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Note on the Security Component of the 2004 CDI Michael O’Hanlon Adriana Lins de Albuquerque The Brookings Institution April 2004

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Table of Contents Note on the Security Component of the 2004 CDI............................................................. 3 Security Component Ranking ............................................................................................. 7 Security Component Results -- Breakdown........................................................................ 8 5-year averages: Financial contributions to UN PKO 1998-2002 .................................... 11 5-year averages: Defense budgets 1998-2002 .................................................................. 12 5-year averages: GDP ($) 1998-2002 ............................................................................... 13 5-year averages: Active Forces 1998-2002....................................................................... 14 Calculations: Personnel (Direct and Indirect) and Financial Contributions to UN PKO 1998-2002 ......................................................................................................................... 15 Calculations: Personnel (Direct and Indirect) and Financial Contributions to non-UN missions 1998-2002 .......................................................................................................... 26

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Note on the Security Component of the 2004 CDI A Word on Methodology The essence of these rankings for security-related contributions to development is as follows. Naturally, money paid to the United Nations for regular peacekeeping assessments is included. So are estimated costs for deploying troops to UN-conducted peacekeeping missions that exceed the reimbursements provided by the UN for such costs. So are similar costs incurred in missions authorized by the UN and serving a specific peacekeeping purpose. These are the marginal (that is, the additional) costs of deploying troops that have already been trained, equipped, and paid through normal national military budgets to specific overseas deployments. Finally, we include an estimate of these normal national costs for training, equipping, and paying troops to the extent that those troops might be used in peacekeeping, stabilization, or other humanitarian missions. No country to our knowledge maintains specific forces simply to have them available for such missions, without any other purpose. Thus it is difficult to compute costs in this category. The best way to determine how many troops in a country's armed forces are potentially available for such peacekeeping or stabilization missions is to examine what has actually happened in the recent past. By examining a sufficiently long period of time, one can begin to get a sense of how many of its own troops a country might consider in some general sense to be potentially available for peacekeeping, stabilization, or humanitarian purposes. The maximum number of troops deployed abroad over a given time frame gives a sense of the number that can said to be trained, equipped, paid, and otherwise maintained in a country's force structure partly for the possible purpose of carrying out such missions. For example, Australia and New Zealand deployed large forces to East Timor in 1999/2000. A number of NATO countries have deployed significant numbers of troops to Balkans peace operations since the mid-late 1990s. The United States deployed considerable numbers of forces for that latter purpose itself, but even moreso devoted a large number of personnel to the NATO air war to protect the Kosovar Albanian people from Serb aggression in 1999. This latter case is somewhat controversial, perhaps, since we are counting forces devoted to a wartime operation as a humanitarian-related security expenditure in a developmentrelated cost index. But NATO's purpose in Kosovo, while partly strategic, was principally focused on restoring Kosovar Albanians to their homes. Few viewed Serbia as a general threat to the continent's stability, so the purpose of this mission was not to check a threat that if left unaddressed could grow with time, but to prevent Slobodan Milosevic and his minions from slaughtering another small oppressed minority population of the former Yugoslavia. Hence we count efforts towards winning that war in this index. We do not count the role of the United States or any other country in post-Saddam Iraq (or for that matter postwar Korea). That mission is blessed by the UN and serves a humanitarian purpose in trying to help the Iraqi people achieve a stable government and prosperous economy. But few can doubt that the peacekeeping mission was an inevitable 3


consequence of the US-led invasion, given how the post-Saddam period has unfolded in Iraq, and that the invasion was itself undertaken principally for strategic purposes. This is not to criticize the invasion; some who have worked on this index supported it while others opposed it. But we are generally unified in the view that US-led action in Iraq, while aiming to achieving substantial humanitarian benefits for the Iraqi people, was not principally motivated by that consideration. Hence it is not considered germane to this exercise focused on development indicators, and the contributions of various countries to the mission, however worthy, are not included in the security index. Methods Used The direct cost of personnel contributions (total civilian police, observer and troops) to United Nations peacekeeping operations is measured as the average annual cost of deploying personnel to such missions during the time period 1998-2002. The number of personnel contributed per year is measured as the average monthly personnel contribution that each DAC country deploys to U.N. peacekeeping missions. The average number of personnel contributed yearly between 1998- 2002 is then multiplied by the estimated cost of deploying these personnel. For the purposes of this study all kinds of personnel is valued at $9,000/person/month. The indirect cost of personnel contributions (total civilian police, observer and troops) is measured as the average annual cost of having personnel ready to be deployed to U.N. peacekeeping operations during the time period 1998-2002. The number of personnel ready to be deployed per year is measured as the peak annual personnel contribution that each DAC country deployed to U.N. peacekeeping operations during the period 19982002. This is since the peak annual amount of personnel each country contributed to U.N. peacekeeping operations is assumed to be the number of personnel that the country has to train and provide for in peacetime in order to be able to deploy them to U.N. peacekeeping operations when needed. To estimate the cost of doing so, we measure how much of each DAC country’s active military forces the peak annual number of personnel contributions to U.N. peacekeeping operations constitute, and then multiply this fraction with the average defense budget of the country in question over the period 1998-2002. The average annual financial contribution to United Nations is measured as the average annual amount of financial contributions made to the United Nations for peacekeeping operations by each DAC country over the period 1998 and 2002. There is no equivalent manner of measuring financial contributions to non-United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian missions, and hence no column for this category in this cumulative table of financial estimates of contributions to peacekeeping operations and humanitarian interventions. Annual average direct cost of personnel contributions to non-United Nations peacekeeping operations and humanitarian interventions is measured as the average annual cost of deploying personnel (total civilian police, observer and troops) to international but non-United Nations peacekeeping operations and humanitarian

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interventions over the period 1998–2002. Peacekeeping missions and humanitarian interventions included are; • Peace Monitoring Group in Bougainville (Bougainville) • Multinational Force and Observers, (MFO), Egypt. • SFOR, Bosnia • KFOR, Kosovo • ISAF, Afghanistan • AFOR, Albania • Northern Watch, Iraq • INTERFET, East Timor • Kosovo air war • Deliberate Forge, NATO air operation in support of SFOR operations • Joint Guardian, NATO contingency operation in Kosovo • French intervention in Cote d’Ivoire • British intervention in Sierra Leone The average number of personnel contributed by each country to each mission yearly between 1998 and 2002 is multiplied by the estimated cost of deploying these personnel. For the purposes of this study all kinds of personnel is valued at $10,000/person/month. The reason this estimate differs from the direct cost of personnel contributions to United Nations peace keeping operations ($9,000/person/month) is because the U.N. reimburses each personnel with $1,000/month. Questions and Answers about the Security Component Q: How did you decide what missions to include? A: We have included all un conducted missions motivated principally by humanitarian goals, as well as un-blessed missions of similar type run by organizations such as NATO, and in the case of the Kosovo air campaign, a humanitarian-motivated mission blessed only by NATO (not the un, but the world's largest security organization of democracies). Q: By looking at only humanitarian missions you have chosen intent as a selection criterion. Why do you believe that is the right selection criteria? A: The main reason we focus on military missions primarily motivated by humanitarianism is that otherwise the index would be dominated by the costs of the iraq war and aftermath which, however worthy they may have been and however many humanitarian benefits they have undoubtedly produced, were not motivated principally by development concerns and would not have been conducted--especially not on the scale observed—for that purpose. Q: Why did you use $10,000 as the cost of deployed troop/month? A: Past U.S. military operations in the last decade have cost at least $10,000 per deployed troop per month, in marginal or additional costs (not counting pay, normal training and 5


equipment costs, etc.). We thus take this figure as a good estimate for all western countries for all operations, in the interest of simplicity, since most countries do not provide data of the quality or detail provided by the pentagon for theus role in various operations. Q: What is the difference between direct and indirect cost of contributing personnel to missions, and how do you avoid double counting? A: We assume that whatever (maximum) fraction of a country's total military personnel were deployed at some point for a humanitarian mission, that same fraction of the country's defense budget should be viewed as being spent each year to prepare for possible humanitarian missions. One could argue that such an estimate is too high, since the same forces could perform other missions. Similarly, one could argue it is too low, since to surge and sustain a force of a given size requires that one have backup forces to provide a rotation base. We find this approach therefore reasonable and simple. The marginal costs of a mission, in other words the costs we estimate at$10,000 per deployed troop per month, are the equivalent of a supplemental appropriation cost. The fraction of the peacetime budget devoted to manning and training and equipping forces that may be used in humanitarian missions is distinct from these supplemental costs. Thus there is no double counting. Q: What aspects where not included in your study? A: We do not include, at present at least, certain matters such as how much of a country's defense budget is devoted to protecting sea lanes that thus aid in the cause of global trade and development because we have not yet found a good way to estimate this contribution. No navies are maintained primarily for this purpose, and even when they defend sealanes it is principally for more strategic purposes, so it is difficult to determine a fair share of the defense budget to allocate for this purpose.

