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MATTHEW R. GRAHAM


THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY SCHREYER HONORS COLLEGE

STUCKEMAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

MATERIAL AND IMMATERIAL

Designing an Architecture of Cognitive Systems MATTHEW R. GRAHAM :WYPUN ([OLZPZZ\ITP[[LKPUWHY[PHSM\SÄSSTLU[VM[OL YLX\PYLTLU[ZMVYHIHJJHSH\YLH[LKLNYLLPU (YJOP[LJ[\YL^P[OOVUVYZPU(YJOP[LJ[\YL 9L]PL^LKHUKHWWYV]LKI`[OLMVSSV^PUN!

Darla V. Lindberg

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Christine L. Gorby

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THESIS STATEMENT (YJOP[LJ[\YL[OV\NOPUP[PHSS`JYLH[LKMYVT[OLK\HSMVYJLZVMO\THUILOH]PVYHUKWO`ZPJHSULJLZZP[`OHZILJVTLHIZ[YHJ[LKHUKZLWHYH[LKMYVTH WZ`JOVSVNPJHS\UKLYZ[HUKPUNVMZWHJLYLUKLYPUN[OL^H`ZPU^OPJOHYJOP[LJ[ZKLZPNUI\PSKPUNZKPZJVUULJ[LKMYVT[OL^H`ZPU^OPJO^LPUOLYLU[S` L_WLYPLUJLHUK\ZLZWHJL0U[OLI\PSKPUNVMV\YLU]PYVUTLU[ZHYJOP[LJ[\YLOHZHS^H`ZILLUYVV[LKPU[OLTH[LYPHSHUKPTTH[LYPHSHJVUJLW[[OH[ [YHUZSH[LZPU[VZWHJLZPT\S[HULV\ZS`L_PZ[PUNPUIV[O[OLYLHSTVM[OL9LZ,_[LUZHVYWO`ZPJHSLU]PYVUTLU[HUK[OL9LZ*VNP[HUZVYPUOHIP[HISL TLU[HSZWHJL6]LY[PTLOV^L]LYHZV\YKLÄUP[PVUVMZWHJLOHZKYPM[LK[V^HYK[OL9LZ,_[LUZHHYJOP[LJ[\YLOHZ[LUKLK[V^HYKJYHM[PUN[OLTH[LYPHS[YLH[PUN[OLWO`ZPJHS]VS\TL[OH[^LIVKPS`POHIP[Z\WLYPVY[VZWHJLZOHWLKPUV\YTPUKZ;OPZ^H`VM[OPURPUNPZH[VKKZ^P[O[OL^H`ZPU^OPJO ^LL_WLYPLUJLZWHJLHUKMVYTHU\UKLYZ[HUKPUNVMP[HZ^LTV]L[OYV\NOP[\ZLP[HUKSP]L;OYV\NOL_WLYPLUJLI\PSKPUNZHYLUV[VIQLJ[ZI\[H JVU[PU\\THZLYPLZVMTVTLU[ZKPZ[VY[LKHUKYLHYYHUNLKPU[OLTPUKPUHJVUZ[HU[WSH`IL[^LLUV\YPTTLKPH[LZ\YYV\UKPUNZHUKHNYLH[LY\UKLYZ[HUKPUNVM[OLPYJVUULJ[PVUZ0UVYKLYMVYI\PSKPUNZ[VILYLZWVUZP]L[V[OLPY\ZLYZ[OLUHYJOP[LJ[\YLT\Z[IL]PL^LKHZHULNV[PH[VYHUKJVUULJ[VY IL[^LLU[OLZLPTTH[LYPHSHUKTH[LYPHSLSLTLU[ZVMO\THUL_WLYPLUJL 5L^@VYR»Z7LUUZ`S]HUPH:[H[PVUPZHUL[^VYR[OH[L_[LUKZMHYIL`VUKP[ZWO`ZPJHSSVJH[PVUHS[OV\NOP[OHZILLU[YLH[LKHZHUVIQLJ[[OYV\NOV\[P[Z OPZ[VY`;OLPUP[PHS4J2PT4LHKHUK>OP[LI\PSKPUNVM ^HZHUVIQLJ[ZPNUPÄLYVM[OLZ`Z[LTHZ`TIVSHUKOLHKOV\ZLVM[OL]HZ[YLHJOVM[OL YHPSUL[^VYR>OLU[OPZI\PSKPUN^HZKLTVSPZOLKPU [OLZ`Z[LTYLTHPULKI\[[OLZ`TIVS^HZYLTV]LKHUKYLWSHJLK^P[O\UYLSH[LKVIQLJ[Z SLH]PUN[OLUL[^VYRKPZJVUULJ[LKMYVT[OL\YIHUMHIYPJ)`\UKLYZ[HUKPUN7LUU:[H[PVUHZHJVNUP[P]LUL[^VYRVMZ`Z[LTZHUL^I\PSKPUNJHUILKLZPNULK^OLYL[OLZLZ`Z[LTZ[OLTZLS]LZMVYT[OLI\PSKPUNHUKHYL[OLI\PSKPUNYH[OLY[OHUHUVIQLJ[[OH[TLYLS`YLWYLZLU[Z[OLNYLH[LYUL[^VYR;OPZ I\PSKPUNJVTWVZLK[OYV\NOLSLTLU[ZVMZ\WWVY[\ZLYZVJPHSHUKPUMVYTH[PVUZ`Z[LTZHYLHKKLKV]LY[PTLHZWVY[PVUZVM[OLL_PZ[PUN7LUU:[H[PVU HUK7LUU7SHaHJVTWSL_HYLYLTV]LKHUK[HRLUPU[V[OLUL[^VYR;OPZTH[LYPHSPZL_WHUKLKV\[^HYK[VILJVTL\ZLM\SPUV[OLYWHY[ZVM[OLZ`Z[LT HUKZPNUPÄLZ[OLZLKPZ[HU[WVPU[ZHZHWHY[VM[OLJVU[PU\V\Z^OVSLVM[OLI\PSKPUN0U[OPZ^H`[OLKLZPNUWYVJLZZVM[OLI\PSKPUNKVLZUV[LUK^P[O [OLJYLH[PVUVMTH[LYPHSI\[PZVUS`JVTWSL[L^OLUJVTWYLZZLKPU[OLTPUKVM[OLZ`Z[LT»Z\ZLYZ

