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COMPACT LOGISTICS VEHICLE FOR BAZAARS/MARKETS IN INDIA


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Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


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INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND RESEARCH MAJOR CITIES IN INDIA URBANIZATION IN INDIA THE OLD CITY THE NEW CITY FIELD TRIP VIDEO STILLS LOGISTICS IN INDIA COMPANY PROFILES INTERVIEWS AND INSIGHTS DESIGN CONCEPT DESIGN IDEATION 3


INTRODUCTION

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Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


The aim of this thesis is to design a compact logistics vehicle that can be used in narrow and crowded streets especially Markets/Bazaars of cities in India. Hence creating an opportunity for logistics companies to improve their reach into these business centers.

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BACKGROUND major cities in India, how they urbanized and what parallels may be drawn. A study on these historic areas and market places their significance and their importance keeping logistics in mind. Research on the logistics industry in India and solutions to similar problems outside India shall be considered. Finally looking into the market landscape of delivery vehicles both existing and emerging solutions.

image courtesy : Ash the foodie , http://ashthefoodie.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/img_5998.jpg Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

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RESEARCH

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India is the second most populous country in the world, home to almost 20% of the world’s population with only a third of the landmass, compared to the United States. This population explosion has led to the creations of large mega cities such as Delhi and Mumbai, which are among the seven largest mega cities in the world today as opposed to 1950 when these cities didn’t make even the top 30 (Times of India, Delhi world's second most populous mega-city). Other significant cities in India are Calcutta known for being the first capital of India before being moved to Delhi by the British and Chennai also known as the Detroit of India (Deccan Herald). The opening of India’s economy in the 90’s coupled with the IT boom of the 2000’s saw the emergence of Bangalore and Hyderabad as major cities. My initial research was to understand each of these cities and how they evolved and urbanized into the large mega cities they are today.

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MAJOR CITIES IN INDIA DELHI

MUMBAI

BANGALORE

Delhi is the capital city of India. It is also the largest city in India with a population of about 11 million. As part of the silk route Delhi has a very rich and colorful history. Even today remnants of over eleven capitals of historic kingdoms can be found in various parts of the city. However the most important remnant is Shahjahanabad also known as Old Delhi. It was built circa 1632 A.D. by emperor Shah Jahan, who is also responsible for building the famous Taj Mahal. Modernization began in 1911 under British rule under the planning of Sir Edwin Lutyens around Old Delhi, giving birth the modern New Delhi.

Mumbai is the financial capital of India with a population of 12.4 million. Mumbai was a group of seven islands which were joined during British rule to create one large city. During Mogul rule in the early 16th century Mumbai was an important maritime trading port with Mecca and Basra. In 1661 A.D. Mumbai came under British possession as it was given as a dowry from Catherine of Portugal. Under the British, all the islands were connected by a massive dredging operation leading to the building of causeways. This is the reason Mumbai is unique with respect to all other cities in India.

Bangalore as it is known presently, can trace its roots to the mud fort built by Kempe Gowda. Today it is the largest technological hub of India, sometimes also referred to as the silicon valley of India. Bangalore was captured by the British after four wars from the then ruling Tipu Sultan in 1791 A.D. During British rule it became a cantonment and a flourishing home to many Europeans. In 1906 Bangalore became the first city in Asia to have electricity. Much of Bangalore didn't change in the post independence era, however the late 90’s brought about the IT revolution with many companies setting up their headquarters in Bangalore, making it one of the fastest growing cities in India.

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DELHI 11 OLD DELHI MILLION

CHENNAI Chennai is known as the Detroit of India, due to the large presence of automotive and manufacturing companies in and around the city. It is also an important port on the east coast of India. It has a long history of being the capital city of the Chola kingdom of south India. In 1639 the British set up fort St George near Chennai and this settlement grew over the years become the 2nd oldest municipal corporation in the world the 1st being London. The historic George town became the historic old town the is present today with a modern city growing around it.

