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CHENG CHEN 374431

AIR STUDIO


2013

CONTENT PART(A) CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.0 About me 03

A.0 About me 03

A.1 Architecture as a discourse 08

A.1 Architecture as a discourse 08

A.2 Computational Architecture20

A.2 Computational Architecture 20

A.3 Parametric Modeling 26 A.4 Conclusion 32 A.5 Learning outcomes 32 A.6 Algorithmic Exploration 34 A.7 Reference40

01 CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.3 Parametric Modeling 26 A.4 Conclusion 32 A.5 Learning outcomes 32 A.6 Algorithmic Exploration34 A.7 Reference 40

02 DESIGN APPROACH

03 PROJECT PROPOSAL


PART(B) DESIGN APPROACH

B.1 Design Focus 00

B.1 Design Focus 00

B.2 Case Study 1.0 00

B.2 Case Study 1.0 00

B.3 Case Study 2.0 00

B.3 Case Study 2.000

B.4 Technique: Development 00 B.5 Technique: Prototypes 00 B.6 Technique Proposal 00 B.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes 00 B.8 Algorithmic Sketches 00

B.4 Technique: Development 00 B.5 Technique: Prototypes 00 B.6 Technique Proposal 00 B.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes 00 B.8 Algorithmic Sketches 00

PART(C) PROJECT PROPOSAL

C.1 Gateway Project: Design Concept 00 C.2 Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements 00 C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model 00 C.4 Learning Objectives and Outcomes 00 C.5 Algorithmic Sketches 00 References 00

C.1 Gateway Project: Design Concept 00 C.2 Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements00 C.3 Gateway Project: Final Model 00 C.4 Learning Objectives and Outcomes 00 C.5 Algorithmic Sketches 00 References 00


SELF INTRODUCTION

PREVIOUS

EXPERIENCE ABOUT

ME


ABOUT ME

My name is Cheng Chen (Cc) an international student who has been in Australia for almost 4 years. Now, I am a third year (first semester) architecture student. I love architecture because I think it is a comprehensive subject which involves many fields such as arts, technology and design. Also I think it is architecture that connects human beings and surrounding environment together. During last summer, I had internship in a Chinese architecture company for almosttwo months. In that company, I found everyone uses sketch up for modeling because it is easy to use. Also, in China, university students who major in architecture have core subject about sketch up. They do not have opportunity to use rhino or BIM modeling program such as Revit. This limitation makes Chinese architecture company less competitive than Foreign countries’ company. After that internship, I realized I should learn rhino not just using sketch up. I have limited experience with rhino before only in virtual environment, I have used rhino once but for grasshopper, I have never met it before.

The air studio provides a great opportunity for leaning software and innovation design. I think what I have learnt in this subject will be so useful for my future career.


PART.A. CASE FO


OR INNOVATION


“ARCHITECTURE TO MAKE PEOPLE AWARE OF THEMSELVES IN THE WORLD.”

A.1 Architecture as Discourse

-Kjetil Thorsen


What is architecture? This question seems a simple question but it is hard to answer. Kjetil Thorse demonstrates“Architecture is a tool to create better societies in order to make people aware of themselves in the world.� From my point of view, architecture is a media which connects the human beings and surrounding environment together. Architecture relates to cultural context, political and social situation. People changed the behavior every time relate to the space they inhabited. Therefore, it is architecture that makes people have better habits in a way that to become a better man.


BEIJING2050

MA YANSONG


The Beijing 2050 is a proposal, used to envision Beijing’s future beyond 2008, which shows how architecture change the way people live and how architecture deal with overcrowded urban context of Beijing in the future. It contains three major projects in terms of “the floating Island over the CBD”(figure1.), “the renovation of Tiananmen square”(figure2.) and “the Future of the Hutongs”.(figure3.) Mad(the architect of Beijing 2050) states “China lacks of sustainability

and low carbon architecture which western country are highly developing thesedays.” 2 Therefore, he want to use this proposal to bring the idea of sustainability as a way to that using architecture change the way people live.