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CONTENTS (IZ[YHJ[   ;OLZPZ:[H[LTLU[ 

1 2 3 iii

 

 

 

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Research and Documentation 1 (YLHVM-VJ\Z:\TTHY` +PZJ\ZZPVUVM-PUKPUNZMYVT3P[LYH[\YL9L]PL^ 8\LZ[PVUZ;OLVYL[PJHS0ZZ\LZ9HPZLK (YJOP[LJ[\YHS0ZZ\LZ (YJOP[LJ[\YHS7YLJLKLU[Z Site and Context Information (LYPHSWOV[VZHUKTHWZVMZP[L :P[L+VJ\TLU[H[PVU :P[L(UHS`ZPZ Site Parameters Program 7YVNYHT;`WLHUK+LZJYPW[PVU 7YVNYHTTH[PJ,SLTLU[Z .YHWOPJ9LWYLZLU[H[PVUVM7YVNYHT

27

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4

Final Design Project 59 :[\KPLZVY+L]PJLZ9L]LHSPUN(YJOP[LJ[LJ[VUPJ0KLHZ Site Plan )\PSKPUN7SHUZ ,SL]H[PVUZHUK-HJHKL:[\KPLZ )\PSKPUN:LJ[PVUZ >HSS:LJ[PVUZ 9LWYLZLU[H[PVUVM:[Y\J[\YHS:`Z[LT 6[OLY7YVQLJ[0THNLZ )PISPVNYHWO`   7YVQLJ[9LMLYLUJLZ (JHKLTPJ=P[H 

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5


Building as Psychological Network EARLY BUILDING SYSTEMS IDEAS

If architecture is to be a negotiator and connector between the Res Extensa and Res Cogitans elements of human experience, a form must be developed as a way of representing mental and social space in a similar method to physical space. 0MHI\PSKPUNPZĂ„YZ[[YLH[LKHZHUL[^VYRHZLYPLZVMPU[LYJVUULJ[LKZ`Z[LTZHZ espoused by Denise Scott Brown and the space syntax movement), then it can IL\UKLYZ[VVKHZT\S[PWSLPU[LYSVJRPUNSH`LYZVMZWH[PHSZ`Z[LTZ[LJOUPJHSZ`Ztems, behavioral systems, and social systems. In this way, a building will not be KLZPNULKHZWO`ZPJHSHUKTH[LYPHSZWHJLĂ„YZ[I\[YH[OLYHZH9LZ*VNP[HUZ^LI of mental and behavioral elements. ;OPZUL[^VYRJHU[OLUIL[YHUZSH[LKPU[VWO`ZPJHSMVYTI`TLHUZVMHYJOP[LJ[\YHS cues, following traditional patterns and psychological principles. This step, the Ă„YZ[HUKTVZ[L_[LUZP]L\ZLKPUWH[[LYUSHUN\HNLHUKMVSSV^LYZVMNLZ[HS[WZ`JOVSVN`SPRL9VILY[=LU[\YPPZ\ZLKHZHdirect connection between the mental understanding of space and the physical, rather than an indirect assumption. Using the vocabulary of space syntax, this will allow mental and behavioral space to be on either side of the physical architecture, as it both creates the physical form and is affected by it.

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Site Model SHOWING EXISITING PENN STATION AND ITS DISTANT CONNECTIONS

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12


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Penn Station as Pathway ANALYSIS OF TRAIN FROM RAMSEY RT 17 STATION TO PENN STATION

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Cognitive Mapping Exercise IMMATERIAL AND MEMORY MAPPING USER UNDERSTANDING OF STATION

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Cognitive Mapping Analysis HAND-DRAWN USER MAPS

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Spatial Sequence

TRAIN

STREET

25


Collective Cognitive Map <:,9*6.50;0=,4(7:*64)05,+ AND COMPARED TO ACTUAL STATION LAYOUT

Actual Station Layout

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Exisiting Penn Station Layout

(,90(3=0,>

28


<77,93,=,3

AMTRAK AND NJ TRANSIT

29


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LIRR AND SUBWAY

30


Exisiting Station Rail Systems 6=,93(77,+*647,;05.:@:;,4:

31


Station Entrances and Exits LOCATIONS AND CONDITIONS

32


Station Entrances and Exits INTERSECTING UNDERGROUND CONNECTIONS

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34


¸;VTVKLYUL`LZP[THRLZUVZLUZL![OLLYH^OLYLZVJPHSKP]PZPVUZ^LYLRLLUS`MLS[NH]L\ZHZWHJLZV]HZ[[OH[HSSKPZ[PUJ[PVUZKPZZVS]LK in its great stone heaven; the egalitarians, by contrast, gave us a space whose equalizing impulse was best expressed as the desire to oppress everyone’s spirit. 0\Z\HSS`JVVSLKT`OLLSZPU[OL(T[YHR-PYZ[*SHZZJS\I^OPJO^HZHWHYVK`VMHZOHTVMH[YH]LZ[`VM-PYZ[*SHZZH[SLHZ[PU[OL Z@V\ NV[HZJYH[JO`ZLH[HUKHIH[[LYLKTHNHaPULHUK[YHUZS\JLU[JVMMLL0M0KPKU»[OH]LHÄYZ[JSHZZ[PJRL[0^LU[[V[OLIHYVU[OLUVY[OZPKL VM[OLYVVT^OLYL`V\JV\SKZTVRL0[Z[HUR(ZPKLMYVTY\ZOOV\YP[^HZLTW[`HUKOHKHZHKIH[[LYLKX\HSP[`[OH[THKL`V\MLLSSPRL HY\KLZHJRVMTLH[ZS\TWLKV]LYHYH[PVUVMPU[V_PJHU[ZAnd I never knew which track I should take. It never seemed clear. Even though they had signs and names it always seemed as though they were leaving out some key detail. Like your destination. 5V0OH[L7LUU:[H[PVU0»KSPRL[VNVIHJRPU[PTLKYHN[OLHYJOP[LJ[ZPU[V[OLWYLZLU[HUKHZR[OLT!^OH[`V\[OV\NO[^L^V\SKHSSIL ^LHYPUN.LVYNL1L[ZVUQ\TWZ\P[ZX\L\PUNWH[PLU[S`MVY[OL([VTPJ,_WYLZZ&;OLYLHSP[`PZH^HP[PUNYVVT^P[OPUZ\MÄJPLU[ZPNUHNLH great hall that isn’t, and a Hudson News thronged with balding guys, ties askew, furtively paging through battered porn mags.” - James Lileks

“One entered the city like a god; one scuttles in now like a rat.” -Vincent Scully

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Every Store

Starbucks

Duane Reade

Hudson News

“When shopping was still connected to the street it was HSZVHUPU[LUZPÄJH[PVUHUKHY[PJ\SH[PVUVM[OLZ[YLL[ Now it has become utterly independent - contained, controlled, surveyed.” -Rem Koolhaas

37


Commercial Typology ORGANIZED BY STORE TYPE

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General Zoning Analysis

OFFICE R A I L Y A R D

STREET

SPORTS ENTERTAINMENT

TRANSIT

STREET

OFFICE BUILDING

POST

OFFICE BUILDING

ZONING MAP SHOWING SPECIAL HUDSON YARDS (HY) DISTRICT AND GARMENT CENTER (GC) DISTRICT

CENTER 39


Game Theory Economic Analysis

GAME ONE

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Between 1855 and 1871, the federal government operated a land-grant system wherein rail companies were given thousands of acres of federally controlled, unsettled, Western land to sell or to NP]L[VIVUKOVSKLYZPU[OLPYJVTWHU`^OV^V\SK\ZL[OLSHUKMVY WYVĂ&#x201E;[VY[VZLSS[OLTZLS]LZPUL_JOHUNLMVY[OLKL]LSVWTLU[VMH UH[PVUHSYHPSPUMYHZ[Y\J[\YL;OYV\NOV\[[OL [OJLU[\Y`Z\IZPKPLZ SPRL[OPZLUJV\YHNLK[OLNYV^[OVMJV\U[SLZZZTHSSHUKTLKP\TYHPS companies throughout the continent that owned varying lengths of [YHJRHUKVWLYH[LKU\TLYV\ZWHZZLUNLYSPULZPUKLWLUKLU[S`(1.1) ;OL SH[L  [O JLU[\Y` HUK LHYS` [O JLU[\Y` IYV\NO[ HIV\[ [OL consolidation of many of these independent companies due to inLMĂ&#x201E;JPLUJ`HUKK\WSPJH[LZLY]PJLZ^OPJOPUYLZWVUZLSLK[V[OL0Uterstate Commerce Act to restrict monopolies and trusts. With the increasing affordability of both air and automobile transportation, HUK[OLPUJYLHZLKPUĂ&#x2026;\LUJLVM[OLPYJVTTLYJPHSZOPWWPUNSVIIPLZ the government began to shift federal funding away from rail projects toward the development of the national highway system and HPY[YHMĂ&#x201E;JPUMYHZ[Y\J[\YL;OLWYP]H[LYHPSJVTWHUPLZSVZPUNPUJVTL from both decreased freight and passenger services in addition [VKPTPUPZOPUNMLKLYHSM\UKPUNHUKPUĂ&#x2026;\LUJLILNHU[VZLLRUL^ sources of revenue to remain solvent. Many rail companies then defected from their understood agreement to provide transporta[PVUZLY]PJLZ[V[OLW\ISPJPUL_JOHUNLMVYWYVĂ&#x201E;[MYVT[OLZLZLY]PJes and, mainly, freight shipping) due to the changing atmosphere and the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s defection. They did this by discontinuing SLZZWVW\SHYSPULZHUKZLSSPUN[YHJRZHUK[OLHPYYPNO[Z[V[OLPYWYVWerty in major cities. Although these companies were private, they operated public services, in many cases as a monopoly despite government regulation, and their stations acted as important public structures within their urban settings.