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

MUMBAI 12 SOUTH BOMBAY MILLION

HYDERABAD 7 OLD CITY MILLION

BANGALORE 8 COMMERCIAL STREET MILLION

CHENNAI 5 GEORGE TOWN MILLION

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Modinagar Jamma Masjid

Old Delhi

Ghaziabad

Paschim Vihar

New Delhi Mayur Vihar

Dwarka

Vasant Kunj

Noida

Kalkaji

Gurgaon Faridabad

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Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


URBANIZATION IN INDIA OLD CITY

SATELLITE CITY

NEW CITY

SATELLITE CITY

SATELLITE CITY SATELLITE CITY

In general the city structure of most cities in India may be described as concentric due to the nature of urbanization over the years. At the heart which is usually the city center, lay the old city. It is not uncommon the oldest cities date back to the 16th or 15th century A.D... It may also be noted that the infrastructure in these areas were built before the automobile and are therefore highly congested. The map of Delhi may be taken as an example, where Old Delhi represents the historic city built by Emperor Shah Jahan of Taj Mahal fame is surrounded by New Delhi that was built during British rule. The new city may be characterized as built to European standards keeping in mind the needs of automotive traffic. The modern city kept growing outward as more and more people from rural India flocked to cities for better employment and opportunities.

Due to the tremendous rise in population and size of these particularly in the late 90’s, the necessity arose to create satellite cities to support further development. These satellite cities are well connected to the main city through various modes of transportation thus leading to the formation of the large mega cities like Delhi and Mumbai as we have today. Meanwhile residents from the old city began moving out to the newer better developed parts and thus these historic centers became heavily commercialized. In the future these historic cities will become heritage zones with heavy limitations on new construction and commercialization. Certain municipalities such as the Municipal Corporation of Delhi have begun making plans for removing mechanized transport in these areas to reduce congestion and preserve its history.

CONCENTRIC URBANIZATION Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

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THE OLD CITY 1.

Infrastructure:

2.

Commercial activity:

The infrastructure in these markets is can be described as having narrow roads averaging around 3m in width. Usually with narrower inner roads. Buildings are generally 4 stories or lower, dating back to the 1800s or earlier.

Includes trading of almost anything from auto parts to exotic spices to traditional textiles. In general goods and services provided and traded in these markets are traditional in nature. More often than not locally made for the Indian market.

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3.

Transportation:

Transportation within these areas is generally done through traditional means such as hand pulled cart (thela) or the cycle rickshaw. Motorcycles and scooters are used primarily for private transport while compact vehicles like the three wheeled Piaggio Ape and the TATA Ace are often used for transporting goods. It may be noted that large trucks are not permitted in these areas during the day as they may cause traffic congestion.

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Importance:

These bazaars and markets are here to stay because of the nature of goods that are traded in them are traditional in nature. For example it is common knowledge in India that the gold thread that is used widely used in the traditional Indian dress the sari is usually available in these bazaars

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THE NEW CITY 1.

Infrastructure:

2.

Commercial activity:

The new city refers to urban and suburban areas developed post 1900. These areas were urbanized around the old city and can be characterized by wide roads and paved streets and multi storied buildings. Adequate parking and infrastructure for public transport.

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Transportation:

Almost all modern means of transportation may be found in these newer areas. Wide roads and adequate parking facilitates easy use of large trucks and delivery vehicles in addition to smaller delivery vans and three wheelers. However it may be noted that in most cities traditional means of transport such as cycle rickshaws and hand pulled carts are prohibited in the new areas.

In these area may be defined as more premium goods and services although not strictly premium. The new city is where one would go to buy everyday goods and international products.

http://cienaplain.vo.llnwd.net/o43/homepage-images/bg-night-city2.jpg Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

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FIELD TRIP In order to understand the problem are, the historic city of Old Delhi was visited. It was explored thoroughly on foot and cycle rickshaw and data was collected in the form of photographs and video footage. The highlighted path shows the route taken for the rickshaw ride from the Chawri Bazaar Metro Station to Jamma Masjid. This area is the heart of Old Delhi and comprises primarily commercial and residential areas.