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Security Component Ranking Rank 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Country Australia UK New Zealand Norway Finland Netherlands US Portugal Greece Ireland France Italy Sweden Denmark Germany Belgium Austria Canada Spain Switzerland Japan

Percentage of GDP 0.36% 0.29% 0.25% 0.23% 0.1992% 0.1989% 0.170% 0.167% 0.15% 0.147% 0.13% 0.126% 0.114% 0.113% 0.111% 0.1043% 0.1007% 0.09% 0.078% 0.075% 0.0113%

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Security Component Results -- Breakdown Country

Financial estimate of contributions to international peacekeeping and humanitarian intervention missions United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (PKO)

Non United Nations PKO and humanitarian interventions Annual average Annual indirect direct cost of cost of personnel personnel contributionsiv contributionsv $276,312,000 $751,692,470

Average annual GDP

% of GDP

$1,393,284,500

$385bn.

0.362%

Total

Annual indirect cost of personnel contributionsii

Annual average financial contributionsiii

Australia

Annual average direct cost of personnel contributionsi $101,304,000

$235,375,730

$28,600,344

Austria

$70,092,000

$31,768,443

17,282,538

$59,568,000

$24,106,135

$202,817,120

$201.4bn

0.1007%

Belgium

$1,620,000

$ 1,175,239

$20,450,311

$136,771,000

$100,761,240

$260,777,790

$250bn.

0.1043%

Canada

$36,396,000

$49,470,629

$20,450,311

$221,527,000

$300,410,390

$628,254,330

$686.2bn

0.092%

Denmark

$13,176,000

$16,933,162

$13,253,589

$115,290,000

$132,760,000

$191,412,750

$169.6bn

0.1129%

Finland

$59,508,000

$40,408,178

$9,739,240

$76,080,000

$66,395,980

$252,131,400

$126.6bn

0.1992%

France

$56,808,000

$58,966,740

$147,191,670

$740,177,000

$828,925,410

$1,832,068,800

$1.3744tr.

0.133%

Germany

$41,904,000

$39,182,761

$180,440,070

$762,237,000

$1,139,704,000

$2,163,467,800

$1.9456tr.

0.111%

Greece

$3,132,000

$774,446

$8,081,628

$125,605,000

$41,443,303

$179,036,380

$118.08bn

0.152%

Ireland

$68,148,000

$49,983,548

$4,799,777

$13,488,000

$13,828,386

$150,247,710

$102.18bn

0.147%

Italy

$22,464,000

$21,541,957

$95,874,174

$709,151,000

$594,477,730

$1,443,508,900

$1.1468tr.

0.126%

Japan

$15,012,000

$98,232,494

$359,796,160

0

0

$473,040,650

$4.191tr.

0.0113%

Netherlands

$22,248,000

$42,999,955

$30,939,170

$276,733,000

$387,598,480

$760,518,610

$382.4bn.

0.1989%

New Zealand

$41,688,000

$57,381,211

$4,256,058

$11,880,000

$14,783,805

$129,989,070

$52.7bn

0.247%

Norway

$20,736,000

$77,463,410

$11,524,285

$122,802,000

$136,979,390

$369,505,090

$159.4bn

0.232%

Portugal

$70,416,000

$33,953,442

$7,912,011

$49,699,000

$20,426,536

$182,406,990

$109.4bn

0.167%

Spain

$14,796,000

$7,618,543

$46,697,966

$269,125,000

$117,741,110

$455,978,620

$587.4bn

0.078%

Sweden

$17,172,000

$20,668,372

$19,311,289

$81,912,000

$124,994,440

$264,058,100

$231.92bn.

0.114%

Switzerland

$3,348,000

$32,911,300

0

$11,340,000

$142,319,140

$189,918,440

$253.6bn.

0.075%

UK

$59,940,000

$117,916,080

$120,983,080

$830,870,000

$3,007,621,400

$4,137,330,600

$1.405tr.

0.294%

US

$73,872,000

$178,510,470

$544,806,580

$1,953,160,000

$13,726,415,000

$16,476,764,000

$9.7016tr.

0.1698%

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i

The direct cost of personnel contributions (total civilian police, observer and troops) to United Nations peacekeeping operations is measured as the average annual cost of deploying personnel to such missions during the time period 1998-2002. The number of personnel contributed per year is measured as the average monthly personnel contribution that each DAC country deploys to U.N. peacekeeping missions. The average number of personnel contributed yearly between 1998 to 2002 is then multiplied by the estimated cost of deploying these personnel. For the purposes of this study all kinds of personnel is valued at $9,000/person/month. ii

The indirect cost of personnel contributions (total civilian police, observer and troops) is measured as the average annual cost of having personnel ready to be deployed to U.N. peacekeeping operations during the time period 1998-2002. The number of personnel ready to be deployed per year is measured as the peak annual personnel contribution that each DAC country deployed to U.N. peacekeeping operations during the period 1998-2002. This is since the peak annual amount of personnel each country contributed to U.N. peacekeeping operations is assumed to be the number of personnel that the country has to train and provide for in peacetime in order to be able to deploy them to U.N. peacekeeping operations when needed. To estimate the cost of doing so, we measure how much of each DAC country’s active military forces the peak annual number of personnel contributions to U.N. peacekeeping operations constitute, and then multiply this fraction with the average defense budget of the country in question over the period 1998-2002. iii

The average annual financial contribution to United Nations is measured as the average annual amount of financial contributions made to the United Nations for peacekeeping operations by each DAC country over the period 1998 and 2002. There is no equivalent manner of measuring financial contributions to non-United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian missions, and hence no column for this category in this cumulative table of financial estimates of contributions to peacekeeping operations and humanitarian interventions. iv

Annual average direct cost of personnel contributions to non-United Nations peacekeeping operations and humanitarian interventions is measured as the average annual cost of deploying personnel (total civilian police, observer and troops) to international but non-United Nations peacekeeping operations and humanitarian interventions over the period 1998-2002. Peacekeeping missions and humanitarian interventions included are; • Peace Monitoring Group in Bougainville (Bougainville) • Multinational Force and Observers, (MFO), Egypt. • SFOR, Bosnia • KFOR, Kosovo • ISAF, Afghanistan • AFOR, Albania • Northern Watch, Iraq • INTERFET, East Timor • Kosovo air war • Deliberate Forge, NATO air operation in support of SFOR operations • Joint Guardian, NATO contingency operation in Kosovo • French intervention in Cote d’Ivoire • British intervention in Sierra Leone The average number of personnel contributed by each country to each mission yearly between 1998 and 2002 is multiplied by the estimated cost of deploying these personnel. For the purposes of this study all kinds of personnel is valued at $10,000/person/month. The reason this estimate differs from the direct cost of personnel contributions to United Nations peace keeping operations ($9,000/person/month) is because the U.N. reimburses each personnel with $1,000/month. Not all missions took place during all the 12 months of each year they are listed in the detailed year-by-year matrix for non-United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions. Personnel contributions to each mission are thus calculated separately depending on the duration of the mission. The duration of each