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This series of defections, caused by the changing nature of the [YHUZWVY[H[PVUJVTTVUZ^P[O[OLPU[LYQLJ[PVUVMUL^WSH`LYZH\[V HUKHPYSLK[VHZOPM[VMLX\PSPIYP\TI`[OLNV]LYUTLU[H^H`MYVT rail, which caused, in desperation, the defection of the rail companies from a public-private agreement that the government still maintained but did not support.

This led to the defection of the rail companies by not offering its M\SSZLY]PJLZW\ISPJILULĂ&#x201E;[[VTH[JOP[ZSVZZVMWYVĂ&#x201E;[IYPUNPUNIV[O WSH`LYZKV^U[Vº;OLZHSLVMHPYYPNO[Z[VZ[H[PVUZJOHUNLK[OL V\[JVTLHNHPU^P[O[OLW\ISPJH[ºHUK[OLJVTWHUPLZH[º (1.3) Ultimately, as in most defection games, the efforts by the rail comWHUPLZ[VTHPU[HPUWYVĂ&#x201E;[MHPSLKHUKTVZ[^LYLMVYJLKPU[VIHURY\W[J`IYPUNPUN[OLV\[JVTLMVY[OLJVTWHUPLZ[VºHUK^P[O[OL L_WLJ[LKJVTWSL[LSVZZVMZLY]PJL[OLW\ISPJ[VºHZ^LSS

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GAME TWO >P[O[OLWV[LU[PHSSVZZVMHW\ISPJILULÃ&#x201E;[K\L[V[OLMHPS\YLVMP[ZWYP]H[LMHJPSP[H[VY[OLNV]LYUTLU[JV\SKUV[HSSV^HSVZZVMZLY]PJL[VVJJ\Y;VYLZWVUK[V[OLL]LU[Z of game one, the government then created two entities to fully consolidate the previously independent, private rail systems. With the passage of the Rail Passenger :LY]PJL(J[VM [OL5H[PVUHS9HPSYVHK7HZZLUNLY*VYWVYH[PVU597*VWLYH[VYVMWHZZLUNLY(T[YHRZLY]PJLZ^HZJYLH[LKMVSSV^LKPU I`[OL*VUZVSPKH[LK9HPS*VYWVYH[PVU*VUYHPSV^ULYVMYHPS[YHJRHUKYPNO[Z[^VO`IYPKW\ISPJWYP]H[LJVTWHUPLZIHJRLKI`[OLMLKLYHSNV]LYUTLU[4HU`^P[OPU[OLNV]LYUTLU[ expected the companies to fail and dissolve within a few years as ridership continued to decrease. (KLMLJ[I`[OLNV]LYUTLU[MVYL_HTWSLWYP]H[PaPUN[OLJVTWHU`^V\SKHSSV^P[[VZH]LHWVY[PVUVMP[ZPU]LZ[TLU[HSILP[^P[OW\ISPJV\[JY`MVYHUV\[JVTLVMº » ^OPSL[OLW\ISPJK\L[V[OLPUZVS]LUJ`HUKPUOLYLU[\UWYVÃ&#x201E;[HIPSP[`VM[OLI\ZPULZZ^V\SKTVZ[SPRLS`JVTWSL[LS`SVZLZLY]PJLPUHKKP[PVU[VNV]LYUTLU[MHP[OHUK[OLPY [H_KVSSHYZMVYHUV\[JVTLVMº»(JVTWSL[LSVZZVMYPKLYZOPWHM[LY[OLNV]LYUTLU[»ZPU[LY]LU[PVUJV\SKOH]LJYLH[LKHKV\ISLKLMLJ[PVUZJLUHYPV^P[O[OLNV]LYUTLU[»ZV\[JVTLH[º»K\L[VSVZZVMTVUL`[Y\Z[HUKYLW\[H[PVUHUK[OLW\ISPJH[º»I`SVZPUNHZLY]PJLHUKZOHYPUN[OLNV]LYUTLU[»ZSVZZ

