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Part-Timer

Community College Council of the California Federation of Teachers American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO

Spring 2009 Volume 20, Number 2 

P R O M O T I N G P A R T- T I M E F A C U LT Y R I G H T S

Trying to gauge impact of fiscal crisis

Adjunct faculty losing work as class sections cut The talk these days on community college campuses revolves around one major issue — jobs and the state budget crisis. In many districts, the

slashing of course sections in the spring semester has been draconian —100 to 150 sections at some colleges. Many are reporting cuts for summer and fall as well. With little job security, adjunct faculty are most seriously impacted. Allan Hancock College was particularly hard hit when the administration eliminated winter intersession altogether and cut 230 FTEs from the spring credit schedule. “The burden has fallen almost entirely on part-time instructors although some full-timers have lost overload assignments,” said Mark James Miller, president of its Part-Time Faculty Association. In addition, the administration

announced that it intended to shorten all non-credit courses in the spring semester by

“We are contingent workers with no contingency. The cuts may be small at some colleges, but if you’re trying to make a living, even small cuts can be devastating.“ three weeks. “We demanded that they bargain with us over this unilateral change,” said Miller. “Since the semester had already started, we held that it

About applying for unemployment benefits If you do not have a summer teaching assignment or another job, you are entitled to unemployment benefits during the summer break. If you are teaching summer school, you may qualify for unemployment benefits in the periods before or after summer session so long as you do not have reasonable assurance of further employment during a subsequent term. This benefit is the result of a 1989 CFT legal challenge that led to the landmark decision of Cervisi v. California Unemployment Insurance Appeals Board, which held that temporary faculty (i.e., part-time)

are eligible for unemployment benefits between terms if they do not have reasonable assurance of reemployment. A future assignment that is contingent upon enrollment, funding, or bumping by a full-time faculty member does not provide reasonable assurance of reemployment. If you still have work of some kind between terms, you may be eligible for partial unemployment if your salary is less than what you would receive from unemployment. If you receive payments from the EDD, be sure to report any and all other earnings. You are required to look for work, but not outside your field of exper-

tise or farther than 25 miles from your home. Save all documents related to your claim, such as letters from your district, and records of contacts made with potential employers. >To apply for unemployment, go to www.edd.ca.gov. If EDD denies your claim, contact your AFT local union to file a timely appeal. >If you get health benefits from the distict and you lose your assignment, you are now entitled to nine months continued coverage under President Obama’s stimulus package, and the district must pay 65 percent of that amount. Previously, you had to pay the premiums yourself.

Adjuncts from unions around the state talked about jobs at CFT Convention.

was an unfair labor practice. The administration decided to rescind that particular action.” At a workshop at the CFT Convention, activists from around the state discussed parttime faculty layoffs and shared stories about the loss of income and health benefits. “It’s frustrating that we have no data on the real impact of the budget crisis on adjunct faculty,” said John Govsky, Cabrillo College Federation, who facilitated the session. While concrete data is hard to come by, Part-Timer has heard from adjuncts around the state. One adjunct, who did not want to be identified said, “I have been very affected by the budget problems. I teach at three colleges, all between 30-50 miles from my home, and two of them have cut my assigned courses in half. My husband and I bought our first home this summer, and we are in the process of finalizing an See Adjunct Jobs back page


