Florida Music Director August 2022

Page 1

Conducting Music Seven Tools for Sensitizing Students to

Musically Expressive Conducting Gestures

A Tool for Rebuilding

The Independence Hierarchy for Developing Singers PLUS: Introducing our 2022-23 Leadership June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship Recipients FOA & FLASTA Fall Conference Registration Form

DON’T

say disability!

DO

say disability!

August 2022

1


Close the Learning Gaps

For grades 5-12

Specifically designed to support performance programs,

Why Teachers Love It

Breezin’ Thru Theory gets students to the same playing

✔ The scaffolded curriculum = no gaps in learning

level fast. It quickly closes learning gaps and amplifies your students’ mastery of musical concepts, while keeping things fun. And, it frees up valuable class and marking time, so you can do what you love most –

✔ Our unique system motivates students to excel ✔ Robust assignment and tracking tools save time ✔ Builds musicianship & confidence FAST

getting students excited about performing!

Subscribe Now! BreezinThruTheory.com or call 1-855-265-3805

2    F l o r i d a

Music Director


Executive Director Florida Music Education Association Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD

Hinckley Center for Fine Arts Education

402 Office Plaza Tallahassee, FL 32301 (850) 878-6844 or (800) 301-3632 (kdsanz@fmea.org)

Editor-in-Chief

D. Gregory Springer, PhD Florida State University College of Music 122 N. Copeland Street Tallahassee, FL 32306 (850) 644-2925 (office) (dgspringer@fsu.edu)

Editorial Committee Terice Allen (850) 245-8700, Tallahassee (tallen1962@hotmail.com) Judy Arthur, PhD Florida State University, KMU 222 (850) 644-3005 (jrarthur@fsu.edu) William Bauer, PhD University of Florida, Gainesville (352) 273-3182; (wbauer@ufl.edu) Alice-Ann Darrow, PhD College of Music, FSU, Tallahassee (850) 645-1438; (aadarrow@fsu.edu) Jeanne Reynolds (jeannewrey@gmail.com) John K. Southall, PhD Indian River State College, Fort Pierce (772) 462-7810; (johnsouthall@fmea.org)

Contents Volume 76 • Number 1

August 2022

F E AT U R E S

2022-23 Leadership.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship Recipient Jacob Hyer. . . . . . . . . . . 10 June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship Recipient Katherine Jones. . . . . . . . 12 Conducting Music: Seven Tools for Sensitizing Students to Musically Expressive Conducting Gestures. . . . . . . . . . . 14

Advertising Sales

A Tool for Rebuilding: The Independence Hierarchy for Developing Singers. . . . . . . . . . . 22

Official FMEA and FMD Photographers

DON’T say disability! DO say disability!. . . . . . 34

Valeria Anderson (val@fmea.org) 402 Office Plaza Tallahassee, FL 32301 (850) 878-6844

Bob O’Lary Debby Stubing

FOA & FLASTA Fall Conference Registration Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Art Director & Production Manager Lori Danello Roberts LDR Design Inc. (lori@flmusiced.org)

Circulation & Copy Manager

Valeria Anderson, (800) 301-3632

Copy Editor

Susan Trainor

D E PA R T M E N T S President’s Message. . . . . . . . . . . 4

Research Puzzles. . . . . . . . . . . .

Advertiser Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Academic Partners . . . . . . . . . . 44

Advocacy Report . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Corporate Partners. . . . . . . . . . .

2021-22 FMEA Donors. . . . . .

Executive Director’s Notes. . . . . . 46

20-21

Component News.. . . . . . . . . . . 28

Officers and Directors.. . . . . . . .

Committee Reports. . . . . . . . . . 34 August 2022

42 45 47

3


President’sMessage

Get Pumped UP, Florida Music Educators!

G

reetings, colleagues!

As you commence this school year,

I certainly hope that each of you had

assess how your individual programs

to rekindle your burning desire to inspire

Make decisions on how to become even

a terrific summer and had an opportunity your music students. The theme for this

month is Get Pumped UP, Florida Music Educators! As music teachers, we must set

the tone in our classrooms daily. I certainly enjoyed visiting some of your summer

activities. It’s truly inspiring to witness how so many of our FMEA component

leaders and members are working to pro-

mote strong ties and collaboration in their environments. Our new music teachers

are demonstrating the importance of learning from others while our veteran music teachers in Florida are providing

excellent mentorship. Thank you. This summer we hosted an incredible Think Tank session on the campus of USF, where we developed ideas about the future of

music education in Florida. The bottom line is we must be RESILENT Florida music educators.

BEGIN…

4

concluded last year’s spring semester.

more inspiring as you Get Pumped UP for this year. Building communities can be

challenging. However, make special note;

you are not alone in the field of music education. We pride ourselves on ensur-

« «

countless others.

«

As you begin this school year, think

«

things. Mistakes happen in perfor-

mances and in classrooms. Teach students how to recover, regroup, and try again.

Teach with compassion. Students from every walk of life come to your music classroom.

balance in your life.

Worry less about what other music

educators have done with their pro-

grams. Instead, channel your energy

a love of music-making in your stu-

«

about the following:

Don’t get stuck focusing on the little

friends and family to keep a healthy

izing how your attributes can foster

dents to participate in music activities on

Leadership, MPA, Tri-M, webinars, and

do something you love outside of

into discovering your niche and real-

working together. Encourage your stu-

FMEA Student Conference Experience/

sume you. Carve out time to relax, teaching music, and spend time with

ing music education for ALL students by

your campus, as well as in FMEA All-State,

Do not let the rigors of the job con-

dents. Seek support from colleagues in your district.

Being a content expert is fundamental to your success as a music educator,

but it is not as important as being creative in your lessons, empathetic

«

toward your students, and inclusive in your teaching for ALL students.

Be reminded that music is a vehicle for

excellent memory skills. Our students are SMART; therefore, remember

they expect us to PLAN, PROMOTE, PRACTICE, and be PROFESSIONAL.

…with the End in Mind


Shelby R. Chipman, PhD President Florida Music Education Association

2022-23 FMEA Membership:

You are eligible for membership in the Florida Music Education Association if you are an individual engaged in the teaching, supervision, or administration of music in elementary and secondary schools, colleges, or universities within the state. Visit FMEA.org/membership to learn more about the benefits of active membership.

The benefits of music education for students are

SUBSCRIPTIONS:

immense. Music positively impacts a child’s academic

Direct correspondence regarding subscriptions to: Hinckley Center for Fine Arts Education 402 Office Plaza, Tallahassee, FL, 32301-2757

provides an outlet for creativity that is crucial to a

Subscription cost included in FMEA membership dues ($9); libraries, educational institutions, and all others within the United States: $27 plus 7.5% sales tax.

performance, assists in developing social skills, and

child’s development. Music education catapults a child’s learning to new heights, and because of this, it

should always be considered a pivotal part of a child’s educational process.

In addition to teamwork, music education creates

long-lasting friendships and relationships. Students

involved in band or chorus bond over their love and enjoyment of music. They share exciting moments

together through music, help develop one another’s abilities, and become a support system for each other. This special bond also increases students’

engagement in school. Music education allows students an opportunity to experience different cultures.

Through music, students’ sense of self and their con-

fidence are dramatically boosted. All children desire

CIRCULATION:

The circulation of the Florida Music Director is 4,500 educators. Published eight times annually by The Florida Music Education Association, Hinckley Center for Fine Arts Education: 402 Office Plaza, Tallahassee, FL 32301-2757. FMEA reserves the right to approve any application for appearance and to edit all materials proposed for distribution. Permission is granted to all FMEA members to reprint articles from the Florida Music Director for non-commercial, educational purposes. Non-members may request permission from the FMEA office.

SUBMISSIONS:

Article and art submissions are always considered and should be submitted on or before the 1st of the month, one month prior to the publication issue to: D. Gregory Springer, PhD, dgspringer@fsu.edu. All articles must be provided in digital format (e.g., Microsoft Word). All applicable fonts and images must be provided. Images must be at least 300 dpi resolution at 100% of the size. All submissions must be accompanied by a proof (color, if applicable). Ads may be submitted via email to val@fmea.org.

to be good at something and to develop a sense of

achievement for a job well done, and music education produces a perfect outlet.