GAME THREE In a perfect version of Game two, the government would fully support the new entities due to the potential damage of a defection by either party. Many within the NV]LYUTLU[OV^L]LYZH^HKLMLJ[PVUI`[OLW\ISPJHZPUL]P[HISLHUKZV\NO[[VKPZ[HUJL[OLPYPU]LZ[TLU[ZV[OH[KHTHNLMYVTHMHPS\YL^V\SKILTPUPTPaLKMVY[OLT I\[UV[[OLNLULYHSW\ISPJ)LJH\ZLVM[OPZ(T[YHR»ZM\UKPUN^HZZL[HUKYLTHPULKSV^JVTWHYLK[VVWLYH[PUNJVZ[ZL]LU^P[OSPTP[LKHUKWVVYX\HSP[`ZLY]PJL>P[O [OPZSV^X\HSP[`ML^UL^YPKLYZ^LYLLUJV\YHNLK[V\ZL[OLZLY]PJLHUK[O\ZUL^PUJVTLKPKUV[JVTLMYVT[OLW\ISPJ;OLNV]LYUTLU[ZH^[OPZHZ]HSPKH[PVUMVY [OLPYSHJRVMPU]LZ[TLU[,]LU^P[O[OLSVZZVMHWSH`LY[OL9HPS*VTWHUPLZ[OLPU[YVK\J[PVUVMHZ[YH^THU(T[YHRHJ[PUNHZ[OLYHPSJVTWHUPLZVU[OLNV]LYUTUL[»Z ILOHSMRLLW[OLZ`Z[LTHZZ[H[\ZX\V 0U[OPZNHTLHT\[\HSS`ILULÃ&#x201E;JPHSS`ZP[\H[PVUVMIV[OWHY[PLZPU]LZ[PUNTPUPTHSS`^V\SKVUS`NHPULHJOº »(KLMLJ[PVUI`[OLNV]LYUTLU[KLM\UKPUNHUKJ\[[PUN[PLZ ^V\SKHSSV^[OLT[VZH]LMHJLHUK^V\SKUV[OH]LJVZ[[OLTT\JOMVYHNHPUVMº »^OPSL[OLW\ISPJ^P[OSVZZVMZLY]PJLZVTL[H_KVSSHYZHUKNV]LYUTLU[MHP[O ^V\SKOH]LHUV\[JVTLVMº»;OLNV]LYUTLU[HSZVWYV[LJ[LKP[ZLSMMYVTKLMLJ[PVUZI`[OLW\ISPJI`UV[M\SS`PU]LZ[PUNPU[OLZLY]PJLZV[OH[IV[OWHY[PLZ^V\SK OH]LHUV\[JVTLUVSLZZ[OHUº»PU[OH[PUZ[HUJL

GAME FOUR 0UVYKLY[VPUJYLHZL[OLX\HSP[`VMYHPSZLY]PJLHUKYPKLYZOPW^OPSL^VYRPUN^P[OPU[OLLZ[HISPZOLKZ`Z[LT(T[YHRULLKLKV\[ZPKLPU]LZ[TLU[HUKUL^ZV\YJLZVMPUJVTL)`SVVRPUNIHJR[V[OLWYP]H[LZLJ[VY(T[YHRJVU[PU\LK[OLYHPSJVTWHUPLZ»Z`Z[LTVMZLSSPUNHUKSLHZPUNWYVWLY[`HUKKYHZ[PJHSS`PUJYLHZPUNHK]LY[PZPUNHUK ZWVUZVYZOPWPUZ[H[PVUZHUKVU[YHPUZ0U[OPZTHUULYUL^TVUL`^HZPUQLJ[LKPU[V[OLZ`Z[LTHUKPUZ[LHKVMSLH]PUNP[HZWYVÃ&#x201E;[HZP[KPK\UKLY[OLYHPSJVTWHUPLZ P[^HZHIZVYILKHZZLY]PJL>OH[OHKZ[HY[LKHZHT\[\HSS`ILULÃ&#x201E;JPHSZ`Z[LTIL[^LLUW\ISPJHUKWYP]H[LPU[LYLZ[ZMHJPSP[H[LKI`JVYWVYH[PVUZHUKZ\WWVY[LKI`[OL government became a system completely operated by the government and supported by corporations.

43


Proposed Game Theory Solution .(4,-0=, ;OLZ`Z[LTVMNHTLMV\Y^P[OP[»ZPU[YVK\J[PVUVMV\[ZPKLPUJVTLTPYYVYZNHTLHUKSPRL[OH[NHTLPZ\U[LUHISL;OLWYVISLTZJH\ZLKI`NHTLZHUKVJJ\YYLKK\L[V[OLºWLYMLJ[»ZJLUHYPVVMNHTL^OLYLPU[OLMHJPSP[H[VYVM[OLZ`Z[LT[OLNV]LYUTLU[JOVZL[VVWLYH[LPU[OLZHTLTHUULY[OH[P[OHKILMVYL^OLU [OLZ`Z[LTWYV]LKP[ZLSM[VIL\UZ[HISL^P[O[OLPU[YVK\J[PVUVMUL^LSLTLU[Z0UZ[LHKVMJOHUNPUN[OLZ`Z[LT[OLMHJPSP[H[VYJOVZL[VYLWSHJL[OLWSH`LY[OH[SVZ[[OL rail companies) with a puppet that they controlled, but that was expected to act in the same manner as the previous player. With this, the government moved from ILPUNTLYLS`[OLMHJPSP[H[VYVM[OLZ`Z[LTHUK[OLNHTL[VILPUNHWSH`LYPUP[JH\ZPUNHJSLHYJVUÃ&#x2026;PJ[ The solution to this problem would be a system wherein the introduction of a new player would allow for a stable injection of money so that the system would be HISL[VZ\WWVY[P[ZLSM0U[OPZ^H`[OLNV]LYUTLU[JV\SK\ZL(T[YHRUV[HZHWSH`LYPU[OLNHTLI\[HZHJOLJRHUKHMHJPSP[H[VYMVY[OLUL^WSH`LYVYWSH`LYZ)` ZOPM[PUN(T[YHR»ZYLZWVUZPIPSP[PLZMYVTHZLY]PJLWYV]PKLY[VHNV]LYUTLU[Z\WWVY[LKVWLYH[VYVM[YHJRZZ[H[PVUZHUKV]LYHYJOPUNZ\WWVY[WYP]H[LYHPS^H`ZJV\SKIL introduced into the system to run passenger service. With this, these private companies would operate similarly to the old system, but would need only invest heavily PU[YHPUZHUKWHZZLUNLYZHZHSSV[OLYJVUJLYUZ^V\SKIL[HRLUJHYLVMI`[OLUL^(T[YHRHJ[PUNHZHJVSSLJ[P]L[OH[HSS[OLUL^WSH`LYZ^V\SKWH`PU[V;OLZLJVZ[Z ^V\SKILYLHZVUHISLHZ[OL`^V\SKILZ\WWVY[LKI`[H_WH`LYKVSSHYZ(T[YHRJV\SKL]LUJVU[PU\L[VVWLYH[LHZWHZZLUNLYYHPS»Z[YHKLTHYRIYHUKHUKJV\SKJV]LY advertising and promotion for the collective.