Faculty Profile | Julie Miller

26-year adjunct honored for dedication to union My views were listened to; I always felt like a full Julie Miller retired this year, after teachmember of the community. I made wonderful ing part-time in the early childhood education friends in the union.” One reason for the collabdepartment at Cabrillo College since 1982. For orative spirit, she believes, is that adjunct faculty her years of service to the union, the Cabrillo pay is tied to the full-time salary schedule; curCollege Federation of Teachers honored her at rently the salary is at 62 percent pro rata. “That a luncheon. “I felt incredibly honored by the unites us.” award from the union,” she said. “I feel at home The camaraderie and sense of purpose in CCFT — I’ve been part of a really fine local.” kept her active, and so did the desire to solve Part-time teaching was perfect for Miller, the problems she encountered. “It’s frustratwho had three young children, ages 2½, 4, and 5 ing to teach the same classes for half the pay,” when she started. But she missed the opportushe explained. “For 26 years, my office space nity that full-time faculty have to work together on campus was one file drawer and a shelf in collegially. “My major frustration as a part-timer a shared office. We should have job security, was not being more involved in campus life,” health benefits, and equal pay. It’s humiliating she said. She soon got her chance when people to be a second-class citizen.” began to form the local. “We need unions more Miller is planning to spend time in retirement Miller quickly became involved and was than ever. The inequities taking care of herself, exercising, reading fiction, appointed part-time rep. She served on the are so deep across the and sorting through years’ worth of handouts. Northern California CFT Part-Time CommitShe may substitute teach or work with children. tee when the Part-Timer began publication (see system; it’s only through “I grew a whole lot from my work in the page 3). “It was so exciting to be with other partthe union that we’re ever union,” she concludes. “It was satisfying work timers. With 12 of us in the room, we knew 40 going to change things.” and gave me a sense of self worth.” Her hope is campuses. Part-timers have a broader view of that more part-timers will become active. the system because they’ve taught in so many “There’s no way for things to get better withschools.” She later became the local’s membership out the union. Our collective voice is stronger than our individual co-chair, head of its Part-Time Committee, and a member of the voices. The CEO of a major auto company said recently, ‘Unions negotiating team. are an anachronistic structure.’ I disagree. We need unions more “Some colleges have two unions, one for full-time and one for than ever. The inequities are so deep across the system; it’s only part-time. This has never been the case at Cabrillo. Disagreethrough the union that we’re ever going to change things.” ments and arguments do happen here, but always among equals.

Adjunct faculty from community colleges around the state waited for their turn at the microphones at CFT Convention in March, to speak to several resolutions impacting part-time faculty. Three resolutions, two originating in the CFT Part-Time Committee passed easily. Mandate rehire rights Addressing the pivotal issue of rehire rights, one resolution asks CFT to pursue legislation to change the California Education Code to give priority rehire rights to temporary community college faculty who have worked at a college for six semesters 2   Part-Timer Spring 2009

Mike Dixon said there is precedent for rehire rights in several districts.

or nine quarters with satisfactory performance. This would not supplant stronger rehire seniority rights already negotiated in local contracts. Promote adjuncts Another resolution asks the CFT to support

legislation that would require districts to promote an adjunct into a full-time positions if he or she has been teaching in the department for at least eight semesters and has a satisfactory performance record. “Why not give priority to instructors who are familiar with the college?” asked Mike Dixon from the Ventura Federation. “If that instructor was good enough to teach a partial load in that department for the past four years, he or she should be good enough to teach a full load and have the salary, benefits, and security that their full-time colleagues enjoy.”

“One person, one vote” The third resolution calls for adjuncts to have an equal voice in the election of department chairs. At most colleges, adjuncts are not allowed to vote in department chair elections at all. At San Francisco City College, adjuncts are able to vote, but their votes count as only onehalf of a vote. “A less than full vote demeans part-timers and disrespects our contributions to our departments and our colleges” explained Carmen Roman-Murray, from the San Francisco Federation, which brought forth the resolution.

photos: Top, john govsky, Bottom, sharon beals

CFT Convention passes three resolutions affecting adjuncts


News from part-timers around the state

FreewayFlyers College of the Canyons adjuncts go to the mat for rehire rights

Marin local seeking 100 percent pro rata facing takebacks

Faculty in Santa Clarita have declared impasse in contract negotiations with the district that began last June. “If College of the Canyons can afford to give us a raise, it can and should put us on a track to some kind of priority assignment system,” says Beverly Cope, president of Part-Time Faculty United. Cope says there is “absolutely no system to allow part-time faculty to gain any kind of job security from one semester to the next. While they claim they need the flexibility to choose ‘the best person for the job,’ some part-time faculty have served the school for many years. A stellar job performance over several semesters does not seem to qualify a current parttimer over a new hire.” Faculty member Pete Virgadamo knows firsthand the devastating impact of not having job security. Despite having taught

The United Professors of Marin is currently in the fact-finding stage of contract negotiations, with a strike considered a “very real possibility,” according to Local 1610 President Ira Lansing. “Our district has announced that they have no intention of resolving anything, but will wait for the fact-

three classes a semester at College of the Canyons for the past 18 years, receiving “glowing” evaluations, and publishing articles in academic journals, Virgadamo, who has a Ph.D., was told that there were others with “more expertise and currency” and he would not be needed to teach. His courses were given to a recent CSUN graduate. “It’s unprofessionalism at its worst,” he says. “Instead of looking at one’s achievements and tried and true record, department chairs can manipulate the assignment list in any way they want,” said Virgadamo, who is vice president of membership for Local 6262. Local President Cope concludes, “This is a no-cost item to the college but, so far, they are unwilling to budge at all on this issue.”