I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel. — Maya Angelou

Have a wonderful beginning

of the school year as you inspire your students and community. I look forward to seeing you during the fall semester in-person and on

webinars. Remember, our 2023 FMEA Professional Development Conference promises to be amazing. Please register NOW at FMEA.org.

Shelby R. Chipman, PhD, President

Florida Music Education Association

Advertiser Index The Florida Music Director is made possible by the participation of the following businesses whose advertisements appear in this issue. They make it possible to provide you with a high-quality publication, and we gratefully acknowledge their support of our mission. We hope you will take special notice of these advertisements and consider the products and services offered. It is another important way you can support your professional association and the enhancement of Florida music education. The publisher does not endorse any particular company, product, or service. The Florida Music Education Association (FMEA) is not responsible for the content of any advertisement and reserves the right to accept or refuse any advertisement submitted for publication. Information for advertisers (rate card, insertion orders, graphics requirements, etc.) can be found at FMEAMediaKit.org. Florida Music Director reserves the right to refuse any ad not prepared to the correct specifications OR to rework the ad as needed with fees applied. ADVERTISER

Breezin’ Thru, Inc.................................................................................................... IFC This advertiser provides additional support to FMEA members through membership in the Corporate and Academic Partners (FCAP) program. FCAP partners deserve your special recognition and attention.

August 2022

5


2022-23 Board of Directors

Steven N. Kelly, PhD Past President

Jason Locker President-Elect

Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD FMEA/FSMA Executive Director

Bernie Hendricks FBA President

Marc Decker, DMA FCMEA President

Joani Slawson FEMEA President

Lindsey Williams, PhD FMSA President

Laurie Bitters FOA President

Jeannine Stemmer FVA President

Allison Yopp Fl-NAfME Collegiate President

Mark A. Belfast, Jr., PhD Fl-NAfME Collegiate Advisor

Chad Norton Member-at-Large

6    F l o r i d a

Ex-Officio Members

Shelby R. Chipman, PhD President

Music Director

For information about the Florida Music Education Association, please call us at 1-800-301-3632. Executive Director.................. Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD Director of Operations........ Valeria Anderson, IOM Technology Director..............................Josh Bula, PhD Jane Goodwin FSMA President

D. Gregory Springer, PhD Florida Music Director Editor-in-Chief

Public Affairs & Communications Coordinator...............................Jenny Abdelnour, CAE Marketing & Membership Coordinator................................ Jasmine Van Weelden


2022-23 Committee Chairpersons

Sondra A. W. Collins Awards

Mary Palmer, EdD Emerging Leaders

Bruce J. Green Multicultural Network

Shelby R. Chipman, PhD Budget/Finance, Development

John K. Southall, PhD Conference Planning

David Williams, PhD Contemporary Media

Fred Schiff — FMEA Corporate and Academic Partners

Jeanne W. Reynolds Government Relations

Revae Douglas Health & Wellness

Scott Evans Professional Development/ Committee Council

Chad Norton Reclamation

William I. Bauer, PhD Research

Ed Prasse Secondary General Music

Alice-Ann Darrow, PhD Social Justice & Diverse Learners

Michael Antmann, EdD Student Development

August 2022

7


AdvocacyReport

Act NOW! I

will dispense with making the case for the urgency of

your participation in our democracy. Unless you are

Rip Van Winkle (a literary character who falls asleep only

to wake up 20 years later finding the world has changed completely because he missed the American Revolution), you are well versed on the need to vote in 2022.

will support vibrant music and arts education in your schools. Some suggested questions for school board can-

«

didates follow:

er urgency for us to act. Some might say that the adage “all politics are local” no longer rings true and that it might be

more accurate to say “all politics are national.” I suggest

you reject that notion and become very engaged in your

local political scene, specifically your local school board races. In some towns in Florida, a few loud voices are drowning out all other voices. School Board Races

Your community knows what is best for your school and your school district. School board races are still nonpar-

tion for ALL students? If the answer is yes to this relatively easy softball question, follow up with

From a government relations perspective, 2022 is unlike

any other year in my memory. And with that comes great-

Do you support access to high-quality music instruc-

« « « «

What specific policies would you introduce or

support to ensure all students have access to high-quality music education?

Do you support music and arts courses as part of the core curriculum in the district’s schools?

Have you or your children participated in music or arts courses in our schools?

Do you support empowering teachers to structure

music and arts curriculum to provide rich, diverse experiences for all students?

What are your top three priorities if you are elected, and how did you select these priorities?

Some people have suggested that it is not helpful to

tisan. At least they are supposed to be. In most places,

ask these questions because a candidate can simply lie

ry ballot. Even though Florida is a closed primary state

Certainly, that is a risk, but merely asking the question

there will be school board races on the August 23 primaand even if you are registered as an independent voter, you can vote in school board elections and other elections

on your ballot. Your vote is imperative. Make it your job to get to know your candidates and champion those who

and say they support arts education when that is not true. puts candidates on notice that there is a constituency that

cares about quality arts education. This can be very help-

ful when that candidate is elected. The arts community will have already set the expectation that quality arts instruction is nonnegotiable.

In addition to school board races, pay attention to races

for local council members, commissioners, and judges. Floridians will also be asked to vote whether to retain or

reject five members of the Florida Supreme Court. Local

and state elections not only have the greatest effect on your day-to-day life, but also are the foundation of a functioning democracy.

Be an Informed Voter

«

Here are ways you can become an informed voter:

«

Look for nonpartisan, unbiased information such as the guides the League of Women Voters provides on the website vote411.org.

Consider endorsements from trusted organizations and publications. Be aware of the organization’s bias-

es but also know that these organizations spend time interviewing candidates and making thoughtful

8    F l o r i d a

endorsements. Music Director


Jeanne W. Reynolds Chairperson Government Relations Committee

« « «

Do your own research. Most candidates will have been interviewed or will have spoken at local events

and forums. A quick internet search will reference a candidate’s actual statements and positions. Attend local candidate forums and events.

Be on the lookout for disinformation, misinformation, and mal information. It takes time to do the research, but as informed voters, it is our responsibility to get the facts and act on those facts.

As we start this new school year, do an honest quick

assessment of your participation in the democratic process. Which of these best describes your involvement? Apathetic—never or rarely votes.

Votes in presidential election years only.

Print. Digital. Direct.

Basic—votes in all local, state, and national elections.

Proficient—votes in all local, state, and national

elections; can name school board members and all

other elected officials who represent him/her; and has contacted elected officials at least once in the past six months on a topic of interest.

Florida Music Education Association offers advertising in:

Distinguished—votes in all local, state, and national

� The Florida Music Director Magazine

other elected officials who represent him/her; has

� Conference Program

elections; can name school board members and all contacted elected officials at least once in the past six months on a topic of interest; has volunteered to work for a local, state, or national candidate;

regularly researches candidates and elected officials and poses questions to them about their support for music and arts education in schools; and is highly

� All-State Concert Program � Conference Sponsorships � Direct Sponsored Emails � Website Banner Ads

engaged in the democratic process.

We no longer have the luxury of being apathetic or basic

participants in our democracy. It is time to act. Our future depends on it.

« «

Information can be found at

FMEAMediaKit.org

Important Dates

Florida Primary – August 23, 2022. Must have been registered by July 25 to vote.

Florida General Election – November 8, 2022. Must be

Florida Music Director reserves the right to refuse any ad not prepared to the correct specifications OR to rework the ad as needed with fees applied.

registered by October 11 to vote.

August 2022

9


Jacob Hyer submitted the following essay with his application for the June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship. Applicants were asked to respond to the prompts “Why do you wish to become a music

educator?” and “Why should music be available to all students?” Jacob’s essay appears here with minor editing and the addition of a headline.

The Music Classroom

A Place Where Students Can Build Self-Confidence and Feel Supported by Jacob Hyer

June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship Recipient

T

The spring before my freshman year, I nervously sat in

the Venice High School information night. Taking in my new and overwhelming surroundings, I felt both anxious and excited for the opportunities and unknowns that

stretched out before me. What would these next four years bring?