The Renovation of Tiananmen square Location : Beijing, China Typology: Urban intervention Directors: Ma Yansong, Yosuke Hayano, Dang Qun Design Team: Fu Changrui, Zheng Tao, Yu Kui Proposal


The renovation of Tiananmen Square is used to solve the problem of public space in China. From past to now, Tiananmen Square always plays an important role in China’s political role. Until now, it is still used for political gatherings and troop processions. In Mad’s eyes, “in the future massive political gatherings and troop processions may no longer be necessary.” I think the project-renovation of Tiananmen Square makes the original function changes in a way that it changes people’s behavior. As the figure 4 suggests the designer creates a lot of green space on the site a makes the square become an urban space filled with life and become the green heart in the center of Beijing. The renovation of Tiananmen Square

is the project for people not for property developers to make money. I think it is this project makes the whole city become appreciated and it will be a place for people releasing their stress and gathering with friends and family. With the development of China, green space become less and less, instead of walking with family, people choose to stay at home to play computer or watch TV. It is not the mistake of high technology because there is no green space for people doing the healthy thing in a way that it changes people’s behavior. Therefore, I think the architecture has the power to make people aware of themselves in the world and it has the power to motivate people’s habit. As a consequence, architecture is such an important element to the whole world.


What is this project about? How architecture change the way people live? As Mad states that “ Hutongs are heavens to visitors, but a nightmare for existing residents, where the deplorable sanitary conditions and lack of private toilets make the life extremely difficult�. In nowadays, many people move out Hutongs because of these problems. The Future Hutong is a project to solve the problem of the development of an old historic city. Instead of rebuilding

all, Mad prefer to connect past architecture and future architecture together in a way that to protect the history and culture of Beijing. Building the Bubble shape architecture into the environment of the Hutongs will solve the sanitary problem and in a way that it will also change Hutongs are heavens to existing resident.


The future of Hutongs: Hutong Bubble 32 Location : Beijing, China Typology: Courtyard renovation Site Area: 140 sqm Building Area: Bubble 10sqm Directors: Ma Yansong, Dang Qun Design Team: Dai Pu, Yu Kui, Stefanie Helga Paul, He Wei, Shen Jianghai Construction Engineers: Beijing Nade Environment Art Design Completed 2012

These images show the complete projectHutong Bubble 32 provides a toilet and staircase that extends onto a roof terrace for a newly renovated courtyard house. Images suggests the interior spca of the Hutong Bubble 32. It creates highly constrst feeling with the traditional Hutong around it. However, it makes great contribution for the people who live in Hutong and it is architecture that make the historic place be liveable.


The Floating island over CBD Location : Beijing, China Typology: Urban intervention Directors: Ma Yansong, Yosuke Hayano, Dang Qun Design Team: Fu Changrui, Zheng Tao, Yu Kui Proposal


What is this project about? How architecture change the way people live? “Works of architecture frame our lives; we inhabit them.” (William, 2005,p.102) The Floating land over CBD is a project to solve the problem of urban sprawl and lacking of space. With the population explosion, instead of building high density architecture like what we do today, Mad prefer to change the city into horizontal position not just vertical position. The Floating land relate to US Typology Scale Status Proposal. The high density building changes the way people live, there becomes less

and less communication between neighborhoods. The CBD in Beijing was built according to a western vision of modernization created in the last century.” In the floating land, all the facilities such as library, residential houses and restaurants will be built in the horizontal direction in a way to increasing communication between people. Therefore, it is architecture changes people’s habits.


