LLOYD CENTER FOR DANCE
TERMINAL STUDIO 2012 | UNIVERSITY OF OREGON | CHANEL HORN
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT LLOYD DISTRICT BACKGROUND INFORMATION THREE SCALES DISTRICT VISION SITE BACKGROUND INFORMATION CODE CONSTRAINTS LLOYD CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS INTRODUCTION PROGRAM | CENTER FOR DANCE PROGRAM | MIXED-USE HOUSING SQUARE FOOTAGE USERS DESIGN APPENDIX PRECEDENTS The Performing Arts Pavilion ‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
ABSTRACT Over the course of the twentieth century, the automobile has drastically transformed many American cities. Although the automobile has provided rapid transportation and convenience to any location it has also altered cities to accommodate the car with wider roads, large surface parking lots, and lower population densities as many people moved to the surrounding areas. As people travel outside the city to live it often leaves dead urban spaces that lack a sense of community, vitality, and activity. In the Lloyd District of Portland, one can see the consequences of how the automobile has transformed American cities. As the district employs about 16,000 people there are only about 1,000 people who actually live within the area. The lack of residents within the District can largely be due to the lack of neighborhood destinations and the major highways, which act as barriers for pedestrians. While the Lloyd District is known for having some of Portlandâ€™s regional attractions: the Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Garden, the Oregon Convention Center, and the Lloyd Center, it lacks its own identity. It leaves the district to feel barren as most of the activities happen inside the large facilities. Although the Lloyd District is lacking, it has a lot of potential. It is served by light rail and streetcar mass transit, it has views of the Willamette River and is within walking distance to Downtown and the Pearl District. Within the Lloyd District I am proposing a Center for Dance that will act as a social catalyst to draw residents and visitors into sustainable Ecodistrict living. Through my project I will explore how the Center can foster a welcoming green community with healthy lifestyles that contribute to a lively district identity focused on sports and entertainment.
The Lloyd District is a prominent part of Portlandâ€™s Central City as it is next to the Willamette River and just across the bridge from the downtown. The District is over 300 acres that consists of predominantly commercial and institutional buildings, which include some of Portlandâ€™s regional attractions. As the district has major regional attractions, the streets are often empty as the majority of the people travel to the district for their destination such as work, conferences, shopping, sporting and other entertainment events. In addition the highways, I-5 and the I-84, and major roadways, MLK and Grand, act as pedestrian barriers. Also the district has many vacant parcels of land and surface parking lots, which adds to the empty feeling. With the lack of pedestrian connection in the district, there is also a lack of a positive district identity. This is largely due to the fact that there is a lack of secondary landmarks, a lack of visible residents, and a lack of neighborhood destinations. As there has been many proposals for the redevelopment of the Lloyd District and the Rose Quarter for the purposes of my project, I am assuming that the Portland Development Commission vision stands to create facilities that encompasses sports, entertainment, arts, and culture. In addition I am also assuming that district utilities will be implemented into the district.
Goose Hollow Downtown
Showcase Sustainable Features.
Connect Through Sports, Entertainment, Arts and Culture.
Reconnect Major Paths of Lloyd with Pedestrian Amenities.
