0

+4

.0

S

+4. 0 +3. 0

U

G

A

R

C

+5.0 +4.0

+5.0

A

+1.0

N

E

R IC +1.

+ 5.

E

E

0

+4 .0

R IC

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0 +2. 0

+5 .0

+5. 0

BAMBOO

TA

.0

+1.0

PO

0

+ 4.

0

+ 3.

0

+1.0

0

M AI

ZE

+1.

SOYA BEAN

+ 3.

0

+ 2.

0

MAIZE +1

SUGARCANE

.0

R IC

E

NODES

RICE

PRE-PROCESSING

POTATO DEGREE OF OVERLAP 3

92

2


Programmatic Arrangement Location of Pre-processing Factories from Farmland

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

+4

00

.0

M

+ 1 .0

+1

R IC YA

+2

N +3 +4

.0

.0

.0

AT O

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

P OT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

+4 +3 .0 + 2 .0.0

+4.0

+6.0

E

SO

A BE

MA

IZ E +2

.0

.0

TO

.0

TA

+6

+1.0

+5

PO

.0

+4

.0

S

+4 .0 +3 .0

U

G

A

R

C

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+ 5 .0

+5 .0

+5.0 +4 .0

BAMBO O

+5

E

A

+1.0

N

E

RI

CE

+1 .0

+5

CE

+ 4 .0

RI

.0 +4

.0 +3

.0

+1.0

MA

IZ E

+1 .0

SOYA BEAN

+3

.0

+2

.0

RICE

+1

SUGARCANE

NODES

MAIZE .0

RI

CE

POTATO

93

MILL PRE-PROCESSING


+7

.0

.0 +6 0 +5.

+6.0

+5

.0 +4. 0

+1

.0

+1 .0

+1

+4.0

+6.0

YA

BE

AN

+3

+4

.0

.0

.0

.0

+1. 0

PO TA

+6 .0

+5

.0

TO

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1 .0

+4

.0

+4. +3. 0 +2 .0 0

RI CE

+2

SO

M AI

+2

+5

E

ZE .0

.0 +6

TA

.0

TO +5 .0

+4

.0

S

U

G

A

R

C

+5.0

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0 +2. 0

+5 .0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0

+5.0 +4.0

BAMBOO

+1.0

PO

A

+1.0

N

E

R IC +1.

E

0

+4 .0

R IC

+5

E

.0 +4

.0 +3

.0

+1.0

0

M AI

ZE

+1.

SOYA BEAN

+3

.0

+2

.0

RICE

+1

.0

R IC

SUGARCANE

SOCIAL MARKET

NODES

MAIZE E

MILL PRE-PROCESSING

POTATO DEGREE OF OVERLAP 3

+7

2

.0

.0 +6 +5 .0

+6.0

+5

.0 +4. 0

+1

.0

+1 .0

+1

+4.0

+6.0

YA

BE

AN

+3

+4

.0

TO

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1. 0

PO TA

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

+4. +3. 0 +2 .0 0

RI CE

+2

SO

M AI

E

ZE .0 +2

+5

.0

+6

TO +5 .0

+4

.0

S

U

G

A

R

C

+5.0

A

+1.0

N

E

R IC +1.

+ 5.

E

E

0

+4 .0

R IC

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0 +2. 0

+5 .0

+5. 0 +4. 0 +3. 0

+5.0 +4.0

BAMBOO

TA

.0

+1.0

PO

0

+ 4.

0

+ 3.

0

+1.0 0

M AI

ZE

+1.

SOYA BEAN

+ 3.

0

+ 2.

0

MAIZE +1

SUGARCANE

.0

R IC

E

NODES

RICE

MILL PRE-PROCESSING

POTATO DEGREE OF OVERLAP 3

94

2


Programmatic Arrangement Location of Pre-processing Factories, Milling Factories and Social Market

+1

The processing factory is located 1km from the main road as it is heavily export-based hence, require limited to no need of a relationship with the other facilities.