After a few speeches from different teachers, a group

of seniors came on stage and talked about their time at VHS. They encouraged us to get involved in extracurric-

I belonged on stage with them.

Now, as a senior, I think back to the night when, as

ular activities because that is where we would find our

a freshman, that unexpected performance hit me like a

remember years from now. Just when my mind started

I ask myself again—what will these next four years be

deepest friendships and experience much of what we will wandering off a little, someone announced that Le Voci de

Venezia was coming to the stage. I looked up, intrigued by

lightning bolt. As I enter the next phase of my education, like? I can’t predict the future, but I expect the passion I

have found for musical performance will only continue to

the Italian name and the group of students who walked

grow. Therefore, my plan is to major in music education

long, black dresses.

a minimum of a bachelor’s degree from an accredited

out. The guys were wearing tuxes and the girls all wore Even before they opened their mouths, I was in awe.

Along with art, I had always enjoyed singing, but we

didn’t have a performing arts program in middle school.

Is this what a real choir looked like? When their beautiful melody filled the concert hall, I could feel the revelation in my bones:

10    F l o r i d a

Music Director

with an emphasis of voice in college. Graduating with

college or university is my reason for college. My objective

is to share that passion, to use it to connect with others, and to make this world a more meaningful place.

In the chorus room, I felt such a welcoming presence,

one I still feel today as a four-year member of Le Voci

and the VHS chorus. I have learned so much musically


It is an honor to be chosen as a June Hinckley Scholarship winner. To be recognized by the Florida Music Education Association is a huge accomplishment, not only as a member of the All-State Chorus, but for this scholarship as well. The June Hinckley Scholarship will help lessen the burden on me and my family with attending the University of West Florida. My goal is to spend more time working on my craft (chorus) than having to try and find a way to pay for school. My goal is to one day teach chorus in a high school in Florida. — Jacob Hyer

and have given and received invaluable support from my

chorus family. My confidence and pride in my musical abilities have grown so much, and I will cherish the many

Singing gave me that edge to where I wasn’t nervous or feeling pressure.

Being a member of the choir has also taught me “team-

friendships I have made here for the rest of my life.

work makes the dream work.” Students must work togeth-

to my future students the same welcoming feeling in

need to learn my lyrics, but also need know when I need

With my goal being a chorus teacher, I want to give

my classroom. I want them to have a place where they

can build their self-confidence and feel supported while

learning music. Once the students know that they can

er constantly to create a perfect harmony. Not only do I to come into the song. Just like athletic teams, we need to

practice constantly to perfect our craft. Along those same lines, working as a team has taught me and will teach

trust you, then the true learning will happen.

others accountability. I don’t want to let my choir down.

cation, especially public-school education, one of the first

all of us to work together for the common goal!

It always seems when cutbacks are discussed in edu-

areas talked about being cut is the music department.

Working as a team to create beautiful music encourages In a recent study we discussed in my chorus class,

There are numerous reasons as to why music should be

musicians outperformed nonmusicians in auditory, visu-

a better overall student. Students who are enrolled in a

students with their memorization. Students will need to

available to all students, most of which will make you

music class will often have a growth in self-esteem, learn valuable aspects of teamwork, and have an improved level of memory.

As a member of the Venice High School Chorus for the

past four years, I have seen my self-esteem grow exponen-

al, and memory tests. Therefore, music education can help be able to recall certain lyrics or even read music by sight!

This has helped me when it comes to my other classes,

such as math and science. I have been able to memorize

easily many formulas and equations using music.

These are just three examples of why music should be

tially, from an awkward, shy freshman to the president

available to all students. There is so much that any student

the ability to stand on stage not only in a choir setting,

one’s self-esteem to working as a member of a group. It is

of the Leadership Techniques class. Chorus has given me

can take away from learning about it, from increasing

but also singing solos in front of a crowd of friends and

my belief that because of my chorus class, not only am I

Being able to sing in front of people has allowed me to

student at Venice High School with a passion to earn a

family as well as in front of a panel of college instructors. excel in classes that I have had to present projects. A lot

of kids don’t do well in giving speeches or presentations.

a pretty good singer, but I am a confident, well-rounded degree from the University of West Florida in music education.

August 2022

11


Katherine Jones submitted the following essay with her application for the June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship. Applicants were asked to respond to the prompts “Why do you wish to become a music

educator?” and “Why should music be available to all students?” Katherine’s essay appears here with minor editing and the addition of a headline.

Music Teachers Play a Crucial Role in the Lives and Education of Their Students by Katherine Jones

June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship Recipient

I

“I love my music teachers because they have your best interest in mind” (Dominic Miller, eighth grade, Harrison

Middle School in Harrison, Arkansas). Music has been a part of my life since the very beginning, and growing up there was no doubt that music would be a part of my

future in some form. I was blessed with excellent teachers

who poured themselves into their students both in and out of the classroom throughout my schooling. I have

always been grateful for the relationships that I held with

my music teachers and the impact that they left on me.

their lives outside of the influence of my classroom. “My

on the very principles and lessons taught to me by my

than most of my teachers” (Anna Morin, sixth grade,

My aspirations to become a music educator are founded music teachers.

I always knew the impact my music teacher had on

my own life. Throughout my years at Lakeland Christian School, she has become one of my most outstanding

mentors and friends, along with being an incredible teacher. However, it was not until I interviewed my

peers that I understood that I was not alone in my expe-

rience. Music teachers play a crucial role in the lives and education of their students that could not be filled by anyone else. That is why I want to be a music teacher, to have the opportunity to have an impact on students

not limited to music, but an effect that they carry into

12    F l o r i d a

Music Director

music teachers definitely get to see a better side of me

Lakeland Christian School in Lakeland, Florida). Music

teachers bring out the best parts of their students and

always encourage them to become the best people they can be, and that is the same influence I hope to have on my students, to be dedicated the same way as Imani

Ferrari’s choir teacher at Blake Academy who stayed after school with her and spent countless hours preparing her for her auditions. My music educators took my

existing love for music and multiplied it through their

time and efforts, and in the future, I can only hope to have half the impact on my students as they have had on me. So, why do I want to be a music educator? So that I


Receiving this scholarship presents me with the opportunity to study and eventually teach choral music. It has provided me the funds necessary to complete a full ride to Southeastern University where I will be attending in the fall. Being selected for this scholarship means that I will not only deepen my love for music, but I will also gain the education necessary to effectively share that love with every student that enters my classroom in the future. — Katherine Jones

can share my love of music with my students every day

part about choir was, he responded, “In sports, there’s

world around them.

you’re there to enjoy the moment and work on your craft.

and teach them to use their love of music to impact the Music is a focal point in every person’s life. Whether

they play, sing, or simply listen, music speaks to humans in a way that nothing else can. Music classrooms serve as an outlet for students to express themselves in a way

generally discouraged in other teaching environments. It

allows students to break away from their regular school schedule and enter a music environment that “is just peaceful” (Kaden Conley, third grade, McKeel Academy

in Lakeland, Florida). Whether a student will pursue music as a career or not, music provides opportunities for each student to become the most excellent version of

themselves. Matthew Barranco, a sophomore at Lakeland

Christian School, was one of the most reserved kids you

could ever encounter. However, music provided an outlet for him to break out of his shell and build relationships

always a winner and a loser. But when you make music,

The peacefulness and the fellowship you get from the fine

arts department are different than football, too.” Music

provides a relief for students to detach from any stress or pressure they experience throughout the school day and create music in fellowship with their peers. Every student should have the opportunity to experience the gift of

music. Even if a student takes a music class and decides

that music is not the career meant for them, music’s impact on them will never dwindle. The stories presented from these students are just a few examples of the lasting impact that music holds on the lives of students. That

impact should never be taken from them. The experience

of making music and exploring new possibilities should never be stripped from their lives, no matter the cost.