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7VW\SV\Z

With this new system, the government wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to provide as much monetary support for rail but would still be able to provide [OLZLY]PJLMVY[OLW\ISPJ;OLW\ISPJ^V\SKILULÃ&#x201E;[I`OH]PUN[OL ZLY]PJLUV^VMIL[[LYX\HSP[`VMTVYLX\HU[P[`HUKZ[PSSH[YLHZVUHISL WYPJLZ (T[YHR PU P[»Z UL^ YVSL ^V\SK YLJLP]L M\UKPUN MYVT both public and private sources within the system and would have drastically cut operating expenses. The new private service providLYZ^V\SKHSZVILULÃ&#x201E;[I`ILPUNHISL[VTHRLHWYVÃ&#x201E;[PUL_JOHUNL for providing a public service and by being encouraged to form and operate by having large expenses and operations covered by HJVSSLJ[P]LWYV]PKPUNHSSWHY[PLZ^P[OHUV\[JVTLVMº»


Advertising Analysis ECONOMIC IMPACT ON ARCHITECTURAL EXPERIENCE

45


Air Rights and Government Incentives ECONOMIC IMPACT

46


Station Flows :7(;0(3*/(5.,:6=,9;04,+<,;6<:,97(;;,95:

Morning Rush

Late Morning

Evening Rush

Afternoon

Night

Entertainment

Commuter Rail Amtrak 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Street Life 47


Space Syntax STATION ANALYSIS AS USER PATHWAYS

Food Street Transition Level Space Train

Platform

Transition Space

Transition Space Platform

Ticketing

ONE

0UMVYTH[PVU FOUR

Waiting Space :WHJL PZ \UKLYZ[VVK KPMMLYLU[S` K\L [V PTTH[LYPHS LSLTLU[Z SPRL destination, crowds, rhythmic schedules, and social interaction. A I\PSKPUNHZWYLZLU[LKºHYJOP[LJ[\YHSS`»[OYV\NOÅVVYWSHUZHUKZLJtions presents an objective version of spatial interaction that will never be experienced by a building’s users These space syntax diagrams show the architecture of the crowd and the rhythms of the station - how space is changed as people move through it - and an understanding of different building ZLX\LUJLZ [OH[ JYLH[L JVTWSL[LS` KPMMLYLU[ HYJOP[LJ[\YLZ MVY LHJO user.

ONE

THREE

48

Restroom

TWO

Ticketing Event Space

Transition Space

TWO

FOUR

0UMVYTH[PVU

THREE

Street Level


Design Alterations STATION AS SYSTEM

PERSON-PERSON

PENN STATION DOES NOT ACKNOWLEDGE THE SOCIAL

PERSON-ENVIRONMENT

PENN STATION DOES NOT LEND ITSELF TO BE COGNITIVELY UNDERSTOOD

PENN STATION =

CATTLE RACE

PENN STATION =

MALL

NETWORK TRAIN

ENVIRONMENT-ENVIRONMENT

PENN STATION DOES NOT CONNECT TO THE URBAN FABRIC OR ACKNOWLEDGE ITS DISTANT CONNECTIONS

PEOPLE

)`HJRUV^SLKNLPUN[OLPTTH[LYPHSHUK[YHUZP[VY`LSLTLU[ZVM[OLZ[H[PVU[OLLZZLU[PHSLSLTLU[Z[OH[NP]L[OLZ[H[PVUHW\YWVZLHUKL_PZ[PUKLWLUKLU[S`VM[OLI\PS[MVYTHUL^HYJOP[LJ[\YLJHUILKLZPNULK[OH[IL[[LYÄ[ZOV^WLVWSL\UKLYZ[HUKHUK\ZLZWHJL

49


50


Network Theory

51


Order is BY LOUIS I. KAHN

+LZPNUPZMVYTTHRPUNPUVYKLY Form emerges out of a system of construction Growth is a construction – In order is creative force In design is the means – where with what when with how much ;OLUH[\YLVMZWHJLYLÅLJ[Z^OH[P[^HU[Z[VIL Is the auditorium a Stradivarius or an ear Is the auditorium a creative instrument RL`LK[V)HJOVY)HY[}R played by the conductor or is it a conventional hall In the nature of space is the spirit and the will to exist in a certain way Design must follow closely that will Therefore a stripe-painted horse is not a zebra Before a railroad station is a building it wants to be a street it grows out of the needs of the street out of the order of movement A meeting of contours englazed.