As the Lloyd District lacks positive identity within the Central City, I am first proposing to look at the district in three scales, the first being the district within its larger context. Many visitors will be entering the district from I-5 and I-84 highways; although these major highways act as barriers within the district they also provide a gateway for visitors. As the City of Portland is known as being a green city, I am proposing that the district showcase its sustainability practices within the district such as its district utilities, its watersheds, and its green street concept. Already parts of Holladay Street have been planted to make it more pedestrian-oriented in contrast to car-oriented streets like NE Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Grand Avenue. This will provide visitors and residents of the district to see how these features work and encourage them to look at their environment in a different way. To give the Lloyd District a positive identity one should also look at the district scale. As the Rose Quarter within the Lloyd District is known for its sporting events, the Portland Development Commission created a redevelopment plan that allows the Rose Quarter to become a place for sports, entertainment, arts, and culture. Although the Rose Quarter is considered part of the Lloyd District, it often feels very disconnected from the rest of the Lloyd District. As the proposed site is located across the street from the Oregon Convention Center and just east of the Rose Quarter, I want the proposed program to extend the idea of connecting people through sports, entertainment, art, and culture from the Rose Quarter farther into the Lloyd District. By providing spaces that allow people to be active within their neighborhood, it will also create a healthy community while providing vitality on the streets. In addition to looking at the district in its regional context and as a district, one should also look at the district as a pedestrian. Currently the Lloyd District lacks a presence of people walking and hanging out within the area. A large part of this is due to the lack of places for pedestrians to be and the barriers the major freeways create running through the district. In order to get pedestrians back on the street, there should be a series of small-scale markers that guide pedestrians along the major paths of the district. These small-scale markers would include but not limited to paved walkways, water fountains, street trees, and bike trails. By reconnecting the major paths of the Lloyd District with pedestrian amenities it will allow pedestrians to want walk and be within the district while still connecting them to their main destination points. In addition to help straighten the districts major paths, density of housing and retail spaces should be built up along the street edges to attract people throughout the day.
DISTRICT VISION Create paved pathways along major streets to enhance walkability.
Encourage the use of public transportation versus the automobile.
Pull sports and arts farther into the Lloyd District to create an active neighborhood.
Create density through mid-rise housing units and office complexes.
Housing will integrate urban agriculture through planters located on roof terraces.
A layering of green roofs, green streets, and bioswales will provide habitats for avian and invertebrates.
The site is located on the southern edge of the district, between NE Multnomah to the north, NE Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard to the east, NE Holladay to the south, and NE 2nd Avenue to the west. The 135,000 square feet site is broken up into thirteen different properties with two stakeholders, Portland Development Committee (PDC) and BPM Development. The site is currently a large open surface parking lot that serves as parking for the Oregon Convention Center, Bugerville, Starbucks, an Event Center, Sonus Hearing Care Center, and the N. Oregon Endodontist Specialist. These businesses currently line the edge of the site with the exception to the Oregon Convention Center, which is located to the south. As the Oregon Convention Center is to the south of the site, an open gravel lot that stores heavy equipment is to the west, the Oregon State Hospital of Portland is to the northeast, a mixed-use housing complex is to the north and hotels and restaurants are to the east of the site. The location of the site is prominent within the district as it is convenient to the Rose Quarter, the Oregon Convention Center and the Lloyd Center. The site has potentially great views to the downtown as it raises slightly higher then the I-5 highway, which borders it to the west. In addition, the site has great transportation, as all the citiesâ€™ MAX light rail linesrun along NE Holladay Street to the south of the site. There are also major roadways, bike paths, and bus routes along the site.
Mixed-Use Housing Oregon State Hospital of Portland
N. Oregon Endodontist Specialist Sonus Hearing Care Center
Oregon Convention Center
Starbucks Event Center
Red Lion Hotel
The site is zoned as Central Commercial (CX) which is intended to provide for commercial development within Portlandâ€™s most urban intense areas. A broad range of uses are allowed to reflect Portlandâ€™s role as a commercial, cultural, and governmental center. Development is intended to be very intense with high building coverage, large buildings, and buildings placed close together. Development is intended to be pedestrian-oriented with a strong emphasis on safe and attractive streetscape. Within Central Commercial Zoning the: - Maximum FAR: 12 to 1 - Maximum Height: 250 ft. - Minimum Building Setback: 0 - Maximum Building Setback: 10 ft. for Transit Street or Pedestrian District - Building Coverage: No Limit - Minimum Landscaped Area: None - Ground Floor Window Standards DO apply - Pedestrian Requirements DO apply - No Required Parking Also the Site has a Design Overlay that promotes the conservation, enhancement, and continued vitality of areas of the City with special scenic, architectural, or cultural value. It helps to promote quality high-density development adjacent to transit facilities.