Music is the greatest tool for lessons and character.

with people he would have usually never met, let alone

It builds lasting relationships and opens up the lives of

his academics. Matthew commented that “music let me

sible. I hope that in my career as a music educator I am

have spoken to. This newfound confidence also impacted make better grades because I was scared to ask questions,

but now I can ask away.” Matthew is still not an extrovert,

but music has taught him the importance of confidence, and now he presides as secretary of his class. Music provides an opportunity for a community that cannot be

found anywhere else on a school campus. Andy Li is a junior at Lakeland Christian School who has played foot-

ball since middle school. However, just last year, Andy also joined the concert chorus and currently sings in the

chamber ensemble. When I asked Andy what his favorite

students to new experiences that they never thought posblessed with the opportunity to share these lessons with

my students and aid them in their journey to finding the

person that they are destined to be, to teach them about new cultures through music from abroad, and to give

them a greater appreciation for others and themselves.

My music teachers instilled these lessons in my life, and I could never be more grateful for everything that they have taught me. Now, in this next chapter, I will carry

everything with me and pass it on to every student that I have the opportunity to teach.

August 2022

13


Cond

14    F l o r i d a

Music Director


ucting Music

Seven Tools for Sensitizing Students to Musically Expressive Conducting Gestures

B

by Nickolas Doshier

Before the start of class, when the sounds of chatter, fragments of music warm-ups, and clattering music stands

fill the classroom, the bell unapologetically rings. The class quickly calms as you approach the podium. All eyes

are on you. The students are mostly still and fall silent.

The ensemble is ready to make music. Searching from

within—now feeling an inescapable emotional draw to

the chorale you and your students have been refining for weeks—you raise your hands with care. The students pre-

pare to play. Really play. Now, an intentional and authentic

music rehearsal commences. Does this sound like your rehearsal?

At their best, rehearsals represent an emotional and

artistic activity. Buffered from the plethora of administrative and other nonmusical activities required of

music educators, these classroom moments are for the

explicit purpose of rallying young musicians to explore

the depths of music. Guided by your hands and carefully chosen words, musical works are meant to come to life.

And, for all the components that make up music rehearsals, conducting can be perhaps the most potent and efficient tool for conveying specific musical information to

large numbers of musicians. For this reason, doesn’t this Continued on page 16 August 2022

15


Cond ucting Music Continued from page 15

complex and often overlooked skill—con-

Lessons From the Past:

ducting—deserve another look?

Training Musicians’ Eye Contact

laboration between the composer’s inten-

widely read manual on the instruments of

Each piece’s journey involves the col-

tion, the conductor’s interpretation, and the student musicians’ path to reconcile

In 1855, Hector Berlioz published his the orchestra titled A Treatise Upon Modern Instrumentation. Although it is an import-

these two inputs within the context of

ant reference source for composers, few

for creativity. As the concert cycle starts—

Berlioz extensively outlined the role of the

their own playing ability and potential with the assumption that the chosen repertoire is appropriate for the ensemble—the ensemble’s expressivity should

are aware of the final chapter in which

conductor. Regarding the conductor’s and the performers’ eye contact, Berlioz wrote: It is an understood thing, that the

rapidly deepen to reflect your distinct

performers, knowing their parts

musical intentions. With patience and

almost by heart, keep their eye con-

perseverance, the following strategies are

stantly upon him otherwise, neither

intended to help you sensitize students to

security nor unity can be obtained.

your conducting gestures.

In general, even for timed music, the

conductor should require the players

Communicate With Music First

he direct, to look towards him as

Although each school day will inevita-

often as possible. An orchestra which

bly provide numerous unforeseen issues

does not watch the conducting-stick,

requiring your attention, the structure

has no conductor… . It is the duty

and the format of your rehearsal are ulti-

of the conductor, during rehearsal,

mately yours. So, why not plan for your

to accustom them to look towards

class to immediately start with making

[the conductor] simultaneously at the

music? Doing so will ensure that your

important moments (Berlioz, 1855,

conducting will be the first communi-

p. 252).

cation the students receive. To accomplish this goal, display the warm-up and

Tools for Teaching Eye Contact

Students spend countless hours in rehearsal watching conductors; however, conducting is not an inherently intuitive

mode of communication. When students

join large music ensembles, there is typ-

At least at the beginning, new musi-

ically a moment dedicated to becoming

when to watch and for what to watch.

ing the basic beat patterns, contrasting

rehearsal to have the students perform a

dynamic markings. Taken further, pro-

stands turned around—while watching

has been found to improve individual

ularly effective when dealing with sec-

mance responses (Cofer, 1998; Thompson,

dynamic changes. Educating students to

cians to each conductor’s style takes time

forcing these musical elements with your

with repeated instances of explanation.

aspect of nonverbal communication nec-

any level to detect contrasts in your con-

rehearsal.

cal phrase, a four-beat rhythmic pattern

rehearsal order daily so that your stu-

cians will require directives regarding

familiar with conducting gestures includ-

part—music-making. Now, instead of

Try to find at least one moment in each

articulation styles, and loud and soft

small section from memory—with their

viding conducting instruction to students

you explicitly. These moments are partic-

rhythm abilities (Kelly, 1997) and perfor-

tions containing tempo, style, or major

2012). The process of calibrating musi-

prioritize when to look up—while rein-

and seems to improve musical outcomes

nonverbal gestures—promotes a critical

To quickly acclimate musicians of

dents can get straight to the important reading announcements at the start of

class, firmly leave the last five minutes of class for announcements and any necessary packing up time. If you are lucky

enough to have another director available at the start of your class, kindly ask if they

will take attendance for you each week

(then offer to return the favor). If you are worried about running out of time, put a student in charge of keeping track of this

moment by delivering a reminder at three minutes before and at the time you determine announcements should commence.

16    F l o r i d a

essary for a deeply expressive ensemble

Music Director

ducting gestures, select an easy musi-


followed by rests, or a simple (but per-

sonally moving) chorale as part of the warm-up to focus the connection between

what students see and what students play. A straightforward example might include

having the students sing or play four beats

on the same note in response to various styles and dynamics shown through the conducted gesture. Make sure to change what you do each time. Do not tell the stu-

dents what you are about to do. Instead,

really encourage the students to watch your hands and respond to what they see. To contextualize this exercise within the concert music, select at least one moment

(possibly just a single phrase) to direct the students to respond specifically to your gestures.

Monk Rehearsals

Fearful of any time wasted in rehearsal,

the legendary conductor Carlos Kleiber once cautioned another conductor that

“every word is a nail in his coffin” (Barber, 2011, p. 79). Although dramat-

ic, Kleiber’s logic follows that the more

time a conductor spends talking, the less time the musicians have to make music.

Taken to the extreme, a monk rehearsal proceeds with neither the conductor nor

the ensemble musicians talking (Silvey,

2013). This format encourages the students to increase their eye contact with the con-

ductor while focusing on the conductor’s nonverbal gestures. As an example, while your students are playing, you notice that

the note length of the accompaniment is

too long. As they continue playing, you adjust your gesture to reflect the appropriate style. Only a few students make

the adjustment in real time, so you stop

the ensemble to provide feedback. When everyone stops—and without speaking a word—you model the correct note length Continued on page 18 August 2022

17


Cond ucting Music Continued from page 17

with your voice (or your instrument)

ly understood? How about their ideal

before we approach the podium for the

sure number or rehearsal letter to start

sound models for their specific instru-

Keep in mind that teaching musicians

while conducting. Speak only the mea-

ensemble sound? Who are their personal

first rehearsal.

the ensemble again, but this time you

ment or voice part? If your students’ best

to watch and respond can take more than

when it occurs in the context of the music.

section, or the top performing ensemble

by artistic expression the ultimate goal?

show the appropriate style immediately

If enough students still do not respond correctly, repeat this process. The rate of

improvement of musical expressivity and the increased frequency of eye contact from your students will grow with time and familiarity with this rehearsal style. Trust the Students—Practice

YOUR Expressive Communication

In works with a steady tempo, pick a section and start the ensemble. Ask the stu-

dents to continue to play, and stop beating

time; it might take a few tries, but they can do this! Now, without your tempo help, only conduct the most important expres-

sive ideas. Here are a few music ideas to consider that you can show with your

« « «

conducting gestures:

Where is the peak of the phrase?

What is the appropriate musical style of the accompaniment?

How do disjunct melodic fragments

connect between instrument groupings?

