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Mid-Western Terrai / Rupandehi Usambara Tanzania Nepal CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)

Site Atlas

Neil Palmer/CIAT

CCAFS site atlas


Correct citation: Sijmons K., Kiplimo J., Förch W., Thornton P.K., Bhatta, G. and Aggarwal, P.K. (2013). CCAFS Site Atlas – Mid-Western Terrai / Rupandehi. CCAFS site atlas series. The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org Titles in this series aim to disseminate interim climate change, agriculture and food security research and practices and stimulate feedback from the scientific community. This document is published by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) which is a strategic partnership between CGIAR and Future Earth. CCAFS is supported by the CGIAR Fund, the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the Australian Government Overseas Aid Program (AusAid), Irish Aid, Environment Canada, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the Netherlands, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT), UK Aid, the Government of Russia, and the European Union (EU). The Program is carried out with technical support from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Contact: CCAFS Coordinating Unit - Faculty of Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 21, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. Tel: +45 35331046; Email: ccafs@cgiar.org Creative Commons License

This Atlas is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial–NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Articles appearing in this publication may be freely quoted and reproduced provided the source is acknowledged. No use of this publication may be made for resale or other commercial purposes. ©2013 CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). DISCLAIMER: This Atlas Series has been prepared as an output for Theme 4.2 under the CCAFS program and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the policies or opinions of CCAFS, donor agencies, or partners. The geographic designation employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CCAFS concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. All images remain the sole property of their source and may not be used for any purpose without written permission of the source.


Contents Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. iv Regional Map.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Topographic Map ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Satellite Map .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 2: Climate and Climate Variability Annual Rainfall ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 Annual Temperature ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Aridity Index ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 3: Bio-Physical Characteristics Altitude............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Soil Type ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Agro-Ecological Zones ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Landcover ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Landuse .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Length of Growing Period 2000 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Length of Growing Period 2030 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Crop Suitability ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14


Livestock Production Systems ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 Livestock Density ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 Chapter 4: Socio-Economic Factors Human Population Density ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17 Market Access ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18 Poverty ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Conservations Areas....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 References and Data Sources........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 21


Introduction The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) seeks to promote a food-secure world through the provision of science-based efforts that support sustainable agriculture and enhance livelihoods while adapting to climate change and conserving natural resources and environmental services. Climate change is an unprecedented threat to the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on small-scale agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change affects agriculture and food security, and likewise, agriculture and natural resource management affect the climate system. CCAFS has initially focused on three regions; East Africa (EA), West Africa (WA) and South Asia (SA) to carry out its research. The 15 CCAFS sites in these areas represent areas that are becoming both drier and wetter, and are focal locations that will generate results that can be applied and adapted to other regions worldwide. In this year, 2013, CCAFS is expanding its portfolio to additional sites in Latin America and South-East Asia. These sites serve as the initial focus of CCAFS partnership-building and long-term research activities falling within the following CCAFS Research Themes; Adaptation to Progressive Climate Change, Adaptation through Managing Climate Risk, Pro-Poor Climate Change Mitigation and Integration for Decision Making. At all 15 CCAFS sites, baseline surveys have been conducted, including three levels of data collection and analysis at household, village and organizational levels (see: http://ccafs.cgiar.org/resources/baseline-surveys). More information on CCAFS work in all the three regions can be accessed at www.ccafs.cgiar.org To better understand the CCAFS sites’ characteristics, a list of geospatial indicators for climate variability, bio-physical characteristics and socio-economic variables have been mapped into site atlases. This Atlas was developed for the CCAFS site at Mid-Western Terrai / Rupandehi in Nepal, in South Asia Region.

IV


CCAFS Sites: South Asia 80ºE

90ºE

20ºN

20ºN

10ºN

10ºN

30ºN

30ºN

70ºE

Bangladesh: Khulna (BA04) India: Bihar (IN16) India: Haryana (IN17) Nepal: Mid-Western Terrai (NE03)

70ºE

80ºE

90ºE

CCAFS Country Sites

Citation: GeoMapa (2013a)

1


Topography Mid-Western Terrai 83°30'E Dharapani

28°N

( ! ( !

Jubhung

Argha

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

( !

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara

( !

( !

( !

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

Dobhan

( !

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Sakhar

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

( !

( !

27°30'N

Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! ( ( !

( !

( !

( !

CCAFS Site NE03, Mid-Western Terrai / Rupandehi, Nepal

( !