Oakland rejuvenates rehire pool In Oakland, the Peralta Federation of Teachers is working to ensure that its priority rehire pool is functional so long-time adjunct faculty have some job protection. “We negotiated the rehire policy several years ago and the administration and faculty have been lax in making sure that the evaluations of part-time faculty May

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2009 marks twenty years of Part-Timer, a CFT newsletter dedicated solely to the concerns of part-time faculty. In the spring of 1990, the Part-Time Committee launched the newsletter to “forge a new determination among part-time teachers to regain our professional dignity, restore academic freedom and its mother right — freedom of speech — to our beleaguered ranks.” Under the slogan, Equity, Parity, Unity, the Part-Timer aimed to unite adjuncts working

in AFT-represented districts throughout California, and to communicate the union’s 1990 progress in making the workplace more equitable for adjunct faculty. There’s no argument — we have a long way to go — back then and today. But the issues shown here recap the CFT’s major victories for adjuncts in the past 20 years.

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for the rehire pool were completed,” explains Debra Weintraub, the local’s president. To encourage people to complete the evaluations, the union streamlined the process and got the district to agree to pay parttime faculty $60 for each completed evaluation of another part-time instructor.

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Part-Timer celebrates 20 years!

finding report and then ‘pick’ the items in that and in their last offer that suit them.” Among other items, the local is trying to move from 95 percent pro rata pay for adjuncts to 100 percent, as well as increase the limits of benefit coverage and expand eligibility.

Some tips from the right to who won you benefits unemployment

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ime colleagues Join your part-t State Capitol May 17 at the

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It’s Super News Governor signs historic bill to improve benefits, mandate study

Spring 2007 2 Volume 18, Number

Getting to parity

What’s the buzz?

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he largest-ever mobilization of part-time faculty, full-time faculty, and everyone in the union led to the governor’s Oct. 8 signature on the much heralded part-time faculty “bill of rights,” the most comprehensive package of improvements for part-time faculty to date. The new law increases part-timers’ access to health benefits, increases student access to faculty by expanding the office hour program, and calls for a comprehensive study to examine duties of part-time faculty as compared to full-time faculty, including classroom teaching, class preparation, office hours, record keeping, student evaluations, writing student recommendations, and more. “The goal of AB 420 was to make deep, permanent systemic changes in the historical treatment of part-time faculty in com-

tudents are becoming aware that there are two distinct groups of instructors, two castes. They are learning that we aren’t getting a fair shake. The lack of equity in office hours is especially getting their What’s attention. in store for

TakeAction

faculty? Charles Johnson, part-time reading part-time

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instructor,Yuba College Federation for events Plenty! Here’s the line-up the faculty at of interest to adjunct

ssembly Billannual 420 was Convention being held CFT my at the Wilshire Grand first full experience nurturMarch 16–18 Angeles: ing a piece of legislation Hotel in downtown Los March 16 6 p.m. through all the steps toward Friday, discussion where union and of passage. It gave me a sense Dinner get around the state will empowerment to leaders finally from be able strategies for orgatogether to discuss to air part-timer grievances in part-time faculty. an arena where I nizing felt listened to. 3:15 p.m.

See Historic bill, back page

1997

1989 AFT legal case wins adjuncts unemployment benefits, 1990 F irst Part-Timer 1996 Union-sponsored AB3099 gives more adjuncts health benefits 1997 Union-sponsored AB 301 provides for paid office hours

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Community College American FederationCouncil of the California Federation of of Teachers, Teachers

