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NEW YORK CITY AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD A Guidebook of the Underground Railroad in New York City By: Chante Schloss and Kiara Greenaway


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Table of Contents Page 4- Introduction to The Underground Railroad Page 6- Conductors Page 8- Stations Page 10- Stationmasters 1

Page 12- Stations in New York City Page 14-David Ruggles Home Page 16- Theodore Wright House Page 18- Broadway Tabernacle Church 2

1. Family escaping. Digital Image. America’s Black Holocaust Museum. https://abhmuseum.org/ where-was-the-1st-underground-railroad 2. Secret tunnel. Digital Image. The USCB Current. www.news.ucsb.edu/2015/015048/gateway-freedom 2


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Page 20- Mother A.M.E Church 28 Page 22- Plymouth Titre Ici Church Page 24- Nulpario African Societydoldem ventioremos loreium et eum doluptiam estrum for Mutual apit, Relief ni quam et as autemqu iandis doluptam simendi caerum volorro Page 26- riatem. Bialystoker SynNequodia vendenim quam que nullatur, quae volora nisitaquiagogue bus dunt int, consequi nim aceati cus ellandu ntiisti ncidusda cus, consed que cum asit, susandis iunt omnimpo reptaer spidis corro exerisciunt.

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Page 28- Brotherhood Synagogue Page 30- Afterword Page 31- Additional Readings 07 Alibusdam evellab id ea aut Page 33- References

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3.Hariett Tubman’s wanted poster.MY HERO. https://myhero.com/harriet-tubman-4 4. A man on his journey to the North. The Underground Railroad-Black History.www.history.com/topics/black-history/underground-railroad 3


The Underground Railroad -The Underground Railroad was a massive system of people, who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and Canada. -The Underground Railroad aided hundreds of slaves gain freedom each year. -This organized system consisted of stations, stationmasters, and conductors.

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Map of the routes of The Underground Railroad. My HERO. https://myhero.com/H_Tubman2_olympus_jhs_US_2012_u


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“If you hear the dogs, keep going. If you see the torches in the woods, keep going. If there’s shouting after you, keep going. Don’t ever stop. Keep going. If you want a taste of freedom, keep going.” -Harriet Tubman DID YOU KNOW? Harriet Tubman’s birth name was Araminta Ross.

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C O N D U C TO R S -Conductors risked their lives to guide slaves on the Underground Railroad -It was very dangerous to be a runaway slave or to aide them. There were rewards for their capture, and ads described slaves in detail.

DID YOU KNOW? William Still’s book The Underground Railroad(1872) is one of the most important historical records on this subject

-Some famous conductors are Harriet Tubman and William Still.

Top to Bottom: William Still. Digital Image. 8 key Contributors. https://www.history.com/news/8-key-contributors-to-the-underground-railroad Harriet Tubman. Digital Image. National Park Service. https://www.nps.gov/people/harriet-tubman.htm 7


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S TAT I O N S -Stations were hidden places, where runaway slaves would hide mostly during the day in fear of capture. -Stations consisted of private houses, schools and churches. -Stations were temporary places to rest before continuing their journey to freedom.

Did You Know? Disguises were worn and people often had to travel in darkness.

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Top to Bottom: Underground Railroad Plague. Digital Image. Underground Railroad. https://www.in.gov/history/markers/4138.htm Hidden Tunnel. Digital Image. Half-Life Wiki. half-life.wikia.com/wiki/Underground_Railroad 9


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STATIONMASTERS

-Stationmasters refer to individuals that offered shelter to freedom seekers. -Stationmasters contained information of safe routes and coordinated with conductors and other stations to create a safe passage. 10

DID YOU KNOW? The Underground Railroad wasn’t an actual railway. It was a network of secret routes and safe houses


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Left to right: Stationmaster providing shelter. Digital Image. SAAM. https://americanart.si.edu/artwork/undergroundrailroad-mural-study-dolgeville-newyork-post-office-18323 Wanted poster. Digital Image. The Essential Civil War Curriculum. www.essentialcivilwarcurriculum. com/fugitive-slave-act-of-1850.html Hidden trap door in the floor. Digital Image. A fork in the road. https:// jfetig.com/2014/04/23/underground-railroad/


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STATIONS IN NEW YORK CITY

Left to Right: New York City in present time. Digital Image. Fine Art Prints by Andrew Prokos. https://andrewprokos.com/ photos/new-york/black-and-white New York City in the past. Digital Image. NYC in the 1970’s. https://www.amny.com › News Hidden trap door to the basement. Digital Image. Railroad Door Stop. pezcame.com/cmFpbHJvYWQgZG9vciBzdG9w 12


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It’s hard to believe that New York city played a key role in the underground railroad.Historically,New York has always been anti-slavery/pro-abolition, which made Busdae Sedit est Dolorro it a pivotal station in the journey of many slaves to freedom with famous conductors like Harriet Tubman to guide them. Many are not aware of the role New York played, but the stations we have showcased today stand as sites of remembrance. Secatibe runtum earum sincilla velenimus auta

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D AV I D R U G G L E S H O M E 36 Lispenard Street (Tribeca)

DID YOU KNOW? David Ruggles’ house was demolished and is now La Colombe Torrefaction coffee shop.