LLOYD CENTER FOR DANCE LLOYD CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS
INTRODUCTION I am proposing to create a Center for Dance on the proposed site within the Lloyd District. To support the Center and create an active district, I am proposing a mixed-use housing complex with retail on the bottom floor. The Lloyd District Development Plan shows it is important to provide housing for the vitality of the area, however my thesis will focus mainly on the Center for Dance. Creating a Center for Dance will link the Rose Quarter to the Convention Center and enrich the art a culture offerings in a prominent Lloyd District site. The Center would be broken up into two theaters that both provide different functions, one for formal performances and one for experimental performances. In addition the Center will also provide a series of educational studios and classrooms. Within these spaces there will be classes offered throughout the day for people of all ages. A variety of Center activities will attract users to inhabit the site throughout the day. To further enhance social interaction on the site there will be also be a cafĂŠ, an art gallery, landscaped entry plazas, and outdoor performance spaces. A variety of Center activities will attract users to inhabit the site throughout the day.
PROGRAM | CENTER FOR DANCE
Through researching the existing Performing Art Centers in Portland I have found that there are dominantly large venues that hold 500 or more people and small venues that hold less then 100 people. As there is a lack of medium-size venues I wanted my program and building to reflect this. A medium-size venue is small enough to be intimate and large enough for a variety of activities. In addition to looking at Performing Art Centers in Portland I also researched The Performing Arts Pavilion and â€™62 Center for Theatre and Dance, which are similar in the size to the Center for the Performing Arts to get an idea of how large spaces want to be. These precedent studies are shown in the Appendix portion of the booklet. Storage
Outdoor Entry Space
FRONT STAGE Box Office
Storage Seminar Classroom Cafe
Lounge Art Gallery
Concession Stand Storage
EDUCATION Locker Room
Dance Theater Seats 200
Performing Arts Theater Seats 550
BACKSTAGE Loading Dock
PROGRAM | MIXED-USE HOUSING Although I am not focusing on the mixed-use housing unit for my thesis project, I feel it is a very important element and aspect that needs to be implemented into the Lloyd District. I am proposing a mixed-use housing unit in which retail would be located on the ground floor and a ten story housing unit would be located above. The retail would have a variety of stores that will help support the Center for the Performing Arts and housing as well as provide pedestrian activity throughout the day. In addition the housing would also provide the continuous activity as well as provide housing for students of the Center for the Performing Arts and others at market rate value. As the program for retail and housing is much larger then the program for the Center of Performing Arts note that it is half the scale as the program for the Center.
SQUARE FOOTAGE SPACES
# OF ROOMS
TOTAL SQ. FOOTAGE
Dance Theater Perfroming Arts Theater Control Room Dressing Room
4,000 7,500 800 300
1 1 2 4
4,000 7,500 1,600 1,200
HOLDS 200 SEATS HOLDS 550 SEATS
Music Room Music Studios Rehearsal Studios Individual Classrooms Seminar Classrooms Locker Room Faculty Oﬃces Kitchen
2,000 300 1,250 200 600 600 150 600
1 3 4 5 3 2 10 1
2,000 900 5,000 1,000 1,800 1,200 1,500 600
Costume Shop Scene Shop Loading Dock Storage Green Room Mechanical Room
2,250 2,250 1,875 100 600 3,000
1 1 1 10 1 2
2,250 2,250 1,875 1,000 600 6,000
Lobby Box Oﬃce Café Art Gallery Concession Stand Lounge Restroom Circula_on
2,000 200 2,000 400 200 600 400 5,000
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
2,000 200 2,000 400 200 600 800 5,000
Outdoor Performance Space Entry Plaza
2 ‐20x15 | FOR MEN AND WOMAN
VARIES ON ROOM
SEATS ABOUT 50 APART OF LOBBY AND CAFÉ SPACE
8 FT. WIDE WALKWAYS
10 STORIES SQ. FT.
Activities: - After School Programs - Art Classes - Dance, Drama, and Music Classes - Performances - Dance - Drama - Music - Playing Outdoors
Liam is a very active six year old who lives with his parents in the housing unit on site. After school he often comes to the Center to take art and drama classes as he waits for his parents to get off work. As he is full of energy his parents like to take him on walks and bike rides to the park and around their neighborhood. London is a ten year old girl who loves to dance and sing. As she is a little perfectionist she comes to the Center to practice her routines and songs for her big performances.
