Page 1

CCAFS site atlas

Usambara / Lushoto Tanzania CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)

Site Atlas

L.Cramer/CCAFS


Correct citation: Sijmons K., Kiplimo J., Förch W., Thornton P.K., Radeny, M. and Kinyangi, J. (2013). CCAFS Site Atlas – Usambara / Lushoto. CCAFS site atlas series. The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org Titles in this series aim to disseminate interim climate change, agriculture and food security research and practices and stimulate feedback from the scientific community. This document is published by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) which is a strategic partnership between CGIAR and Future Earth. CCAFS is supported by the CGIAR Fund, the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the Australian Government Overseas Aid Program (AusAid), Irish Aid, Environment Canada, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the Netherlands, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT), UK Aid, the Government of Russia, and the European Union (EU). The Program is carried out with technical support from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Contact: CCAFS Coordinating Unit - Faculty of Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 21, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. Tel: +45 35331046; Email: ccafs@cgiar.org Creative Commons License

This Atlas is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial–NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Articles appearing in this publication may be freely quoted and reproduced provided the source is acknowledged. No use of this publication may be made for resale or other commercial purposes. ©2013 CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). DISCLAIMER: This Atlas Series has been prepared as an output for Theme 4.2 under the CCAFS program and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the policies or opinions of CCAFS, donor agencies, or partners. The geographic designation employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CCAFS concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. All images remain the sole property of their source and may not be used for any purpose without written permission of the source.


Contents Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. iv Regional Map.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Topographic Map ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Satellite Map .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 2: Climate and Climate Variability Annual Rainfall ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 Annual Temperature ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Aridity Index ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 3: Bio-Physical Characteristics Altitude............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Landforms......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Soil Type ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Agro-Ecological Zones .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Landcover ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Landuse .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Length of Growing Period 2000 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Length of Growing Period 2030 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14


Crop Suitability ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Livestock Production Systems ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 Livestock Density ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17 Chapter 4: Socio-Economic Factors Livelihood Zones............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 18 Human Population Density ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 19 Market Access ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20 Poverty ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Conservations Areas....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 References and Data Sources........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 23


Introduction The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) seeks to promote a food-secure world through the provision of science-based efforts that support sustainable agriculture and enhance livelihoods while adapting to climate change and conserving natural resources and environmental services. Climate change is an unprecedented threat to the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on small-scale agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change affects agriculture and food security, and likewise, agriculture and natural resource management affect the climate system. CCAFS has initially focused on three regions; East Africa (EA), West Africa (WA) and South Asia (SA) to carry out its research. The 15 CCAFS sites in these areas represent areas that are becoming both drier and wetter, and are focal locations that will generate results that can be applied and adapted to other regions worldwide. In this year, 2013, CCAFS is expanding its portfolio to additional sites in Latin America and South-East Asia. These sites serve as the initial focus of CCAFS partnership-building and long-term research activities falling within the following CCAFS Research Themes; Adaptation to Progressive Climate Change, Adaptation through Managing Climate Risk, Pro-Poor Climate Change Mitigation and Integration for Decision Making. At all 15 CCAFS sites, baseline surveys have been conducted, including three levels of data collection and analysis at household, village and organizational levels (see: http://ccafs.cgiar.org/resources/baseline-surveys). More information on CCAFS work in all the three regions can be accessed at www.ccafs.cgiar.org To better understand the CCAFS sites’ characteristics, a list of geospatial indicators for climate variability, bio-physical characteristics and socio-economic variables have been mapped into site atlases. This Atlas was developed for the CCAFS site at Usambara / Lushoto in Tanzania, in East Africa Region.

