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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Paper 1 Text 1 This is a feature article describing the famous Inca Trail in Peru. The style of writing is quite casual and thoughtful, and the topic should be interesting and thought provoking to candidates. The article is written for an international audience, but since the subject is how to conserve a popular tourist attraction, candidates should not have any difficulty relating to it. There are 18 questions based on eight question types. Most of the questions require candidates to locate specific information. The other questions are based on understanding vocabulary and figurative language, identifying the main idea of a paragraph, making references and inferences, and identifying the theme of the text and the views of the author. The main idea of each paragraph is as follows: 1

Walking the Inca Trail is popular, but the popularity of this experience places it in danger.

2

Before 2001, any tourist could set out on the trail, but the number who can hike it now is capped at 200 per day.

3

The Peruvian government has banned metal walking sticks and mules on sensitive parts of the trail in order to help preserve it.

4

The situation has greatly improved since the limit imposed on hiker numbers, but problems remain, such as littering.

5

Besides saving historical sites on the trail, efforts should also be made to preserve its natural habitat.

6

Moreover, the historic site of Machu Picchu, where the trail ends, is under greater peril due to tourism.

7

Hopefully, with responsible management, a reasonable middle ground can be found between conservation and tourism.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q1: Thematic question, Level 3

Option A is incorrect because the text is not a regular column in a newspaper. Option B is incorrect because the text does not provide a review of what it is like to walk on the Inca Trail. Option C is incorrect because the text uses informal language, which a report typically does not do. Therefore, option D is the correct answer.

Q2: Reference question, Level 3

‘Walk[ing] the Inca Trail’ can be found in lines 1–2. Alternatively, ‘complet[ing] all 42 kilometres of the classic route’ can be found in lines 8–9.

Q3: Vocabulary question (definition), Level 3

The phrase ‘a fact of life’ means ‘something that must be accepted as true even if it is unpleasant’. Therefore, option A is the correct answer. Candidates should be able to rule out options B, C and D quite easily, as option A makes the most sense in the context of both the sentence and the paragraph as a whole.

Q4: Specific factual question, Level 2

Candidates can refer to lines 13–15 for the answer.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q5: Main idea question, Level 4

Candidates should refer to the information in paragraph 2 for the answers. They also need to change some of the words to make sure they are grammatically correct. (i)

Candidates need to change the adjective ‘Peruvian’ (line 23) to the noun ‘Peru’.

(ii) Candidates need to change the verb ‘limited’ (line 25) to the noun ‘limit’. (iii) Candidates need to change the noun ‘reservation’ (line 30) to the gerund ‘Reserving’ (or the verb ‘book’ (line 32) to the gerund ‘Booking’). (iv) ‘200’ is used in line 30. (v)

‘Advance’ is used in line 32.

(vi) Candidates need to change the plural noun ‘tourists’ (line 29) to the singular noun ‘tourist’. (vii) Candidates need to change the plural noun ‘guides’ (line 28) to the singular noun ‘guide’. (viii) Candidates need to change the plural noun ‘porters’ (line 27) to the singular noun ‘porter’.

Q6: Figurative language question, Level 4

‘A necessary evil’ means ‘something that is undesirable but must be accepted’. In this case, while capping the number of tourists is undesirable because it is inconvenient, it must be accepted because it helps preserve the trail.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q7: Specific factual question, Level 3

Candidates can refer to lines 45–47 for the answer.

Q8: Vocabulary question (synonym), Level 4

The answer can be found in line 49. As there are not very many suitable adjectives in the paragraph, candidates who have an understanding of parts of speech should be able to infer the answer even if they did not previously know the meaning of ‘immune’.

Q9: Main idea question, Level 4

Options B and D are not mentioned in the paragraph. Option A is mentioned in the paragraph, but only to illustrate the main idea, that locals want all the hikers to be responsible. Therefore, option C is the correct answer.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q10: Specific factual question, Level 3

(i)

Statement 1 is not given. It does not mention in the text if most people used walking sticks and mules before then.

(ii) Statement 2 is false. According to line 50, ‘the situation has greatly improved’. (iii) Statement 3 is false. According to lines 56–59, locals understand ‘that income from tourists is good for the local economy’. (iv) Statement 4 is true. According to lines 63–64, ‘orchids … are common’. (v) Statement 5 is not given. It does not mention in the text if deer are a common sight along the trail. (vi) Statement 6 is true. According to lines 69–70, ‘habitat disruption [is] dangerous to these species’.

