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MASTERING THE ART OF

French Cooking BY J U L I A C H I L D


MASTER I NG THE ART OF FRE NC H C OOKING


L.C. catalog card number: 61-12313

this is a borzoi book, published by alfred a. knopf, inc.

Copyright Š 1961 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages and reproduce not more than three illustrations in a review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper. Manufactured in the United States of America and distributed by Random House, Inc. Published in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited.

published october 1961 reprinted four times sixth printing, may 1964


To:

La Belle France whose peasants, fishermen, housewives, and princes - not to mention her chefs - through generations of inventive and loving concentration have created one of the world’s great arts


contenu

CONTENTS

KITCHEN EQUIPMENT 3 DEFINITIONS 11 INGREDIENT 15 MEASURES 20 TEMPERATURES 24 CUTTING 26 WINES 31

CHAPTER I - SOUPS

37

CHAPTER II - SAUCES 54 White Sauces 55 Brown Sauces 66 Tomato Sauces 76 The Hollandaise Family 79 The Mayonnaise Family 86 Vinaigrettes 94 Hot Butter Sauces 96 Cold Flavored Butters 99 List Of Miscellaneous Sauces 105 Stocks And Aspics 106

CHAPTER III - EGGS 116 Poached Eggs 116 Shirred Eggs 122 Eggs In Ramekins 123 Scrambled Eggs 125 Omelettes 126

CHAPTER IV - ENTREES 139 Pie Dough And Pasty Shells 139 Quiches, Tarts, And Gratins 146 Souffles And Timbales 157 Puffs, Gnocchi, And Quenelles 175 Crepes 190 Cocktail Appetizers 196

CHAPTER V - FISH 207 Fish Filets Poached In White Wine 208 Two Recipes From Provence 218 Two Famous Lobster Dishes 220 Mussels 226 List Of Other Fish Dishes 232


CHAPTER VI - POULTRY 234 Roast Chicken 240 Casserole-Roasted Chicken 249 Sauteed Chicken 254 Fricasseed Chicken 258 Broiled Chicken 265 Chicken Breasts 267 Duck 272 Goose 282 CHAPTER VII - MEAT 288 Beef 288 Lamb And Mutton 328 Veal 350 Pork 375 Ham 389 Cassoulet 399 Liver 405 Sweetbreads 409 Brains 413 Kidneys 416

CHAPTER IV - COLD BUFFET 536 Cold Vegetables 536 Aspics 544 Molded Mousses 558 Pates And Terrines 564 List Of Other Cold Dishes 576

HAPTER VIII - VEGETABLES C 421 Green Vegetables 423 Carrots, Onions, And Turnips 476 Lettuce, Celery, And Leeks 489 The Cabbage Family 496 Cucumbers 499 Eggplant 501 Tomatoes 505 Mushrooms 508 Chestnuts 517 Potatoes 520 Rice 528

CHAPTER X - DESSERTS 579 Fundamentals 579 Sweet Sauces And Fillings 588 Custards, Mousses, And Desserts 594 Sweet Souffles 613 Fruit Desserts 623 Tarts 623 Crepes 648 Clafoutis 655 Babas And Savarins 658 Ladyfingers 665 Cakes 667

index follows page 684


mesures

MEASURES

A pint’s a pound the world around except in England where a pint of water weighs a pound and a quarter, and all measurements in this book are level. The following table is for those who wish to translate French measurements into the nearest convenient American equivalent and vice versa:

American Spoons And Cups

French Equivalents

1 tsp (teaspoon) 1 Tb (tablespoon) 1 cup (16 Tb) 2 cups (1 pint) 4 cups (1 quart) 6 2/3 Tb 1 cup plus 1 Tb 4 1/3 cups

1 cuillère à café 1/6  5 1 cuillère à soupe, 1/2  15 cuillère à bouche 1/4 litre less 2 Tb  8 227 1/2 litre less 1/2 16 (1 lb) 454 décilitre 9/10 litre 32 907 1 décilitre   3 1/2 100 1 demi-verre 1/4 litre   8 1/2 250 1 litre 2.2 lbs 1000 (1 kg)

Liquid Ounces

Liquid Grams

A Pinch, une pincée The amount of any ingredient you can take up between your thumb and forefinger. There are big and little pinches.


BRITISH MEASURES British dry measures for ounces and pounds, and linear measure for inches and feet, are the same as American measures. However, the British liquid ounce is 1.04 times the American ounce; the British pint contains 20 British ounces; and the quart, 40 ounces. A gill is 5 ounces, or about 2/3 of an American cup.

