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SUST 708 principles of sustainable materials

Charisse Bennett winter 2010 T / T 5 Prof Ursula Tischner


assignment selection / comparison / discussion

one un-sustainable material one sustainable material

01


petrochemicals

(crude oil) long time to break down releasing toxins bleaches colors

negative impacts with their disposable nature and final resting place in the landfill

un-sustainable material disposable plate


un-sustainable material disposable plate


Consumption of Resources : 3

can be from recycled paper, paper plates have a wax coating, more difďŹ cult to recycle

Consumption of Energy : 3

manufacturing of paper pulp or plastic & ďŹ nal product

Hazardous Substances / Emissions : 2 Origin and Transportation : 4 un-sustainable material disposable plate

paper has bleach, dyes & ink plastic has toxins made almost everywhere


Aspects of Lifespan : 1

paper meant for one use plastic occasionally used more than once over all short lifespan

Waste Generation : 1

a waste product in itself

Bio-diversity & Protection of Natural Areas : 3

natural resources are used for the manufacture of paper and plastic

Social Aspects : 2

un-sustainable material disposable plate

continues to promote products with short lifespans that our society is so well known for


Biodegradable

natural and renewable no trees are cut down from South

India

sustainable material palm leaf plate


fallen leaves

collected rinsed

with water air dry

hand stretched

& flattened

molded with

a heated press sun-dried In addition to this environmentally conscious & packaged production method, these durable palm leaf plates are also completely biodegradable & compostable. The leaf itself varies in thickness from 2 to 4mm, as sustainable material well as in colour and pattern, so the products vary in palm leaf plate thickness, colour and pattern too.


sustainable material palm leaf plate

http://www.verterra.com/


Consumption of Resources : 6

makes use of natural resources that would be otherwise burned or composted

Consumption of Energy : 5

mostly human energy, minimal energy use for heat and pressure

Hazardous Substances / Emissions : 6 Origin and Transportation : 2 sustainable material palm leaf plate

none

currently large transportation to the States from India


Aspects of Lifespan : 4

Waste Generation : 5 Bio-diversity & Protection of Natural Areas : 6 Social Aspects : 5

sustainable material palm leaf plate

short but giving waste a second lifespan and can decompose in 2 months only a bit of dirty water no trees are cut down, a natural waste material positive productive outcome for developing areas, workers are paid fair wages, safe working conditions, access to health care


Palm trees and their waste leaves are found throughout

Savannah, Georgia. Can the same process be used here to make a

similar product?

sustainable material palm leaf plate


assignment applications for material selection current possible

02


simple everyday products However, a majority of these products must be made with fresh palm leaves cut from the tree rather than the dead leaves that fall down.

current uses applications


What if palm leaf

material can be used to make these types of products?

posible uses applications


or these...

posible uses applications


or even these...

posible uses applications


assignment experimentation / design / document

03


process collection / experimentation


Step 1 :

Collect ingredients

process


Step 2 :

Experimentation Attempt 1

process


Step 2 :

Experimentation Attempt 2

process


Step 2 :

Experimentation Attempt 3

process


Step 2 :

Experimentation Attempt 4

process


Step 2 :

Experimentation Attempt 4 Basic Waterproof Glue

6 tbsp water 2 packets unflavored gelatin (1/2 oz.) 2 tbsp white vinegar 2 tsp glycerine Bring water to a boil. Remove from heat & stir in gelatin until it is dissolved. Add vinegar & glycerin, stir well. Let mixture cool slightly & pour into a jar, seal tightly. To Use: Apply to surfaces using a brush while warm. Glue will gel after a few days.

process


Step 2 :

Experimentation Attempt 5

process


Step 2 :

Experimentation Attempt 5 Corn Starch Clay/Binder 1 cup Corn Starch 2 cups diced palm leaves 1-1/4 cups cold water

In saucepan stir corn starch & baking soda. Add water, stir until smooth. Stirring constantly, cook over medium heat until reaches the consistency of SLIGHTLY dry mashed potatoes. When cool, knead until smooth and pliable. Shape as desired with hands or a rolling pin. To oven dry: Preheat oven to 350 degrees, then turn oven OFF. Place in oven until oven is cold. Repeat as necessary.

process


Step 2 :

Experimentation Attempt 6

process


production next steps


Step 3 :

Adaptation New Uses

process


Step 4 :

Consumer Awareness Brand / Knowledge

process


assignment prototype / evaluate / document

04


Palm Leaf

Wood (China)

Wood (USA)

product comparison


collect

grow

sort

nourish

process

compost

use distribute

life cycle analysis

bake

form

combine mix heat


Palm Leaf 5.8 Okala mPts Greatest Impacts: per 1 year of use Bagasse, from sugarcane (similar to Palm Leaf) 1 year life estimate Human Carcinogens Manufacturing

Wood (USA) 8.9 Okala mPts Greatest Impacts: per 1 year of use Wood disposal, landďŹ ll Human Toxicity 5 year life estimate End of Life 45 mPts Sustainable Minds LCA