Q11: Reference question, Level 2

Candidates should refer to line 65 for the answer. ‘The delicate orchids’ are mentioned earlier in the sentence and fit the context.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q12: Inference question, Level 3

In lines 52–54 it says that locals ‘are frustrated with the litter that hikers leave behind’, in lines 40–41 it says metal walking sticks ‘were damaging the path’, and in lines 23–24 it says ‘the Peruvian government decided that something had to be done’. The text does not suggest that hikers should impose limits themselves or that touching any type of wildlife is acceptable.

Q13: Inference question, Level 3

Candidates can infer that the writer is cautious because he/she notes that some people would like to see the Inca Trail and Machu Picchu closed to tourists, but asks if it would ‘be fair to stop tourism?’ (lines 85–89).

Q14: Vocabulary question (synonym), Level 3

The answer can be found in lines 75–78 (‘salt and oil from their hands builds up and slowly eats away at the stone’), which specifies the type of danger that Machu Picchu is in.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q15: Specific factual question, Level 2

Candidates can refer to lines 75–78 for the answer.

Q16: Specific factual question, Level 2

Candidates should refer to line 82 and line 84 for the answers.

Q17: Main idea question, Level 3

(a)

Paragraph 1 discusses how the Inca Trail’s popularity places it in danger. Therefore, option C is the correct answer.

(b)

The main idea of paragraph 2 is how the Peruvian government limited the number of people on the trail. Therefore, option B is the correct answer.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes (c)

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The main idea of paragraph 3 is how the government also banned metal walking sticks and mules to minimize damage. Therefore, option G is the correct answer.

(d) The main idea of paragraph 4 is how tourists on the trail affect the locals who live along it. Therefore, option E is the correct answer. (e)

The main idea of paragraph 5 is how tourism along the trail is causing habitat destruction. Therefore, option D is the correct answer.

(f)

The main idea of paragraph 6 is how Machu Picchu, at the end of the trail, is in greater danger than the trail itself. Therefore, option F is the correct answer.

(g)

Paragraph 7 discusses whether or not the trail and Machu Picchu should be closed to the public. Therefore, option A is the correct answer.

Q18: Thematic question, Level 3

The correct answer is option A because the writer does not include language that indicates that he/she is trying to criticize, promote, or be mysterious about the efforts to save the trail.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Text 2 This is a review about a film called Plan 9 from Outer Space. The style of writing is casual and entertaining, and the topic should be interesting to candidates. The review is probably written for a school newspaper or magazine, so candidates should not have any difficulty relating to it. There are 9 questions based on five question types. The questions are based on locating specific information, understanding vocabulary and figurative language, identifying the main idea of a paragraph, making inferences, and identifying the theme of the text and the views of the author. The main idea of each paragraph is as follows: 1

This week’s review is about Plan 9 from Outer Space.

2

Plan 9 from Outer Space has a strange plot.

3

It also has many problems.

4

Ed Wood made this and other bad films.

5

The writer recalls her experiences of watching the film.

6

The writer makes a recommendation regarding the film.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q19: Thematic question, Level 3

Options B, C and D are incorrect because a new review is written ‘every week’ (line 1). Therefore, option A is the correct answer.

Q20: Vocabulary question (synonym), Level 3

‘Timeless’ and ‘classic’ (line 1) both mean ‘judged over time to be of the highest quality’.

Q21: Specific factual question, Level 3

Candidates should refer to lines 2–4 for the answers. Note that according to the writer, Plan 9 from Outer Space ‘is special in a different way’ (line 6), i.e. she doesn’t think it is of high quality.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q22: Main idea question, Level 2

Answers can be found in the following lines: (a)

‘1959’ (line 8)

(b)

‘worst’ (line 8) (‘worst films’ is an acceptable alternative answer, but candidates need to remember to make ‘worst film’ (lines 8–9) plural)

(c)

‘aliens’ (line 11)

(d) ‘humans’ (line 11) (e)

‘the dead’ (line 13)

(f)

‘[Ed] Wood’s’ (candidates need to remember to add the director’s first name, ‘Ed’ (line 23))

(g)

‘dialogue’ (line 16)

(h)

‘scenes’ (line 17)

(i)

‘day and night’ (line 20) (‘night and day’ is an acceptable alternative answer, though this is not specifically stated in the text)

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q23: Inference question, Level 3

Candidates can infer that the writer is sarcastic because she asks who is to ‘blame’ (line 22) for it and uses quotation marks around ‘masterpiece’ to show that she isn’t using the word according to its true meaning.