KM +7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0

+1

R IC YA

+2

N +3

+4

.0

.0

.0

AT O

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

P OT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

+4 +3 .0 + 2 .0.0

+4.0

+6.0

E

SO

A BE

MA

IZ E +2

.0

.0

TO

.0

TA

+6

+1.0

+5

PO

.0

+4

.0

S

+4 .0 +3 .0

U

G

A

R

C

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+ 5 .0

+5 .0

+5.0 +4 .0

BAMBOO

+5

E

A

+1.0

N

E

RI

CE

+1 .0

+5

CE

+ 4 .0

RI

.0 +4

.0 +3

.0

+1.0

MA

IZ E

+1 .0

SOYA BEAN

+3

.0

+2

.0

RICE MAIZE

SOCIAL MARKET

SUGARCANE

0

RI

NODES

. +1

CE

POTATO

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY

95


Programmatic Arrangement Residential Path Allocation

Based on the production nodes, the road network is designed to connect the nodes of the production system. It is created fundamentally from the contours of the site, further branching of the roads from the contours are created to achieve the shortest way to travel according to the production system.

(1) MIDPOINT BETWEEN MAIN ROADS +7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+5.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0

+4.0

This road network serves as the Infrastructure spine that facilitate the design onwards and connect the plateaus across the site.The residential/pedestrian paths are developed from the road spline.

+6.0

+4.0

+1

+2

+6.0

+4.0

(2) CREATE PATH (WITH RESPECT TO NEARBY CONTOUR IF ANY)

+3

+4

.0

.0

.0

.0

+1 .0

+6 .0

+5.0

+5.0

+4.0

+

.0

5 .0

+4 +3 .0 + 2 .0.0

+4

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4.0

+2 +5

.0

.0

+6 .0

+1.0

+5.0 +4 .0

+5 +4

.0

(3) IF SUFFICIENT SPACE: MIDPOINT LINE IF NOT: BRANCH TO MAIN ROAD

.0

+ 5 .0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5 .0

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+4 .0 +3 .0

+4.0

+1.0

+5.0

+

+4

.0 +3

.0

+1.0

(4) OFFSET TO CREATE ROAD THICKNESS

0

+ 4 .0

+4.0

+ 1.

0 5.

+ 1.

0

INFRASTRUCTURAL SPINE OF PRODUCTION NODES

+4.0

+3

.0

+4.0

+2 +5.0

SECONDARY CONNECTION TO SOCIAL MARKETS

.0

PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS SOCIAL MARKET

5) PEDESTRIAN PATH FORMATION .0

NODES

+1

+5.0

+4.0

+4.0

96

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY


Programmatic Arrangement Road Network

The roads are structured around the infrastructure spline, residential roads within and croproads around.Agricultural plots are integrated and partitioned by the infrastructure spline, while the residential is built within the production system.

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0

+1

AN

+2 +3

+4

.0

.0

.0

ATO

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0

+5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

POT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

MA

IZ E +2

+5

.0

.0

TO +6 .0

+1.0

P

A OT

E

.0

BE

+4 +3 + 2 .0.0

+6.0

+4.0

S

A OY

+5.0 +4 .0

+5 .0

+4

.0

+ 5 .0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5 .0

SU

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+4 .0 +3 .0

G AR CA

+1.0

NE +1 .0

+

CE

+4

+ 4 .0

RI

0 5.

.0 .0

M

A

IZ

E

+3

+1.0 +1 .0

MAIN ROADS PRIMARY INTERNAL ROADS

+3

.0

+2

CROPLAND ROADS

.0

PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS SOCIAL MARKET 0

NODES

. +1

97

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY


Residential Possible residential allocation

To identity the residential allocation, we divided the pedestrian paths into points of 10m width in between each point as a way to achieve porosity and space for expansion.

.0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

SO

YA

BE

AN

+4.0

POT

+5.0.0 +4

+5.0

+4.0

+1.0

MA

TO

IZ E

.0

TA

E

+2

PO

R IC +4.0

+3.0

+5.0

ATO

+3.0

+4.0

+5.0

.0

+6

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+6

.0

+1.0

+5

+5.0

.0

+4.0 +3.0 +5.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

+2

+5 +5.0 .0 +4 +4.0 +3 +3.0

SU

.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

.0

.0

G AR CA NE +4.0

.0

.0

E

+3

IZ

+4

+1.0

.0

+3

PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS

.0 +2

POSSIBLE BUILDING PLACEMENTS

.0

+1

SOCIAL MARKET NODES

.0

+5

A

CE

M

RI

98

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY


Residential Point Field To further analysis and achieve a efficient and optimized way of circulation in the site, we populated the site with randomized by equally distributed points (to get all possible paths of movement).

.0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

SO

YA

BE

AN

+4.0

PO TA

+5.00 +4.

.0

+6

R IC

E

+4.0 +5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

M AI

ZE

+2

+4.0

+5.0

TO

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

We looked into the desired connections across all important points of infrastructure.