A.2 Computational Architecture


With the development of technology, computer has been introduced and now it is used widely by architects. Then the word- computation comes to our lives. As Peters(2013:10) states that “computation is redefining the practice of architecture. “ In people’s eyes, architecture is a design process through architects’ imagination and idea generation, which is mainly done by sketching. However, computation changes the traditional ways of generating ideas. It creates opportunities in design process, fabrication and construction. The design process has also been defined as problem solving and analytical process. “Computers, by their nature, are superb analytical engines.” (Kalay 2004:2) When dealing with the design process, computer has excellent ability of systematical management, it provides much more opportunities than the traditional way. To be specific, architecture is a complex discourse which involves many fields such as environmental aspect, political and social situation. In the past, people may only need a shelter to live and they define the shelter as a building or an architecture. However, in this day and age, architecture is not just a simple shelter. Architects must consider many factors such as structure, geography, society and culture. To analysis these data, computerization reduce architect’s work, it has fast and precious response. There is another word called “computerization” should be distinguished with the word” computation”. Nowadays, there are great number people use the computer software such as cad, sketch up to build the digital model. This process is called computerization instead of computation. However, “computation allows designers to extend their abilities to deal with highly complex situation.” The conceptual ideas is generating from the computerized tool instead of traditional way. It focus on using scripting languages to write programs. (Peters 2013:10) From my point of view, the computational processes improve construction method and also it enhances the ecological design by synthesizing structure, material, and architectural performance. It is the computational architecture makes design more sustainable and creative. In next two precedents will demonstrate the benefits of using computers in the architectural design process.


ICD and ITKE Research Pavilion University of Stuttgart Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning The Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart have completed the project in November 2012. The conceptual idea of this project comes from the lobster. This project shows how architect use computational and robotic process to improve the construction method. Also it suggests how the computation influences the design process. “To deal with the practical restraints caused by a separation of form and materialization, the design process followed a closed digital information chain.� (Mark issue 43:48) The whole design process of this project is from idea generation, testing and robot

control. All these steps are through computation. Computational modeling allows the designer analysis the complex structure, the tension force of the material in order to work out an efficient structure with minimal use of material of this project. Compared the computational design process with the traditional method, computation does provide more opportunities of form finding, material testing and also it makes complex structure be practicable. In this day and age, architects are required to have knowledge of computation not like before, people who have creative mind or good sketch skill that they can be a good architect. Now, computation becomes an essential part of architecture.


What is this project about? How computational tool influence the design process ? As Peters (2013:10) states “computation has the potential to provide inspiration and go beyond the intellect of the designer.� Take the project as an example, if just using the traditional way, I think the project cannot build.The reason why this project can be built is through precious calculation by computer and also precious fabrication by robot. The measurement of the material has been calculated preciously. As series of precious calculation, making the complex form achievable. As figure shows the computational design process of the material analysis and use parametric tool to get the parameter values as a way to test the deformation and stress of the material. Compared with the traditional way, computation seems more convenient for architects. During

the design process, computation analysis series of data as a way to enhance the performance of architecture. The ICD and ITKE Research Pavilion is a representative example of how computational architecture enable the development of an automatically fabricated and also the performance of material. Through this computational research design, it enable a high level of structural performance and novel tectonic opportunities for architecture. In Gateway project, I choose tensile material to build the whole project. In the past, the tensile structure is hard to achieved by traditional design process. As the development of computational tools, which gives me the chance to test the tensile structure for my gateway project.


“Paramatricism is the great new style after modernism.�

A.3. Paramatric Modelling

-Patrik Schumacher


Parametric modeling is widely used in this day and age. When talking about parametric architecture, the first person come to my mind is Zaha Hadid who plays such a significant role in modern architectural field. Parametric design can be achieved by algorithmic thinking which “means taking on an interpretive role to understand the results of the generating code, knowing how to modify the code to explore new options, and speculating on further design potentials� (Peters 2013:10) Using the parametric software efficiently can reduce the work load of architects. Also, parametric modeling minimize the cost of design by setting minimal use of material in the design process in a way to reach the high efficient level. Therefore, the algorithmic thinking is so important in this day and age. Parametric design is designing by numbers. The core idea of parametric design method is that architectural design elements have become a function of the variables and by changing the function or changing the algorithm can give different outcomes. From my point of view, parametric modeling can be understood as a simple computer technology to automatically generate design approach. There has both advantages and disadvantages of this method, in the later chapter I will use two precedents to analysis the parametric modeling more specifically.