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mission that did not take place on a year-long basis can be found in the detailed year-by-year matrix for non-United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions. The total cost of deployments for all missions during each year is then added in order to assess the overall cost of deployments during the period 1998-2002. This total is then divided by the number of years in the period studied (5) in order to get the average annual cost of personnel contributions to nonUnited Nations peacekeeping operation and humanitarian interventions. v

The indirect cost of personnel contributions (total civilian police, observer and troops) to non-United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions is measured as the average annual cost of having personnel ready to be deployed to such missions during the time period 1998-2002. The number of personnel ready to be deployed per year is measured as the peak annual personnel contribution that each DAC country deployed to the specific non-United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions mentioned above (end note iv) during the period 1998-2002. This is since the peak annual amount of personnel each country contributed to these missions is assumed to be the number of personnel that the country has to train and provide for in peacetime in order to be able to deploy them to similar missions when needed. To estimate the cost of doing so, we measure how much of each DAC country’s active military forces the peak annual number of personnel contributions to of non-United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions constitute, and then multiply this fraction with the average defense budget of the country in question over the period 1998-2002.

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5-year averages: Financial contributions to UN PKO 1998-2002 Country Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France

1998 13,202,391 8,371,495 9,810,350 25,313,027 6,172,234 4,849,717 71,086,083

1999 12,089,003 7,675,597 8,996,640 22,492,079 5,638,432 4,423,446 64,795,683

2000 31,633,217 20,092,509 23,548,329 58,333,162 14,759,458 11,580,963 169,158,046

2001 48,882,408 28,625,678 34,111,033 77,797,045 22,521,205 15,839,960 246,713,852

2002 37,194,702 21,647,409 25,785,204 58,845,808 17,176,618 12,002,116 184,204,656

Annual average $28,600,344 $17,282,538 $20,450,311 $48,556,22 $13,253,589 $9,739,240 $147,191,670

Germany Greece Ireland Italy Japan Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland

86,392,040 2,526,783 1,996,757 48,360,962 163,027,921 14,520,133 1,986,206

79,986,582 2,709,002 1,827,129 44,309,588 162,629,069 13,303,646 1,803,798

210,152,428 7,444,908 4,778,413 115,971,030 437,434,417 34,811,714 4,714,421

295,736,663 15,870,948 8,743,224 154,080,800 592,864,602 52,334,027 7,235,805

223,527,196 11,856,499 6,653,360 116,648,490 443,024,790 39,726,332 5,540,062

$180,440,070 $8,081,628 $4,799,777 $95,874,174 $359,796,160 $30,939,170 $4,256,058

5,417,447 2,900,919 23,017,855 9,868,414 0

4,974,249 3,359,906 21,116,154 8,850,657 0

13,012,631 9,159,847 55,266,873 23,029,623 0

19,470,566 13,915,218 76,386,044 31,191,431 0

14,746,530 10,224,165 57,702,906 23,616,321 0

$11,524,285 $7,912,011 $46,697,966 $19,311,289 0

UK

55,630,973

50,448,584

131,610,386

209,815,840

157,409,630

$120,983,080

US

284,500,530

257,612,890

667,322,130

875,429,830

639,167,510

$544,806,580

Source: United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations, New York.

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5-year averages: Defense budgets 1998-2002 Country Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Japan Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland UK US

1998 7bn 1.835bn 2.879bn 6.448bn. 2.760bn 1.929bn. 31.942bn 27.052bn 4.037bn 0.811bn 18.201bn 37.6bn 7.248bn 0.860bn

1999 7.2bn 1.664bn 2.457bn 6.996bn 2.552bn. 1.695bn. 29.497bn 25.423bn. 3.426bn 0.745bn 16.239bn 43.2bn 6.535bn 0.824bn

2000 7.1bn 1.497bn 2.402bn 7.456bn 2.283bn. 1.583bn. 26.538bn. 22.871bn. 3.195bn 0.711bn 15.704bn 45.6bn 6.047bn 0.804bn

2001 6.8bn 1.513bn 2.142bn 7.292bn 2.260bn 1.351bn 24.257bn 20.154bn 3.217bn 0.763bn 14.861bn 40.3bn 5.372bn 0.678bn

2002 7.6bn. 1.7bn. 2.7bn. 7.6bn. 2.4bn 1.7bn. 29.5bn. 24.9bn. 3.5bn. 0.724bn. 19.4bn. 42.6bn. 6.6bn. 0.697bn

Yearly average 7.14bn. 1.6418bn. 2.516bn. 7.1584bn. 2.451bn. 1.6516bn. 28.3468bn. 24.08bn. 3.475bn. 0.7508bn. 16.881bn. 41.86bn. 6.3604bn. 0.7726bn.

3.422bn. 1.617bn. 6.123bn. 4.885bn. 3.7bn. 38.090bn 276.618bn

3.303bn. 1.332bn. 7.358bn. 4.525bn. 3.169bn 35.945bn 278.398bn

2.820bn. 1.267bn. 6.857bn. 4.405bn. 2.893bn. 33.890bn. 281.601bn.

2.854bn 1.6bn 6.621bn 3.997bn. 2.602bn. 32.608bn. 284.448bn.

3.8bn. 1.3bn. 8.4bn. 4.5bn. 3.3bn. 38.4bn. 347.9bn.

3.2398bn. 1.4232bn. 7.0718bn. 4.4624bn. 3.1328bn. 35.7866bn 293.793bn

Source: The Military Balance, 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001, 2002/2003, Institute for Strategic Studies, London

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5-year averages: GDP ($) 1998-2002 Country Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Japan Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland UK US

1998 390bn. 212bn 250bn 604bn 174bn 124bn. 1.4tr 2.1tr 121bn. 78bn 1.2tr 3.8tr. 372bn 58bn.

1999 399bn. 198bn. 237bn 644bn 166bn. 123bn. 1.4tr 1.9tr. 107.4bn. 87bn. 1.1tr 4.3tr. 375bn. 51bn.

2000 380bn. 194bn. 238bn. 705bn. 162bn. 120bn. 1.3tr 1.8tr. 113bn. 97.9bn. 1.1tr. 4.7tr. 347bn. 53bn.

2001 358bn. 189bn. 227bn. 700bn. 161bn. 124bn. 1.3tr. 1.8tr. 114bn. 129bn 1.1tr. 4.1tr. 384bn. 47.5bn.

2002 398bn. 214bn. 298bn. 778bn. 185bn. 142bn. 1.472tr. 2.128tr.. 135bn. 119bn. 1.234tr. 4.055tr. $434* 54bn.

Annual average 385bn. 201.4bn 250bn. 686.2bn 169.6bn 126.6bn 1.3744tr. 1.9456tr. 118.08bn 102.18bn 1.1468tr. 4.191tr. 382.4bn. 52.7bn

146bn 105bn. 553bn. 227bn 265bn 1.3tr 8.5tr

150bn. 104bn. 569bn. 230bn. 246bn. 1.4tr. 9.2tr.

162bn. 104bn. 568bn. 238.6bn 245bn. 1.4tr. 9.9tr.

164bn. 111bn. 588bn. 209bn. 247bn. 1.4tr. 10.2tr.

175bn. 123bn. 659bn. 255bn. 265bn. 1.525tr. 10.708tr.

159.4bn 109.4bn 587.4bn 231.92bn. 253.6bn. 1.405tr. 9.7016tr.

Sources: The Military Balance, 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001, 2002/2003, Institute for Strategic Studies, London, CIA World Fact Book << http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/>> .

