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Poland

Commitment to Development Index 2012

Poland

David Roodman and Julia Clark

The Commitment to Development Index (CDI) ranks 27 of the world’s richest countries based on their dedication to policies that benefit poor nations. Looking beyond standard comparisons of foreign aid flows, the CDI measures national policies in seven areas that are important to developing countries: aid, trade, investment, migration, environment, security, and technology. This report reviews Australia’s performance on the 2012 CDI. For more details, visit cgdev.org/cdi.

Denmark Norway Sweden Luxembourg Austria Netherlands Finland New Zealand United Kingdom Portugal Canada Germany Belgium France Spain Australia Ireland Switzerland United States Italy Greece Hungary Slovakia Czech Republic Poland Japan South Korea

Overall Score

Poland’s 2012 CDI Performance n Overall rank 2012: 25 n Overall score 2012: 3.6 Poland ranks 25th overall in 2012. Despite a high level of fossil fuel production per capita, Poland scores well on the environment component, due to its high gas taxes and relatively low consumption of ozone-depleting substances. As a share of GDP, however, the Polish government gives the lowest net volume of aid of any CDI country, while giving a large share of its aid to less poor and relatively worse-governed countries. It also does little to promote responsible foreign direct investment in developing countries, while substantial barriers to entry discourage immigration. Finally, Poland could do more to contribute to international peacekeeping efforts and the dissemination of new technology to the developing world.

Poland’s CDI Performance, 2012 Aid Trade Investment Migration Environment Security Technology Overall

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www.cgdev.org/cdi

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Poland Country Report

Aid

Aid quality is just as important as aid quantity, so the CDI measures gross aid as a share of GDP adjusted for various quality factors: it subtracts debt service, penalizes “tied� aid that makes recipients spend aid only on donor goods and services, rewards aid to poor but relatively well-governed recipients, and penalizes overloading poor governments with many small projects.

n Score: 0.7 n Rank: 27

Investment

Rich-country investment in poorer countries can transfer technologies, upgrade management and create jobs. The CDI includes a checklist of policies that support healthy investment in developing countries.

n Score: 4.1 n Rank: 22 Strengths

Weaknesses - Lowest net aid volume as a share of the economy (0.08%; rank: 27) - Large share of aid to less poor and worse-governed recipients (selectivity rank: 25) - Allows project proliferation; small average project size (rank: 25) - Fails to report tied aid (rank: 24)

Trade

International trade has been a force for economic development for centuries. The CDI measures trade barriers in rich countries against exports from developing countries.

n Score: 5.6 n Rank: 11 Strengths - Low tariffs on textiles (6.4% of the value of imports; rank: 3) - Low tariffs on apparel (6.4% of the value of imports; rank: 3) - High level of manufactures imports from poorer countries (10.1% of GDP per capita; rank: 4)

- PEmploys foreign tax credits to prevent double taxation of corporate profits earned abroad - No restrictions on pension fund investment in emerging markets

Weaknesses - Has not yet completed Phase 3 of the OECD Convention on Bribery - Loopholes in domestic legislation permit bribe payers to circumvent the OECD Convention - Weak leadership in extractive industry transparency initiatives

Migration

The movement of people from poor to rich countries provides unskilled immigrants with jobs, income and knowledge. This increases the flow of money sent home by migrants abroad and the transfer of skills when the migrants return.

n Score: 0.6 n Rank: 26 Strengths - No tuition for foreign students

Weaknesses - Only a small increase during the 1990s in the number of unskilled immigrants from developing countries living in Poland (rank by share of population: 27) - Small number of immigrants from developing countries entering Poland (rank by share of population: 24) - Bears small share of the burden of refugees during humanitarian crises (rank: 19)

Center for Global Development

Poland Country Report

www.cgdev.org/cdi


Environment

Rich countries use a disproportionate amount of scarce resources, and poor countries are most vulnerable to global warming and ecological deterioration, so the CDI measures the impact of policies on the global climate, fisheries, and biodiversity.

n Score: 7.4 n Rank: 4

Technology

Rich countries contribute to development through the creation and dissemination of new technologies. The CDI captures this by measuring government support for R&D and penalizing strong intellectual property rights regimes that limit the dissemination of new technologies to poor countries.

n Score: 2.7 n Rank: 26

Strengths - High gas taxes ($1.40 per liter; rank: 3) - GDP growth exceeded growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the past decade (average annual GHG growth rate/GDP, -4.23; rank: 4)

Weaknesses - High fossil fuel production rate per capita (5.9 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent; rank: 20) - Poor compliance with mandatory reporting requirements under multilateral environmental agreements relating to biodiversity (rank: 19)

Strengths - Provides patent exceptions for research purposes

Weaknesses - Low government expenditure on R&D (rank by share of GDP: 26) - Low tax subsidy rate to businesses for R&D (rank: 19) - Pushes to extend intellectual property rights in bilateral trade treaties (“TRIPS Plus� measures) that restrict the flow of innovations to developing countries - Does not revoke unused patents

For More

Security

Since security is a prerequisite for development, the CDI rewards contributions to internationally sanctioned peacekeeping operations and forcible humanitarian interventions, military protection of global sea lanes, and participation in international security treaties. It also penalizes arms exports to poor and undemocratic governments.