Darlamdanda

Satyawati

Motipur

( !

Malyangkot

( !

( ! ( !

Malwar

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Siddheshwor

( !

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

Biruwa Archale

( !

( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

Pallikot

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

( !

Panchanagar

( !

( !

Sanai Palhi ( !

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

( !

28°N

83°E

Coordinates of the CCAFS Baseline Sampling frame 83.500E 83.500E 83.401E 83.401E

27.589N 27.500N 27.500N 27.589N

Sampling frame size: 10km x 10km

. !

83°E Town Settlement

83°30'E

International Boundary Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Citation: GeoMapa (2013b)

2


Satellite Image Rupandehi 83°30'0"E

2010 5- 031 m o fr ag ery n Eye im resolutio id p a d R n u o r g at 5m eline ld B as o h e s H ou HB S= Survey ne B as eli illag e V = S y VB Surve line l Base ationa iz n a Org OB S= Survey

27°35'0"N

27°35'0"N

83°25'0"E

( !

( !

( !

( !

Madhuwan Tole

Machaihawa

( Bairiyatole ! ( Bangaitole !

Madhuritole

! .

27°30'0"N

. !

Bhairahawa

! . ! . ( !

. !

27°30'0"N

Mauwaritole

Rehara

83°25'0"E

83°30'0"E

0

1.25

2.5

Scale 1:75,000

5

Settlement

CCAFS VBS/OBS village CCAFS HBS villages

CCAFS Baseline Sampling Frame

7.5 Kilometers

Citation: RapidEye (2010)

3


Annual Rainfall 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

80°E

International boundary 0

Scale 1:10,000,000

125

250

500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

750 - 1,250 1,250 - 1,750 > = 1,750

. !

83°E Town Settlement

83°30'E

International Boundary Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupendehi CCAFS sampling frame

45 Kilometers

ta fall da l Rain Annua nt re of cur s ola tion interp ve d da ta , r e s b o of ve enta ti repres - 2000 0 5 9 1 of

500

25

300

15

400

20

200

10

100 0

No. of Rainy Days

250 - 750

Rupandehi Mean Monthly Rupandehi MeanRainfall MonthlyDistribution Rainfall Distribution

5 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

< = 250

Rainfall (mm)

Rainfall (mm)

0

Rainfall (mm)

No. of Rainy Days

Citation: Jones et al (2002)

Citation:

Hijmans et. al (2005)

4


Annual Temperature 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

80°E

International boundary 0

Scale 1:10,000,000

125

250

500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

. !

Road

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

45 Kilometers

e e ratur l Temp Annua ts a nnua l f en repres ture data o s n ra te mpe interpola ti o t cu rren rve d da ta , e of obs d for e ave rag 000 -2 1950

Dec

Oct

Sept

Nov

July

Temp. Mean

Aug

0

June

International Boundary River

> = 30

83°30'E

Temp. Min

10

Apr

83°E Town Settlement

Temp. Max

20

May

25 - 27.5

30

Mar

22.5 - 25

40

Jan

20 - 22.5

Rupandehi Mean Monthly Temperature Distribution Rupandehi Mean Monthly Temperature Distribution

Feb

< = 20

Temperature (deg. Cel)

Temperature (ºC)

Citation: Jones et al (2002)

Citation: Hijmans et al (2005)

5


Aridity Index 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Aridity Index Hyper Arid Arid Semi Arid Dry sub-humid

. !

83°E Town Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

250

500 Kilometers

es indicat Index , y s it s id e r n A ry tion e l of d the lev apotranspira v e en taking unt, at a giv fall o c in c a a r into k n ow n f o n locatio

Humid

83°30'E

International Boundary

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: Trabucco et al (2009)

6


Altitude 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Altitude (m) > = 1000 750 - 1000 500 - 750

250

500 Kilometers

s th e d icate in e vel d u sea le Altit above t h ig e h ers in met

250 - 500 > 250

. !

83°E Town Settlement

83°30'E

International Boundary Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: Jarvis et al (2008)

7


Soil Type 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Soil Type * Cambisols Fluvisols Regosols * Legend corresponds to left map

. !

83°E

Town

Settlement

83°30'E

International Boundary Road River

Canal

0

7.5

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

80°E

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

45 Kilometers

250

500 Kilometers

e s oil s to th e refer p O y T A F il So t he as per oil groups group .S n o ti a arent ic class if ed b y th eir p net ic e n g fi o e h d p or are l and m ms of materia ristics in t er te and ch arac l p roperties ra d n tu a c s ilt stru (sand, texture tent), as n clay co rganic o well as nt en t. co matter

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: FAO et al (2009)

8


Agro-Ecological Zones 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Agro-Ecological Zones Arid Semi-Arid Sub-Humid Humid

. !