By trusting the musicians with tempo,

you simultaneously demonstrate your

confidence in the students’ abilities while adding a layer of complexity to the larger musical demands. To sensitize your stu-

dents to this method, try conducting a phrase giving a visually obvious climactic moment. Now stop and ask the musicians

where the peak of the phrase occurred. If they do not know, repeat the process.

Sound Models: Drawing Inspiration From the Masters

What do you think is the most expressive

music each member of your ensemble has listened to, engaged with, and real-

18    F l o r i d a

Music Director

example is the first chair member of their

at your school, this is a problem—a BIG problem. Curating sound models for your

musicians to actively listen to is critical.

Ultimately, a student musician without

days or weeks, but isn’t a rehearsal driven

Stay the course; the music is that import-

ant! Otherwise, what are we teaching our young musicians?

a sound model will be hard-pressed to

Nickolas Doshier is pursu-

at a time where potential access to quality

at Florida State University.

respond musically to any conductor. And,

music recordings has never been greater,

it is the educator’s responsibility to curate these lists for their students. These could

include reference recordings of the current (and subsequent) concert program

music, a “who’s who” for each instrument, or even a list of significant works recorded with elite music ensembles.

Your Interpretation Is Important

“Obviously, technical skill is needed to

accomplish the aesthetic goals of the

ing the PhD in music education

Prior to moving to Florida, he graduated with the MM in

instrumental conducting from

Louisiana State University, was the associate director of bands at Akins High School in

Austin, Texas, and completed the BM in music and human learning from The University of Texas at Austin. References Barber, C. (2011). Corresponding with Carlos: A biography of Carlos Kleiber. Scarecrow Press.

music, but the purpose is not to present

Berlioz, H. (1855). A treatise on modern instrumentation and orchestration, dedicated to Frederick William IV, King of Prussia. Novello.

present the music” (Reynolds, 2000, p. 32).

Cofer, R. S. (1998). Effects of conductinggesture instruction on seventh-grade band students’ performance response to conducting emblems. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46(3), 360-373. https://doi. org/10.2307/3345548

a technical display. The purpose is to When asking musicians to visually focus

their attention on you, the conductor, it is critical that specific and meaningful

gestural information is present. This is

your chance to extract and sequence the essence of the music into a concise, nonverbal presentation. And, in a perfect

world, this interpretation is the result of numerous hours spent in score study, the

process by which the music has grown

within you into an unshakably specific interpretation. This is the prerequisite to quality music-making, a personal ver-

sion of that inspirational moment when

an educator took time engaging in this

very same process—to move us, their students. Conducting music is our job, and that requires extensive preparation

Kelly, S. N. (1997). Effects of conducting instruction on the musical performance of beginning band students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 45(2), 295-305. https://doi. org/10.2307/3345588 Reynolds, H. R. (2000). Repertoire is the curriculum. Music Educators Journal, 87(1), 31-33. https://doi.org/10.2307/3399675 Silvey, B. A. (2014). Strategies for improving rehearsal technique: Using research findings to promote better rehearsals. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 32(2), 11-17. https://doi. org/10.1177/8755123313502348 Thompson, J. W. (2012). The effects of conductinggesture instruction on high school string orchestra students’ recognition of and playing response to common musical conducting emblems (Publication No. 3521713) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Utah]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.


August 2022

19


FLORIDA MUSIC EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 2021-2022 DONORS

Thank you to all of the donors who have shown their dedication to the improvement of music education in Florida by supporting our Mission through financial contributions.

Our donors support specific causes by donating to the FMEA funds of their choice: FMEA Scholarship Fund June M. Hinckley Scholarship Music Education Advocacy Professional Development for Members General Fund Mel & Sally Schiff Music Education Relief Fund The following have graciously donated to FMEA from April 1, 2021, through July 11, 2022. MAESTRO’S CIRCLE $10,000 and up

No current donors at this time.

ARTIST’S CIRCLE

$1,000 – $9,999 All County Music Artie Almeida In Honor of June Audrey Grace & Katie Grace Miller Russell Robinson

SUSTAINERS $100 – $999 Carlos Abril In Honor of Dr. Patricia Flowers & Dr. Nicholas DeCarbo Andre Arrouet Lucinda Balistreri In Memory of June Hinckley & In Honor of Music Educators in Sarasota County Christopher Banks Katarzyna (Kasia) Bugaj Dale Choate Blair Clawson In Honor of Alice-Ann Darrow, Vicki Rhodes, & Ginny Densmore Alice-Ann Darrow In Dedication to Mr. & Mrs. O. B. Darrow Virginia Densmore In Memory of Dr. James Croft & In Honor of Vicki Rhodes Anna Marie Friars In Honor of Dr. Andre Thomas Stanley Hoch Dennis Holt Frank Howes In Memory of Ron Powell, Richard Bowles, & Harry Grant Marsha Juday Steven & Beth Kelly Carlton Kilpatrick In Honor of Cynthia Berry Sheila King In Memory of John W. King Martin Kivell In Memory of Mel Schiff Jason Locker In Memory of June M. Hinckley Robert McCormick Carolyn Minear John Nista Mary Palmer In Memory of Amy Catherine Palmer

20    F l o r i d a

Music Director

Douglas Phillips In Memory of Dr. Bobby L. Adams & Mr. Lawrence W. Phillips, Jr. David Pletincks In Honor of Alexis & Jonathan Pletincks Jeanne Reynolds In Honor of Pinellas County Performing Arts Teachers Janice Roberts In Memory of Mel Schiff Mary Catherine Salo In Memory of Gary Rivenbark & Wes Rainer Steven Salo In Honor of John “Buck” Jamison & Dr. William Prince Kathleen Sanz In Memory of June M. Hinckley Heather Sawyer In Memory of Byron & Bobbie Smith J. Mark Scott In Honor of Dr. Andre Thomas & Dr. Judy Bowers D. Gregory Springer Jeannine Stemmer In Memory of Barbara Kingman & Lauren Alonso Ira Strachman In Memory of Mel & Sally Schiff Valerie Terry Leiland Theriot In Memory of Clayton Krehbiel Richard Uhler Howard Weinstein In Memory of Barry Weinstein David Williams William Zoch In Memory of Mel Schiff Anonymous (2) In Dedication to Steve & Mary Catherine Salo In Memory of Mel & Sally Schiff


PATRONS $25 – $99 Sharon Adams In Memory of Rosemary Collins Ann Adams-Valle In Memory of Bobby L. Adams Sandra Adorno Michael Antmann Judy Arthur In Honor of Raymond Kickliter & Nancy Marsters William Bauer David Bayardelle In Honor of Harry Spyker Mark Belfast In Memory of Dr. Mark A. Belfast, Sr. Richard Bradford In Memory of William & Helen Bradford Gordon Brock Thomas Brown Dana Burt In Honor of Kathy Sanz Alexander Busby Greg Carswell Patrick Cassidy Shelby Chipman Zachary Chowning Dayna Cole In Memory of Linda Mann Beth Cummings In Memory of Jim Urbanski Catherine Dalzell Matthew Davis In Memory of Robert Morrison Nicholas DeCarbo Mark Decker Dennis Demaree Virginia Dickert In Memory of Lindsay Keller & Debbie Liles

Abbey Duncan Christopher Dunn Kathryn Eaton Judith Evans Scott Evans Bradley Franks In Memory of Gary W. Rivenbark Elizabeth Frogel In Memory of one of my favorite uncles and his lifetime dedication to music and education Suzanne Gagliardini Olivia Green Julia House In Memory of Kimberle Moon McKee Llewellyn Humphrey Jon Hutchinson Michael Johnson Mary Keyloun Cruz In Memory of Laurice Keyloun Joshua Langston Ginger Lerner-Wren In Memory of Mel & Sally Schiff Allie Levine In Memory of Uncle Mel Joseph Luechauer Claudia Lusararian In Honor of Sue Byo-Passell Kevin Lusk Deborah Mar In Memory of Rosemary Collins & In Dedication to Mrs. Barbara Kingman Lloyd McIntyre In Memory of Bob Hager Jeneve Medford Jarvis Kim Miles Katie Grace Miller In Honor of Artie Almeida