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5-year averages: Active Forces 1998-2002 Country Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Japan Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland UK US

1998 57.400 45.500 43.700 60.600 32.100 31.700 358.800 333.500 168.500 11.500 298.400 242.600 57.180 9.550

1999 55.200 40.500 41.750 60.600 24.300 31.700 317.300 332.800 165.670 11.500 265.500 236.300 56.380 9.530

2000 50.600 35.500 39.250 59.100 21.810 31.700 294.430 321.000 159.170 11.460 250.600 236.700 51.940 9.230

2001 50.700 34.600 39.420 56.800 21.400 32.250 273.740 308.400 159.170 10.460 230.350 239.800 50.430 9.230

2002 50.920 34.600 39.260 52.300 22.700 31.850 260.400 296.000 177.600 10.460 216.800 239.900 49.580 8.710

Yearly average 52,964 38,140 40,676 57,880 24,462 31,840 300,934 318,340 166,022 11,076 252,330 239,060 53,102 9,250

28.900 53.600 193.950 53.100 3.300 210.940 1.401.600

31.000 49.700 186.500 53.100 3.740 212.400 1.371.500

26.700 44.650 166.050 52.700 3.470 212.450 1.365.800

26.700 43.600 143.450 33.900 3.600 211.430 1.367.700

26.600 43.600 177.950 33.900 3.500 210.450 1.414.000

27,980 47,030 173,580 45,340 3,522 211,534 1,384,120

Source: The Military Balance, 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001, 2002/2003, Institute for Strategic Studies, London.

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Calculations: Personnel (Direct and Indirect) and Financial Contributions to UN PKO 1998-2002 Country Australia

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 32

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 54

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 1746

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 1614

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 1246

Fin. contrib’s: $13,202,391

Fin. contrib’s: $12,089,003

Fin. contrib’s: $31,633,217

Fin. contrib’s: $48,882,408

Fin. Contrib’s: $37,194,702

Numbers used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 938

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (938*$9,000*12)= $101,304,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 1746

Average annual indirect cost: 1746/52,964 ) ($7.14bn) =$235,375,730

Average annual active forces: 52,964

Average annual financial contribution to UN PKOs: $28,600,344

Average annual defense budget: $7.14bn.

Austria

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 736

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 720

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 738

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 598

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 452

Fin. contrib’s: $8,371,495

Fin. contrib’s: $8,371,495

Fin. contrib’s: $20,092,509

Fin. contrib’s: $28,625,678

Fin. contrib’s: $21,647,409

Average annual personnel contribution /month: 649

Average annual direct cost: (649*$9,000*12)= $70,092,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 738

Average annual indirect cost: 738/38,140 ($1.6418bn.) = $31,768,443

Average annual active forces: 38,140 Average annual defense budget $1.6418bn.

Average annual financial contribution to UN PKOs: $17,421,717

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Country Belgium

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 11

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 11

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 16

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 19

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 17

Numbers used Average annual personnel contributions /month: 15

Calculations Average annual irect cost: (15*$9,000*12) =$1,620,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 19

Fin. contrib’s: $9,810,350

Fin. contrib’s: $8,996,640

Fin. contrib’s: $23,548,329

Fin. contrib’s: $34,111,033

Fin. Contrib’s: $25,785,204

Average annual active forces: 40,676

Average annual indirect cost: 19/ 40,676) ($2.516bn) =$ 1,175,239

Average annual defense budget $2.516bn. Canada

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 290

Fin. contrib’s: $25,313,027

Monthly average person. contrib’s 326

Fin. contrib’s: $22,492,079

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 400

Fin. contrib’s: $58,333,162

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 397

Fin. contrib’s: $77,797,045

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 274

Fin. Contrib’s: $58,845,808

Average annual personnel contributions/month: 337 Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 400 Average annual active forces: 57,880 Average annual defense budget: $7.1584bn.

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $20,450,311

Average annual direct cost: (337*$9,000*12)= $36,396,000 Average annual indirect cost: 400/ 57,880 ($7.1584bn.) = $49,470,629 Average annual financial contribution to UN PKOs: $48,556,224

16


Country Denmark

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 121

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s 92

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 133

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 169

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 93

Fin. contrib’s: $6,172,234

Fin. contrib’s: $5,638,432

Fin. contrib’s: $14,759,458

Fin. contrib’s: $22,521,205

Fin. Contrib’s: $17,176,618

Numbers used Average annual personnel contributions/month: 122

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (122*$9,000*12)= $13,176,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 169

Average annual indirect cost: 169/ 24,462) ($2.451bn) = $16,933,162@

Average annual active forces: 24,462 Average annual defense budget $2.451bn.

Finland

Average annual financial contribution to UN PKOs: $13,253,589

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 779

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 579

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 660

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 660

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 76

Average annual personnel contribution/month: 551

Average annual direct cost: (551*$9,000*12)= $59,508,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 779

Fin. contrib’s: $4,849,717

Fin. contrib’s: $4,423,446

Fin. contrib’s: $11,580,963

Fin. contrib’s: $15,839,960

Fin. Contrib’s: $12,002,116

Average annual active forces: 31,840

Average annual indirect cost: 779/31,840) ($1.6516bn) =$40,408,178@

Average annual defense budget $1.6516bn.

Average annual financial contribution to UN PKOs: $9,739,240

17


Country France

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 626

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 496

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 491

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 566

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 450

Fin. contrib’s: $71,086,083

Fin. contrib’s: $64,795,683

Fin. contrib’s: $169,158,050

Fin. contrib’s: $246,713,850

Fin. contrib’s: $184,204,660

Numbers used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 526

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (526*$9,000*12)= $56,808,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 626

Average annual indirect cost: 626/300,934) ($28.3468bn) =$58,966,740@

Average annual active forces: 300,934

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $147,191,670

Average annual defense budget $28.3468bn.

Germany

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 190

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 253

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 470

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 507

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 518

Fin. contrib’s: $86,392,040

Fin. contrib’s: $86,392,040

Fin. contrib’s: $210,152,430

Fin. contrib’s: $295,736,660

Fin. contrib’s: $223,527,200

Average annual personnel contribution/month: 388

Average annual direct cost: (388*$9,000*12)= $41,904,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 518

Average annual indirect cost: 518/318,340) ($24.08bn) = $39,182,761@

Average annual active forces: 318,340 Average annual defense budget $24.08bn.

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $180,440,070

18


Country Greece

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 23

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 25

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 29

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 29

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 37

Fin. contrib’s: $2,526,783

Fin. contrib’s: $2,709,002

Fin. contrib’s: $7,444,908

Fin. contrib’s: $15,870,948

Fin. Contrib’s: $11,856,499

Numbers used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 29

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (29*$9,000*12) =$3,132,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 37

Average annual indirect cost: 37/166,022 ) ($3.475bn.) =$774,446@

Average annual active forces: 166,022

Average annual financial contribution to UN PKOs: $8,081,628

Average annual defense budget $3.475bn. Ireland

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 740

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 717

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 764

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 599

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 337

Fin. contrib’s: $1,996,757

Fin. contrib’s: $1,827,129

Fin. contrib’s: $4,778,413

Fin. contrib’s: $8,743,224

Fin. contrib’s: $6,653,360

Average annual personnel contribution/month: 631

Average annual direct cost: (631*$9,000*12)= $68,148,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 764

Average annual indirect cost: 764/ 11,476 ) ($0.7508bn.) =$49,983,548@

Average annual active forces: 11,476 Average annual defense budget $0.7508bn.

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $4,799,777

19


Country Italy

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 94

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 114

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 194

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 322

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 318

Fin. contrib’s: $48,360,962

Fin. contrib’s: $44,309,588

Fin. contrib’s: $115,971,030

Fin. contrib’s: $154,080,800

Fin. contrib’s: $116,648,490

Numbers Used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 208

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (208*$9,000*12)= $22,464,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 322

Average annual indirect cost: 322/252,330 ) ($16.881bn) =$21,541,957@

Average annual active forces: 252,330 Average annual defense budget $16.881bn.