Visit cgdev.org/cdi for the complete 2012 edition of the Commitment to Development Index. There, you can explore the numbers with our interactive graphing tool, view additional publications and background papers, and dive deeper into the CDI methodology by downloading our data and code.

n Score: 3.8 n Rank: 19 Weaknesses - Low personnel and financial contributions to internationallysanctioned peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions over last decade (rank by share of GDP: 24) - Has not ratified the Ottawa Treaty to ban anti-personnel landmines - Has not ratified the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) - Little protection of global sea lanes (rank: 16)

Center for Global Development

Poland Country Report

www.cgdev.org/cdi


Commitment to Development Index 2012 Country Denmark Norway Sweden Luxembourg Austria Netherlands Finland New Zealand United Kingdom Portugal Canada Germany Belgium France Spain Australia Ireland Switzerland United States Italy Greece Hungary Slovakia Czech Republic Poland Japan South Korea

Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 13 13 15 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Aid 11.5 13.0 12.6 13.0 3.1 9.5 6.6 3.3 6.8 3.1 5.0 3.9 6.4 4.2 4.0 4.3 7.5 5.2 3.2 1.3 1.6 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.7 1.6 1.0

Trade 5.3 1.1 5.8 5.3 5.6 5.9 5.8 8.1 5.5 5.6 6.2 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.5 7.4 5.2 1.5 6.7 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.8 5.5 5.6 0.1 -1.3

Investment 4.7 6.1 5.3 4.2 4.8 6.3 5.1 4.3 6.3 5.2 6.1 6.3 5.3 6.1 5.9 6.1 2.9 4.4 5.0 5.4 4.0 3.6 2.9 3.9 4.1 5.2 5.6

Migration 6.2 9.9 7.8 6.8 11.7 5.5 4.4 6.4 4.7 4.0 7.0 6.9 5.0 4.0 5.4 4.2 2.8 8.6 5.2 4.7 6.4 1.7 0.6 1.3 0.6 1.9 1.3

Environment 6.8 3.2 7.3 5.5 6.2 6.7 7.4 6.2 7.2 7.2 2.5 6.9 7.0 6.9 6.4 3.8 6.5 5.8 4.3 6.7 5.9 7.9 8.3 7.2 7.4 4.5 4.2

Security 7.7 7.6 1.2 5.0 6.1 3.2 6.6 7.3 5.4 6.0 5.7 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.4 5.1 6.9 4.4 4.6 5.0 5.7 5.4 5.5 1.6 3.8 4.5 1.4

Technology 6.6 5.7 4.7 4.2 5.7 5.4 5.9 4.8 4.3 7.4 5.5 5.0 4.6 6.6 5.8 5.2 3.9 4.8 4.9 4.2 2.8 3.4 2.6 5.3 2.7 6.1 7.0

Overall Score 7.0 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4 2.7

Change since 2003 -0.2 +0.7 -0.3 n/a +0.7 -0.1 +0.1 0.0 +0.7 +1.1 +0.3 +0.5 +0.5 +1.0 +0.7 +0.2 0.0 +0.2 +0.8 +0.7 +0.7 n/a n/a n/a n/a +1.3 n/a

The above table lists scores for each of the 27 CDI-ranked countries across seven policy areas. A country’s overall performance is the average of its seven component scores, each of which are scaled so that an average score in 2012 equals 5.0. The final column shows the change in each country’s overall score since the CDI began in 2003 (using 2012 methodology).

About The CDI The Commitment to Development Index has been compiled each year since 2003 by the Center for Global Development (CGD), an independent think tank that works to reduce global poverty and inequality through rigorous research and active engagement with the policy community. CGD senior fellow David Roodman is the chief architect of the CDI, and collaborators have included William R. Cline on trade; Theodore H. Moran on investment; Jeanne Batalova, Kimberly A. Hamilton, and Elizabeth Grieco on migration; Amy Cassara and Daniel Prager on environment; Michael E. O’Hanlon, Adriana Lins de Albuquerque, Mark Stoker and Jason Alderwick on security, and Keith Maskus and Walter Park on technology. The Index is supported by the CDI Consortium.

Center for Global Development

Independent Research and Practical Ideas for Global Prosperity www.cgdev.org 1800 Massachusetts Ave., NW • Washington DC 20036 Tel: 202.416.4000 • Fax: 202.416.4050

Country_12_Poland_EN  

2012 Commitment to Development Index country report

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