IV


CCAFS Sites: East Africa

10ºN

10ºS

10ºS

50ºE

10ºN

40ºE

30ºE

30ºE

40ºE

50ºE

Ethiopia: Borana (ET01) Kenya: Nyando (KE01) Kenya: Makueni (KE02) Uganda: Albertine Rift (UG01) Uganda: Kagera Basin (UG02) Tanzania: Usambara (TZ01) CCAFS Country Sites

Citation: GeoMapa (2013a)

1


Topography Usambara 38°E

Myambo 4°30'S

Hedaru ( !

( !

38°30'E

( !

( !

( !

Kihurio

Mtae

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( ! Viti ( ! Matego Shume ( ! ( ! Gologolo Kwemakame ( ! Makuyuni ! ( Heluli ! ( Magamba ( ! ( ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo ! ( ! Kidundai Kwamabeto ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

Mazinde Ngua

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

( !

( !

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

Mnazi

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

( ! ! .

Mbuyuni

( !

5°S

( ! . !

Toronto

( !

Soni

( !

( ! ! .

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kituli ( !

Mtindilu

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Settlement

Road River

( !

( !

Morogoro

( !

( !

0

7.5

( !

Kigongi

( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kwamgumi Bwili

( !

( !

( !

( !

Kisiwani

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Nkologwe

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

Ngaza ( ! ( !

Coordinates of the CCAFS Baseline Sampling frame 38.417E 38.417E 38.301E 38.301E

4.790S 4.850S 4.850S 4.790S

( !

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

Scale 1:750,000 15

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

( !

Town

Mashinde

Kazita

Mafareta Masweni

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mhezi

( !

38°E

Kalange

Hakaro

Bagamoyo

Mbagui

Moheza

( !

Mbonde

Handeni

Kidareko

( !

Mgwashi

Kimbo

( !

Kambi Manwae

Mvlingano

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

( !

Kwesine

Kitunda

( ! ( !

Kivukoni

Kwipktonga

( !

( !

( !

. !

CCAFS Site TZ01, Lushoto / Usambara, Tanzania

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

30

( !

Hale

Sergera Kuani

38°30'E

( !

Sampling frame size: 10km x 10km

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Citation: GeoMapa (2013b)

2


Kwemakame ( ! 38°20'0"E

! .

Lushoto

! ( Milungui

Yamba ! (

Gare ! (! ( Kwipktonga ! . Kwang'wenda

! (

4°52'0"S

Boheloi

Mombo

2

Road

! . Town ( ! ! . ! (

! .

Settlement

CCAFS VBS/OBS village CCAFS HBS village

! (

38°20'0"E

1

Kwesine ( !

Mbuzii

Soni

0

Masange

4°48'0"S

4°48'0"S

! (

2011 7- 011 m o fr ag ery n Eye im resolutio id p a d R n u o r g at 5m eline ld B as o h e s H ou HB S= Survey ne B as eli illag e V = S y VB Surve line l Base ationa iz n a Org OB S= Survey

Scale 1:100,000 4

38°24'0"E

( ! 6

4°52'0"S

( !

Mkuzi Migaubo ( ! Magamba

Satellite Image Lushoto

Heluli 38°24'0"E ( !

CCAFS Baseline Sampling Frame

8 Kilometers

Citation: RapidEye (2011)

3


Annual Rainfall 38°E

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

( !

Mkuyu

( !

5°S

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kituli ( !

Mtindilu

( !

Mzunguwazara

( !

( !

Kwajambi

Kambi Manwae

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

( !

( !

Kisiwani

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

Scale 1:750,000 15

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

ZAMBIA

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

38°E

Bwili

( ! ( !

MALAWI

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( ! ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

< = 250

30

( !

Hale

Sergera Kuani

38°30'E 45 Kilometers

250 - 750 750 - 1,250 1,250 - 1,750

( !

40°E

Scale 1:12,500,000

0

125

250

500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

Rainfall (mm)

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Masweni

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

Kidareko

( !

Mbonde

Handeni

( !

Mashinde

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Hakaro

( !

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

Gomba

( !

( !

Kalange

10°S

( !

( ! ! . Soni

( !