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

The route covered the auto parts bazaar, the wholesale paper bazaar and the books bazaar. Another road explored was Chandni Chowk and several sub roads and paths leading to it. It was observed that these areas are highly congested and the flow of traffic is very slow and disrupted due to the lack of space over population. The key observation was that there existed different levels of roads based on their widths and the nature of transportation possible. This shall be elaborated in the following sections.

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VIDEO STILLS 1

Haphazard traffic

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Passing

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Motor vehicle

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Hand pulled carts

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Electric rickshaw

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Pocket roads

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Pedestrians

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Delivery Truck

Traffic control in the old city is very poor resulting in dusruption in traffic flow

Hand pulled carts are still a popular method of transport in these ares due to easy availability of cheap labour and space efficiency. However the downside is that traffic is slowed down drastically

Pedestrians cross randomly without warning and are a danger to themselves and others Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

In spite of the congested road another Rickshaw attempts to pass a slower rickshaw obstructing onward traffic

Newly introduced electric powered rickshaws are becoming highly popular due to their extended range and convenience

In the near future motor vehicles like this one will be prohibited i these areas

Example of a rickshaw driving into a pocket road

Example of a compact delivery truck used for moving goods in and out of the bazaar 21


CASE STUDY

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: CHANDNI CHOWK

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


ROAD DISTRIBUTION

ROAD WIDTHS MAIN ROAD SUB ROAD

> 15 m 5m-7m

ROADS

3m-4m NARROW PATHS Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

SINGLE LANE

< 2.0 m 23


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MAIN ROADS Typically main roads run around the markets and a greater than 15 meters in width. Usually they have more that 6 lanes and support all forms of traffic ranging from large semi-trucks to compact vehicles. Although non motorized vehicles are not permitted on these main roads, it is not uncommon that cycle rickshaws and pedestrians cross these main roads causing disruption in the traffic flow. Bus stops and other main transportation infrastructure are located on these main roads.

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SUB ROADS Roughly 10% of the roads in the historic areas can be classified as sub roads. Typically their widths range from 5 to 7 meters and usually have a maximum of 4 lanes. It may be noted that these roads allow all forms of traffic motorized and non motorized, however large trucks and buses are prohibited from using these roads. These roads are the widest roads in the historic area and also the busiest. Traffics flow is slow and often disrupted. Although pedestrians frequently cross over without warning, these roads have sidewalks for pedestrians. They also have just enough space for parking and loading and unloading cargo from compact vehicles and carts. These sub roads connect the historic areas to the main roads.

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POCKET ROADS 30% of the roads in historic areas generally comprise of pocket roads that are typically 3 to 4 meters in width. These roads flow out into either sub roads or to the main road. These roads go deep into the heart of the bazaars. Several narrow pathways and alleys branch out from these pocket roads. Pocket roads are not wide enough to accomodate two way traffic of typical four wheeled or even compact motorized three wheeled vehicles. However two way traffic for human powered cycle rickshaws are possible and they are the primary mode of transport along with motorcycles and scooters on these pocket roads.

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NARROW LANES 50% of the roads in historic areas typically fall under the category of narrow lanes and alleys. They are narrow walkways and footpaths between buildings typically residential in nature. These lanes are the final paths to addresses in historic areas and typically they are no more than 30-40 meters in length. It is not possible to use any vehicle other than two wheeled vehicles on these roads. However they are never too far from a pocket road or a sub road thus delivery is typically done on foot.

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LOGISTICS IN INDIA The logistics industry in India can trace its roots back to the use of personal messengers and delivery systems. Today the logistics industry in India may be categorized based on the size and range of each operator. They may be described as Local couriers, Regional couriers, National and International (MNCs) couriers. Local couriers operate in a rather unorganized way and are restricted to narrowly defined local markets. Regional and National players operate regionally with or collaborate with other regional companies to provide nationwide services. While the market is dominated by large Multinational companies like DHL and FedEx who entered the Indian logistics market through acquisitions or partnering with other national couriers.