83°E Town Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

Temperate/Highlands

83°30'E

International Boundary

7.5

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

45 Kilometers

250

500 Kilometers

es al Zon cologic of Ag ro-E the division e t e a v ic ind at ha eas th land ar aracteristics y, ch ilit similar o land suitab t l d e a t r u la lt e r icu ial ag r potent n and io t prod uc ental m environ t. c a p im

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

FAO (2008)

9


Landcover 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

Landcover

125

Scale 1:10,000,000 250

Rainfed croplands Mosaic Croplands/Vegetation Mosaic Vegetation/Croplands Closed broadleaved deciduous forest

83°E

Town

Settlement

83°30'E

International Boundary Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

45 Kilometers

Open broadleaved deciduous forest

ow s ve r s h La ndco rve d e s th e ob sical y (bio)ph the earth's of nt cover omina , i.e. d surface n , land use o ti ve geta -ma de an and m s. re tu a fe

500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

Irrigated croplands

. !

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Open needleleaved deciduous or evergreen forest Mosaic Forest-Shrubland/Grassland Closed to open grassland

Closed to open mixed broadleaved, needleleaved forest Mosaic Grassland/Forest-Shrubland Closed to open shrubland Sparse vegetation Closed to open vegetation regularly flooded Urban area Bare areas Closed to open broadleaved forest regularly flooded (fresh-brackish water)

Closed to open broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest

Citation:

Arino et al (2009)

10


Landuse 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000 250

Corresponds to the map on the left

Landuse * Forest protected Forest with moderater higher livestock density Grasslands protected Grasslands high livestock density

. !

83°E

Town

Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

Rainfed crops (Subsistence/Commercial)

83°30'E

International Boundary

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

Crops, large-scale irrigated, moderate or higher livestock density Crops and high livestock density

45 Kilometers

500 Kilometers

of how ri ption s a des c d.It involve is e s La nd u ti liz e the lan y, i.e .the u it v people onomic a cti tion odifica to ec socio- ment and m t in n e m e n ma nag tural e nviro ch as na . of the ir onment,s u se ttlements d nv buil t e r al fi elds an y be a ltu the re m domina nt agri cu pla ce , e At a ny lan d us es , th le mu ltip re se nted p on e is he re.

Agriculture large scale Irrigation Agriculture protected

1 cm = 7.5 km

Open water protected * Legend corresponds to left map

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Citation:

Natchtergaele et al (2010)

11


Length of Growing Period 2000 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

Siddheshwor ( !

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara

( !

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

CHINA

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa

Dobhan

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

Tahu

( !

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Sakhar

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

27°30'N

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! ( ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( !

Motipur

( !

Malyangkot

( !

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

Simalpani

Champapur

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

( !

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Length of Growing Period (Days) < = 50 50 - 100 100 - 150 150 - 200

. !

83°E Town Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

> 200

83°30'E

International Boundary

7.5

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

250

500 Kilometers

ing f Gro w ngth o defined e L e h T is (LGP) ys Period umb er of da n ich e h h w t s g a in ar dur infed in a ye available ra for is upply there ture s is o m soil . ro wth plant g

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: Thornton et al (2006)

12


Length of Growing Period 2030 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

Siddheshwor ( !

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara

( !

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Bisunpura

( !

( !

Dayanagar

( !

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

CHINA

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa

Dobhan

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

Tahu

( !

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Sakhar

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

27°30'N

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! ( ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( !

Motipur

( !

Malyangkot

( !

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

Simalpani

Champapur

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

( !

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Length of Growing Period (Days) < = 50 50 - 100 100 - 150 150 - 200

. !

83°E Town Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

> 200

83°30'E

International Boundary

7.5

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

250

500 Kilometers

wing of Gro ed h t g n e The L is defin (LGP) of days d io r r Pe numb e ich as the r during wh fed a in e a y r a in able is avail upply for there s oisture soil m o wth; here r plant g for 2030 . d le e d mo

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: Thornton et al (2006)

13


Crop Suitability 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Crop Suitability Not suitable Very low Low Medium low

. !