The German Pavilion for the Prague Quadrennial of Scenogra University of Stuttgart

The German Pavilion is a project made by parametric tool and it is made uop of tensile material. It is a great project which shows how to use parametric tool to build a minimal surface structure in order to reach the efficient level. As figure 19 suggests the process of generating ideas by using parametric software and the figure 20 shows using the computational method to analysis the tension force of the structure. Through this design process, it reduces the work load of architects. Therefore, the first advantage of parametric design is increasing efficiency of design process. Secondly, the tensile structure makes less use of material. When talking about minimal surface, the first

structure come to my mind is the tensile. Through the stretching process, material can be saved because the tensile structure allows the material to be stretched at the maximum level. I have to say as the parametric design make tensile structure being used widely in this day and age. If just using traditional method instead of using parametric design, the German Pavilion design may not be achievable. Therefore, it can conclude that the parametric design provides more complex structure in architecture.


The Rocal London Gallery- Zaha Hadid By Zaha Hadid When talking about parametric design, the first person come to my mind is Zaha Hadid. She is the representative architect of parametric design. The idea of water-free flowing is the conceptual idea of this project and parametric tools make the idea of free flowing be achievable. What makes the whole project special is “the space versatile to all functions and events, audiovisual sound and light equipment are incorporated into the surfaces.� It is the parametric tool gives the possibilities of smooth curve. As the photo shows the architecture contains endless curves in a way that

the whole architecture does not have any corners. If in traditional way, building these smooth curves may not be achievable. The parametric design makes the fabrication easier. All curve panels are prefabricated by factories and install on the site. On the other hand, the parametric design has some disadvantages. The endless curves in the whole project give a sense of out of order. The design does not provide transferring spatial relationship. Also, the whole parametric design lack of variety.


A.4. Conclusion and learning outcome


Through the study of Architecture as a discourse, I have found the idea of what the architecture is. As a year three architecture student, I have never thought this before. The reason why I choose architecture is just because I think architecture is much more interesting than other subjects. However, after the study of the first field- architecture as a discourse, my thoughts have been changed a lot. Just like Kjetil Thorsen said “architecture to make people aware of themselves in the world. “ From my point of view, the powerful thing and wonderful thing is that people’s behaviours will be motivated by the architecture. From past to present, my dream has never changed is that I want to be a man who can make contributions to the society. After studying the discourse of architecture, I found the architecture can be the method to achieve my dream- make a better society. Therefore, for the Gateway project, I want to make a design which can motivate people’s behaviour also like the study of Beijing 2050 proposal, my design should deal with the coming problem in the long term. In the part two and part three, computational architecture and parametric modelling, through the study of computational architecture and parametric architecture, I realise computational tool is amazing and powerful. In the past, I just use computer software to build the model. Sometimes, I find it hard to generate conceptual idea just through mind and sketch. Through the design process, the design idea always changes. Therefore, it is hard to manage the design process. It is the computational software which makes the idea generation and the design process have logic order and architect can easily manage. Secondly, I have wonderful experience with the grasshopper. I have never got this feeling before, doing the rhino and grasshopper makes me exciting. Through these three weeks’ study, I play around with different parameters in grasshopper and I got some cool shape which I really appreciate. In later semester, I hope I can have better understand of the grasshopper as a way to design my Gateway project.


A.5. Algorthmic Exploration Furniture exploration A


The Algorithmic explorations is my favorite part of the part A study. At the beginning, doing the first exercise, I thought I just follow what tutor did in the class and just remember the steps, then I can have the same outcome. However, when I get home I found I am totally wrong. I just follow what tutor has done in class, then I found the Brep Plane cannot work. It suggests there is a running error. At that time, I realize studying grasshopper is unlike other software, we have to understand the parameter before using it. Just a small mistake will make the whole system not work. After checking what I have done,

finally I found the reason why the Brep Plane cannot work. It dues to the curve I have drew in rhino. Turn on the control point, adjusting relocating the curve, I found the Brep Plane works. Then I realize the big advantage of parametric modeling, when you make a mistake, you can easily find where is the problem. When adjusting the wrong element, all the parameters will update automatically like a math function to work out the final result. After this simple furniture exercise, in order to control the grasshopper better, I realize in the future study, I have to develop algorithmic thinkingunderstand every parameter you are using and knowing how to modify the code to explore new options.