Toronto

Kwesine

> = 1,750

ta fall da l Rain Annua nt re of c ur s olat io n ata, p r te in d e r ve d s b o f e of o entat iv s e r p re 0 0 0 -2 195 0

Monthly Rainfall Distribution Lushoto MeanLushoto MonthlyMean Rainfall Distribution 200 20 No. of Rainy Days

Mangata

( !

150

15

100

10

50

5

0

0

Dec

Chamzele

Mgwashi

Oct

Mheza

( !

Mvlingano

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

( !

Nov

Magamba

Mazinde Ngua

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo ! ( !

Sept

( !

Kwamabeto

TA N Z A N I A

July

( !

Kidundai

( !

Kivukoni

BURUNDI

( !

Aug

( !

Vunta

June

Bagamoyo

Apr

( !

May

. !

Mar

( !

Mambo

K E N YA

RWANDA

Jan

Mtae

Feb

Kihurio

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

Rainfall (mm)

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Rainfall (mm)

No. of Rainy Days

Citation: Jones et al (2002)

Citation: Hijmans et al (2005)

4


Annual Temperature 38°E

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( !

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

Kitunda

( ! ( !

Mkuyu

( !

( !

( ! ! . Soni

( !

Toronto

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kituli ( !

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

Ambangulu

Settlement

River

0

( !

( !

7.5

( !

Kisiwani

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

Scale 1:750,000 15

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

( !

Korogwo ( ! . !

Mafareta

38°E

ZAMBIA

( !

MALAWI

( !

( !

( !

Road

Bwili

( ! ( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( ! ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

30

( !

Sergera Kuani

38°30'E 45 Kilometers

0

15 - 20 20 - 25 25 - 30

( !

125

250

500 Kilometers

Lushoto Mean Monthly Temperature Distribution Lushoto Mean Monthly Temperature Distribution 30

< = 15

Hale

40°E

Scale 1:12,500,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Temperature (ºC)

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Masweni

( !

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

( !

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

Mashinde

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

Mtindilu

Gomba

( !

( !

( !

( !

Luchomo

Kwesine

10°S

Mangata

( !

> = 30

re peratu l Tem Annua nts annual f e repres t ure data o s n ra tempe interpolatio t curren ved data, er of o bs d for ge avera - 200 0 195 0

25 20

Temp. Max

15

Temp. Min

10

Temp. Mean

5 0

Dec

Chamzele

Mgwashi

Oct

Mheza

( !

Mvlingano

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

( !

Nov

Magamba

Mazinde Ngua

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo ! ( !

Sept

( !

Kwamabeto

TA N Z A N I A

July

( !

Kidundai

( !

Kivukoni

BURUNDI

( !

Aug

( !

Vunta

June

Bagamoyo

Apr

( !

May

. !

Mar

( !

Mambo

K E N YA

RWANDA

Jan

Mtae

Feb

Kihurio

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

Temperature (deg. Cel)

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Citation: Jones et al (2002)

Citation: Hijmans et al (2005)

5


Aridity Index 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

MALAWI

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

38°30'E

International boundary

Ngaza ( ! ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

Arid Semi Arid Dry sub-humid

( !

0

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

Hyper Arid

Hale

Sergera Kuani

30°E

Aridity Index

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Humid

ates x indic , e d n I s Aridity l of drynes ation ir ve the le vapotransp en iv e g g a in t k a ta unt, o c ainfall c r a n into k n ow f o n locatio

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: Trabucco et al (2009)

6


Altitude 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

MALAWI

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

38°30'E

International boundary

Ngaza ( ! ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

0

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

> = 2,500

Hale

Sergera Kuani

30°E

Altitude (m)

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

2,000 - 2,500 1,500 - 2,000

tes the ind ica e d level u it Alt ve sea o b a t heig h s er in met

1,000 - 1,500 ( !