Activities: - Teen Classes - Dance, Drama, and Music Classes - Socializing in Gathering Spaces - Performing - Dance Lane Lindsay - Drama - Music - Professional Performances - Practicing for Upcoming Performances - Connection to Lloyd Center Mall, Movie Theater, and the Rose Garden Lane just moved into the Lloyd District and wants to get to know some other teenagers within the neighborhood. As his friends often go to the Center after school, he enjoys taking drama, dance, and music classes with his friends. Lindsay has always dreamed of going to a performing art college to continue her profession in dance since she was little. As her high school, like many Oregon schools, has cut funding for art programs she does not have a proper place to practice. Since Lindsay is determined to receive a scholarship to the college of her choice she likes to come to the Center every day to practice and perform on the springy dance floors the Center offers. AFTERNOON
Activities: - Teaching Students - Enrichment Courses - Dance, Drama, and Music Classes - Professional Performances - Practing for Upcoming Performances - Watching Performances - Affordable Living with Access To: - Shopping and Everyday Necessities - Public Transportation - Bike and Walking Paths
Lem is the father to Lindsay and goes to the Center often to watch his daughters performances. When traveling here he finds it is easier to use the Tri-Met MAX line as it stops right in front of the Center. While watching his daughters performance he feels a connection with the performers as the theater has a sense of intimacy. Lisa is one of the teachers who works at the Center. She enjoys teaching here as there are variety of spaces that are flexible to work in. In addition she also has her own private office with easy access to a lounge and kitchen when she is not teaching.
Activities: - Enrichment Courses - Art, Dance, Drama, and Music Classes - Affordable Living with Easy Access To: - Shopping and Everyday Necessities - Public Transportation - Walking Paths
Louis and Louis are a retired couple who have lived in Portland for over thirty years. As they have gotten older they realized living within the city was the best option for them as they have easy access to everyday necessities and public transportation to get around. Louis and Louise have always have had a passion for the performing arts, but as they were busy with work and raising their family they did not have time to pursue their interests when they were younger. Now that they are retired and have a lot more free time Louis and Louise love going to the Center during the day to stay active and learn about the performing arts.
DESIGN The Lloyd Center for Dance will act as social catalyst to draw residents and visitors into sustainable Ecodistrict living. My project explores how the Center can foster social interaction and contribute to an appealing district identity of sports and entertainment.
Sharp Angular Contract and Release
Green Spaces Attract Pedestrians
Form Inspired by Contemporary Dance
Framing Important Moments
LLOYD CENTER FOR DANCE WITHIN THE LLOYD DISTRICT
TRANSLUCENT PERFORATED METAL Shading Devices
WARM WOOD CLADDING Theaters and Housing
TO RIVER OR INFILTRATION
TREATED BLACKWATER STORAGE TANK
GREEN ROOF FOR AVIAN HABITAT
GREEN STREET WITH BIOSWALES
EXPOSED STEEL S
TILT-UP CONCRETE WALLS
PERFORATED METAL SCREEN
CIRCULATION ELEVATOR & STAIRS CENTER FOR DANCE STRUCTURE
TECTONIC MODEL 60 FOOT STEEL BAYS
Perorated metal screen creates diffused daylighting in the interior.
LOBBY WALL SECTION
THE PERFORMING ARTS PAVILION BACKGROUND INFO.
Located along the hills of Jackson, Wyoming the 39,000 sf. performing art space includes a proscenium theater, lobby, concession stands, rehearsal studios, an art gallery, dressing rooms, a scene shop, with administrative and support spaces. The theater is designed to be flexible so that the different disciplines of drama, dance, film, and music are able to use the facility to their needs (Architype Review). The theater is designed to allow for flexibility and intimacy as there are 200 seats in the orchestra level that allow for small audiences and events. For larger productions 300 seats can be added in the balcony level to raise the capacity of the theater to be 500 (Architype Review). The large seating area helps define the lobby space from the interior as well as provide a structural system for a curtain wall that defines the lobby on the exterior (Architype Review). The transparent wall creates a sense of activeness within the theater that a lot of performing arts centers sometimes lack as they often feel internalized. From the lobby entrance the site slopes upwards to meet a garden and an amphitheater (Architype Review). The amphitheater provides a spaces that extends performances to the outdoors, however allowing them to be less formal then ones in the proscenium theater. The choice of materials and scale of the building “tie the drama of theater with the local landscape to create a unique venue for the region” (Architype Review).