Mozart’s compositions are designs They are exercises of order – intuitive Design encourages more designs Designs derive their imagery from order Imagery is the memory – the form Style is an adopted order The same order created the elephant and created man They are different designs Begun from different aspirations Shaped from different circumstances Order does not imply Beauty The same order created the dwarf and Adonis +LZPNUPZUV[THRPUNILH\[` Beauty emerges from selection HMÄUP[PLZ integration love (Y[PZHMVYTTHRPUNSPMLPUVYKLY¶WZ`JOPJ

Through the nature – why Through the order – what Through the design – how A form emerges from the structural elements inherent in the form. (KVTLPZUV[JVUJLP]LK^OLUX\LZ[PVUZHYPZLOV^[VI\PSKP[ Nervi grows an arch Fuller grows a dome

52

Order is intangible It is a level of creative consciousness forever becoming higher in level The higher the order the more diversity in design Order supports integration From what the space wants to be the unfamiliar way may be revealed to the architect. From order he will derive creative force and power of self-criticism to give form to this unfamiliar. Beauty will evolve.


Social Interaction Models CURRENT AND PROPOSED METHODS OF SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL INTERACTION

53


Social Innovation Models FRINGE AND CENTER

54


Penn Station History CHANGING PRIORITIES, CHANGING FORMS

55


Historic Building Typologies STATION AS OBJECT-SIGNIFIER, SYMBOL STATION DISCONNECTED FROM SYMBOL STATION AS THE IN-BETWEEN

56






 



    

 

 

Old Penn Station

Current Penn Station

5L^0KLH

57


796.9(4

>0;/:8<(9,-66;(.,:

Preliminary System Studies ,?0:0;05.)<03+05.: >0;/(3;,9(;065:

:0+,>(32:

VOID

,?0:0;05.73(;-694 :;907:

:<7769;*69, 9LZ[YVVTZ,TWSV`LL:LY]PJLZ)HJRZ[HNL :WHJLZ:LJ\YP[`6MMPJLZ /=(*+\J[Z,SLJ[YPJHS:`Z[LTZ7S\TIPUN  :-

CORE

STEEL FRAME

7(;/>(@:

(5+;,5:065:;9<*;<9, *PYJ\SH[PVUHUK(JJLZZ ;LUZPVU:[Y\J[\YHS:\WWVY[ :-

56+,: .H[OLYPUN:WHJLZ>HP[PUN4LL[PUN ;PJRL[PUN:LY]PJLZ3VJRLYZ:LH[PUN0UMVYTH[PVU :-

PATHS

PRE-CAST AND TENSION STRUCTURE

,?0:0;05.*65*6<9:,: >0;/(3;,9(;065: :-

;9(0573(;-694:

;9(*2: 7SH[MVYTZ;YHJRZ! :-

NODES

58

SITE-CAST REINFORCED CONCRETE

NEW CONSTRUCTION ALTERED EXISITING

 ;6;(3ยบ:;(;065ยป:8<(9,-,,;


59


60


Construction Alterations Over Time :;(.,+9,46=(36-,?0:;05.,3,4,5;: CONSTRUCTION AND INSERTION OF NEW ELEMENTS

61


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PROJECT REFERENCES (SL_HUKLY*OYPZ[VWOLY:HYH0ZOPRH^HHUK4\YYH`:PS]LYZ[LPU(7H[[LYU3HUN\HNL!;V^UZ )\PSKPUNZ*VUZ[Y\J[PVU5L^@VYR!6_MVYK<7 7YPU[ (SL_HUKLY*OYPZ[VWOLY;OL;PTLSLZZ>H`VM)\PSKPUN5L^@VYR!6_MVYK<7  7YPU[ (YUOLPT9\KVSM(Y[HUK=PZ\HS7LYJLW[PVU"H7Z`JOVSVN`VM[OL*YLH[P]L,`L)LYRLSL`!<UP]LYZP[` VM*HSPMVYUPH 7YPU[ )\JOHUHU4HYR5L_\Z!:THSS>VYSKZHUK[OL.YV\UKIYLHRPUN:JPLUJLVM5L[^VYRZ5L^@VYR! >>5VY[VU7YPU[ *O\UN*O\PO\H1\K`1LMMYL`0UHIH9LT2VVSOHHZ:aL;Z\UN3LVUNHUK;HL^VVR*OH /HY]HYK+LZPNU:JOVVS.\PKL[V:OVWWPUN2Â&#x20AC;SU!;HZJOLU7YPU[ *VYI\ZPLY;V^HYKH5L^(YJOP[LJ[\YL3VUKVU!(YJOP[LJ[\YHS 7YPU[ /PSSPLY)PSSHUK1\SPLUUL/HUZVU;OL:VJPHS3VNPJVM:WHJL*HTIYPKNLB*HTIYPKNLZOPYL! *HTIYPKNL<7 7YPU[ /VYHU;OVTHZ(+PNP[HS7SHJLZ!)\PSKPUN6\Y*P[`VM)P[Z>HZOPUN[VU+*!<30[OL<YIHU3HUK 0UZ[P[\[L7YPU[ 4PSNYHT:[HUSL`;OL0UKP]PK\HSPUH:VJPHS>VYSK,ZZH`ZHUK,_WLYPTLU[Z9LHKPUN4HZZB\H! (KKPZVU>LZSL` 7YPU[ 7VYWO`YPVZ+LTL[YPHUK(7HWHKHRHZ*SHZZPJPZT0Z5V[H:[`SL3VUKVU!(YJOP[LJ[\YHS+LZPNU  7YPU[