Japan

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 41

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 32

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 30

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 30

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 561

Fin. contrib’s: $163,027,920

Fin. contrib’s: $162,629,070

Fin. contrib’s: $437,434,420

Fin. contrib’s: $592,864,600

Fin. contrib’s: $443,024,790

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $95,874,174

Average annual personnel contribution/month: 139

Average annual direct cost: (139*$9,000*12)= $15,012,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 561

Average annual indirect cost: 561/239,060 ) ($41.86bn.) = $98,232,494@

Average annual active forces: 239,060 Average annual defense budget $41.86bn.

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $359,796,160

20


Country Netherlands

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 128

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 168

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 313

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 359

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 64

Fin. contrib’s: $14,520,133

Fin. contrib’s: $13,303,646

Fin. contrib’s: $34,811,714

Fin. contrib’s: $52,334,027

Fin. Contrib’s: $39,726,332

Numbers used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 206

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (206*$9,000*12)= $22,248,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 359

Average annual indirect cost: 359/53,102 ) ($6.3604bn) =$42,999,955@

Average annual active forces: 53,102

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $30,939,170

Average annual defense budget $6.3604bn. New Zealand

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 12 Fin. contrib’s: $1,986,206

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 18 Fin. contrib’s: $1,803,798

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 650 Fin. contrib’s: $4,714,421

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 687 Fin. contrib’s: $7,235,805

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 564 Fin. contrib’s: $5,540,062

Average annual personnel contribution/month: 386 Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 687

Average annual direct cost: (386*$9,000*12) = $41,688,000

Average annual active army 9,250

Average annual indirect cost 687/ 9,250) ($0.7726bn) = $57,381,211@

Average annual defense budget $0.7726bn.

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $4,256,058

21


Country Norway

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 669

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 69

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 71

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 77

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 74

Fin. contrib’s: $5,417,447

Fin. contrib’s: $4,974,249

Fin. contrib’s: $13,012,631

Fin. contrib’s: $19,470,566

Fin. Contrib’s: $14,746,530

Numbers used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 192

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (192*$9,000*12)= $20,736,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 669

Average annual indirect cost: 669/27,980) ($3.2398bn) =$77,463,410@

Average annual active forces: 27,980 Average annual defense budget $3.2398bn.

Portugal

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 239

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 66

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 967

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 1122

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 865

Fin. contrib’s: $2,900,919

Fin. contrib’s: $3,359,906

Fin. contrib’s: $9,159,847

Fin. contrib’s: $13,915,218

Fin. contrib’s: $10,224,165

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $11,524,285

Average annual personnel contribution/month: 652

Average annual direct cost: (652*$9,000*12)= $70,416,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 1122

Average annual indirect cost: 1122/47,030) ($1.4232bn.) = $33,953,442@

Average annual active forces: 47,030 Average annual defense budget: $1.4232bn.

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $7,912,011

22


Country Spain

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 65

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 77

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 177

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 187

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 181

Fin. contrib’s: $23,017,855

Fin. contrib’s: $21,116,154

Fin. contrib’s: $55,266,873

Fin. contrib’s: $76,386,044

Fin. contrib’s: $57,702,906

Numbers used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 137

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (137*$9,000*12)= $14,796,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 187

Average annual indirect cost: 187/173,580) ($7.0718bn) = $7,618,543@

Average annual active forces: 173,580 Average annual defense budget $7.0718bn.

Sweden

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 210

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 158

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 174

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 136

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 119

Fin. contrib’s: $9,868,414

Fin. contrib’s: $8,850,657

Fin. contrib’s: $23,029,623

Fin. contrib’s: $31,191,431

Fin. contrib’s: $23,616,321

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $46,697,966

Average annual personnel contribution/month: 159

Average annual direct cost: (159*$9,000*12)= $17,172,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 210

Average annual indirect cost: 210/45,340) ($4.4624bn.) = $20,668,372@

Average annual active forces: 45,340 Average annual defense budget: $4.4624bn.

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $19,311,289

23


Country Switzerland

U.K

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 27

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 24

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 30

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 37

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 36

Fin. contrib’s: 0

Fin. contrib’s: 0

Fin. contrib’s: 0

Fin. contrib’s: 0

Fin. Contrib’s: 0

Numbers used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 31

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (31*$9,000*12) =$3,348,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 37 Average annual active forces: 3,522

Average annual indirect cost: 37/3,522) ($3.1328bn.) = $32,911,300@

Average annual defense budget $3.1328bn.

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: 0

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 428

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 434

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 552

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 666

Monthly average person. contrib’s: 697

Average annual personnel contribution/month: 555

Average annual direct cost: (555*$9,000*12)= $59,940,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 697

Fin. contrib’s: $55,630,973

Fin. contrib’s: $50,448,584

Fin. contrib’s: $131,610,390

Fin. contrib’s: $209,815,840

Fin. Contrib’s: $157,409,630

Average annual active forces: 211,534

Average annual indirect cost: 697/211,534) ($35.7866bn) =117,916,080@

Average annual defense budget $35.7866bn

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $120,983,080

24


Country USA

1998 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 610

1999 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 470

2000 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 841

2001 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 804

2002 Monthly average person. contrib’s: 697

Fin. contrib’s: $284,500,530

Fin. contrib’s: $257,612,890

Fin. contrib’s: $667,322,130

Fin. contrib’s: $875,429,830

Fin. contrib’s: $639,167,510

Countries used Average annual personnel contribution/month: 684

Calculations Average annual direct cost: (684*$9,000*12)= $73,872,000

Peak annual personnel contribution/month: 841

Average annual indirect cost: 841/1,384,120) ($293.793bn) = $178,510,470@

Average annual active forces: 1,384,120 Average annual defense budget: $293.793bn

Average annual financial contributions to UN PKOs: $544,806,580

25


Calculations: Personnel (Direct and Indirect) and Financial Contributions to non-UN missions 1998-2002 Country Australia

1998 Person. contrib’s: 100(Bougainville (MFO)

1999 Person. contrib’s: 150(Bougainville) 26 (MFO) 5400(Interfet)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 150(Bougainville) 26 (MFO) 5400(Interfet)

Total: 126 Direct cost: 126 (12*10,000) = 15,120,000

Total: 5576

Total: 5576

Direct cost: 5576 (12*10,000) = 669,120,000

Direct cost: 5576 (12*10,000) = 669,120,000

2001 Person. contrib’s: 149(Bougainville) 26 (MFO)

2002 Person. contrib’s: 35 (Bougainville) 25 (MFO)

Total: 175

Total: 60

Direct cost: 175 (12*10,000) = 21,000,000

Direct cost: 60 (12*10,000) = 7,200,000

Numbers used Peak: 5576 Average annual active forces: 52,964 Average annual defense budget: 7.14bn.

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 15,120,000+ 669,120,000+ 669,120,000+ 21,000,000+ 7,200,000+ = 1,381,560,000/5 = 276,312,000 Annual average indirect cost: (5576/52,964) (7.14bn.) = 751,692,470

Austria

Person. contrib’s: 200 (SFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 200 (SFOR) 216 (4z Kosovo)

Person. contrib’s: 56 (SFOR) 480 (KFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 56 (SFOR) 480 (KFOR)

Total: 416

Total: 536

Total: 536

Direct cost: 200 (12*10,000)+ 216 (2,5*10,000) = 24,000,000+ 5,400,000 = 78,000,000

Direct cost: 536 (12*10,000) = 64,320,000

Direct cost: 536 (12*10,000) = 64,320,000

Total: 200

Person. contrib’s: 2 (SFOR) 498 (KFOR) 60 (ISAF) Total: 560

Direct cost: 200 (12*10,000) = 24,000,000

Direct cost: 560 (12*10,000) = 67,200,000

Peak: 560 Average annual active forces: 38,140 Average annual defense budget 1.6418bn.