AFL-CIO Fall 2008 Volume 20, Number 1

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, adjuncts will be permitted to teach up to 67 percent constitutes full-time of what composition ment for a contract employclass. “This could be a good way member. Although faculty to suppleme nt my income, seem like a small this may since percentage limited to teachingI’m currently increase, it’s six units a big deal to in the district,” Sarah Harmon, an says William adjunct instructor Zhangi, from of 10 years who the teaches at two College Faculty Los Angeles Bay Area campuses Guild. In 18, Cañada and 21-unit College disciplines, faculty U LT Y R I G HTS and San Jose City Colcan teach two lege. She is a PART-TI M E FAC additional units, P RO M OTI N G member of two such as a 2-unit local unions, activity class. the San Mateo Sandra Rodrigues College Federation , a Puente Federation of Teachers counselor at of TeachCouncil of the California ers and the San Skyline ColCommunity College AFL-CIO Jose/Everg Teachers, of lege, and a member reen American Federation Faculty Associatio n. Mateo Federation of the San Because of the , says, “I’m really excited summer of AB591passage this to know that part-timers D-Los Angeles), (Dymally, will have the possiadjunct faculty bility to work like Harmon additional hours, have reason especially at to celebrate this those ‘crunch landmark legislatimes’ at the tive victory that beginning and will allow some Sarah Harmon, who teaches the end of the semester faculty to teach first-year courses Spanish when stumore hours instead of a 5-unit in two districts, can now dents need all in one location. teach two 5-unit and 3-unit class the help they with different can get.” preparations. “This change 15-unit discipline will give me Currently, Rodrigues , would more options have liked to teach benefit from because I won’t is limtwo 5-unit firstited to an 18-hour the opportun be restricted year courses ity week. “I to increase their to teaching only but is always have load. Even in 3-unit courses,” students coming with the 60 percentnot able to disciplines with she says. Harin, and even being restriction. different loads, mon, who teaches “With a 5-unit on campus faculty will be Spanish, a just two more and a 3-unit able to add more hours a week, course, I have I different prepawould be able to counsel four rations, so being “If I can teach able to accept two first-year 10 units in one courses place instead of my usual 8 reduce my workload will units, I won’t .” It will also cut her have to commute time. another district “If I can teach to pick up a 3-unit travel to 10 one place instead units in to be able to columns class just ment on steps and of my usual earn enough units, I won’t 8 to live on. It’s “This is of monumentalfacul- of a pay scale that takes into have to be running nuts of educaanother district to travel to around like this.” importance for adjunctJory account their level to pick up a 3unit class just ty in the district,” says tion and years of experience to be able to – Sarah Harmon, of what their earn enough to live Segal, adjunct PE instructor adjunct Spanish on,” she says. member. at a percentage earn.The instructor “It’s nuts to and bargaining team full-time colleagues negounits, will be translating running around into higher The hourly schedule and union will like this.” districtCounselor earnings. partSandra Rodrigues more students. College says cease to exist. Instead, at Skyline I know that Faculty in other the extra hours In 12-unit discipline “rated with the students disciplines help atSee , back pagewill really with Parity“crunch time faculty will be placesemester s, I work with, 5-unit adjuncts will times.” courses, such if they hadn’t be allowed to in” to determine their as received the ESL and math, teach 8 units, extra support we give will similarly for them, they 5-unit ESL class example, a and might Faculty have and a 3-unit dropped out.” signs on to AFT’s

ould the dream of “equal pay for equal work” become a realfaculty in ity for contingent if CFT is California? It could the successful in promotinglegislapassage of progressive national tion, as part of the address the AFT campaign to in academic staffing crisis higher education. of One of the principles introduced newly the the ExcelFaculty and College Menlence Act (AB 1343, rata pro is doza, D-Artesia) Saturday, March 17 pay—salary and benefits and and panel will focus on Phyllis Eckler, part-time dance A workshop equal to that of tenured out, mentor doing to get our instructor, Glendale Guildmessage ways College tenure-track faculty sense of pride in new leaders, foster a comparable work. our locals, and promote most work the of he real beauty ABof to improve conditions for Current practice in 420 rests inparticipation how it has education. districts is to pay part-time hourly part-time faculty in higher faculty on a separate the energized part-time faculty and 18 7:30 a.m. for March Sunday, pay scale, and only in how it has educated so many a final opportuniclassPart-time faculty have hours they are in the outside of the usual tyloop —share ideas for improving our to talk room, not for preparation students, legislators, effectiveness and com- over early morning breakweekand grading. munity members. fast as the union wraps up the faculty Although adjunct attaining end’s events. are a long way from Homer Arrington, part-time English convention also offers The three-day CFT to pro rata pay, many instructor,Ventura County Federation and speakers of interest workshops with Gilbert Cedillo, locals have negotiated all faculty. State Senator targets area, will speak their districts to set from the Los Angeles aiming for Dream Act," which for equity—some about his "California pay. students 100 percent pro rata would allow undocumented incremenrequirements Many are making who meet in-state tuition these aid . tal progress to reach to compete for student deputy general goals as budgets allow. negoPlus, Don Pasquallie, African DemocratIn an agreement just secretary of the South speak about the tiated by the San Jose/Everic Teachers Union, will the AIDS epidemic, devastating effects of green Faculty Association, of the Mexijoinbe Manzano will Cruz faculty Raquel and adjunct Union will disdistricts can Educational Workers' ing those in other teachers in tied to the cuss the challenges facing whose salaries are Oaxaca. full-time salary schedule.