Ree Nathan In Dedication to Rosemary Caldwell Collins Chad Norton In Memory of Cassandra J. Norton Galen Peters Edward Prasse In Honor of Nancy Marsters Melissa Rawls On Behalf of Nancy Bartels Kristian Reid-Drummond C. William Renfroe In Memory of James O. Johnston Diana Rollo John Sinclair Harry Spyker In Honor of Fred & Marleen Miller Eddie Steadman In Memory of Janie Walker Mark Stevens Mark Thielen Alex Toussaint John Watkins Sondra Wenninger Collins Bradley Wharton Julian White In Memory of Kenneth Tolbert Lindsey Williams Billy B. Williamson Graeme Winder On Behalf of all our hardworking music educators

Lise Gilly Rose Grace Walter Halil James Hammond Jesse Hariton Angela Hartvigsen Ciara Hill Sarah Hoover Calvin Jasper Jason Jerald Jennifer Jimenez In Memory of Linda Mann Aiasha Johnson Ronald Jules Kathleen Kerstetter Erika Locke-Williams In Memory of Eunice B. Locke, 40-plus-year Palm Beach County Florida music educator Katie McGuire Menges Mackenzie Meiers

Lorri Naylor Kristy Pagan Katherine Plank Jennifer Ross In Honor of Ms. Helen Bailey Edgar Rubio Ian Schwindt Joani Slawson Kelly Southall Andrea Szarowicz Timothy Thompson Christian Torres Michelle Tredway Giovanni Venezia Max Vitagliano Richard Yaklich Jennifer Zahn

Anonymous (4)

FRIENDS

up to $24

Carmen Aquino Judy Arthur In Memory of Ray Kickliter Crystal Berner In Memory of Rosemary Collins Laurie Bitters Antonio Borges Joseph Callaway Zachary Charlebois Ernesta Chicklowski Bethany Confessore Christopher Creswell Richard Dasher Liza Dean Beth Ann Delmar Denise Dumala Debbie Fahmie Shelby Fullerton Michael Gabriel Tina Gill In Memory of Gary Rivenbark

Anonymous (12) August 2022

21


A Tool for Rebuilding

The Independence Hierarchy for Developing Singers by Sandy P. Hinkley, PhD

T

Throughout the pandemic, choral educators have faced

Step 1: Sing a Melody

the choral classroom. These gaps in face-to-face instruc-

stage, beginning with pitch-matching. Pitch-matching

many challenges, including inconsistent attendance in

tion have resulted in the need for much skill remediation, particularly in students’ ability to maintain

part-singing independence. Part-singing independence is

a fundamental skill in choral singing and one for which choirs are held accountable at formal music assessments. Consequently, teachers may find they need to shift more instructional time toward the rebuilding of this skill. This rebuilding will likely require different choices in

repertoire, with a more carefully structured presentation of part-singing, particular with changing voices. The

Independence Hierarchy for Developing Singers (Bowers,

2008) offers a pedagogical tool to aid in this process, as it incorporates Kodály’s sequential concepts for teaching harmony (Choksy, 1981), but with adaptations made for

developing voices (see Figure 1). This hierarchy is also unique in that it provides a step-by-step method in which

to deconstruct and teach choral repertoire for part-singing mastery. Following is a detailed discussion of each step, with choral repertoire examples and resources included.

22    F l o r i d a

Music Director

The first step of the Independence Hierarchy is a three-tiered

itself is a complex process that involves perception, discrimination recall, and adjustment (Joyner, 1969). To increase the likelihood of pitch-matching success, specific phrases within pieces may be assigned to changing voices and uncertain singers. Pieces that work well using this

“phrase method” have short phrases (two to four mea-

sures) with limited ranges (a fifth or smaller). Singers in all developmental stages can then be assigned to the phrase(s) in which they successfully match. The second stage of this step is to begin building vocal tone. Pedagogical concepts

such as breath management, vowel formation, diction,

inner lift, and resonance should be introduced at this time. Repertoire with easily sung melodies and less complex rhythms will allow singers the opportunity to develop these concepts more readily. The third stage of this step is to teach the “rules” of music (see Figure 2). These rules

are performance practice habits that can be transferred

from piece to piece, thus increasing rehearsal efficiency Continued on page 24


Figure 1. Independence Hierarchy for Developing Singers 1)

Sing a melody

a.

Matching pitch

c.

Establish “rules” of singing

b. 2) 3)

4)

5)

6)

7) 8) 9)

Build healthy tone

Add an ostinato

Sing partner songs Add a descant

Harmonic chording

a.

b.

Root chording

Vocal chording

Sing parts of rounds and canons Sing rounds and canons Transitional pieces

Sing two- to four-part songs

Figure 2. Examples of “Rules” of Music Rule of the Steady Beat: Crescendo on any note value longer than the designated beat.

Rule of Punctuation: Breathe only

where there is punctuation in the text. Rule of the Diphthong: Sustain the

primary vowel of the diphthong for as long as possible.

Rule of the Slur: Lean into the first

note of a slur; back off on all remaining pitches.

Rule of Syllabic Stress: Sing stressed

syllables within words with more weight and other syllables with less.

August 2022

23


A Tool for Rebuilding

Step 1

Examples of unison repertoire to pitch-match, build tone, and teach

« « « «

“rules” of music:

Continued from page 22 and making learning experiences more meaningful. Further, these rules develop

musical independence, promote critical thinking, and embed expressivity into

the learning process. Although the first

step of the Independence Hierarchy can be

a lengthy endeavor, it is well worth the time invested.

Step 2: Add an Ostinato

The second step of the Independence Hierarchy is to add a melodic ostinato. Adding ostinati to melodies is the one of

the simplest ways to create harmony with-

in a choral setting. This step is especially important for uncertain singers and those

with special needs, as pitch-matching is typically easier with repetitive patterns.

Changing voices usually find success with melodic ostinatos, as these patterns have

fewer pitches (e.g., do-sol-do). Although there is a limited amount of choral music

with ostinati, repetitive melodic patterns can easily be extracted from part of an

existing piece. Ostinati can be creative-

ly improvised as well, particularly with

Ching-a-Ring Chaw* – Copland, Boosey & Hawkes, OCTB6609

First Songs for the Emerging Tenor-Bass Choir – Mark Patterson, Brilee, BL 1017 The Path to the Moon – Eric Thiman, Boosey & Hawkes, 48003957 Where Go the Boats? (from Three Rhymes–Set I) – Paul Bouman, Earthsongs W-13

*Piece in which the “phrase method” can be used Step 3: Sing Partner Songs

Step 4: Add a Descant

Hierarchy involves the singing of partner

Independence

The third step of the Independence

The

songs or two concurrent melodies. Ideally,

volves adding a descant to

the entire choir will learn both songs, although the range of one song is typi-

cally a better fit for developing tenor-bass voices. In this case, the phrase method

can be used with one or both songs to accommodate singers with a limited pitch-matching range. Before partnering

songs together, singers should be able to

sing accurate pitches and rhythms, as well as demonstrate evidence of healthy tone

and expressivity. Partner songs provide an excellent opportunity to teach “rules” of music (step 1) and, like ostinati, can eas-

ily be incorporated into vocal warm-up or music literacy time.

embedded during warm-up and/or music literacy development time.