+5.0

.0

+5.0 +6

TA

.0

TO +5

.0

+4.0 +3.0 +5.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

+2

+5. +5.00 +4. +4.00

.0

SU

+3. +3.0 0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

By running the nodes on the populated field of points, it translates the desired connections into shortest paths along the randomized pathway to reach all production nodes.

+5.0

BAMBOO

+1.0

PO

G AR CA NE +4.0

.0

+5

E

.0

+4

.0

+3

M

A

IZ

E

R IC

+1.0

RANDOMISED PATHWAYS ACROSS THE SITE .0

+3

RANDOM POINTS EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED ACROSS THE SITE

.0 +2

.0

+1

SOCIAL MARKET NODES

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

.0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

SO

YA

BE

AN

+4.0

PO TA

.0 +6 +5.00 +4.

R IC

E

+4.0 +5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

M AI

ZE

+2

+4.0

+5.0

TO

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

.0

+5.0 +6

TA

.0

TO +5

.0

+4.0 +3.0

+5.0

+5.0

BAMBOO

+1.0

PO

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

+2

+5. +5.00

SU

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

.0

+4. +4.00 +3. +3.0 0

G AR CA NE +4.0

.0

E

+5

.0

+4

.0

+3

M

A

IZ

E

R IC

+1.0

SHORTEST PATHS BETWEEN NODES RANDOMISED PATHWAYS ACROSS THE SITE .0

+3

RANDOM POINTS EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED ACROSS THE SITE

.0 +2

.0

+1

NODES

SOCIAL MARKET MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

99


Residential Desired connections We looked into the desired connections across all important points of infrastructure to ensure that key route between residential and productive node is considered.

.0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

SO

YA

BE

AN

+4.0

PO TA

+5.00 +4.

.0

+6

R IC

E

+4.0 +5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

M AI

ZE

+2

+4.0

+5.0

TO

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

.0

+5.0

PO

TA

TO

+6

.0

+1.0

+5

+5.0

.0

+4.0 +3.0 +5.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

+2

+5. +5.00 +4. +4.00

SU

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

.0

+3. +3.0 0

G AR CA NE +4.0

.0

+5

E

.0

+4

.0

+3

M

A

IZ

E

R IC

+1.0

.0

+3

.0 +2

SOCIAL MARKET TO PRODUCTION NODES (MILL AND PRE-PROCESS)

.0

+1

SOCIAL MARKET NODES

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

.0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

.0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

AN

SO

YA

BE

AN

+4.0

+4.0

+5.00 +4.

+5.0

R IC

+5.0

+4.0

M AI

ZE

+1.0 .0

PO

TA

+5.0

TO

PO

+6

.0

+5.0

.0

TA

TO

+6

.0

+5

+1.0

+1.0

+5

+3.0

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

AR

AR

NE

NE

CA

CA

.0

R IC

.0

.0

E

+5

.0

+4

.0

+3

IZ

IZ

E

E

+3

A

A

M +1.0

+1.0

.0

+3

.0

+3

.0 +2

.0 +2

SOCIAL MARKET TO CROP LANDS .0

+1

BETWEEN PRODUCTION NODES (MILL TO PRE-PROCESS AND FACTORY)

.0

+1

SOCIAL MARKET

SOCIAL MARKET

MILL

NODES

NODES

+4

M

+5

+4.0

+4.0

.0

E

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

.0

+4. +4.00 +3. +3.0 0

G

G

R IC

+5.0

+2

+5. +5.00

SU

SU

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

.0

+4. +4.00 +3. +3.0 0

+5.0

+5.0

+5.0

+2

+5. +5.00

+5.0

.0

+4.0

+4.0 +3.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5.0

E

+4.0

+2

+5.0

TO

.0

+4.0

PO TA

+3.0

+1.0

+4.0

+5.0

ZE

+3.0

+3.0

M AI

.0

E

+2.0

R IC +4.0

+3.0

+5.0

TO

+1.0

+5.00 +4.