Q24: Figurative language question, Level 3

Candidates should be able to infer the meaning of this expression, and therefore that the answer is option A, from the following line, which states that, ‘Wood made a number of horror, science fiction and western films, most of which received poor ratings’ (lines 24–26).

Q25: Main idea question, Level 3

While the writer was a teenager when she first saw the film, she doesn’t try to convince other teenagers to watch it in the paragraph. Also, rather than trying to promote or critique the film, her aim is simply to let her readers know what it felt like to watch the film for the first time. Therefore, option C is the correct answer.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q26: Thematic question, Level 3

Candidates can infer from ‘the worst film ever made’ (lines 8–9) and ‘too many errors to count’ (lines 20—21) that the writer thinks the film is terrible, but she also says that ‘pointing out mistakes’ in the film made it ‘one of the best film-watching experiences I have ever had’ (lines 29–31).

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Text 3 This is a short story about whether or not smartphones are essential. The style of writing is casual and entertaining, and the topic should be interesting to candidates. The story is written as if by a teenager, so candidates should not have any difficulty relating to it. There are 9 questions based on six question types. The questions are based on locating specific information, understanding vocabulary, identifying the main idea of a paragraph, making references, and identifying the sequence of events in the text, the theme of the text and the views of the author. The main idea of each section is as follows: A

Betty disagrees with Jim about how essential smartphones are.

B

Jim makes a bet with Betty that she can’t give up her phone for the weekend.

C

Betty starts her next morning off slowly.

D

Betty runs into other smartphone-related problems on her way to meet Jim.

E

Betty acknowledges the problems to Jim, but also discovers the benefits of life without smartphones.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q27: Specific factual question, Level 3

Candidates should refer to lines 21–22 for the answer.

Q28: Reference question, Level 2

Candidates should refer to lines 7–8 for the answer.

Q29: Vocabulary question (synonym), Level 3

‘Navigation’ (line 29) means ‘direction finding’ when used in an adjectival sense as in the text.

Q30: Main idea question, Level 3

Candidates should infer that Betty is unable to look up the cafe’s address on her smartphone from the lines: ‘Normally, Betty would use a navigation app and look up the cafe’s address. But, today, she was lost.’ (lines 29–31).

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q31: Views justification question, Level 4

To answer this question correctly, candidates are required to state whether or not they think Betty enjoyed the conversation, and provide justification for their answer.

Q32: Inference question, Level 3

i)

Candidates should infer that the speaker is Jim as it is Jim who makes the bet that Betty cannot ‘Go without your phone for 24 hours’ (lines 10–11).

ii)

Candidates should infer that the speaker is the elderly man, as when Betty asks for directions, we are told that ‘an elderly man knew the way’ (line 33).

iii)

Candidates should infer that the speaker is Betty from her positive assessment of being without a phone for the day in lines 49–54.

iv)

Candidates should infer that the speaker is the police officer Betty asks for directions, as the officer asks her ‘Didn’t you read about it in the news?’ (line 40).

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q33: Sequencing question, Level 2

(i)

In line 50, Betty says, ‘You can keep the phone for now.’

(ii) Lines 2–3 state that ‘his mobile phone had run out of battery’. (iii) Lines 30–31 state that ‘she was lost’. (iv) It can be inferred from paragraph 7 that Jim took Betty’s phone away from her. (v) In lines 39–40, a police officer says, ‘The street is closed because of a fire.’