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Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


i.

Intrinsic systems:

Intrinsic systems include personal messengers and delivery boys who operate on a trust based system within local markets. One such example is the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Angadiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; service in western India, where individual delivery men transport diamonds and precious stones worth millions without the use of armed security traveling on local trains and buses to transport stones from traders to polishing factories and back. Another rather interesting system is the dubbawalla system in Mumbai and other cities where food is delivered using basic public transport with an accuracy of 99.8%. However these systems are usually exclusive services and cater to a very small market

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

ii. Regional and National courier companies: These are companies that originated in India beginning in the late 1980â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.They generally deal with low value higher weight packages, at lower costs and usually relying on road and rail freight. Most national courier services do not offer value added services such as online tracking and express delivery. Regional couriers usually operate through tie ups with other national and regional services giving them the ability to operate nationwide at the cost of added complexity of using multiple supply chains.

iii. Large Multinational Logistics Companies:

These companies include the major international express service companies like DHL, FedEx and UPS. They entered the Indian market in the early 1990s and control over 60% of the market share. They typically deal with high value low weight packages and use air freight as their primary transportation method. These companies operate independently like FedEx or as joint operations like DHL and Bluedart. They are able to provide premium services such as online tracking, next day delivery and door to door services although at a higher cost.

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COMPANY PROFILES Domestic companies i.

Blue Dart:

Is Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest domestic express delivery service provider. They also have the most extensive domestic network and operate in over 33,000 locations. They are also one of the few companies that provide air freight in India. Blue Dart has partnered with DHL to provide services in over 220 countries.

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ii.

DTDC:

Is another key domestic courier service company who specialize in express mail delivery to small packages. They are well known for their extended reach into rural India. They deliver over 11 million consignments across 10,000 pin codes around India.

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Professional:

Another courier service company that started in India in 1987 is The professional courier service. They are regional operators, operating primarily in south India. They provide their services in other parts of India through tie ups with other regional couriers across the country.

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


iv.

First Flight:

Began operations in 1986 by setting up its offices in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkatta. They grew to become another significant force in the express delivery market offering various services like warehousing etc.

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FedEx:

FedEx invented the express delivery service. They continue to be a world leader in the field. However in India their presence isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t very strong mainly due to their late arrival. In the near future FedEx has plans to invest heavily on operations in India that will put them in the forefront of the express delivery Industry

International companies

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viii.

UPS:

Founded in 1907 as a messenger company in the United States, UPS has grown into a multi-billion-dollar corporation by clearly focusing on the goal of enabling commerce around the globe. Today UPS, or United Parcel Service Inc., is a global company with one of the most recognized and admired brands in the world.

DHL Express:

DHL with its partner Bluedart is the largest express delivery service company in India. They have a strong presence in all of Asia. Dhl is a German company and is present in over 220 countries

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

vii.

TNT:

TNT Express is one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest express delivery companies with a global reach to 200 countries and a very strong position in Europe. TNT India, has a pick-up and delivery setup spanning across 600 offices, 1530 vehicles, 34 hubs, 592 depots and sortation centers.

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SUPPLY CHAIN Business model of current logistics companies in India: The logistics industry in India works largely on a Hub and spoke model. Broadly activities that occur in the value chain may be described as collection, transportation and delivery. Collection may be done by door to door collection by first/ last mile delivery men and consolidated and sorted at a local office and transported to a transport hub usually located near an airport of railway station, or road transport hub where parcels are organized into larger dispatches and transported. The reverse process happens at the delivery location where a receiving hub or sorting facility receives the dispatch to the area and then dispatched to smaller distribution centers and delivered by last mile delivery vehicles.