.0

+4.0

+6

PO TA

+6

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+2

BE

+5.0 +4.0

YA

+6.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

SO

PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

100


Residential NURBS line Polylines creates multiple overlaps which makes it difficult to identity the intersections. Thus by turning them into poly curves, it has a clearer view of the places of intersections. .0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

SO

YA

BE

AN

+4.0

POT

+5.0.0 +4

.0

+6

R IC

E

+4.0 +5.0

+4.0

+1.0

MA

IZ E

.0

+3.0

+2

+4.0

+5.0

ATO

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

+5.0

TA

+6

.0

TO +5

.0

+4.0 +3.0

+5.0

+5.0

BAMBOO

+1.0

PO

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

+2

+5 +5.0 .0 +4 +4.0 +3 +3.0

SU

.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

.0

.0

G AR CA NE +4.0

.0

.0

E

+3

IZ

+4

+1.0

SHORTEST PATHS BETWEEN NODES RANDOMISED PATHWAYS ACROSS THE SITE .0

+3

RANDOM POINTS EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED ACROSS THE SITE

.0 +2

.0

+1

SOCIAL MARKET NODES

.0

+5

A

CE

M

RI

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

101


Residential Desired connections By overlapping the shortest path map over the potential residential locations. At points of intersection between the residential lines and shortest path, the potential locations are eliminated to create a wider path of circulation. This achieves a ground porosity with subtlety towards the intended movement of people across different nodes.

.0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

SO

YA

BE

AN

+4.0

PO TA

+6 +5.00 +4.

.0

R IC

E

+4.0 +5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

M AI

ZE

+2

+4.0

+5.0

TO

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

.0

+5.0

PO

TA

TO

+6

.0

+1.0

+5

+5.0

.0

+4.0 +3.0

+5.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

+2

+5. +5.00

+4. +4.00

SU

+3. +3.0 0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

.0

G AR CA NE +4.0

.0

+5

E

.0

+4

.0

+3

M

A

IZ

E

R IC

+1.0

POROSITY LINES / SHORTEST PATHS .0

+3

PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS

.0 +2

INTERSECTIONS

.0

+1

SOCIAL MARKET NODES

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

.0 +7 +6.0 +5.0

+6.0 +5.0 +4.0

+5.0 +4.0

+6.0

SO

YA

BE

AN

+4.0

PO TA

+5.00 +4.

.0

+6

R IC

E

+4.0 +5.0

+4.0

+1.0

+3.0

M AI

ZE

+2

+4.0

+5.0

TO

+3.0

+2.0

+1.0

+5.0

.0

+5.0

PO

TA

TO

+6

.0

+1.0

+5

+5.0

.0

+4.0 +3.0

+5.0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0

+2

+5. +5.00

SU

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

.0

+4. +4.00 +3. +3.0 0

G AR CA NE +4.0

.0

E

+5

.0

+4

.0

+3

M

A

IZ

E

R IC

+1.0

POROSITY LINES / SHORTEST PATHS PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS .0

+3

POSSIBLE BUILDING PLACEMENTS

.0 +2

BUILDINGS REMOVED TO PROVIDE POROSITY

.0

+1

NODES

SOCIAL MARKET MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

102


Residential Finalised residential allocation

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0

+1

BE

AN

+2 +3 +4

.0

.0

.0

ATO

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

POT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

+4 +3 .0 + 2 .0.0

+6.0

+4.0

S

A OY

MA

IZ E +2

+5

.0

.0

TO +6 .0

+1.0

P

A OT

E

+5.0 +4 .0

+5 .0

+4

.0

+ 5 .0

+5.0 +4.0 +3.0 +2.0

+5 .0

SU

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+4 .0 +3 .0

G AR CA

+1.0

NE +1 .0

+

CE

+4

+ 4 .0

RI

0 5.

.0 .0

M

A

IZ

E

+3

+1.0

+1 .0

POROSITY LINES / SHORTEST PATHS +3

PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS

.0

+2

POSSIBLE BUILDING PLACEMENTS THAT PROVIDES POROSITY

.0

SOCIAL MARKET 0

NODES

. +1

MILL PRE-PROCESSING PROCESSING FACTORY CROPS

103


Residential Final Ground Plane

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0

+1

BE

AN

+2 +3

+4

.0

.0

.0

AT O

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

POT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

+4 +3 .0 + 2 .0.0

+6.0

+4.0

S

A OY

MA

IZ E +2

+5

.0

.0

O +6 .0

+1.0

PO

T TA

E

+5.0 +4 .0

+5 .0

+4

.0

+ 5 .0

SU

+3 .0

+5.0

+5 .0 +4 .0 +3 .0 +2 .0

+5 .0 +4 .0

+4.0 +3.0 +2.0

G AR CA

+1.0

NE + 1.