Annual average direct cost: 24,000,000+ 78,000,000+ 64,320,000+ 64,320,000+ 67,200,000 = 297,840,000/5 = 59,568,000 Annual average indirect cost: 560/38,140 (1.6418bn.) =24,106,135

26


Country Belgium

1998 Person. contrib’s: 550 (SFOR) Total=550

1999 Person. contrib’s: 550 (SFOR) 1,079 (20z Kosovo) Total =1,629

Direct cost: 550 (12*10,000) = 66,000,000

Canada

Person. contrib’s: 960 (SFOR) 28 (MFO)

Direct cost: 550 (12*10,000) 1,079 (2.5*10,000) = 66,000,000 26,975,000 = 92,975,000

2000 Person. contrib’s: 550 (SFOR) 900 (KFOR) 4 (Del.Forge)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 450 (SFOR) 1010 (KFOR)

2002 Person. contrib’s: 450 (SFOR) 1010 (KFOR)

Total =1,460

Total =1,460

Average annual active forces: 40,676

Direct cost: 1,460 12*10,000) = 175,200,000

Direct cost: 1,460 (12*10,000) = 175,200,000

Average annual defense budget 2.516bn.

Total =1,454 Direct cost: 1,454 (12*10,000) = 174,480,000

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 66,000,000+ 92,975,000+ 174,480,000+ 175,200,000+ 175,200,000 = 683,855,000/5 = 136,771,000 Annual average indirect cost: 1,629/40,676 (2.516bn.) = 100,761,240

Person. contrib’s: 1,380 (SFOR) 28 (MFOR), 971(18z Kosovo)

Person. contrib’s: 1,350 (SFOR), 800 (KFOR), (MFO)

Person. contrib’s: 1,200 (SFOR), 800 (KFOR) (MFO)

Person. contrib’s: 1,600 (SFOR), 800 (KFOR), 29 (MFO)

Total =2,379

Total =2,176

Total =2,027

Total =2,429

Direct cost: 1,408 (12*10,000)+ 971 (2,5 *10,000) = 168,960,000+ 24,275,000 = 193,235,000

Direct cost: 2,176@ (12*10,000) = 261,120,000@

Direct cost: 2,027 (12*10,000) = 243,240,000

Direct cost: 2,429 (12*10,000) = 291,480,000

Total =988 Direct cost: 988 (12*10,000) = 118,560,000

Numbers used Peak: 1,629

Peak: 2,429 Average annual active forces: 57,880 Average annual defense budget: 7.1584bn.

Annual average direct cost: 118,560,000+ 193,235,000+ 261,120,000+ 243,240,000+ 291,480,000 = 1,107,635,000/5 = 221,527,000 Annual average indirect cost: 2,429/57,880 (7.1584bn.) = 300,410,390

27


Country Denmark

1998 Person. contrib’s: 600 (SFOR)

1999 Person. contrib’s: 630 (SFOR), 324 (6z Kosovo)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 425 (SFOR), 900 (KFOR)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 345 (SFOR), 900 (KFOR)

Total =954

Total =1,325

Total =1,245

Direct cost: 630 (12*10,000)+ 234 (2,5*10,000) = 75,600,000+ 5,850,000 = 81,450,000

Direct cost: 1,325 (12*10,000) = 159,000,000

Direct cost: 1,245 (12*10,000) = 149,400,000

Person. contrib’s: 0

Person. contrib’s: 480 (SFOR), 800 (KFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 120 (SFOR), 800 (KFOR)

Total =1,280

Total =920

Total =600 Direct cost: 600 (12*10,000) = 72,000,000

Finland

Person. contrib’s: 0

2002 Person. contrib’s: 365 (SFOR), 540 (KFOR), 50(ISAF) Total =955 Direct cost: 955 (12*10,000) = 114,600,000

Direct cost: 0

Average annual active forces: 24,462 Average annual defense budget: $2.451bn.

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 72,000,000+ 81,450,000+ 159,000,000+ 149,400,000+ 114,600,000 = 576,450,000/5 = 115,290,000

Annual average indirect cost: 1,325/24,462 ($2.451bn.) = $132,760,000 Person. contrib’s: 20 (SFOR). 800 (KFOR), 50 (ISAF) Total =870

Direct cost: 0

Numbers used Peak: 1,325

Direct cost: 1,280 (12*10,000) = 153,600,000

Direct cost: 920 (12*10,000) = 110.400,000

Direct cost: 870 (12*10,000) =104,400,000

Peak: 1280 Average annual active forces: 31,840 Average annual defense budget 1.6516bn.

Annual average direct cost: 153,600,000+ 110.400,000+ 104,400,000 =368,400,000/5 = 73,680,000 Annual average indirect cost: 1,280/31,840 (1.6516bn.) =66,395,980

28


Country France

1998 Person. contrib’s: 3,300 (SFOR), 17 (MFO) Total =3,317

1999 Person. Contrib’s: 3,000 (SFOR), 17 (MFO), 4045 (75z Kosovo)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 3,200 (SFOR), 5,080 (KFOR), 17 (MFO)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 2,200 (SFOR), 5,100 (KFOR), 17 (MFO)

Total =8,297

Total =7,317

Direct cost: 8,297 (12*10,000) = 995,640,000

Direct cost: 7,317 (12*10,000) = 878,040,000

2002 Person. contrib’s: 2,200 (SFOR), 5,200 (KFOR) 400 (ISAF) 1,000 (Cote d’Ivoire)

Numbers used Peak: 8,800 Average annual active army: 300,934

Total =7,062 Direct cost: 3,317 (12*10,000) = 398,040,000

Germany

Person. contrib’s: 2,600 (SFOR), 81 (MF0) Total =2,681

Direct cost: 3,017 (12*10,000)+ 4045 (2.5*10,000) = 362,040,000+ 101,125,000 = 463,165,000

Person. contrib’s: 2,738 (SFOR), 4,400 (J Guardian) 7,929 (147z Kosovo)

Person. contrib’s: 2369 (SFOR), 5300 (KFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 2100 (SFOR), 5100 (KFOR)

Total =7,669

Total =7,200

Total =15,067

Direct cost: 7,669 (12*10,000) = 920,280,000

Direct cost: 7,200 (12*10,000) = 864,000,000

Total =8,800 Direct cost: 7,800 (12*10,000)+ 1000 (3*10,000) = 936,000,000+ 30,000,000 = 966,000,000

Person. contrib’s: 1900 (SFOR), 4600 (KFOR), 1120 (ISAF) Total =7,620

Direct cost: 2,681 (12*10,000) = 321,720,000

Direct cost: 2,738 (12*10,000)+ 4,400 (6*10,000)+ 7,929 (2,5 *10,000)= 328,560,000+ 264,000,000+ 198,225,000 = 790,785,000

Direct cost: 7,620 (12*10,000) = 914,400,000

Average annual defense budget 28.3468bn.

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 398,040,000+ 463,165,000+ 995,640,000+ 878,040,000+ 966,000,000+ = 3,700,885,000/5 = 740,177,000

Annual average indirect cost: 8,800/300,934 (28.3468bn.) = 828,925,410 Peak: 15,067 Average annual active forces: 31,8340 Average annual defense budget 24.08bn.