8 Criteria for Evaluation


Consumption of Resources : Material Resources Water Resources Renewable/non-renewable Consumption of Energy : Energy / Use

8 Criteria for Evaluation

Palm Leaf

Wood (China)

Wood (USA)

5 Waste materials, Second life To mix materials No waste water Renewable

3 Wood Source Unknown

5 FSC CertiďŹ ed Wood

Unknown

Minimal

Renewable

Renewable

4 4 Cutting, sanding, Chopping, grinding, mixing nailing

4 Cutting, sanding, nailing


Hazardous Substances / Emissions : Production and supply of Use of Recycling / Disposal of Origin & Transportation : Origin Transportation

8 Criteria for Evaluation

Palm Leaf

Wood (China)

Wood (USA)

5 Minimal None None

3 Unknown None None

5 Minimal None None

5 Locally collected

1 Made in China Distributed from Michigan Huge

3 Made in USA Distributed across USA Average to Large

Minimal


Palm Leaf

Wood (China)

Wood (USA)

Aspects of Lifespan : Maintenance / Repair Recyclability Disposal

2 Not Possible Not Possible Compostable

4 Possible Possible Landfill

4 Possible Possible Landfill

Waste Generation : Production Waste Life TIme Waste End of Life Disposal

6 Minimal None Compostable

3 Unknown None Recycle or Landfill

5 Minimal None Recycle or Landfill

8 Criteria for Evaluation


Bio-diversity & Protection of Natural Resources : Affect Bio-Diversity Affect Natural Areas Socal Aspects : Human Rights Health Risks Destruction of Living Space Restriction of Freedom / Exploitation

8 Criteria for Evaluation

Palm Leaf

Wood (China)

Wood (USA)

6 None None

2 Unknown Unknown

5 None None

6 None Not Known None None

2 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown

6 None None None None


starch water (drinking) electricity (public) Palm Leaf transport (truck) x 0.35 pounds wood (spruce) electricity (public) transport (truck) Wood (China) transport (vessel) x 1.2 pounds

1.07 0.01 4.70 218.0 223.78

-

22.1 1.3 83.1 1910.0 2016.5

1.560 0.001 0.600 209.0 211.16

78.32

-

645.28

73.91

0.68 4.70 218.0 9.00 232.38

4.72 4.72

9.4 83.1 1910.0 80.0 2082.5

0.156 0.600 209.0 17.00 226.756

2499.0

272.1072

9.4 83.1 1910.0 2002.5

0.156 0.600 209.0 209.756

2403

251.7072

278.85 5.664

wood (spruce) 0.68 electricity (public) 4.70 Wood (USA) transport (truck) 218.0 223.38

MIPS x 1.2 pounds Material Intensity of Materials

4.72 4.72

268.05 5.664


Online database

3/2/10 4:12 PM

Red Cedar Category Wood

Type Class I (>25y)

Property Price Young's modulus Shear modulus Tensile strength Elongation Compressive strength Creep strength Fatigue Bending strength Hardness Impact strength Yield strength Thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Specific heat Melting temperature Glass temperature Service temperature Density Resistivity Breakdown potential Electrochemical potential Dielectric loss factor Friction coefficient Refraction index Thickness Shrinkage Water absorption

Functional unit kg Min 2.72 5800

Max 2.72 8300

Unit EURO MPa

50

50

MPa

18

34

MPa

35 1700

55 2200

MPa Janka

Remarks (Origin: North-West America). Soft, remarble light but very durable kind of wood. Darkred to darkbrown. Good machineability. Metal may corrode when Online with database in contact the wood.

Red Cedar Category Wood Process chart

0.09

0.09

Type Class I (>25y)

Functional unit kg Eco-indicator '95 2.08 mPt

W/m.K Quality of environmental data Reliability 3 completeness 3

370

470

kg/m!

0.6 11

1.2 16

% %

The TU Delft cannot be help legally responsible for problems related to the use of this data. Š Delft University of technology.

Idemat - Red Cedar

Environmental remarks Red Cedar is imported from North-West America, where it is cultured. The transport to the Netherlands requires 250km vice versa forest-harbour by trailers and 6200km by ship. Procesing to beams assumed to happen in the Netherlands.


http://www.sustainableminds.com http://www.idemat.nl/ http://www.wupperinst.org/en http://www.pre.nl/eco-indicator99/default.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disposable http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_recycling http://ashimapaperproducts.tradeindia.com/ http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/engineering_environment/84413

Thank You.

http://www.naturalplates.com/ http://www.eaternal.com/Areca_Leaf_Disposable_Plates.html http://www.verterra.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Areca_catechu http://www.make-stuff.com/formulas/glue.html http://www.argostarch.com/recipe_details.asp?id=1286

sources


Sustainable Materials  

Final documentation from project developed utilizing palm leaf waste.

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