CONVERSION FORMULAS american, british, metric

To Convert

Multiply

Ounces to grams Grams to ounces Liters to U.S. quarts Liters to British quarts U.S. quarts to liters British quarts to liters Inches to centimeters Centimeters to inches

The ounces 28.35 The grams 0.035 The liters   0.95 The liters   0.88 The liters 1.057 The quarts   1.14 The inches   2.54 The centimeters   0.39

By

CUP-DECILITER EQUIVALENTS 1 deciliter equals 62/3 tablespoons

Cups Deciliters 1/4 0.56 1/3 0.75 1/2 1.13 2/3  1.5

Cups Deciliters 11/4 2.83 11/3  3.0 11/2  3.4 12/3 3.75

GRAM-OUNCE EQUIVALENTS Grams Ounces 25 0.87 30  1.0 50 1.75

Grams Ounces 75 80 85

Grams

Ounces

2.63 100   3.5   2.8 125   4.4   3.0 150 5.25


températures

TEMPERATURES


To convert fahrenheit into centigrade, subtract 32, multiply by 5, divide by 9. Example: 212 (fahrenheit) minus 32 equals 180 180 multiplied by 5 equals 900 900 divided by 9 equals 100 To convert centigrade into fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide by 5, add 32. Example: 100 (centigrade) multiplied by 9 equals 900 900 divided by 5 equals 180 180 plus 32 equals 212

Fahrenheit Centigrade American French Oven British Oven Degrees Degrees Terms Terms Terms 160  71 #1 170  77 200  93 Tres Doux; Etuve 212 100 221 105 #2 225 107 Very Slow Doux 230 110 #3 #1/4 (241 F) 250 121 275 135 #1/2 (266 F) 284 140 Slow Moyen;Modbe #1 (291 F) 300 149 302 150 #4 320 160 #2 (323 F) 325 163 #3 (336 F) 350 177 Moderate Assez Chuad; 356 180 Bon Four #4 (358 F) 375 190 #5 390 200 #5 (379 F) 400 205 #6 (403 F) 410 210 Hot Chuad 425 218 #6 #7 (424 F) 428 220 437 225 450   23 #8 (446 F) 475 246 Very Hot Tres Chaud; Vif #9 (469 F) 500 260 #7 525 274 #8 550 288 #9


JAMBON BRAISÉ MORVANDELLE [Ham Braised in Wine-Cream and Mushroom Sauce] ham heated in a covered roaster with aromatic vegetables, herbs, stock, and wine absorbs these different flavors, and the braising liquid is easily transformed into a sauce. for 16 to 20 people


1/4 lb. (about 1 cup) sliced carrots

Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Saute the vegetables in butter

1/4 lb. (about 1 cup) sliced onions

and oil or ham fat for about 10 minutes in the roaster or

2 Tb butter and I Tb oil, or

casserole until they are tender and very lightly browned.

3 Tb rendered ham fat A heavy covered roaster or fireproof casserole just large enough to hold the ham An 8- to 10-lb. cooked ham or

Place the ham over the vegetables, its fattiest side up, and

p1cruc shoulder, skinned, and

add the rest of the ingredients at the left. Bring to the

trimmed of excess fat 6 parsley sprigs

simmer on top of the stove, cover, and place the roaster or casserole in the mjddle level of the preheated oven.

1 bay leaf

Regulate heat so liquid barely simmers for about 2 hours.

6 peppercorns

Baste every 20 minutes. The ham is done when a trussing

1/2 tsp thyme

needle or sharp-pronged fork will pierce the thickest part

3 whole cloves 4 cups white Burgundy wine (Chablis or PouillyFuisse) or 3 cups dry white vermouth 4 to 6 cups white or brown stock or canned beef bouillon

of it fairly easily.


SOLE À LA DIEPPOISE [Fish filets with mussels and shrimp] this recipe is the model for the variations to follow. for

6 people


21/2 lbs. sole of flounder fillets

Arrange the poached fish filets on a lightly buttered

poached in white wine, page 208

serving platter and surround them with the mussels and

1 quart fresh mussels steamed in white

shrimp. Just before serving, cover the platter and reheat

wine, page 213 1/2 lb. shelled shrimp warmed in butter and seasoning, page 213 for 21/2 cups of sauce

the fish for a few minutes over simmering water. Drain off any accumulated liquid before napping the fish with the following sauce: Following the technique for sauce parisienne on page

a 21/2-quart enameled saucepan

212, cook the flour and butter slowly together until they

3 Tb butter 4 TB flour

foam and froth for 2 minutes. Off heat, beat in the hot

the fish-poaching and mussel-steaming

fish cooking liquid, then the milk. Boil 1 minute. Beat

liquids combined and boiled down to

the hot sauce by droplets into the yolks and cream. Return

1 cup

mixture to saucepan and boil, stirring, for 1 minute. Thin

3/4 cup milk 2 egg yolks and 1/2 cup whipping cream blended in a 2-quart mixing bowl

out with more cream if necessary, and correct seasoning. Strain. Film top of sauce with a tablespoon of melted butter if not to be served immediately.

salt and pepper drops of lemon juice 4 to 16 Tb softened butter

Just before serving the fish, bring the sauce to the simmer.

(6 to 8 Tb is usual)

Then remove it from heat and beat in the butter 1

Final assembly

tablespoon at a time. Immediately spoon the sauce over the hot fish and

6 whole cooked shrimp in their shells 6 to 12 thin slices of canned truffles

shellfish. Decorate with shrimp and truffles and serve.


printed in the usa


Mastering the Art of French Cooking