SOURCE: “Performing Arts Pavilion at the Jackson Hole Center for the Arts .” Architype Review. Architype. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. < http://wwww.architypereview.com/14-performing-arts-centers/projects/96-performing-arts-pavilion-at-the-jackson-hole->. IMAGES: “Performing Arts Pavilion at the Jackson Hole Center for the Arts .” Architype Review. Architype. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. < http://wwww.architypereview.com/14-performing-arts-centers/projects/96-performing-arts-pavilion-at-the-jackson-hole->.
IMAGES: â€œPerforming Arts Pavilion at the Jackson Hole Center for the Arts .â€? Architype Review. Architype. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. < http://wwww.architypereview.com/14-performing-arts-centers/projects/96-performing-arts-pavilion-at-the-jackson-hole->.
IMAGES: â€œPerforming Arts Pavilion at the Jackson Hole Center for the Arts .â€? Architype Review. Architype. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. < http://wwww.architypereview.com/14-performing-arts-centers/projects/96-performing-arts-pavilion-at-the-jackson-hole->.
‘62 CENTER FOR THEATRE AND DANCE BACKGROUND INFO.
Located at Williams College in the rural Williamstown, Massachusetts the newly constructed 126,000 sf. performing arts center designed by William Rawn Associates includes three very different theaters, a lobby with a lounge, rehearsal studios, locker rooms, scene and wardrobe shop, with administrative and support spaces (Architectural Record).
As the ‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance is located on a college site it is designed to allow the students and visitors to have easy access into the spaces from the large lawn that surrounds it. Each theater within the complex has its own lobby which is marked by a translucent curtain wall from the exterior. The transparency of the entrances not only gives a visual marker to where one should enter the facility it also allows one to see the various activities that are happening within the building. As sound is a very important element within performing art centers, the Center’s design incorporates many acoustical features like “acoustic curtains, shaped wall surfaces and frequencyselective sound diffusive balcony fronts” to enhance the acoustical environment (Acoustic Dimensions).
SOURCES: Stephens, Suzanne. “‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance.” Architectural Record. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/bts/archives/perform/08_WilliamsCollege/>. “‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance.” Acoustic Dimensions. Web. 08 Nov. 2011 <http://www.acousticdimensions.com/projects/pac/62center_williamscollege.htm> IMAGES: “‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance.” Williams Rawn Associates. Williams Rawn Associates, Architects, Inc., Boston, MA. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.rawnarch.com/pdf/Williams-Collge-62-Center-for-Theatre-and-Dance.pdf>
4. Main Lobby 5. Lounge 6. Seminar Room 7. Classroom 8. Faculty Offices 9. Scene Room
MainStage Theater is the larger of the three theaters as it seats 550 people. It is designed to be compact in order to provide intimacy between the performers and the audience (Williams Rawn Associates). This theater is different then most theaters as the seating and interior features are made from wood. The wood interior gives warmth to the space while also tieing it to its exterior finishes.
2 CenterStage is a black-box theater that provides flexibility for various events as it has 200 movable seats, movable balconies, and a flexible lift (Williams Rawn Associates).
Adam’s Memorial Theater has a “combination of a thrust and proscenium stage” which allows for flexibility for performances but also provides an intimate experience as the audience can be seated on three sides of the theater (Williams Rawn Associates). SOURCE: “‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance.” Williams Rawn Associates. Williams Rawn Associates, Architects, Inc., Boston, MA. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.rawnarch.com/pdf/Williams-Collge-62-Center-for-Theatre-and-Dance.pdf> IMAGES: “‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance.” Williams Rawn Associates. Williams Rawn Associates, Architects, Inc., Boston, MA. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.rawnarch.com/pdf/Williams-Collge-62-Center-for-Theatre-and-Dance.pdf>
10. Dance Studio 11. Acting/Dance Studio 12. Locker Room
10 The Dance Studio is a dynamic space as three walls of the space are glass which provide gorgeous views to its surroundings (Williams Rawn Associates). Although the space is primarily used for dance rehearsal it is also used for special performances and music recitals (Williams Rawn Associates).