Q34: Specific factual question, Level 3

Candidates should infer that Betty has enjoyed being without a phone from the list of her experiences in lines 49–54.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q35: Main idea question, Level 3

(A) In Section A, Betty disagrees with Jim about how essential smartphones are. Therefore, the subheading ‘The disagreement’ is the correct answer. (B) In Section B, Jim makes a bet with Betty that she can’t give her phone for the weekend. Therefore, the subheading ‘Details of the bet’ is the correct answer. (C) In Section C, Betty starts her next morning off slowly. Therefore, the subheading ‘A slow start’ is the correct answer. (D) In Section D, Betty runs into other smartphone-related problems on her way to meet Jim. Therefore, the subheading ‘More obstacles’ is the correct answer. (E) In Section E, Betty acknowledges the problems to Jim, but also discovers the benefits of life without smartphones. Therefore, the subheading ‘Maybe life is better this way’ is the correct answer.

Q36: Thematic question, Level 3

The story is not about how troublesome smartphones are, which means option A is incorrect. Options B and D are incorrect because although Betty got lost and Jim can’t live without his phone, these aren’t the story’s central theme. Therefore, option C is the correct answer.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Text 4 This is a feature article criticizing the current laws in place to protect child film stars. The style of writing is quite casual and thoughtful, and the topic should be interesting and thought provoking to candidates. The article is written for an international audience, but since its examples include several well-known personalities, candidates should not have any great difficulty relating to it. There are 18 questions based on eight question types. Most of the questions require candidates to locate specific information. The other questions are based on understanding vocabulary and figurative language, identifying the main idea of a paragraph, making references and inferences, and identifying the sequence of events and the theme of the text. The main idea of each paragraph is as follows: 1

It seems like child stars have the ideal existence, but they actually have many problems.

2

Child star Judy Garland’s main problems were drug addiction and alcoholism that were compounded by work pressure.

3

Child star Corey Feldman’s main problem was a lack of positive role models.

4

Child star Jackie Coogan also suffered at the hands of manipulative adults, leading to the establishment of the Coogan Law.

5

Some critics believe the Coogan Law does not do enough to protect child stars.

6

Fortunately, plenty of child stars are able to live normal lives.

7

However, they are the exceptions to the rule, and maybe the Coogan Law should be expanded to prevent further tragedies.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q37: Thematic question, Level 3

The correct answer is option D because the writer does not include language that indicates that he/she is trying to be funny, educate or be optimistic about the levels of protection that child stars currently receive.

Q38: Specific factual question, Level 3

Candidates can refer to lines 2–3 for the answer.

Q39: Main idea question, Level 4

Candidates can answer this question correctly by understanding that ‘it may seem like child stars have the ideal existence’ (lines 1–2) but that many miss out on ‘a normal childhood’ (line 6).

Q40: Specific factual question, Level 3

Candidates can refer to lines 17–22 for the answer.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q41: Vocabulary question (synonym), Level 3

‘Misguided’ (line 29) means ‘showing faulty judgement’. Candidates unfamiliar with the word can infer the answer by understanding that taking drugs was an unrealistic solution to Garland’s problems, which eventually resulted in her losing her life.

Q42: Inference question, Level 4

‘The pressure became too much’ (lines 26–27) for Garland and she suffered from ‘anxiety and sleeplessness’ (line 32). Reading Bolger’s statement, candidates need to infer that he meant these factors eventually led to her death.

Q43: Specific factual question, Level 3

i)

According to lines 10–11, ‘she made a fortune for her film studio, MGM’; therefore, the correct answer is ‘made’.

ii)

According to lines 27–28, her 1947 suicide attempt was only ‘the first time’ that she tried to kill herself; therefore, the correct answer is ‘attempted to’.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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iii) According to lines 15–16, Judy Garland ‘never had much of a chance to grow up outside the spotlight’; therefore, the correct answer is ‘lived’. iv) According to lines 39–42, ‘Feldman’s mother badly wanted him to be a successful actor. She began dying his hair blond at age four, and she frequently criticized his weight’; therefore, the correct answer is ‘pressured’. v)

According to lines 47–49, Corey Feldman ‘started using cocaine when he found his mother’s supply in their house’; therefore, the correct answer is ‘started’.

Q44: Inference question, Level 4

Paragraph 3 tells us that Feldman was ‘abused by a number of older men’ (line 45) and ‘developed a drug addiction’ (line 46); candidates should infer that he doesn’t want his children to go through the same ordeal.