83°E Town Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

Medium

83°30'E

International Boundary

7.5

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

Medium high High

250

500 Kilometers

to refers ab ility it u S p Cro urce d reso the lan ent that l land m assess s agricultura ant r v e consid ns with rele n io itio t d p o n use al co cologic ected e o r g p a ate ex to estim activities. g croppin

Very high

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

FAO and IIASA (2007)

14


Livestock Production Systems 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000 250

Corresponds to the map on the left

Mixed Rainfed

Arid /semi-arid

Humid / sub-humid

Temperate / highland

Mixed Irrigated

. !

83°30'E

International Boundary Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

Livestock only

Arid / Semi-arid Temperate / highland

83°E Town Settlement

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Humid and sub-Humid

Arid / semi-arid

Urban area

Humid / sub-humid

Other

Temperate / highland 45 Kilometers

500 Kilometers

s ystem tio n S roduc ral system s P k c o Livest o f agric ultu nditions into o t as par o-climatic c sified in s gr a la c e k re ta a ck nt and and livesto odities u o c c a d of fee sto ck co mm ology; s m r te hn ve ces; li on tec reso ur d; pro ducti t ock s e e c v u li d pro an d ered; ct use produ s; area c ov ; n s o n ti o c ati func phic lo tions geogra an popula um and h rted. suppo

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation:

FAO (2007)

15


Livestock Density 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Number per km

2

No Observations 0 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 45

. !

83°E

Town

Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

250

500 Kilometers

sity is ck Den s Livesto d in number re g u in s a d e m inclu stock, nd sheep, of live a goats cattle, 2 m per k

45 - 60

83°30'E

International Boundary

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

> 60

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: Wint et al (2007)

16


Human Population Density 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Number of persons per km 2 <= 5 5 - 25 25 - 50

250

500 Kilometers

lation ed n Popu Huma is the g ridd r y pe it s s n n rso De r of pe numb e 00 5. 2 2 km in

50 - 250 > 250

. !

83°E Town Settlement

83°30'E

International Boundary Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: CIESIN (2005)

17


Market Access 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000

Corresponds to the map on the left

Travel time to nearest large town/city (Hours) 0-2 2-3 3-4 4-5

. !

83°E

Town

Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

>5

83°30'E

International Boundary

7.5

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

250

500 Kilometers

eas ure e is a m rmined im t l e Trav y dete s sib ilit rs) taken e c c a f o ou , time (h urban centre in the s n e t io r t a e la n u to the city of a p op re o r town o 0 people or m of 0 ns a ,0 e 0 5 m f t o n differe count) (taking tation into ac r o transp

45 Kilometers

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: Nelson (2008)

18


Poverty 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

Siddheshwor ( !

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara

( !

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

CHINA

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa

Dobhan

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

Tahu

( !

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Sakhar

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

27°30'N

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! ( ( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( !

Motipur

( !

Malyangkot

( !

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

Simalpani

Champapur

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

( !

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000 250

Corresponds to the map on the left

Percentage of People living on less than 2 US$ per day 0 or missing value 0 - 20 20 - 40 40 - 60

. !

83°E Town Settlement

Road River

Canal

0

60 - 80

83°30'E

International Boundary

7.5

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

80 - 100

45 Kilometers

500 Kilometers

ba l ed glo s truct y th at are n o c t N CIE SI t s of pover of e s data s n es timate ort ality o m bas ed nal infant n d ata, io tio a it r n t b u u s aln re hild m h at both a and c t g d in n iz a n y recog for povert s n proxie rather th a e welfar easu res. m direct

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

Citation: CIESIN (2005)

19


Conservation Areas 83°30'E

Asurkot Kima Danda Khilji ( !

Thulapokhara

( !

Khanchikot

Nuwakot

( !

( !

( Dhikure !

Dhanchaur

Sitapur

Jukena ( ! Siddhara

Subarnakhal

( !

( !

Pathauti

( ! ( !

Maidan

( !

( !

( !

Malyangkot

( !

Khyaha Bhuwanpokhari Khasyauli

Panema

Chhahara

Pokharatok

( !

Baudipokhara Timure

Hungi ! ( ( ! ( ! Phoksingkot Chapakot ( ! Haklang Chhapani ( ! ( ! Tansen Pipaldanda Chidipani ! (

( !

( !

( !

( !

Motipur

Butwal . !

Khaireni

Tamnagar

( !

( Gorusinge ! ( !

( !

Tilaurakot Taulihawa

Bisunpura

( !

( !

( !

( !