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Left to Right: Current view of Ruggles Home. Digital Image. Walks of New York. https://www.walksofnewyork.com/blog/david-ruggles-nycs-first-black-freedom-fighter David Ruggles portrait. Digital Image. Mapping the African American Past. http://maap.columbia.edu/place/7 Underground Railroad plague on 36 Lispenard Street. Digital Image. Walks of New York. https://www.walksofnewyork.com/blog/david-ruggles-nycs-first-black-freedom-fighter 14


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-David Ruggles was born a free man in Connecticut and moved to New York at the age of 17. His home at 36 Lispenard Street became a station for the Underground Railroad. -Ruggles housed about 600 escaped slaves including Frederick Douglass. -He operated a book store and library out of this home, providing his own pamphlets, anti-slavery pamphlets and other material. -Ruggles also edited a magazine called The Mirror of Liberty, which is the first African American magazine. 15


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THEODORE WRIGHT HOUSE (B R O A D WAY) 2 White Street New York, NY -Theodore Sedgwick Wright was born in 1797 and educated at The African Free School. He went on to become the first black graduate of The Princeton Theological Seminary. -He spoke out against slavery from the pulpit of his church on Prince Street. -Wright helped many slaves to freedom, but there are few documents that tell about his work, since it was illegal.Â

DID YOU KNOW? Theodore attended the African School (right), which was founded by The New York Manumission Society. NYM had 2 notable members: Andrew Hamilton and John Jay. The school was dedicated to educating the children of slaves and free people of color.

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Top to Bottom: Theodore Wright portrait. Digital Image. The Black Past. www.blackpast.org › African American History Theodore Wright House. Digital Image. The Ephemeral New York. https://ephemeralnewyork. wordpress.com/2018/02/05/the-past-lives-of-a-modest-1808-house-in-tribeca Theodore Wright House. Digital Image. The Ephemeral New York. https://ephemeralnewyork. wordpress.com/tag/gideon-tucker-nyc African Free School. Digital Image. www.accessible-archives.com › Blog 17


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B R O A D WAY TA B E R N A C L E CHURCH 340-344 Broadway New York, NY

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Both Frederick Douglass and So journer Truth (right) spoke at Broadway Tabernacle.


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-The Broadway United Church of Christ, formerly known as The Broadway Tabernacle Church, was founded in 1836.  -In addition to abolitionism, Church members raised funds to defend Africans captured aboard the Amistad and published an anti-slavery newspaper, the  Independen. -Finney’s support of anti-slavery resulted in the church being burned down by a mob.  -It’s currently located at Broadway and 93rd street, and remains a progressive advocate of human rights.

Left to Right: Current location and picture of Broadway Tabernacle Church. Digital Image. http://www.nycago.org/organs/nyc/ html/broadwayucc.html The church in the period of the 1900’s. Digital Image. http://www.nycago.org/organs/nyc/html/broadwayucc.html

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Sojourner Truth portrait. Digital Image. https://www.biography.com/people/sojourner-truth-9511284

Inside Broadway Tabernacle Church in 1859. Digital Image. http://www.nycago.org/organs/nyc/html/broadwayucc. html 19


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M O T H E R A.M.E Z I O N CHURCH 140 W 137th St New York, NY

DID YOU KNOW? Mother A.M.E Zion Church was the first black church in New York State. Top to Bottom: Current View of Mother A.M.E Church. Digital Image. Zion Connection. www.newsaintthomas.org/ ourchurchconnection Drawing of Mother A.M.E Church in the church’s earlier years. Digital Image. www.nycreligion.info ›

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-Mother African Methodist Episcopal Aquias re aliquiat acerem il eatia volut pelitis de precus moloreped eos del id et aut Zion Church was founded indolo voloriori 1796. quamusamet ati doluptatur, voluptio. Evelest, ad minis -Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth attended the church, who was very active in black social activism. dolorat ibusam nest

-Mother A.M.E was once considered the “Freedom Church� became a target for anti-abolitionist groups in 1807 and 1827. -Notable celebrities who frequently worshipped at Mother Zion included Langston Hughes, W.E.B. DuBois, Marian Anderson, Roland Hayes, Joe Louis, and Madam C.J. Walker.