500 - 1,000 < = 500

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame Citation: Jarvis et al (2008)

7


Landforms 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

Landforms * Footslope Plain

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

Scale 1:750,000 15

0

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta Masweni

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

( !

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

Mashinde

MOZAMBIQUE

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

30

( !

Sergera Kuani

38°30'E

Alluvial plain

Hale

Hills and mountain footridges Mountains

( !

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

the mprise ms co al units r o f d n La g ic rpholo rth's geomo e up the Ea d k e a in f m e t d a th ely nd e, larg surfac rface form a pe u ca s s s d it n by e la n in th locatio

Fan

* Legend corresponds to left map

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

FAO Africover (2002)

8


Soil Type 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

Kisiwani

( !

( !

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . ! Nkologwe

Monga Village ( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

MALAWI

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

38°30'E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

0

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

Chromic Luvisols

Hale

Sergera Kuani

30°E

Soil Type *

( !

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Bwili

( ! ( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

MOZAMBIQUE

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Eutric Leptosols Eutric Planosols Eutric Vertisols

( !

Haplic Acrisols Haplic Luvisols

45 Kilometers

Rhodic Ferrasols Sodic Solonochak

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

il the so fers to O e r e p Soil Ty the FA as p er oil g roups S group . parent ication clas sif ed by their enetic fin og are d e and morph s of ial rm r e e t t a m s in and teristic charac l p roperties d ra n u a t c t u il r st and, s s as ( ll e e r textu , as w ntent) content. o c y cla matter organic

Umbric Acrisols * Legend corresponds to left map

Citation: FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISS-CAS/JRC (2009)

9


Agro-Ecological Zones 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

125

Agro-Ecological Zones * Semi-arid/Sudan Savanna Northern Guinea Savanna

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

Scale 1:750,000 15

0

Scale 1:12,500,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta Masweni

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

( !

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

30

( !

Southern Guinea Savanna

Hale

Sergera Kuani

High Altitude Derived Savanna Mid Altitude Derived Savanna

( !

38°30'E

Mid Altitude Northern Guinea Savanna Mid Altitude Southern Guinea Savanna

45 Kilometers

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

es al Zon cologic ision of E o r g A iv e the d indicat s that have a e r s land a teristic ity, charac il similar o land suitab t l d e a t r u la lt e r icu ial ag r potent n and io t t. prod uc ental imp ac m n o envir

Derived Savanna

1 cm = 7.5 km

Humid Forest * Legend corresponds to left map

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

FAO (2008)

10


Landcover 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Kisiwani

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . ! Nkologwe

Monga Village

MALAWI

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( ! ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

Hale

Sergera Kuani

38°30'E 45 Kilometers

0

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

Landcover

( !

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Bwili

( ! ( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta Masweni

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

( !

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Rainfed croplands

Closed to open mixed broadleaved, needleleaved forest

Mosaic Croplands/Vegetation

Mosaic Grassland/Forest-Shrubland

Mosaic Vegetation/Croplands

Closed to open shrubland

Closed broadleaved deciduous forest ( !

e ow s th l ver sh a La ndco (bio)physic d e observ the earth 's f o nt r cove omina , i.e . d surface n , land use tio ve ge ta -ma de an and m s. fe ature

Open broadleaved deciduous forest

Closed to open grassland Sparse vegetation

Open needleleaved deciduous or evergreen forest

Closed to open vegetation regularly flooded

Mosaic Forest-Shrubland/Grassland

Irrigated croplands

Urban area

Bare areas

Closed to open broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest

Closed to open broadleaved forest regularly flooded (fresh-brackish water)

Citation: Arino et al (2009)

11


Landuse 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . ! Nkologwe

Monga Village ( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

Landuse * Bare Soil Bushland

Hale

Sergera Kuani

0

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Bwili

( ! ( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

MOZAMBIQUE

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Cultivated Land Grassland Natural Forest

( !