Step 2

Examples of repertoire with

«

ostinati or ostinato-like parts:

« «

(Two-Part) Drunken Sailor – arr. Crocker, Jenson

Publications, 423-04012

(Three-Part) Shannon Castle Reel – Theron Kirk, Alliance Music, AMP0168

(Four-Part) Sansa Kroma

(Songs for Tenor-Bass Chorus) – Arr. Crocker, Hal Leonard, HL 47123077

24    F l o r i d a

Music Director

step

of

Hierarchy

the in-

a unison line. Although the

descant may be similar to the unison line, it is not intended to stand alone as a melody as in a partner song. The descant serves

as a harmonic embellishment, therefore making it a more complex task than singing

an ostinato. Simple and lim-

ited range descants provide opportunities for changing

voices and uncertain singers to be successful. Conversely, descants can challenge even the advanced singer, particularly when the melody is complex or when voice-crossing

rounds or even with sight-reading exercises. This step of the hierarchy can easily be

fourth

Step 3

« «

Examples of repertoire with partner songs:

« « « « «

(Two-Part) Al Shlosha d’Varim – Allen E. Naplan, Boosey & Hawkes, OCTB6783 (Two-Part) Seasoned Spirituals – Set I,

Arr. Wagner, Shawnee Press Inc., EA0014

Partner song books:

All Together, Sing! – Lon Beery, Brilee Music, MLB012

Folk Song Partners – Donnelly & Strid, Hal Leonard, HL123570

Partners in Spirit – Jill Gallina, Shawnee Press, 35016669

Patriotic Partners – Jacobson & Anderson, Hal Leonard, HL9971405

World Partners – Cheryl Lavender, Hal Leonard, HL9971448

occurs. The rhythmic complexity and range of the descant are additional factors to be considered when assigning singers to the main melody

versus the descant. During

the teaching phase, descants

should be sung on solfège and analyzed using the following questions: Is the descant always

above the primary melody? Are

there places where the melody and the descant are in unison?

Does voice-crossing occur? If

so, where? As with ostinati, descants can be improvised, although

a

considerable

amount of repertoire with descants can be found.


Step 4

« « «

Examples of repertoire with descants: (Two-Part) Dodi Li* – Nira Chen/Arr. Rao, Boosey & Hawkes (Two-Part) To Music – Arr. Betty Bertaux, Boosey & Hawkes

(TB) Down in the Valley – D. Shawn Berry, Santa Barbara, SBMP510

*Could be used with tenor-bass voices singing down the octave

Step 5: Harmonic Chording

The fifth step of the Independence

Hierarchy

involves harmonic chord-

ing, a two-stage process that establishes a connection between melody and

chord function and pro-

motes singers’ awareness of other voice parts.

Stage 1 – Sing chord

roots: This stage involves taking a melody and

singing do, fa, or sol to

harmonize as the “root” of the appropriate pri-

mary chord (I, IV, V, or

V7). Initially, singers should take turns

can be used to introduce this concept (see

roots, full chording on solfège should

(tenor-bass voices can sing up or down the

quickly transferred to choral repertoire.

the choir into groups and assigning

singing the melody or the chord roots

octave as needed). Children’s songs, holi-

day songs, popular music, and lead sheets

Figure 3), but this activity should be Stage 2 – Add vocal chording: Once

students can successfully sing chord

be introduced. This involves dividing

each group to sing a pitch of the chord. Continued on page 26 August 2022

25


A Tool for Rebuilding

Continued from page 25

Step 5

Harmonic chording

«

resources:

« «

Folk songs, holiday

songs, children’s song books

Vocal lead sheets:

music-for-music-teachers.com/free-leadsheets.html

The Complete Choral Warm-up Book –

Robinson/Althouse (pp. 65-95 notated chord exercises)

repertoire. Prior to teaching a section of

independence with multiple phrases, they

can be extracted and sung on solfège out

rounds.

a piece, the basic harmonic progression of rhythm. This helps singers develop

Tenor-bass voices should be assigned to

pitches most comfortable in their range, taking note that changing voices are typ-

an aural “skeleton” of the section before

Step 7: Sing Rounds and Canons

added, thus increasing the likelihood of

Hierarchy is the singing of full rounds and

the complexity of rhythm and text are part-singing independence.

ically more successful when placed on

Step 6: Sing Parts of Rounds

can be integrated into warm-up or music

is a preparatory activity before moving to

tonic or dominant pitches. Vocal chording

The sixth step of the Independence Hierarchy

literacy time, particularly in the singing

the singing of full rounds. Voice-crossing

of short chord progressions and cadences (see Figure 4). Chord inversions should be used whenever possible so that voice movement for changing voices is kept to a

minimum. Once singers become comfortable with shorter examples of vocal chord-

ing, this process can be used with choral

is a typical occurrence with round-sing-

ing and will often pull students off their part if they are not ready. During this step, each group “loops” or repeats a

phrase of the round, thus allowing them ferent ways. Phrases should be traded throughout the choir so

that each group has an opportunity to sing each

Round/canon books:

part of the round. Tenor-

150 Rounds – Bolkovac and Johnson,

bass voices and uncertain

Classic Canons – Arr. Patrick Liebergen,

the phrase that has limit-

Round the World – Cheryl Lavender,

fits their range. As sing-

Warming Up With Rounds – Catherine Delanoy,

dent, groups can loop two

Boosey & Hawkes, 48007805

singers should be assigned

Alfred Publishing, 4253

ed movement and/or best

Hal Leonard 09971739

ers become more confi-

Shawnee Press, 35028168

phrases, then three, etc.

26    F l o r i d a

Music Director

The seventh step of the Independence canons. Rounds can be easily integrat-

ed into vocal warm-ups, during which time singers can be moved around to

promote careful listening to other voices.

(Changing voices and uncertain singers may still need to “loop” a phrase of

the round for pitch-matching purposes.) Singing rounds is also an effective way to

reinforce “rules” of music (step 1). More skilled singers can also explore imitative

to hear how melodies interact in dif-

Step 6

« « « «

are ready to move on to singing full

Once singers can maintain

Step 7

Examples of repertoire with

«

rounds/canons

« «

(Two-Part) Haida – Gerber/

Arr. Leck, Plymouth Music Co., HL 516

(Three-Part) Non, Nobis Domine – Byrd/Ed. Bartle, Hinshaw Music, HMC1161

(Four-Part) Jubilate Deo – Praetorius/Arr. Rao,

Boosey & Hawkes, OCTB6350


Step 9

« « « « « « «

Examples of repertoire with homophonic writing:

canon written in intervals other than uni-

son. In addition to the round books listed in step six, the Choral Public Domain

website (cpdl.org) is an excellent resource for more advanced rounds.

Step 8: Sing Transitional Pieces

(Two-Part) Einini – Arr. Cyndee Giebler, Ed. Leck, Colla Voce, 21-20541 (Three-Part) Bonse Aba – Arr. Johnson, Heritage Music, 15/2830H (Four-Part) Sweet and Low – Rentz, Colla Voce, 15-96600

(TB) She Walks in Beauty – Farnell, Alliance Music, AMP 0547 (TTB) Boatmen Stomp – Arr. Grey, G. Schirmer Inc., 12396

(TTBB) Veni Jesu – Cherubini/Ed. March, Shawnee Press, 35024711 (SATB) Keep Your Lamps – Thomas, Hinshaw Music, HMC 577

Transitional pieces are those that contain

matches their range, with voices given the

acteristics in combination; these pieces

these singers can also be assigned specif-

several of the preceding musical char-

represent a large majority of choral reper-

toire. When teaching transitional pieces,

the Independence Hierarchy can be used as an “order of operations” for part-sing-

ing development. For example, if a song contains unison, homophonic, round-like, and descant sections, it will be taught in

«

the following sequence:

« « «

Unison section (step 1 – sing a

melody, build tone, apply rules of singing)

Descant section (step 4 – learn

descant on solfège, compare/contrast to main melody)

Imitative round section

(step 6 – “loop” phrases)

Homophonic section (step 9 – learn parts separately on solfège, then combine)

One of the greatest benefits of singing

repertoire at this stage is that it offers more options for changing voices to be

successful. Multi-part treble music can be

adapted to accommodate voices at various stages of vocal development; changing

voices can be assigned the part that best

option to sing down the octave (if needed,

perform three- to four-part music.

ic phrases to sing). Whereas tenor-bass

Conclusion

on pitch-matching range, treble singers

ing independence is an invaluable skill,

singers should be assigned parts based should be evenly distributed on each part to offer additional security for part-singing independence.

Step 9: Sing Two- to Four-Part Pieces

Homophonic repertoire represents the

greatest test of part-singing independence for singers. By the time singers reach

this stage, solfège should be an integral

part of the rehearsal process, as should singing with healthy tone and apply-

ing “rules” of music (step 1). Although homophonic pieces may “appear” to be easier since text and rhythms align, sing-

Teaching students to maintain part-sing-

as it creates the opportunity to perform

music at a higher level. Quality choral repertoire is readily available at all levels to support part-singing development;

however, readiness skills must be in place for proficiency and mastery to occur.