Q45: Reference question, Level 3

Candidates should refer to lines 61–62 for the answer.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q46: Main idea question, Level 4

Candidates should refer to the information in paragraph 4 for the answers. They also need to change some of the words to make sure they are grammatically correct. (i)

Candidates need to change the verb ‘acted’ (line 60) to the present participle ‘acting’.

(ii) ‘Equivalent’ is used in line 62. (iii) Candidates need to change the verb ‘spent’ (line 65) to the present participle ‘spending’. (iv) ‘New laws’ is used in line 69. (v)

Candidates need to change the past participle ‘given’ (line 70) to the to-infinitive ‘to give’.

(vi) Reading ‘set limits on the number of hours child actors could work’ (lines 73–74), candidates need to use an appropriate adjective that retains this meaning, i.e. ‘long’ or extended’.

Q47: Main idea question, Level 3

Candidates should refer to information in paragraph 5. Answers can be found in the following lines: (i)

‘protection’ (line 79)

(ii) ‘self-destructive’ (line 82). (Note: Candidates can also use the word ‘troubled’ even though it isn’t specifically stated in the paragraph.)

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q48: Sequencing question, Level 4

(i)

In lines 13–15, Garland began performing on stage ‘at the tender age of two and a half’. Meanwhile, in lines 60–61, Coogan ‘acted in many silent comedies’ as a child; therefore B is the correct answer.

(ii) In lines 24–25, we are told that ‘Becoming an adult while the whole world is watching is extremely difficult’; therefore E is the correct answer. (iii) In line 24, we are told that ‘becoming an adult while the whole world [was] watching’ (lines 24–25) led Garland to attempt suicide before she started ‘taking drugs’ (line 28); therefore A is the correct answer. (iv) In lines 89–91, we are told that as child stars get older, many transition ‘from adorable onscreen personalities to self-destructive adults’; therefore F is the correct answer. (v) In paragraphs 5–6, we are told that the child actors become ‘self-destructive adults’ (line 82), and although some are able to ‘live normal lives’ (lines 86–87), these are ‘the exceptions that prove the rule’ (line 101); therefore a typical child star would have trouble transitioning to the workforce and H is the correct answer.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q49: Inference question, Level 4

a)

One of the terms of the Coogan Law is that child actors should ‘have access to a proper education’ (lines 71–72); candidates should infer that many do not receive a good education and that it would therefore be difficult for them to find work.

b)

In lines 3–4, it says that for child stars to get rich, ‘all they have to do in return is act in some films’; candidates should infer that the child stars would therefore be unwilling to work regular hours for a much lower wage.

Q50: Reference question, Level 3

Candidates should refer to lines 82–84 for the answer.

Q51: Inference question, Level 3

In the line before Fung’s statement, the writer says, ‘Fung likes to have fun and make people laugh’ (line 92). From this, candidates need to infer that Fung being able to play now would give her joy more than anything else.

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q52: Inference question, Level 3

(i)

Candidates should infer that Statement 1 is from the viewpoint of Shirley Temple because she ‘starred in more than 50 films and was able to progress into politics and business’ (lines 96–97).

(ii)

Candidates should infer that Statement 2 is from the viewpoint of Corey Feldman because his best friend, Corey Haim, was not as fortunate as him and ‘passed away aged 38 from a drug overdose’ (line 57).

(iii) Candidates should infer that Statement 3 is from the viewpoint of Judy Garland because she ‘was often told by studio executives that she was not attractive’ (lines 18–20). (iv) Candidates should infer that Statement 4 is from the viewpoint of Fung Bo Bo because she ‘never played games as a kid, so [she] can finally play now’ (lines 93–94).

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Advantage Mock Test 1 Paper 1 Detailed Teaching Notes

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Q53: Figurative language question, Level 4

Candidates need to infer that in the context of the text, the ‘spotlight’ that the writer refers to is childhood stardom. Meanwhile, the ‘darkness waiting on the other side’ is in reference to the hardships child stars face once their careers begin to fade.

Q54: Thematic question, Level 4

The writer does not suggest banning child actors from film in the text. Nor does he or she focus only on child stars that become drug addicts. In addition, the writer does point out child stars who have avoided problems as they’ve grown up. Therefore, options A, B and C are incorrect. However, option D is correct as the writer is critical of the current situation child stars are in and believes more moves can be made to protect them.

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