38°30'E

Plantation Forest Urban Area

45 Kilometers

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

ow n of h script io It inv olves e d a nd. se is Landu tilize the la y, i.e. the u iv it people o nom ic act dific atio n o ec so cio- m ent and m m ent into e on manag atural envir ch as n su t s. of t he iro nm ent, lem en le nv nd sett ip built e ral fields a ay be m ult m lt u e is agricu lace, there n o t n a p At any s, the dom in se land u d here. te presen

Woodland * Legend corresponds to left map

Citation:

Natchtergaele et al (2010)

12


Length of Growing Period 2000 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

Road River

0

( !

7.5

ZAMBIA

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa ( !

( !

Pongwe ( !

( !

Gereza

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

( !

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

< = 50

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

50 - 100

Hale

Sergera Kuani

0

Length of Growing Period (Days)

Mnyusi

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Settlement

Bwili

( ! ( !

( !

Mafareta

38°E

( !

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Masweni

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

( !

Mashinde

MOZAMBIQUE

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

100 - 150 150 - 200

( !

> 200

38°30'E

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

g Gro win gth of efined n e L e Th is d (LGP) ys Period umb er of da h n ic e h h w t as ing ar dur le rainfed e y a b in a is avail upply for there re s u t is o soil m o wth. r plant g

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

Thornton et al (2006)

13


Length of Growing Period 2030 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

Road River

0

( !

7.5

ZAMBIA

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

( !

Settlement

Bwili

( ! ( !

( !

Mafareta

38°E

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

Length of Growing Period (Days) < = 50

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

50 - 100

Hale

Sergera Kuani

0

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Masweni

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

( !

Mashinde

MOZAMBIQUE

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

100 - 150 150 - 200

( !

> 200

38°30'E

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

g Gro win gth of efined n e L e d Th is (LGP) ys Period umb er of da h n ic e h h w t as uring d r fed a in e a in a y available r or f is ly e p r p the re su u t is o soil m o wth: here r plant g for 2030 . d mod ele

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

Thornton et al (2006)

14


Crop Suitability 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

Crop Suitability Not suitable Very low

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

Low

Hale

Sergera Kuani

0

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta Masweni

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

( !

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

Mashinde

MOZAMBIQUE

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Medium low Medium

( !

Medium high

38°30'E

High

45 Kilometers

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

to refers ab ility it u S Crop ource nd res the la ent that m al land assess s agricultur vant er le consid ions with re ition t d use op logical con o d c e e t c o r e ag exp imate ities. to est g activ croppin

Very high

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

FAO and IIASA (2007)

15


Livestock Production Systems 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

Mixed Rainfed

Hale

Sergera Kuani

Scale 1:12,500,000

0

125

250

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Arid /semi-arid

Humid / sub-humid

Temperate / highland

Temperate / highland

Closed to open shrubland

Mixed Irrigated ( !

38°30'E

Livestock only

Arid / Semi-arid

Arid / semi-arid

Other

Humid / sub-humid

Urban area

40°E 500 Kilometers

s as Syste m uction e ms take k Prod c st y to s s l e Liv ltu ra agricu ns into pa rt of a tic condit io ied in lim ssif la c agro-c re t and a estock accoun feed a nd liv mm odit ie s of co logy; terms s; livestock te chno e ; re sourc ; production ck functions d e to c s e u v d li ations; d pro c n a lo e ic s ph tu . produc e re d; ge ogra porte d ns su p ov area c an populatio m and hu

Temperate / highland

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

FAO (2007)

16


Livestock Density 38°E

Mtae

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

MALAWI

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

38°30'E

International boundary

Ngaza ( ! ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

2

<=5 5 - 10 10 - 15

( !

0

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

No Observations

Hale

Sergera Kuani

30°E

Number per km

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

. !