Dayanagar

27°30'N

Masina Ekala ( ! ( ! Kamahariya ( ! ( Khudabagar ! ( Lumbini ( ! ! Tenuhawa ( ! ( ! Madhuwani Sakraun Pakari

Siluwa

NE PAL

( !

Archale

( !

( !

Daunne ( ! Shankarnagar

( !

Manpakadi

Manmateriya

CHINA

Jyamire ( !

( ( ! !

Suryapura ! (

Dobhan

( !

Rakachuli

! ( Semalar ( !

Motipur! ( Rupandehi

Hathausa

Tahu

Devinagar ! ( Jalpa ( !

Satyawati

Malwar

Sakhar

( !

( !

( !

( !

( !

Darlamdanda

( ! ( !

( !

Argali

( !

( !

( !

( !

Champapur

Siddheshwor

( !

( !

Simalpani

( !

Pallikot

Khidim Somadi ! ( ( !

( !

( !

Thada

Wangla ( Chidika ! Pali ! (

Dathiwang

( !

( !

Mahendrakot

( !

( !

( !

( !

( ! Setibeni Kichanas Benethok Deurali ( ! ( ! Rimuwa ( Bamgha ! ( Pitalthumka ! Yaladi ( Harmichaur ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! Sirsekot ( ! Amar Arbathok Thulo Lumpek Gwadi Nibuwakharka Waling Chinnebas ( ! ( ! ( ! ( Digam ! ( ! ( ! ( Pakwadi Pelakot ! Daungha Ruru Chandi Bhan

Dibharna

( !

30°N

28°N

( !

Argha

( !

80°E

Biruwa Archale

( !

28°N

Dharapani

( !

Parbat Huwas Mardikhola

( !

( !

( !

Manigram Khaireni ( !

Makrahar

( !

Sunawal

( !

Tikuligadh

( ! ( !

Padsari

( !

Gangoliya

( !

( !

Belahiya Bodabar

Dumkibas

Ramnagar

Parasi

Sukrauli Hakui

Bhairahawa . !

Dhurkot

Sanai Palhi ( !

BANGLADESH

Panchanagar

( !

( !

( !

INDIA

( !

Narayan Chowck ( Kusma ( ! ! ( ! Tribeni ! ( Gairami ! Jamuniya ( ( Harpur ! ( ! ( ! Pratappur ( !

27°30'N

Bijuli

( !

Jubhung

( !

30°N

83°E

80°E

International boundary 0

125

Scale 1:10,000,000 250

500 Kilometers

Corresponds to the map on the left

Conservation Areas Sanctuary Conservation Area National Park / Buffer Zone National Park

. !

83°E

Town

Settlement

83°30'E

International Boundary Road River

Canal

0

7.5

Scale 1:750,000 15

30

1 cm = 7.5 km

Rupandehi CCAFS sampling frame

National Park Extension Hunting Reserve Nature Reserve 45 Kilometers

Are as rea s rvation Conse t protecte d a , N en C s IU re p re ic g to ogra ph cordin th at,ac y de fi ned ge ica ted d rl e a d le , c d e are niz l or , re cog h lega spa ce s age d throug to n , s a n m a e d an em ti on ffectiv ns erva othe r e n g-te rm co lo te d e ia v c o ie s h as ac re w ith nd of na tu m s ervices a te s y s o ec . e lu l va cu ltura

Wildlive Reserve UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve

Citation: UNEP and WCMC (2012)

20


References and Data Sources Regional Map Sijmons K. 2013a. Digital Satellite Image based on, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ) NASA, 2009, Ground resolution : 1 Kilometer. GTOPO30, (DEM) Global Digital Elevation Model U.S Geological Survey, Ground resolution: 1 Kilometer. Topographic Features derived from: Global GIS, U.S. Geological Survey and Google Earth. Projection: Geographic, Lat/Long, WGS84 Topographic Map Sijmons K. 2013b. Relief represenation derived from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) 2000, Ground resolution 90 meter and ASTER GDEM, Ground resolution 30 meter, NASA. Topographic Features digitized from Google Earth Projection: Geographic, Lat/Long, WGS84

assessment. Version 1, 2002. CD-ROM and Userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Manual. CIAT, AA6713, Cali, Colombia, 87 pp. Aridity Index Trabucco, A., and Zomer, R.J. 2009. Global Aridity Index (Global-Aridity) and Global Potential Evapo-Transpiration (Global-PET) Geospatial Database. CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information. Published online, available from the CGIAR-CSI GeoPortal at: http://www.csi.cgiar.org/ Altitude Jarvis, A., H.I. Reuter, A. Nelson, E. Guevara, 2008, Hole-ďŹ lled SRTM for the globe Version 4, available from the CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90m Database. Available at http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org Soil Type FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISS-CAS/JRC. 2009. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.1). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.