Furniture exploration B


After exploration with the previous furniture exercise, I know how to use the Perp fram and Brep plane. Then I apply what I have learnt in the online tutorial and previous exploration, I get this piece of furniture. When I get this interesting shape, I am so exciting. Also after this exploration, I found some interesting

parameter I may use in my Gateway project. The Graph Mapper I found it so powerful, due to my material is tensile material, I think in my Gateway project I will definite involve this parameter to make my structure changeable.


Series and sequence exploration


The final exploration is about series and sequences exercise. In this exercise, the important parameter is the graph mapping which I have involved in my previous furniture exploration. At first time, the formula failed due to data conversion failed from surface to curve. I have adjusted many times still cannot find what the problem is.

At that time I feel a little bit sad but I still feel enthusiastic about grasshopper. After researching, I worked out the problem. I think grasshopper is a powerful when having the problem, we should do a lot research to work it out. Through this process, our skill will improve a lot.


REFERENCES LIST: 1. Ana Martins, ‘ICD and ITKE learn from the lobster' , MARK, APR/MAY 2013, ISSUE 43, pp.49 2. Architects journal, Information, http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/ patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article 3. Archimmenges, Information, http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4450 4. Brady Peters, ‘Introduction’, Architecture Design: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Mar/Apr, 2013, pp.10 5. Docin document, Information, http://www.docin.com/p-242540059.html 6. Designboom, Information, http://www.designboom.com/architecture/zahahadid-roca-london-gallery/ 7. Gooood, Information, http://www.gooood.hk/ICD-ITKE-Pavilion-2012.htm 8. MAD ARCHITECTS, Information, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 9. MAD ARCHITECTS, Information, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=60 10. Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116. 11. Sensing architecture, Inforemation, http://sensingarchitecture.com/8877/canarchitecture-motivate-people-toward-behavior-change/ 12. Yehuda E. Kalay, ‘Introduction’, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 12. 13. Woodbury, Robert. 2010. Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48 14. What is architecture, Information, http://www.whatisarchitecture.cc/2013/05/ kjetil-thorsen.html


IMAGES LIST: 1. The Floating Island over the CBD, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 2. The renovation of Tiananmen square, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 3. The future of the hutongs , http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 4. The renovation of Tiananmen square, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 5. The renovation of Tiananmen square, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 6. The future of the hutongs ,http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 7. The future of the hutongs ,http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 8. The future of the hutongs ,http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 9. The Hutong Bubble 32, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=60 10. The Hutong Bubble 32, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=60 11. The Floating Island over the CBD, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 12. The Floating Island over the CBD, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 13. The ICD and ITKE research pavilion, Gooood, Information, http://www. gooood.hk/ICD-ITKE-Pavilion-2012.htm 14. The ICD and ITKE research pavilion robot, Gooood, Information, http:// www.gooood.hk/ICD-ITKE-Pavilion-2012.htm 15. The ICD and ITKE research pavilion data analysis,Gooood, Information, http://www.gooood.hk/ICD-ITKE-Pavilion-2012.htm 16. The ICD and ITKE research pavilion data analysis,Gooood, Information, http://www.gooood.hk/ICD-ITKE-Pavilion-2012.htm 17. The ICD and ITKE research pavilion data analysis,Gooood, Information, http://www.gooood.hk/ICD-ITKE-Pavilion-2012.htm 18. The ICD and ITKE research pavilion material ,Gooood, Information, http:// www.gooood.hk/ICD-ITKE-Pavilion-2012.htm 19. The German Pavilion conceptual design,http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=4450 20. The German Pavilion structure analysis, http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=4450 21. The German Pavilion ,http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4450 22. The Roca London Gallery,http://www.designboom.com/architecture/zahahadid-roca-london-gallery/ 23. The Roca London Gallery, http://www.designboom.com/architecture/zahahadid-roca-london-gallery/


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