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1. Cycle Rickshaw

2. Parcycle (France)

3. Bicycle

1. TRADITIONAL MEANS 1. What is used: traditional modes of transport refer to human powered transportation more specifically the cycle rickshaw and the thela or hand pulled cart. It also includes human messengers who operate within these markets.

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2. Who uses them: These modes of transport are usually hired transport for moving goods within market areas to and from stores and go downs.

3. Why: They are used because they are cheap and convenient due to the ready availability of manual labor in India. Moreover these forms of transport prove more effective due to infrastructure limitations. Also in most cities traditional transportation is limited to operating within the markets and bazaars and is prohibited from being used on the public roads outside the old city.

1. http://www.coloribus.com/adsarchive/outdoor/slim-televisions-cycle-rickshaw-8969505/ 2. http://www.ttm.nl/nieuws/dhl-zet-meer-bakfietsen-in/ 3. http://www.itwebweekly.com/2013/10/10/wipro-cto-dr-anurag-srivastava-explains-how-to -take-advantage-of-machine-to-machine-m2m-technology-advances-198008 Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


DELIVERY VEHICLES details the market and the means of transport available and used today

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1. FedEx France

2. UPS (Germany)

3. E.V. Delivery van

4. Maruti Omni

5. E.V. compact van

6. E.V. rickshaw

1. http://news.van.fedex.com/fedex-express-and-urban-cab-join-forces-ecological-deliveries 2. http://www.bikecommutenews.com/2012/08/ups-testing-new-cargo-cruiser-electric.html 3. http://green.autoblog.com/2012/09/21/nissan-fedex-e-nv200-electric-conceptvan-delivers-in-germany/ 40

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


2. MODERN MEANS 1. What is used: Last mile delivery vehicles in India include a variety of delivery vehicles varying from small 3 wheelers like the Piaggio Ape to larger commercial vehicles like the Maruti Omini and the Tata 407 delivery.

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

2. Who uses them: These vehicles are used by larger businesses and courier companies and they may also be individual leased vehicles or part of a large commercial fleet.

3. Why: These larger vehicles are used for all forms of goods delivery both within the market and bazaar areas of the old city and outside. Although they are ideal for use almost anywhere in the country, their use is less effective in crowded markets and bazaars owing to a larger footprint, hence restricting their use to after business hours or after dark.

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INTERVIEWS AND INSIGHTS Interviews were conducted with people working in the logistics industry, and personal experience was used to gain more insights into the working of the express courier industry

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i. James Meleth, Cochin India; worked as a deliveryman for professional couriers and FedEx for over 10 years. Provided insights on the working of national (professional couriers) and international (FedEx) companies. According to him, Professional couriers did not provide any sort of tracking facilities or pick up options. Delivery had to be done by any means possible sometimes using his personal scooter. However they had few package restrictions. At FedEx the norm was to deliver at the right place in the right form and at the right time. Also FedEx uses its own vehicles for delivery which is usually the Maruti Omini van. Regarding delivery in crowded markets he said that he had to park the vehicle in a suitable location near the destination and deliver on foot. Regarding the nature of deliveries. On average 45-60 consignments are delivered by an individual courier service agent. 44

Deliveries are generally done in two shifts the morning shift and the evening shift. The morning delivery run begins at 10am until 1pm. During this run, the nature of packages are mostly post and documents that are more urgent. The evening run begins at 2pm and ends at around 6pm and comprises of larger and heavier packages. Before a delivery is made and the package is loaded onto the vehicle, a confirmation of the location and the person to whom the delivery needs to be done is required. This is done through phone or text. Until the confirmation is received, the package does not enter the vehicle.

ii. Rakesh Das, Student, New Delhi. â&#x20AC;&#x153;If I bought a laptop online I would definitely prefer it to be delivered by DHL or FEDEX rather than a local courierâ&#x20AC;? iii. Personal Experience, JAN/2011, New Delhi. Set up an appointment with FedEx for a pick up at home. Representative from FedEx arrived but was unable to do the pickup from residence due to inability of the delivery vehicle to reach my residence. I had to go and drop of the package at the local FedEx office