Satellite Image RapidEye Satellite Image, 5 meter ground resolution, Image acquisition, 17-01-2011

Agro-Ecological Zones Fischer, G., F. Nachtergaele, S. Prieler, H.T. van Velthuizen, L. Verelst, D. Wiberg, 2008. Global Agroecological Zones Assessment for Agriculture (GAEZ 2008). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria and FAO, Rome, Italy

Annual Rainfall Hijmans, R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones and A. Jarvis, 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25: 1965-1978.

Landcover Arino, O., Perez J. R., Kalgirou V., Defourny P., Achard F. 2009. GlobCover. Version 2.3 Global. Accessed at http://ionia1.esrin.esa.int/

Annual Rainfall Graph Jones P G, Thornton P K, Diaz W and Wilkens P W. 2002. MarkSim, a computer tool that generates simulated weather data for crop modeling and risk assessment. Version 1, 2002. CD-ROM and Users Manual. CIAT, AA6713, Cali, Colombia, 87 pp.

Landuse Natchtergaele F., Petri M., 2010. Mapping Land Use at global and Regional Scales for Land Degradation Assessment Analysis (LADA).Version 1.1. LADA Project FAO/UNEP GEF/. http://www.fao.org/geonetwork/srv/en/metadata.show?id=37139&currTab=simple

Annual Temperature Hijmans, R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones and A. Jarvis, 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25: 1965-1978.

Length of Growing Period 2000 Thornton P K, Jones P G, Owiyo T, Kruska R L, Herrero M, Kristjanson P, Notenbaert A, Bekele N and Omolo A, with contributions from Orindi V, Adwerah A, Otiende B, Bhadwal S, Anantram K, Nair S and Kumar V. 2006. Mapping climate vulnerability and poverty in Africa. Report to the Department for International Development, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, 200 p.

Annual Temperature Graph Jones P G, Thornton P K, Diaz W and Wilkens P W. 2002. MarkSim, a computer tool that generates simulated weather data for crop modeling and risk

Length of Growing Period 2030 Thornton P K, Jones P G, Owiyo T, Kruska R L, Herrero M, Kristjanson P, Notenbaert A, Bekele N and Omolo A, with contributions from Orindi V, Adwerah A, Otiende B, Bhadwal S, Anantram K, Nair S.

21


and Kumar V. 2006. Mapping climate vulnerability and poverty in Africa. Report to the Department for International Development, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, 200 p. Crop Suitability FAO-IIASA 2007. Mapping biophysical factors that inďŹ&#x201A;uence agricultural production and rural vulnerability. Food and Agriculture Organization and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Rome 2007. Livestock Production Systems FAO. 2007. Gridded livestock of the world 2007, by G.R.W. Wint and T.P. Robinson.Rome, pp 131. Livestock Density Wint W, Robinson T, 2007. Gridded Livestock of the World. FAO, 131 pp. Human Population Density Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University, and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, 2005. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): Population Density Grid, Future Estimates, Edition: 3.0. NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC. Online_Linkage: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/gpw-v3-population-density-future-estimates Market Access Nelson, A. (2008) Estimated travel time to the nearest city of 50,000 or more people in year 2000. Global Environment Monitoring Unit - Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra Italy. Available at http://www-tem.jrc.it/accessibility (accessed 06/03/2004) Poverty Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University, 2005. Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality (SAEPI) database. Palisades, NY: CIESIN, Columbia University. Available at http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/povmap. ( Version 1.0) Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/theme/poverty Conservation Areas UNEP-WCMC (2012). Data Standards for the World Database on Protected Areas. UNEPWCMC: Cambridge, UK.

22


June 2013

The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) brings together the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s best researchers in agricultural science, development research, climate science and Earth System science, to identify and address the most important interactions, synergies and tradeoffs between climate change, agriculture and food security. CCAFS is a strategic partnership of CGIAR and Future Earth, led by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). For more information, visit www.ccafs.cgiar.org and www.geomapa.nl

Neil Palmer/CIAT


Nepal - Mid-Western Terrai / Rupandehi