98


ACADEMIC VITA DN

DN DN UP

UP DN

DN DN DN

DN

DN DN DN

DN DN

4(;;/,>.9(/(4 5VYTHUK`*[5L^/HTW[VU5@<:(  TNYHOHTHYJO'NTHPSJVT 





,+<*(;065

EDUCATION ;OL7LUUZ`S]HUPH:[H[L<UP]LYZP[`       The Pennsylvania *VSSLNLVM(Y[HUK(YJOP[LJ[\YL:JOYL`LY/VUVYZ*VSSLNL State University       )HJOLSVYVM(YJOP[LJ[\YL4H`.YHK\H[PVU College of Art and Architecture + Schreyer Honors College   Bachelor *\T\SH[P]L.7(! of Architecture 4H` UP

DN

DN

DN

DN

DN













 UP



,?7,90,5*, EXPERIENCE

*:(YJO(YJOP[LJ[\YLc*VUZ[Y\J[PVU4HUHNLTLU[   :\TTLY CS Arch Architecture | Construction Management     :\TTLY 5L^I\YNO5@(YJOP[LJ[\YHS0U[LYU Newburgh, NY - Architectural Intern  0UZWLJ[LKHUKKVJ\TLU[LKLK\JH[PVUHSI\PSKPUNZHUKWYLWHYLK)\PSKPUN*VUKP[PVU9LWVY[Z Inspected and documented education buildings  +LZPNULKNYHWOPJZHUKWYLZLU[H[PVUZPU(KVIL*YLH[P]L:\P[L(\[V*(+ Prepared Building Condition Reports Designed graphics and presentations Creative Suite, AutoCAD .YLH[LY5L^I\YNO/HIP[H[MVY/\THUP[`   in Adobe      :\TTLY

  

  

5L^I\YNO5@=VS\U[LLYHUK3LHKLY  >VYRPU-YHTPUN+LTVSP[PVU-SVVYPUN7YLZLY]H[PVU Greater Newburgh Habitat for Humanity        3LKNYV\WZVM]VS\U[LLYZHUK^HZPU[LY]PL^LKMVYHJVTT\UP[`KVJ\TLU[HY`

:\TTLY

5L^I\YNO5@=VS\U[LLYHUK3LHKLY  >VYRPU-YHTPUN+LTVSP[PVU-SVVYPUNHUK7YLZLY]H[PVU :2033: Led groups of volunteers and was interviewed for a community documentary +PNP[HS4VKLSPUN)04HUK*(+! 

 

9L]P[9OPUV-VYTA:RL[JO<W=HZHYP,JV[LJ[;VW4VK+(\[V*(+7*HUK4HJ/HUK+YHM[PUN

-HIYPJH[PVU! 

+7YPU[PUN*5*9V\[PUN3HZLY*\[[PUN+PNP[HS(UPTH[PVU/HUK4VKLSPUN

6[OLY7YVNYHTZHUK>LI+L]LSVWTLU[! 

(KVIL*:4PJYVZVM[6MÃ&#x201E;JL:\P[LP4V]PL+YLHT^LH]LY(KVIL-SHZO

99


ACADEMIC VITA ORGANIZATIONS American Institute of Architecture Students (AIAS)

    (0(*VTT\UP[`3PHPZVU([[LUKLK5H[PVUHS-VY\TPU4PUULHWVSPZ





OXFAM at Penn State  

      ,_LJ\[P]L*VTTP[[LL4LTILY.YHWOPJ+LZPNULY Hunger Awareness Dinner Chairperson







 

Students for Environmentally Enlightened Design (SEED) 









Shipping Container Library Design Team

ACCOMPLISHMENTS Paul M. Kossman Senior Thesis Award Winner (0(/LUY`(KHTZ*LY[PÃ&#x201E;JH[L9LJPWPLU[  :[L^HYKZVU-LSSV^ZOPW-PUHSPZ[  (Y[\YIHPU0U[LYUH[PVUHS*VTWL[P[PVU-PUHSPZ[ Penn State Design Excellence Award Winner 













  

  

  

  

  

  

 2012   

      

      

      

,^PUN*VSL,UKV^LK(^HYK        7HU[OLVU0UZ[P[\[L9VTL7YVNYHT       :[LUTHU(^HYK/PNOLZ[(YJOP[LJ[\YL.7(      *VYILSSL[[P*VTWL[P[PVU-PUHSPZ[        :JOYL`LY/VUVYZ*VSSLNL,U[Y`HUK:JOVSHYZOPW     ,HNSL:JV\[:LY]PJL7YVQLJ[7SHUUPUNHUK*VUZ[Y\J[PVUVM:LW[4LTVYPHS 6K`ZZL`VM[OL4PUK>VYSK-PUHSPZ[YK7SHJL     

100


Matthew Graham Thesis 2012  

Architecture thesis.

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