Annual average direct cost: 321,720,000+ 790,785,000+ 920,280,000+ 864,000,000+ 914,400,000+ = 3,811,185,000/5 = 762,237,000 Annual average indirect cost: 15,067/31,8340 (24.08bn.) = 1,139,704,000

29


Country Greece

1998 Person. contrib’s: 250 (SFOR)

1999 Person. contrib’s: 250 (SFOR) 593 (11z Kosovo)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 250 (SFOR), 430 (KFOR)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 250 (SFOR), 1,700 (KFOR)

Total =843

Total =680

Total =1,950

Direct cost: 250 (12 *10,000)+ 593 (2.5*10,000) = 30,000,000+ 14,825,000 = 44,825,000

Direct cost: 680 (12 *10,000) = 81,600,000

Person. Contrib.’s: 50 (SFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 50 (SFOR), 104 (KFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 50 (SFOR), 104 (KFOR)

Total =154

Total =154

Direct cost: 154 (12 *10,000) = 18,480,000

Direct cost: 154 (12 *10,000) = 18,480,000

Total: 250 Direct cost 250 (12*10,000) = 30,000,000

Ireland

Person. contrib’s: 0

2002 Person. contrib’s: 250 (SFOR), 1,700 (KFOR), (ISAF) Total =1,980

Direct cost: 1,950 (12 *10,000) = 234,000,000

Direct cost: 1,980 (12 *10,000) = 237,600,000

Numbers used Peak: 1,980 Average annual active forces: 166,022 Average annual defense budget 3.475bn.

Annual average indirect cost: 1,980/166,022 (3.475bn.) = 41,443,303 Person. contrib’s: 50 (SFOR), 104 (KFOR), 50 (ISAF)

Peak: 204 Average annual active forces: 11,076

Total =204 Direct cost: 0

Direct cost: 50 (12 *10,000) = 6,000,000

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 30,000,000+ 44,825,000+ 81,600,000+ 234,000,000+ 237,600,000 = 628,025,000/5 = 125,605,000

Direct cost: 204 (12 *10,000) = 24,480,000

Average annual defense budget 0.7508bn.

Annual average direct cost: 6,000,000+ 18,480,000+ 18,480,000+ 24,480,000 = 67,440,000/5 = 13,488,000

Annual average indirect cost: 204/11,076 (0.7508bn.) = $13,828,386

30


Country Italy

1998 Person. contrib’s: 2,500 (SFOR)

Direct cost: 2,500 (12 *10,000) = 300,000,000

Japan

Person. contrib’s: 0

1999 Person. contrib’s: 2,531 (AFOR) 2,313 (SFOR), 77 (MFO), 1,160 (JGuardian), 2,805 (52z Kosovo) Total =8,886 Direct cost: 2,531 (5 *10,000)+ 2,390 (12 *10,000)+ 1,160 (6 *10,000)+ 2,805 (2.5 *10,000) = 126,550,000+ 286,800,000+ 69,600,000+ 70,125,000 = 553,075,000 Person. contrib’s: 0

2000 Person. contrib’s: 1,640 (SFOR), 6,400 (KFOR), 77 (MFO)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 1,500 (SFOR), 5,360 (KFOR), 77 (MFO)

Total =8,117

Total =6,937

Direct cost: 8,117 (12 *10,000) = 974,040,000

Direct cost: 6,937 (12 *10,000) = 832,440,000

2002 Person. contrib’s: 1,600 (SFOR), 5,360 (KFOR) 350 (ISAF), 75 (MFO)

Numbers used Peak: 8,886 Average annual active forces: 252,330

Total =7,385 Direct cost: 7,385 (12 *10,000) = 886,200,000

Average annual defense budget 16.881bn.

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 300,000,000+ 553,075,000+ 974,040,000+ 832,440,000+ 886,200,000 = 3,545,755,000/5 = 709,151,00

Annual average indirect cost: 8,886/252,330 (16.881bn.) = 594,477,730

Person. contrib’s: 0

Person. contrib’s: 0

Person. contrib’s: 0

Peak:

Direct cost: 0

Average annual active forces: 239,060 Direct cost: 0

Direct cost: 0

Direct cost: 0

Direct cost: 0

Direct cost: 0

Average annual defense budget 41.86bn.

Indirect cost: 0

31


Country Netherlands

1998 Person. contrib’s: 1,375 (SFOR)

Direct cost: 1,375 (12 *10,000) = 165,000,000

New Zealand

1999 Person. contrib’s: 375 (SFOR) 1,220 (KFOR), 400 (JGuardian), 1,241 (23z Kosovo)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 1,267 (SFOR), 1,450 (KFOR), 155 (DelForge)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 1,100 (SFOR), 1,450 (KFOR), 80 (DelForge)

2002 Person. contrib’s: 1,000 (SFOR), 1,450 (KFOR), 150 (ISAF)

Total =2,872

Total =2,630

Total =2,600

Total =3,236

Direct cost: 2,872 (12 *10,000) = 344,640,000

Direct cost: 2,630 (12 *10,000) = 315,600,000

Direct cost: 2,600 (12 *10,000) = 312,000,000

Person. contrib’s: 22 (SFOR) 25 (MFO) 130(Bougainville

Direct cost: 1,595 (12 *10,000)+ 400 (6 *10,000)+ 1241 (2.5 *10,000) = 191,400,000+ 24,000,000+ 31,025,000 = 246,425,000 Person. contrib’s: 27(SFOR) 26 (MFO) 30(Bougainville)

Total =177

Total=83

Numbers used Peak: 3,236 Average annual active forces: 53,102 Average annual defense budget 6.3604bn.

Annual average indirect cost: 3,236/53,102 (6.3604bn.) = 387,598,480

Person. contrib’s: 27(SFOR) 26 (MFO) 31(Bougainville)

Person. contrib’s: 27(SFOR) 26 (MFO) 9 (Bougainville)

Total=84

Total=72

Person. contrib’s: 15(Bougainville) 12 (ISAF) 26 (SFOR) 26 (MFO)

Peak: 177 Average annual active army 9,250

Total=79 Direct cost 177 (12 *10,000) = 21,240,000

Direct cost: 83 (12 *10,000) = 9,960,000

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 165,000,000+ 246,425,000+ 344,640,000+ 315,600,000+ 312,000,000+ = 1,383,665,000/5 = 276,733,000

Direct cost: 84 (12 *10,000) = 10,080,000

Direct cost: 72 (12 *10,000) = 8,640,000

Direct cost: 79 (12 *10,000) = 9,480,000

Average annual defense budget 0.7726bn.

Annual average direct cost: 21,240,000+ 9,960,000+ 10,080,000+ 8,640,000+ 9,480,000 = 59,400,000/5 = 11,880,000 Annual average indirect cost: 177/9,250 (0.7726bn.) = 14,783,805

32


Country Norway

1998 Person. contrib’s: 700 (SFOR), 4 (MFO) Total =704

1999 Person. contrib’s: 700 (SFOR), 5 (MFO), 100 (JGuardian), 378 (7z Kosovo)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 125 (SFOR), 1200 (KFOR), 5 (MFO)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 125 (SFOR), 980 (KFOR), 5 (MFO)

Total =1,330

Total =1,110

Direct cost: 1,330 (12 *10,000) = 159,600,000

Direct cost: 1,110 (12 *10,000) = 133,200,000

Total =1,183 Direct cost: 704 (12 *10,000) = 84,480,000

Portugal

Direct cost: 705 (12 *10,000) 100 (6 *10,000) 378 (2.5 *10,000) = 84,600,000+ 6,000,000+ 9,450,000 = 100,050,000

Person. contrib’s: 0

Person. contrib’s: 431 (8z Kosovo)

Direct cost: 0

Direct cost: 431 (2.5*10,000) = 10,775,000

2002 Person. contrib’s: 125 (SFOR), 980 (KFOR), (ISAF), 4 (MFO)

Numbers used Peak: 1,330 Average annual active forces: 27,980

Total =1,139 Direct cost: 1,139 (12 *10,000) = 136,680,000

Average annual defense budget 3.2398bn.