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

Kihurio

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

15 - 20

sity is ck Den s Livesto d in number re g u in s a d e m inclu stock, nd sheep, of live a goats cattle, 2 m per k

> = 20 45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: Wint et al (2007)

17


Livelihood Zones 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

125

Livelihood zones * Tanga Maize and Cattle Tanga Maize, Orange and Jackfruit Midlands

Hale

Sergera Kuani

0

Scale 1:12,500,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Tanga Maize and Sisal Employment River Pangani Paddy and Maize Basin Southern Maasai Pastoralist

( !

38°30'E

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

an d m plex are co o f factors. s d o o Livelih by a variety ps delineate a d shape ods zo ne m hin whic h it o Livelih hic areas w the same p re geogra roadly sha c luding b in people d patt erns om e, oo d, inc livelih o fo to s s ac ce . arkets and m

Usambara-Pare Highland 45 Kilometers

* Legend corresponds to left map

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

USAID (2011)

18


Human Population Density 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

Number of persons per km <=5 5 - 25

Hale

Sergera Kuani

0

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

MOZAMBIQUE

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

25 - 50

2

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

lation ed n Popu Huma is the g ridd r y pe Densit of persons r e b num2 2005 km in

50 - 250 > 250

( !

38°30'E 45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

CIESIN (2005)

19


Market Access 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

125

Travel time to nearest large town/city (Hours) <=5 5 - 10

Hale

Sergera Kuani

0

Scale 1:12,500,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

10 - 15 15 - 20 > = 20

( !

38°30'E

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

eas ure e is a m rmined im t l e v Tra y dete s sib ilit rs) taken e c c a f o ou , time (h urban centre in the s n e t io r t a e la n u to the city of a p op re o r town o 0 people or m of 0 ns a ,0 e 0 5 m f t o n differe count) (taking tation into ac r o transp

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

Nelson (2008)

20


Poverty 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

( !

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

MALAWI

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

30°E

International boundary

Ngaza ( !

MOZAMBIQUE

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

125

250

Percentage of People living on less than 2 US$ per day 0 or missing 0 - 20

Hale

Sergera Kuani

0

Scale 1:12,500,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

( !

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

20 - 40 40 - 60 60 - 80

( !

38°30'E

80 -100

40°E 500 Kilometers

lobal cted g at u r t s n ty th N co CIE SI t s of pover tes of a e s im t a t s a e ty d ed on ant mort ali s a b f a, are in t a l a d ion tion subn a d malnut rit h t il o h and c th at b ty r niz ing recog ies forp ove h an t ox are pr lfare rat her e w . d s n e r a measu direct

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

CIESIN (2005)

21


Conservation Areas 38°E

Kihurio

Mtae

. !

( Sunga ! Tema ! ( Mamboleo ! ( ( Nikelei Kimbomboy ! ( ! Rangwi ! ( ! ( ( Dule ! Mlalo Kiranga ! ( Mtindi ( ! ( ! Mtoi Manolo ( ( Malindi ! ! ( ! ( ! Mamboleo ( ! Mshangai Lokozi ! Ziga ( ( ! Mkomazi ( Viti ! ( ! Matego Gologolo Shume ( ! ( ! ( !

Bagamoyo ( !

Vunta

( !

Kidundai

( !

( !

Kwamabeto

Mazinde Ngua

Mheza

Chamzele

Mangata

( !

Sokota Nadwa

Mkokoni

( !

( !

5°S

( !

( !

Mkuyu

Mkalamo

Mombo

( !

Kitunda

( !

Mtindilu

Mzunguwazara

Kwajambi

Bagamoyo

( !

Morogoro

Settlement

Road River

0

7.5

Bwili

( !

ZAMBIA

( !

( !

Ambangulu

( !

( !

Kisiwani

( !

Nkologwe

Monga Village

Amani

Korogwo ( ! . !

( !

Mashewa

( !

Pongwe

( !

Gereza

( !

Mnyusi

( !

MALAWI

Kwamkema ( !

( !

Komsala

( !

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

( !

38°30'E

International boundary

Ngaza ( ! ( !