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


x2 TRIPS 45-60 PACKAGES MORNING DELIVERY RUN 10AM - 2 PM

EVENING DELIVERY RUN 2PM - 6 PM

-MOSTLY DOCUMENTS AND SMALL PARCELS LESS THAN 8 KG -USUALLY REGULAR CUSTOMERS LIKE BANKS, BUSINESSES -MORE URGENT IN NATURE

-LARGER PACKAGES 9 KG - 25 KG -VARYING NUMBER OF DELIVERIES -LESS URGENT IN NATURE

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BRAND SELECTION I decided to choose the brand FedEx for my design as FedEx is a brand that is still struggling to establish itself in the Indian express delivery market. Moreover FedEx plans to invest heavily into their operations in India and southern Asia in the near future. They are also have a strong brand identity and have a good worldwide presence. Designing a vehicle for FedEx to tackle specific local challenges would be a game changer for future expansion.

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Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS


INTEGRITY EFFICIENCY RELIABILITY RESPONSIBLE SIMPLIFYING OPTIMIZING

PRECISION

CONNECT

INNOVATIVE FAST OUTSTANDING IMMEDIATE CERTAIN INVENTIVE

DELIVERING JOY

RIGHT TIME, RIGHT PLACE, RIGHT FORM

PERSONAL “ I’M WHERE I’M NEEDED”

BRAND ATTRIBUTES Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

HONEST LOYAL PERSONAL SECURE

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FedEx Padded Pak 29.8 x 39.3

FedEx Pak 30.5 x 39.4

Jumbo Box : 25 Kg 54.7 x 42.6 x 33.5

Jumbo Box : 10 Kg 40.2 x 32.86 x 25.8

Large Box

31.5 x 45.4 x 7.6

Envelope 24.1 x 31.8

FedEx Tube

96.5 x 15.2 x 15.2

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Small Box

27.6 x 31.1 x 3.8

Medium Box 29.2 x 33 x 6

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Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

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DESIGN CONCEPT Based on extensive research including literature study, field trips to explore the described bazaars and markets, interviews with people working in the express delivery industry and personal experiences, the following conclusions were reached in order to arrive at a framework for design. This framework shall ensure that the design solution satisfies the identified need and solves the problem of providing efficient last mile delivery solutions for express delivery companies operating in markets and bazaars in India.

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i. Markets and bazaars in India are highly congested mainly due to infrastructure constraints and there exist a strong need for a better solution to efficiently deliver packages in these areas.

iii. The width of the vehicle needs to be narrower than 1400 mm in order to be able to travel in the pocket roads. They also need to be highly maneuverable to adapt to the haphazard nature of the traffic in these areas.

ii. Vehicles and solutions that are currently available are only able to reach up to the sub roads described previously and not into the pocket roads which is essential to reach into the narrow lanes that account for 50% of the addresses in these areas. However it is not necessary that the vehicle reach inside the narrow lanes as these lanes may be approached on foot since these narrow lanes are only a 30-40 meters in length.

iv. The vehicle needs to be able to efficiently carry a wide range of standard packages the largest to the smallest efficiently and needs to make several trips in the market. The largest package being the 25Kg Jumbo box measuring 54.7 x 42.6 x 33.5

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

v. The vehicle or solution will need to a range of at least 70km and be able to provide over 10hours of constant use without having to be recharged since the vehicles are confined to use in congested areas and are not needed to travel long distances.