CFT Convention

munity colleges,” says Tom Tyner, president of CFT’s Community College Council. “Because of its scope and power, the bill gained national attention among educators. Faculty leaders from several states requested copies for their own legislative consideration.” Many California part-timers became

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PartTimer

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guarantee reasonof and able assurance t’s summer break, a job. reemployment. you’re without facto The fact is, part-time Are you entitled d beneulty are not guarantee unemployment for fall doubt, file a reemployment session, fits? When in California semester or summer assignclaim with the Development since their teaching t on Employment (EDD). ments are contingen and Department enrollment, funding, If you are a part-time or freeway flyer, program changes. your employee, a EDD denies call yourself, If you whatever ment have a sum- claim for unemploy and you do not an appeal, and assignment or benefits, file mer teaching local AFT you are enticontact your another job, ment benunion for assistance. an tled to unemploy eight- to Should you receive and efits during the break. award unemployment ten-week summer payments sumbegin to receive If you are teaching for be sure to part of CFT’s qualify from the EDD, other the Capitol is mer school, you all at which you benefits in ith a new goverreport any and required Lobby Day, a unemployment or after are on behalf of nor in Sacraearnings. You can also lobby the periods before so check full-time jobs mento, the time to look for work, $40 million summer session. Contact pubred by CFT, legal overdue legthe want ads. bill co-sponso Thanks to CFT’s the is ripe for long schools. You can help and the omnibus part-timer led to lic and private islative change. challenge that are not now before decision of process May However, you equity legislation influence the landmark 1989 for work e. Court of required to look or farther 17 at the second annual the Legislatur the California proposing field for Rally v. California outside your Rather than CFT-sponsored Appeals,Cervisi from your part-timer and PartInsurance than 25 miles several bills for is Full-Time Jobs Unemployment Documentation The 11 community page home. Board, Rights. back Appeals See Rally, save anything Timer steps of faculty are important, so rally on the north college part-time ment back page eligible for unemploy See EDD benefit, employbenefits if their does not ment contract

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How new law

Union wins new

California campaign College Excellence

and We have, through legislation our progress cross the United States, bargaining, made some in addressing systems of higher education over the last 20 years how much upon an the dismal gap between have become dependent faculworkforce. full-time faculty and part-time exploited contingent the same have ty are compensated for Tenured full-time positions long way to go. partwork. We still have a been converted to multiple a This year, the AFT launched time temporary positions. Caliinform the the national campaign to Over the last 20 years, the have and legislators about fornia community colleges hours public in our colof employment conditions maintained the proportion at centerThe faculty leges and universities. performed by full-time will be a the current piece of that campaign about 62 percent under Excelin that series of Faculty and College in a 75/25 regulations. So better than lence (FACE) bills introducedcountry. respect, we have done the systems number of states across most community college the perIn California, FACE legislation across the country, where See FACE, page 2 centages have been decreasing

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to www.cft.org.

2007 1999 Union-sponsored AB 420 expands office hours and access to health benefits 2007 AFT local unions top state in pro rata pay 2008 Union-sponsored AB591 raised part-time load to 67 percent

Spring 2009 Part-Timer   3


CAPITAL WATCH

Current legislation could improve the lives of adjunct faculty Several bills and resolutions that affect adjunct faculty are now before the state Legislature, in what will undoubtedly be another tough budget year. “What’s more, we have 25 new legislators in Sacramento — they are raw beginners,” says CFT Legislative Director Judith Michaels. “We need to keep our issues in the forefront and educate them about the needs of community college adjunct faculty.” Here’s a rundown of the bills.