SOURCE: “‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance.” Williams Rawn Associates. Williams Rawn Associates, Architects, Inc., Boston, MA. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.rawnarch.com/pdf/Williams-Collge-62-Center-for-Theatre-and-Dance.pdf> IMAGES: “‘62 Center for Theatre and Dance.” Williams Rawn Associates. Williams Rawn Associates, Architects, Inc., Boston, MA. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.rawnarch.com/pdf/Williams-Collge-62-Center-for-Theatre-and-Dance.pdf>
1. District Energy Analysis. Rep. Portland: Portland Sustainability Institute. Rose Quarter-Convention Center District Analysis. Portland Sustainability Institute. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <www.portlandonline.com/bps/index.cfm?a=349825&c=54886>. The report gives a brief analysis by PoSi indicating the opportunities that district energy could provide to Lloyd District. It also indicates a plan on how the City would go about implementing district energy within the district. As district energy is apart of the EcoDistricts, this analysis was helpful in the way it allowed me to see what resources are already in the area and how I could use district energy in my project. 2. “Lloyd District Development.” Portland Development Commission - Economic Prosperity, Quality Housing, Employment Opportunities. July 2001. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://www.pdc.us/pubs/inv_detail.asp?id=169>. The Portland Development Commission created a complete development strategy that is put in place for the Lloyd District. The document gave me background information about the Lloyd District and its current problems the district is facing. In addition the report also gave their vision of how they would go about redeveloping the Lloyd District. Through the information I received from the report it gave me insight on what site I should redevelop and what type of building should be placed on the site. 3. McCulloch, Mike. “Rose Quarter Development Project.” Lecture. Rose Quarter Development Project. PDC Board Room, Portland. 12 Apr. 2011. Rose Quarter Development Project. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <rosequarterdevelopment.org/files/rqsac16_20110412_ppt_web.pdf>. The presentation from slides 22 to 36 by Mike McCulloch shows a proposed vision for the Rose Quarter. Within the presentation there are very helpful diagrams that show the existing conditions and what is being proposed. Although the report and McCulloch’s presentation in class is predominantly about the Rose Quarter, it helped me develop stronger ideas on how I could go about straightening the connection from the Rose Quarter to the Lloyd District. As the Rose Quarter often feels disconnected from the Lloyd District, I took the idea of connecting the Oregon Convention Center to the Rose Quarter by sports and entertainment. 4. “Portland Plan Background Reports.” Portland Plan. City of Portland, Oregon. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://www.portlandonline.com/portlandplan/index. cfm?c=51427>. The Portland Report provides information and data that is used within the Portland Plan. Within the plan there are nine strategies that address three overall goals of Portland. Each report shows how the specific topic addresses the aspects of the nine strategies. I found these reports very helpful in the way they were broken down into their own specific topics. The topic that has helped me straighten my project the most is Art. The art strategy made me realize how Oregon schools are lacking funds, therefore art is one of the first programs to be cut from a child’s education. This piece of information made me realize that the Lloyd Center for the Performing Arts should include an educational aspect as I feel it is very important for children to have the ability to express their creativity. 5. “Publications.” Portland Sustainability Institute. June 2011. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://www.pdxinstitute.org/index.php/resources/publications>. The web site provides documents published by Portland Sustainability Institute. Within the documents they provided the framework and pilot report for each EcoDistrict. As my focus is on the Lloyd District, I found the Lloyd link to be the most helpful. However, the brief information about each district allowed me to narrow down the district I wanted to work in.
6. Title 22, Planning and Zoning. Rep. Portland, 2011. Title 33, Planning and Zoning. City of Portland, Oregon, 2011. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <http://www.portlandonline.com/bps/index.cfm?c=31612>. The Title 22, Planning and Zoning are PDF documents of the zoning code of Portland. As the zoning code can be overwhelming, there are zoning summaries in which I found the Commercial Zones and Overlay Zones link to be most helpful. These zoning documents allowed me to know what the boundaries and limitations for building on my site.