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DESIGN IDEATION

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

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1780 mm

3370 mm

1685 mm

1410 mm

1450mm

1140 mm

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2965 mm

2900 mm

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335 mm

842 mm

420 mm

540 mm

540 mm

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semi standing position helps save space compared to existing solutions

no side doors for easy ingress and egress

Twin lever steering for added convenience and space saving

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Idea one Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

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Idea two Sorting station serves as main office

Main vehicle drives around the main lanes while smaller segways deliver in pocket roads

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Packages may be carried in a backpack

Segway may be customised to accept packages

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Idea three Vehicle may be augmented with drone based delivery or a ground based robot like the Honda single wheel concept

Idea four

Self balancing delivery bike that uses gyroscopes to stay stable

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DESIGN REFINEMENT Based on the design criteria, Idea 1 seems to be the most feasible solution to the problem because it satisfies all the requirements and also it is the only one that can provide sufficient space for the larger FedEx boxes. While Idea 2 also seems like a promising option, it is not possible to deliver larger packages using segways and riding a segway with load through crowded streets is rather difficult. Idea 2 also would involve special training of employees to ride a segway.

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Separate storage for post for quick access and delivery

ABS plastic body panels for low cost and durability.

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Air conditioning to keep the driver safe from the extreme climate in India. It also ensure the user remains fresh when meeting the customer

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

INGRESS AND EGRESS Sliding door on both sides for better ingress and egrees and minimum footprint whin parked

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SEATING POSITION Semi standing seating position saves space and allows for quick ingress and egress

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SAFETY BY DESIGN

Handle steering for better adoption by Indian drivers. It also serves as the parking brake.

Park

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Drive

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STORAGE

Storage space for tiffin/lunch box and personal belongings

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POWERTRAIN

Electric drivetrain provides a range of 100-120 km, which is adequate for the target market.

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1780 mm

PACKAGE

3370 mm

1685 mm

1410 mm

1840 mm

1450mm

2965 mm

3170 mm 1140 mm

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

1100 mm

2900 mm

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Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

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References 1. Nag, Biswajit. Postal and Express Delivery Services. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, 2008 2. Giuseppe, Galli. Urban logistics innovation in the mid-sized historical city of Lucca (Italy). 11/2012; http://www.eltis.org/index.php?id=13&study_id=3552 3. Express Industry in India. CRISIL infrastructure advisory India. 4. 5. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-09-13/india/42039657_1_population-growth-mega-cities-mega-cities 6. http://www.deccanherald.com/content/137425/chennai-has-emerged-indias-detroit.html 7. http://www.laxmiindustriesindore.com/html/rickshawstricycle.html 8. http://www.scribd.com/doc/80602972/Classification-of-Roads-in-India Published by Vizag roads 9. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/keeping-track-of-heritage-in-the-changing-world/article3462993.ece 10. http://www.mnn.com/money/sustainable-business-practices/blogs/ups-testing-electric-delivery-bike# 11. http://cargocycling.org/2009/06/paris-cargo-bicycle-delivery-network.html 12. http://www.dhl.nl/nl/pers/pers_berichten/berichten_2012/local/051512.html 13. http://rohanghosh.net/blog/features/a-new-forest-in-old-delhi/ 14. Nag, Biswajit. Postal and Express Delivery Services. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, 2008 15. Giuseppe, Galli. Urban logistics innovation in the mid-sized historical city of Lucca (Italy). 11/2012; http://www.eltis.org/index.php?id=13&study_id=3552 16. Express Industry in India. CRISIL infrastructure advisory India 17. http://www.fedex.com/us/service-guide/our-services/package-shipment/index.html?tab=tab2&INTCMP=BAL-packlikeapro000v01sufcen02 18. http://censusindia.gov.in/ 19. DELHI DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY http://dda.org.in/ddanew/index.aspx 20. CENTRAL ROAD RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF INDIA http://www.crridom.gov.in/ 21. http://www.laxmiindustriesindore.com/html/rickshawstricycle.html 22. http://www.piaggio.co.in/ 23. http://www.marutisuzuki.com/omni/OmniIndex.aspx 24. http://link2scm.blogspot.com/2011/12/fedex-supply-chain-solution.html 25. http://www.dhl.nl/nl/pers/pers_berichten/berichten_2012/local/051512.html

Chacko Abraham MFA THESIS

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