+

+4

.0 +3

.0

M

A

IZ

E

CE

0

+ 4 .0

RI

0 5.

+1.0

+ 1.

+3

.0

+2

+1

0

.0

.0

POROSITY LINES / SHORTEST PATHS PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS BRIDGES

104


Residential Final Infrastructure

+7

.0

.0 +6 0 + 5.

+5

+6.0

.0 +4 .0

+1

.0

+ 1 .0 +1

SO

BE YA

AN

+2 +3

+4

.0

.0

.0

AT O

R IC

+2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0

.0 + 5 .0 +4

+5

.0

+1 .0

POT

+6

+4.0

+3.0

+2.0

+ 1 .0

+4

.0

.0

.0

+4 + 3. .0 + 2 .0 0

+4.0

+6.0

MA

IZ E +2

+5

.0

.0

O +6 .0

+1.0

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G AR CA

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The build up of the infrastructure above the ground plane will follow the porosity lines to achieve the circulation intention of the porosity on the upper levels. This creates an alternative second level circulation, Thus, allowing movement from the center to the edges of the plateau as well as access to all points of interest horizontally and vertically.

+1.0

+ 1.

+3

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+1

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POROSITY LINES / SHORTEST PATHS

105


ALIENATION FROM CAPITAL THROUGH ABSTRACTION

106


“Unbridled technological development is partially complicit in amplifying [the multiple crises we face, socially, economically, and ecologically], but this is largely so because it is embedded in particular socio-political diagrams that set far more determinate constraints on what, for example, algorithms do, than what algorithms, as such, could do. The crux here lies in the “could,” which is a question of enablement [...] The concepts we construct to model a world delineate a landscape of possibility (what is, or the given), while often violently foreclosing others, making the struggle over them an essential battle to be collectively waged. These [conceptual] models (whether explicitly embraced and known, or mutely practiced) set up chains of incentives, reasoning, relations, valuation, categories and behavior—infusing all manner of material and/or computational actualization and directing the ways in which reality is intervened upon. Today we seem caught in routines of “changeless change,” with “innovation” largely monopolized by shareholders or confined to solutionist (false) promises, because our conceptual models have been calcified by what is. Substantial, enduring transformation is enabled at this conceptual level— plotting who we are, where we stand, who/what composes a “we,” and how we understand coexistence. These “conceptual battles” are also, quite obviously, long-term political ones, marking an affirmative labor in deontologising that which is given, leveraging a chasm between what is and what could be. To transform these conceptions of given-ness, a necessary, albeit always provisional myth, is to intervene in the world on a diagrammatic plane, both because of the potent nexus between ideality, materiality and reality, and because of our ability to grasp and be grasped by concepts. Concepts remodel us as much as we model them. We [must] hold the fallibility of our perspectives to be steadfastly true. Without the attentive embrace of fallibility, perspectives ossify into entrenched naturalizations of what is, confusing the accounting of a world with the world as such, like gazing at an object from a single, particular position and insisting on consolidating that view with the object’s full dimensionality.”

107


In phase I: Food security, the agriculture plots are mostly mono cropping to provide for the basic needs of the primary population.

Floor Plans Ground Level, Phase I

Based on the road syntax ran to analysis road use frequency, the main road of the infrastructure spline can serve as a production spline as well, whereby amenities are integrated into the production and residential network. Education facilities are located near the production facilities to empower the people and teach for future expansion of the industry. Social services are located near the residential while normal services are placed with the social market.

AGRICULTURE FARM

LEISURE FARM

Floor Plans Road Use Frequency

108

RESIDENTIALS


Floor Plans Ground Level, Phase I

PRE-PROCESSING FACTORIES Lorem ipsum EDUCATIONet, consectetuer MILLING FACTORYet,

SOCIAL AMENITIES

SOCIAL AMENITIES

SOCIAL MARKET SOCIAL AMENITIES PRE-PROCESSING FACTORIES SERVICES SOCIAL AMENITIES

EDUCATIONet, consectetuer

PRE-PROCESSING FACTORIES

AGRICULTURE FARM

LEISURE FARM

RESIDENTIALS

109


Floor Plans Level 2, Phase II

Phase 2, the landscape changes towards poly cropping systems to facilite the growth in population and need for diversity in the growing industry. The amenities are located at intersections of the building blocks to connect the upper floors to the ground activity. Bridges are formed to provided increase connectivity across the infrastructure.