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 84,480,000+ 100,050,000+ 159,600,000+ 133,200,000+ 136,680,000 = 614,010,000/5 = 122,802,000

Annual average indirect cost: 1,183/27,980 (3.2398bn.) = 136,979,390 Person. contrib’s: 335 (SFOR), 340 (KFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 330 (SFOR), 313 (KFOR)

Total =675

Total =643

Direct cost: 675 (12 *10,000) = 81,000,000

Direct cost: 643 (12 *10,000) = 77,160,000

Person. contrib’s: 330 (SFOR) 313 (KFOR), 20 (ISAF) Total =663 Direct cost: 663 (12 *10,000) = 79,560,000

Peak: 675 Average annual active forces: 47,030 Average annual defense budget: 1.4232bn.

Annual average direct cost: 10,775,000+ 81,000,000+ 77,160,000+ 79,560,000 = 248,495,000/5 = 49,699,000 Annual average indirect cost: 675/47,030 (1.4232bn.) 20,426,536

33


Country Spain

1998 Person. contrib’s: 1,600 (SFOR) Direct cost: 1,600 (12 *10,000) = 192,000,000

Sweden

Person. contrib’s: 1 Direct cost: 1 (12 *10,000) = 120,000

1999 Person. contrib’s: 1,600 (SFOR), 593(11z Kosovo)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 1600 (SFOR), 900 (KFOR)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 1200 (SFOR) 1300(KFOR)

Total =2,193

Total =2,500

Total =2,500

Direct cost: 1,600 (12 *10,000)+ 593 (2,5*10,000) = 192,000,000+ 14,825,000 = 206,825,000

Direct cost: 2,500 (12 *10,000) = 300,000,000

Direct cost: 2,500 (12 *10,000) = 300,000,000

Person. contrib’s: 511 (SFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 510 (SFOR), 760 (KFOR)

Person. contrib’s: 42 (SFOR), 751 (KFOR)

Total =1,270

Total =793

2002 Person. contrib’s: 1200 (SFOR) 1340 (KFOR) 350 (ISAF) Total =2,890

Direct cost: 511 (12 *10,000) = 61,320,000

Direct cost: 2,890 (12 *10,000) = 346,800,000

Numbers used Peak: 2,890 Average annual active forces: 173,580 Average annual defense budget 7.0718bn.

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 192,000,000+ 206,825,000+ 300,000,000+ 300,000,000+ 346,800,000 = 1,345,625,000/5 = 269,125,000 Annual average indirect cost: 2,890/173,580 (7.0718bn.) = 117,741,110

Person. contrib’s: 42 (SFOR), 751 (KFOR), 45 (ISAF) Total =838

Direct cost: 1,270 (12 *10,000) = 152,400,000

Direct cost: 793 (12 *10,000) = 95,160,000

Direct cost: 838 (12 *10,000) = 100,560,000

Peak: 1,270 Average annual active forces: 45,340 Average annual defense budget: 4.4624bn.

Annual average direct cost: 120,000+ 61,320,000+ 152,400,000+ 95,160,000+ 100,560,000 = 409,560,000/5 = 81,912,000 Annual average indirect cost: 1,270/45,340 (4.4624bn.) = 124,994,440

34


Country Switzerland

1998 Person. contrib’s: 0

1999 Person. contrib’s: 108 (2z Kosovo)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 130 (KFOR)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 160 (KFOR)

2002 Person. contrib’s: 160 (KFOR)

Numbers used Peak: 160 Average annual active forces: 3,522

Direct cost: 0

U.K

Person. contrib’s: 5,250 (SFOR), 160 (NWatch) Total =5,410 Direct cost: 5,410 (12 *10,000) = 649,200,000

Direct cost: 108 (2.5*10,000) =2,700,000

Direct cost: 130 (12 *10,000) = 15,600,000

Direct cost: 160 (12 *10,000) = 19,200,000

Person. contrib’s: 130 (AFOR), 4,500 (SFOR), 9,600 (JGuardian), 160 (N.Watch), 3,398 (63z Kosovo)

Person. contrib’s: 2,700 (SFOR), 3,500 (KFOR), 350 (DelForge), 160 (NWatch) 4,500 (Sierra Leone)

Person. contrib’s: 2,600 (SFOR), 3,900 (KFOR), 350 (DelForge), 185(NWatch)

Total =17,778@ Direct cost: 130@ (5*10,000)+ 4,500@ (12 *10,000)+ 9,600@ (6*10,000)+ 3398@ (2.5*10,000)= 6,500,000@+ 540,000,000@+ 576,000,000@+ 84,950,000@ = 1,207,450,000@

Total =11,210

Direct cost: 7,035 (12 *10,000) = 844,200,000

Direct cost: 6,710 (12 *10,000)+ +4,500 (1.5*10,000)+ = 805,200,000+ 67,500,000 = 872,700,000

Direct cost: 160 (12 *10,000) = 19,200,000

Average annual defense budget 3.1328bn.

Person. contrib’s: 1,700 (SFOR), 2,200 (KFOR), 400 (ISAF), 350 (DelForge), 190 (NWatch)

Peak: 17,778

Total =4,840

Average annual defense budget 35.7866bn

Average annual active forces: 211,534

Total =7,035

Direct cost: 4,840 (12 *10,000) = 580,800,000

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 2,700,000+ 15,600,000+ 19,200,000+ 19,200,000 = 56,700,000/5 = 11,340,000 Annual average indirect cost: 160/3,522 (3.1328bn.) = 142,319,140 Annual average direct cost: 649,200,000+ 1,207,450,000+ 872,700,000+ 844,200,000+ 580,800,000 = 4,154,350,000/5 = 830,870,000

Annual average indirect cost: 17,778/211,534 (35.7866bn) = 3,007,621,400

35


Country USA

1998 Person. contrib’s: 12,810 (SFOR), 917 (MFO), 1,422 (NWatch)

1999 Person. contrib’s: 12,350 (SFOR) 918 (MFO) 1,400 (NWatch), 50,000(Kosovo)

2000 Person. contrib’s: 8,590 (SFOR), 5,950 (KFOR), 918 (MFO), 1,400 (NWatch)

2001 Person. contrib’s: 7,180 (SFOR), 5,740 (KFOR), 860 (MFO), 1,400 (NWatch)

Total =64,668

Total =16,858

Total =15,180

Direct cost: 14,668 (12 *10,000)+ 50,000 (2,5*10,000) = 1,760,160,000+ 1,250,000,000 = 3,010,160,000

Direct cost: 16,858 (12 *10,000) = 2,022,960,000

Direct cost: 15,180 (12 *10,000) = 1,821,600,000

Total =15,149 Direct cost: 15,149 (12 *10,000) = 1,817,880,000

2002 Person. contrib’s: 2,350 (SFOR), 5,360 (KFOR), 1,400 (NWatch) Total =9,110 Direct cost: 9,110 (12 *10,000) = 1,093,200,000

Numbers used Peak: 64,668 Average annual active forces: 1,384,120 Average annual defense budget: 293.793bn

Calculations Annual average direct cost: 1,817,880,000+ 3,010,160,000+ 2,022,960,000+ 1,821,600,000+ 1,093,200,000 = 9,765,800,000/5 = 1,953,160,000

Annual average indirect cost: 64,668/1,384,120 (293.793bn) = 13,726,415,000

Source: All personnel contribution numbers are from The Military Balance, 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001, 2002/2003, Institute for Strategic Studies, London. Note 1: Duration for all missions during one year is assumed to be 12 months, with the exception of the following missions: Kosovo air war: 2.5 months AFOR: 5 months Joint Guardian: 6 months British intervention in Sierra Leone: 1.5 months French intervention in Cote d’Ivoire: 3 months Note 2: Assumed that the ratio of personnel to airplanes ready to be deployed during the Kosovo air war is 50,000/927. This ratio is based on how many personnel was represented by the 927 airplanes the United States had ready to be deployed, which is the most reliable ratio of personnel to airplanes among the states involved in this NATO operation. The constant z will be used in calculations to illustrate this ratio.

36

Security_2004  

Note on the Security Component of the 2004 CDI 1 2 Note on the Security Component of the 2004 CDI We do not count the role of the United Sta...

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