Left to Right: The Church Sign. Digital Image. https://www.tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g60763-d528126-i1 06621658-Mother_African_Methodist_Episcopal_Zion_Church-New_York_City_New_York.html Inside this historic place. Digital Image. https://foursquare.com/v/mother-african-methodist-episcopal-zion-church/4dc599f4e4cd169dc6515597 21


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P LY M O U T H C H U R C H 75 Hicks Street Brooklyn, NY

-Plymouth Church was founded in 1847. The first pastor Henry Ward Beecher. Plymouth Church was called Brooklyn “Grand Central Depot� of the Underground Railroad in helping people escape and gain their freedom. -Many memoirs state that people hid in the tunnel like basement underneath the church sanctuary. -Beecher often held auctions allowing people to bid for the freedom of escaped slaves. 22


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DID YOU KNOW? Abraham Lincoln visited and worshipped in the church in 1860. FILL IN THE BLANKS: CA_T_VE

Left to Right: Inside Plymouth Church. Digital Image. www.nycago. org/Organs/Bkln/html/PlymouthChurch.html Image of the original Plymouth Church and Beecher statue for the pastor. Digital Image. Curbed Classics. https:// ny.curbed.com/2013/4/1/10258168/a-building-with-amission-brooklyns-plymouth-church Image of the original building. Digital Image. Curbed Classics. https://ny.curbed.com/2013/4/1/10258168/abuilding-with-a-mission-brooklyns-plymouth-church Image of the tunnel like basement. Digital Image. www. newyorkcivilwar.com/2011/2011ply/2011ply_11.htm

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AFRICAN SOCIETY FOR MUTUAL RELIEF

Original Location 42 Baxter Street, New York, NY

-The New York African Society was founded in 1808 and was the leading organization designed to help free black community. -The founders include William Hamilton and William Miller met at The Rose Street Academy, a school for black childreen in Manhattan. -The building’s sercet trap door aided slaves escaping from the south. DID YOU KNOW? The New York African Society for Mutual Relief at 42 Baxter Street was targeted in two riots in the 1800s. It later moved uptown and survived until 1945.

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Top to Bottom: Original location of the African Society of Mutual Relief. Digital Image. Blog Talk Radio. http://www.blogtalkradio.com/thegistoffreedom/2012/07/04/new-yorks-new-tour-the-underground-railroad-freedom-trail Secret trap door. Digital Image. https://jdrhawkins.com/tag/underground-railroad Current picture of where the African Society once was. Digital Image. Mapping the American Past. http://maap.columbia.edu/place/25

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B I A LY S TO K E R S Y N A G O G U E 7 Willett St, New York, NY -The synagogue obtained the building in 1905. It was originally constructed in 1826 as the Willet Street Methodist Episcopal Church. -In the gallery of the synagogue a ladder leads up to the attic. Legend has it, this is how people sought sanctuary. -The synagogue was first organized in 1865 on Manhattan lower east side as the Cherva Anshei Chesed of Bailystok. DID YOU KNOW? The Bialystoker Synagogue is the oldest building used as a synagogue in New York City.

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Top to Bottom: Inside the Bialystoker Synagogue. Digital Image. Untapped Cities. https://untappedcities.com/ tours/tour-of-stunning-off-limits-bialystoker-synagogue-and-the-lower-east-side/ Current Picture of the Synagogue. Digital Image. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bialystoker_ Synagogue#/media/File:Bialystoker_Synagogue.jpg


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BROTHERHOOD SYNAGOGUE 28 Gramercy Park S, New York, NY

DID YOU KNOW? The tunnel underneath our building that was used as an escape route for runaway slaves is still visible and accessible today.

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat Left to Right: volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Current picture of Brotherhood Synagogue. Digital Image. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:28_ Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse Gramercy_Park_Brotherhood_Synagogue.jpg molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril Inside look in the synagogue. Digital Image. brotherhoodsynagogue.org delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi.


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Afterword The history of the Underground Railroad deserves to be known by all, especially the youth of this generation. The Underground Railroad was an intricate part of American History and with our magazine we wanted to show just how widespread the railroad was and how pivotal New York City was in the journey of so many slaves searching freedom. We hope that the stations that we shared would inspire kids to go out into the city and visit. In order for us to move forward, collectively, we have to know where we are from.

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Additional Readings 1. The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead 2. Henry’s Freedom Box: A True Story from the Underground Railroad 3. If You Traveled on the Underground Railroad by Ellen Levine 4. Freedom’s Wings by Sharon Dennis Wyeth 5. Get On Board : The Story of the Underground Railroad by James Haskins


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“The more that you read, the more things you will know, the more that you will learn, the more places you will go.” - Dr. Seuss

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References http://www.nyhistory.org/education/educators/research-resources/underground-railroad-resources https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/underground/Ulrnmore.htm http://newyorkhistoryblog.org/2013/10/02/newmap-app-feature-ny-underground-railroad-sites/ https://parks.ny.gov/historic-preservation/heritage-trails/underground-railroad/default.aspx https://untappedcities.com/2012/01/17/the-underground-railroad-in-new-york/4/?displayall=true https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/ ugrr/exugrr1.htm https://www.brickunderground.com/live/underground-railroad-spots-NYC http://www.womenhistoryblog.com/2016/06/underground-railroad-in-new-york-city.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2944.html https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/underground/ulrnmore.htm

New York City and The Underground Railroad  
New York City and The Underground Railroad  
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