National parks Forest reserves Controlled game

( !

0

Corresponds to the map on the left

Game reserves

Hale

Sergera Kuani

30°E

Conservation Areas

( !

( !

38°E

( !

( !

Mafareta ( !

( !

( !

Hemagoma

Kazita

( !

Mbagui

Moheza

CONGO, DRC

Kigongi

Kwamgumi

Mhezi

( !

( !

Masweni

Mashinde

MOZAMBIQUE

( !

Kidareko

( !

( !

( !

Kambi Manwae

( !

Bombo

Bumbuli

Mbonde

Handeni

( ! ( !

Kalange

Hakaro

( !

( !

Msangeni

( !

Kimbo

( !

Luchomo

( !

( !

( !

Gomba

Mgwashi

Kwesine

Kituli

Mvlingano

( !

( ! ! . Soni ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Toronto

( !

Kwipktonga

( ! . !

( !

( !

( !

BURUNDI

( !

TA N Z A N I A

Kwemakame ( Heluli ! ( Mkuzi Migaubo !

Mazinde Lushoto ( ! Kasiga ( !

Kivukoni

( !

Magamba

K E N YA

RWANDA

Hemgwiza ( ! . !

( !

Mambo

Makuyuni

Town

Lake

10°S

( !

( !

( !

Mbuyuni

. !

40°E

Victoria

Mnazi

( !

10°S

4°30'S

Hedaru

( !

30°E

UGANDA

Myambo

( !

38°30'E

Suji

4°30'S

( !

5°S

( !

Makanya

Conservation areas

45 Kilometers

Scale 1:12,500,000

125

250

40°E 500 Kilometers

Areas reas a rvation Cons e t p rot ected N , C en U s I e r o p t e h ic r ordin g ed geograp c c ,a t in tha ted f a e d ic ded arly are cle recogn ized, a l or g le h , g spaces aged t hrou , to an ns and m ective mea servat ion eff con m r e ot her t e long associated achiev h ure w it vices and t a of n ser m e t s ecosy valu e. l cu ltu ra

1 cm = 7.5 km

Lushoto CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: UNEP and WCMC (2012)

22


References and Data Sources Regional Map Sijmons K. 2013a. Digital Satellite Image based on, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ) NASA, 2009, Ground resolution : 1 Kilometer. GTOPO30, (DEM) Global Digital Elevation Model U.S Geological Survey, Ground resolution: 1 Kilometer. Topographic Features derived from: Global GIS, U.S. Geological Survey and Google Earth. Projection: Geographic, Lat/Long, WGS84 Topographic Map Sijmons K. 2013b. Relief represenation derived from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) 2000, Ground resolution 90 meter and ASTER GDEM, Ground resolution 30 meter, NASA. Topographic Features digitized from Google Earth Projection: Geographic, Lat/Long, WGS84 Satellite Image RapidEye Satellite Image, 5 meter ground resolution, Image acquisition, 17-01-2011 Annual Rainfall Hijmans, R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones and A. Jarvis, 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25: 1965-1978. Annual Rainfall Graph Jones P G, Thornton P K, Diaz W and Wilkens P W. 2002. MarkSim, a computer tool that generates simulated weather data for crop modeling and risk assessment. Version 1, 2002. CD-ROM and Users Manual. CIAT, AA6713, Cali, Colombia, 87 pp. Annual Temperature Hijmans, R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones and A. Jarvis, 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25: 1965-1978. Annual Temperature Graph Jones P G, Thornton P K, Diaz W and Wilkens P W. 2002. MarkSim, a computer tool that generates simulated weather data for crop modeling and risk