Faculty and College Excellence Act ACR 31 is CFT-sponsored legislation, in the form of an Assembly resolution, and part of AFT’s national FACE campaign. ACR 31 (Ruskin, D-Los Altos) states that at least 75 percent of hours be taught by tenured or tenure-track faculty and that adjunct faculty should receive pay and benefits that are equal, on a pro rata basis, to those of their tenured or tenure-track faculty doing comparable work. A resolution is a legislative statement of intent, not a law, and can’t be vetoed by the governor. If passed, the resolution could be used as support in negotiations. State disability participation by election AB381 (Block, D-San Diego) would provide part-time community college faculty within a wall-to-wall (combined full-time

Adjunct jobs Continued from page 1

adoption — two reasons why these cutbacks are devastating to us. And I have no doubt there are many more like us.” Another adjunct was teaching two classes, but his classes were cut for spring. “I was able to pick up one class at another college. I also work as a freelance paralegal, but my family law

4   Part-Timer Spring 2009

and part-time) bargaining unit the ability to elect, as a separate group, to participate in the State Disability Insurance program. Since current law requires everyone in the bargaining unit to agree, it has been difficult for part-timers to obtain SDI, because full-timers already have long-term disability with their CalSTRS Defined Benefit Plan. SDI would provide family illness leave and short-term disability, benefits which adjuncts currently do not receive.

Equivalent FTEs for adjuncts AB360 (Ma, D-San Francisco), brought forward by San Francisco’s Local 2121, would require that full-time equivalency for part-time instructors be equal to the number of instructional hours required of full-time instructions in the same category. This would correct a vesting issue in CalSTRS that currently disadvantages adjuncts teaching ESL and English composition in districts where the load for full-timers is lower than for faculty in other disciplines.

Special Election H May 19 The Union recommends:

No 1A Hard spending cap which would result in permanent

underfunding for schools, colleges, and other public services

Yes 1B Repay funds that schools and community colleges are owed No 1C Borrowing against future lottery revenues No 1D Taking money from Proposition 10 early childhood funds No 1E Taking money from Proposition 63 mental health funds No 1F Denying legislators pay increases in deficit years

specialty has been impacted by the economy. Usually one area is okay when the other area is slow. Now both areas are slow.” Govsky said we don’t have hard numbers on whether faculty losing classes are picking them up somewhere else. “We’re a transient workforce so it’s difficult to know who would have left a college anyway,” he said. “We do know that more

adjuncts are contacting us to seek advice about filing for unemployment, and that the union can help you with that.” On adjunct concluded, “We are contingent workers with no contingency. The cuts may be small at some colleges, but if you’re trying to make a living, even small cuts can be devastating. Schools don’t make cuts based on the needs of individual workers.”

75 percent full-time teaching AB1095 (Hill, D-San Mateo) would mandate that by the end of the 2013–14 fiscal year, 75 percent of the hours of credit instruction in the community colleges will be taught by full-time instructors. > It’s easy to make your opinions heard through the union Web site! Go to www.saccft.org and apply for a User ID to check updates on legislation and write letters to your representatives.

Part-Timer is published by the

California Federation of Teachers, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO. The CFT represents faculty and classified workers in public and private schools and colleges, from early childhood through higher education. The CFT is committed to raising the standards of the profession and to securing the conditions essential to provide the best service to California’s students. President Marty Hittleman Secretary-Treasurer Dennis Smith Community College Council President Carl Friedlander Northern Vice President Dean Murakami Southern Vice President Mona Field Secretary Kathy Holland Part-Time Representatives Mike Dixon, John Govsky, Mehri Hagar, Carmen Roman-Murray Editor Deborah Kaye Publications Director Jane Hundertmark Direct correspondence to: Letters, California Part-Timer 1201 Marina Village Parkway, Suite 115 Alameda, California 94501 Telephone 510-523-5238 Fax 510-523-5262 E-mail janehun@igc.org Web www.cft.org Letters to the editor must not exceed 200 words and must include your name, address, and daytime phone number. Letters will be edited for clarity and length. Part-Timer is printed and mailed by the all-union, environmentally friendly Alonzo Printing in Hayward, California. It is printed on 20 percent post-consumer recycled paper using soy-based inks.

Part-Timer, Spring 2009  
Part-Timer, Spring 2009  

Trying to gauge impact of fiscal crisis