EDUCATION SOCIAL AMENITIES BRIDGE (LINKING ALL LEVEL 2) SERVICES SOCIAL AMENITIES EDUCATION BRIDGE (LINKING ALL LEVEL 2) Lorem ipsum SERVICESt, consectetuer

Lorem ipsum dolor EDUCATIONet, consectetuer SOCIAL AMENITIES SERVICESt, Lorem ipsum dolor EDUCATIONeing SOCIAL AMENITIES BRIDGE (LINKING ALL LEVEL 2) Lorem ipsum dolor EDUCATIONet, consectetuer

AGRICULTURE FARM AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP)

LEISURE FARM

RESIDENTIALS

AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP)

110


Floor Plans Level 3, Phase III

The blocks are built radially to connect between the porosity lines to achieve a higher tier of circulation beyond centrality system.

SOCIAL AMENITIES, consectetuer

SERVICEet, consectetuer adipiscing

EDUCATIONet, consectetuer

EDUCATION, g EDUCATIONet, consectetuer

EDUCATIONet, consectetuer SOCIAL AMENITIES SOCIAL AMENITIES

SERVICESet, consectetuer adipiscing

AGRICULTURE FARM AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP)

AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP) AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP)

LEISURE FARM LEISURE FARM (INTERCROP)

111


Floor Plans Level 4, Phase IV

The buildings are built in a similar fashion as level 3, but in smaller fragments. The fragmentation of the buildings create a balance of indoor and outdoor spaces above ground to mediate the growing infrastructure density. g.

SOCIAL AMENITIES

EDUCATION

EDUCATION

SOCIAL AMENITIES

SOCIAL AMENITIES

EDUCATION

SERVICES

AGRICULTURE FARM (GINSENG) AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP)

AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP) AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP)

LEISURE FARM LEISURE FARM (INTERCROP)

112


Floor Plans Level 5, Phase IV

In phase IV, the building form follows the porsity lines to ensure connectivity. The introduction of ginseng can be seen from the agriculture landscape, where it is located within the community and in relation to the building density as the crop needs extra care and shading.

EDUCATION

SERVICES

EDUCATION

EDUCATION SERVICES EDUCATION

SOCIAL AMENITIES SOCIAL AMENITIES

AGRICULTURE FARM (GINSENG) AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP)

AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP) AGRICULTURE FARM (INTERCROP)

LEISURE FARM LEISURE FARM (INTERCROP)

113


Axometric Expansion Model

Phase I, Level 1: Food Security + Existing Population PHASE 4

INTRODUCTION OF DELICATE CROPS + FERMENTATION INDUSTRY + RESIDENTIALS

Phase II, Level 2: Introduction of High Value Crops + Processing Factories + Residential Phase III, Level 3: Introduction of Chemical Treating Industries + Residential

PHASE 3

INTRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL TREATING INDUSTRIES + RESIDENTIALS

Phase IV, Level 4, 5: Introduction of Delicate Crops + Fermentation Industry + Residential PHASE 2

INTRODUCTION OF HIGH VALUED CROPS + PROCESSING FACTORIES + RESIDENTIALS

OTHER PLATEAU (SAME DEVELOPMENT PROCESS)

OTHER PLATEAU (SAME DEVELOPMENT PROCESS)

CIRCULATION BRIDGES

POROSITY LINES CIRCULATION FROM SETTLEMENT CENTER TO THE CROPLANDS

PHASE 1

FOOD SECURITY + EXISTING POPULATION

PROGRAM LEGEND EDUCATION SOCIAL FACILTIES SOCIAL MARKET SERVICES PRE-PROCESSING FACILITIES

114


Perspective View

The repetition of the infrastructure logic contributes a continuous morphing of the landscape and infrastructure with the growth of the community and economy. The close interaction between agriculture production and social development allows a mixture of social and economic functionality that continues to balance out each other across the different phases.

Residential

Agricultural Farming

River Residential

Agricultural Farming Education Amenities

Communal Farming Communal Farming Social Market

Communal Farming

Amenities

Porosity of ground plane Connectivity of upper floors

Residential

Agricultural Farming

115


Final Plan

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POROSITY LINES / SHORTEST PATHS

116


Final Macro Plan

117


118

Lal Bakaiya  

Landscape Urbanism Studio for SUTD Spring Sustainable Option Studio | Masterplanning project in Nepal

Lal Bakaiya  

Landscape Urbanism Studio for SUTD Spring Sustainable Option Studio | Masterplanning project in Nepal

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