assessment. Version 1, 2002. CD-ROM and Userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Manual. CIAT, AA6713, Cali, Colombia, 87 pp. Aridity Index Trabucco, A., and Zomer, R.J. 2009. Global Aridity Index (Global-Aridity) and Global Potential Evapo-Transpiration (Global-PET) Geospatial Database. CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information. Published online, available from the CGIAR-CSI GeoPortal at: http://www.csi.cgiar.org/ Altitude Jarvis, A., H.I. Reuter, A. Nelson, E. Guevara, 2008, Hole-ďŹ lled SRTM for the globe Version 4, available from the CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90m Database. Available at http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org Landforms FAO Africover, 2002. Available at http://www.africover.org/system/metadata.php?metadataid=65 Soil Type FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISS-CAS/JRC. 2009. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.1). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria. Agro-Ecological Zones Fischer, G., F. Nachtergaele, S. Prieler, H.T. van Velthuizen, L. Verelst, D. Wiberg, 2008. Global Agroecological Zones Assessment for Agriculture (GAEZ 2008). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria and FAO, Rome, Italy Landcover Arino, O., Perez J. R., Kalgirou V., Defourny P., Achard F. 2009. GlobCover. Version 2.3 Global. Accessed at http://ionia1.esrin.esa.int/ Landuse Natchtergaele F., Petri M., 2010. Mapping Land Use at global and Regional Scales for Land Degradation Assessment Analysis (LADA).Version 1.1. LADA Project FAO/UNEP GEF/. http://www.fao.org/geonetwork/srv/en/metadata.show?id=37139&currTab=simple Length of Growing Period 2000 Thornton P K, Jones P G, Owiyo T, Kruska R L, Herrero M, Kristjanson P, Notenbaert A, Bekele N and Omolo A, with contributions from Orindi V, Adwerah A, Otiende B, Bhadwal S, Anantram K, Nair S and Kumar V. 2006. Mapping climate vulnerability and poverty in Africa. Report to the Department for International Development, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, 200 p.

23


Length of Growing Period 2030 Thornton P K, Jones P G, Owiyo T, Kruska R L, Herrero M, Kristjanson P, Notenbaert A, Bekele N and Omolo and Kumar V. 2006. Mapping climate vulnerability and poverty in Africa. Report to theDepartment for International Development, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, 200 p.

University. Available at http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/povmap. ( Version 1.0) Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/theme/poverty Conservation Areas UNEP-WCMC (2012). Data Standards for the World Database on Protected Areas. UNEP-WCMC: Cambridge, UK.

Crop Suitability FAO-IIASA 2007. Mapping biophysical factors that inďŹ&#x201A;uence agricultural production and rural vulnerability. Food and Agriculture Organization and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Rome 2007. Livestock Production Systems FAO. 2007. Gridded livestock of the world 2007, by G.R.W. Wint and T.P. Robinson.Rome, pp 131. Livestock Density Wint W, Robinson T, 2007. Gridded Livestock of the World. FAO, 131 pp. Livelihood Zones Livelihood Zone Products. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). Accessed at http://www.fews.net/pages/livelihoods.aspx?loc=6&l=en. Human Population Density Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University, and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, 2005. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): Population Density Grid, Future Estimates, Edition: 3.0. NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC. Online_Linkage: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/gpw-v3-population-density-future-estimates Market Access Nelson, A. (2008) Estimated travel time to the nearest city of 50,000 or more people in year 2000. Global Environment Monitoring Unit - Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra Italy. Available at http://www-tem.jrc.it/accessibility (accessed 06/03/2004) Poverty Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University, 2005. Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality (SAEPI) database. Palisades, NY: CIESIN,

24


June 2013

The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) brings together the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s best researchers in agricultural science, development research, climate science and Earth System science, to identify and address the most important interactions, synergies and tradeoffs between climate change, agriculture and food security. CCAFS is a strategic partnership of CGIAR and Future Earth, led by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). For more information, visit www.ccafs.cgiar.org and www.geomapa.nl

J.Recha/CCAFS

Tanzania - Usambara / Lushoto  

CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) site atlas for Usambara / Lushoto, Tanzania. Download the o...