Although the current situation continues to present challenges, it is possible to tai-

lor instruction toward the rebuilding of

these skills while maintaining rehearsal efficiency. The Independence Hierarchy for

Developing Singers is believed to be a wor-

thy pedagogical tool to help educators do just this, one step at a time.

ers can be easily pulled off their part

Sandy P. Hinkley, PhD,

place. Homophonic music should be first

choral activities and coor-

if part-singing skills are not solidly in

introduced in small sections within tran-

sitional pieces and rehearsed on solfège to promote pitch security. Once singers become comfortable, full homophonic

pieces can be sung, with the ideal sce-

Step 8

« « « « «

nario that developing choirs are able to

Examples of transitional repertoire:

(Two-Part) Laughing Song – Mark Patterson, Hal Leonard, 08744050 (Three-Part) Sahayta – Allaway, Mark Foster, YS0510

is the associate director of

dinator of music educa-

tion at Sam Houston State University, where she con-

ducts the tenor-bass choir and teaches courses in music education. References Bowers, J. (2008). The middle school choral program. In M. Holt & J. Jordan (Eds.), The school choral program: Philosophy, planning, organizing and teaching (pp. 367-370). GIA Publications.

(Four-Part) La Violette – Arr. Susan Brumfield/Ed. Leck, Colla Voce, 21-20251

Choksy, L. (1981). The Kodály context: Creating an environment for musical learning. Prentice Hall.

(SATB) Zum Gali, Gali – Arr. Pisano, Plymouth Music, PCS-17

Joyner, D. R. (1969). The monotone problem. Journal of Research in Music Education, 17(1), 115-124. https://doi.org/10.2307/3344198

(TB) Hand Me Down My Silver Trumpet – Arr. Moses, Brilee Music, BL 279

August 2022

27


ComponentNews G

reetings, FBA and FMEA family!

Bernard (Bernie) Hendricks, Jr., President

I’m sure there are many of us who, for

fine and perfectly normal. We feel this

fearful, anxious, and nervous emotions

the experiences we provide our students,

We have once again come to the

various reasons, may be having some

into yet another school year. For many,

as we approach the start of school. Those

end of summer and are ready to dive

the 2022-23 school year brings many feel-

ings and emotions. The continuation of rebuilding music programs and classroom culture and further developing the

fundamental skills of our students form just the tip of the iceberg, and as we plan

and prepare for our students’ arrival, the possibilities should seem endless!

FLORIDA BANDMASTERS ASSOCIATION

reasons might include a new teaching

situation, the unknown of who and how

way because we care so deeply about

the relationships we build for them, and the many areas of growth they can and

will achieve as participants in our pro-

many will show up, or perhaps being in

grams. With all of that in mind, I’d like to

tions can and probably should bring up

two years: Building Better Bands, Through

that first year of teaching. These situa-

some mixed emotions. In my book, all of these feelings and emotions are just

introduce the theme for FBA for the next Camaraderie, Community, and Creativity!

Here is a little elaboration on why I

believe this theme/mission is fitting for

the state of where we are as bands in

«

Florida:

FLORIDA VOCAL ASSOCIATION

Go FORTH

Jeannine Stemmer, President

My first thought was to be in line

with the FMEA vision brought forth

by Dr. Shelby Chipman: Unity in Music Education, Building Communities

I

One Note at a Time. Ultimately, the

friend had just become a real estate agent, so I decided to let him sell my completely

music educators in whatever ways

have always been quite impulsive. For example, many years ago I walked out to

goal is to provide the best possible

my car early one Saturday morning and realized my car had been egged. Instead

musical experience for ALL students

of cleaning it off, I went to the dealership and bought a new car. Another time, my renovated home and start over in a new one. Also, there is the time I gutted the

bathroom while my husband was on a trip. I decided to stop the do-it-yourself

remodel when I realized I did not know how to shut off the water. The plumber laughed at me, which just made me want to gut something else.

in Florida while supporting our

«

Over the years I have learned to be less impulsive. I know that good things come

Recharge through community. Do not try to ride this train alone. It is not healthy, and it is not fun. Be Thankful. Gratitude will help you count your joys    so that you always remember to find … Happiness in this journey. Charles Spurgeon said, “It is not    how much we have, but how much we enjoy, that makes happiness.” FVA had a wonderful summer conference. Our reservoirs were refilled by an

oasis of music and community. I am personally grateful to all who poured into the experience.

So, let us all go FORTH and do great things this year.

28    F l o r i d a

Building Better Bands … always the goal, right? How can we do what we

and continuous analysis of what’s

little guide for all of us to help keep the balance as we go FORTH this year.

Be Organized. Organization improves productivity.     There are always enough hours in the day if you use them wisely.

I started simply by going with

do better? It’s the never-ending grind

to those who wait, but I have also realized there is value in being fearless. Here is a Fight for what you want. You know what your students need and what you need in order to do the job well.

we can.

going well, and how can we do more of that; and what’s not going well, and

«

how can we do less of that. It should never really end!

Camaraderie – My intention for this

element is to focus on how we as band directors and music educators interact with each other. Do we actually

have true, real friendships with any other music educators? Do we make

any time to connect with or check on directors outside of our immediate

friend group? I’m pretty sure there is some factual evidence on this

somewhere. From my personal experience, I know that WE are way more

Music Director


Building Better Bands, Through Camaraderie, Community, and Creativity! effective when others are involved

real friends, I know there is always the

around the state and meeting as many

own. That’s the case with anything!

discussion, and cross-referencing of

lookout for more information about the

rather than doing everything on our

My encouragement for ALL directors is to make sure you are connected to

someone else. We need each other to bounce various ideas, to listen to our

«

opportunity for input, information, ideas, which allows for a better teach-

ing experience for me and a better learning experience for my students.

This is just a little something to get us

groups, and to just talk life with other

all back in the groove of running our pro-

Community – How is my band program

one a great start to the 2022-23 school year,

band people.

viewed in my immediate community,

not on a statewide or national stage,

grams in a positive manner. I wish everyand I look forward to making my way

of you face-to-face as possible. Be on the

new “Hi-Five” Focus Group, which is for any band director in year 0-5 of teaching.

More information on this will be posted on the FBA website.

Let’s have a great year of teaching our

students, establishing meaningful rela-

tionships with other directors, and actually enjoying being a band director.

but simply in my own community? This is where the real stakeholders

exist. What am I doing to make sure

FLORIDA NAfME COLLEGIATE

Mark A. Belfast, Jr., PhD, Advisor

my band has a positive presence in the

immediate community? Why should

I even be concerned with our com-

munity? These are just a few things to think about. The communities in

ife never seems to slow down, does it? I can’t remember when last we had a summer that was quiet, uneventful, restful … you know, the way God intend-

which our students live and grow

ed! Like so many recent years, summer 2022 saw the headlines filled with signif-

how wonderful these young people

broke, I thought of you. I wondered how each of you might be affected and what it

deserve the opportunity to see just actually are. Don’t be afraid to invite the community in to see and hear all

icant, monumental, and at times heartbreaking events. As always, as each story meant for your future in this incredible profession of ours.

As I discussed current events with my colleagues around the country, I often

of the excellent things your students

shared the sense of hope I feel when I think of you. Your vision, creativity, resil-

adjudicators or guest clinicians need

tumultuous) world, the data show the good guys always triumph in the end. Good

are doing. Someone other than a few to experience the growth and development of your students and your

program. Going back to camaraderie, use the experiences of your fellow

«

L

band directors to guide how you can

ience, and empathy remind me that despite being in an ever changing (and often prevails over evil. Light eliminates darkness. Autobots take down Decepticons. Avengers defeat Thanos. Buzz beats Zurg. Perry always … ALWAYS … outsmarts

Dr. Doofenshmirtz. The great adventurer and philosopher Mikey Walsh once said, “Goonies never say die!” So, my hope remains.

As you persevere, and the fall semester quickly approaches, I hope you are

engage your community.

already making plans to participate in the many supportive and invigorating

creative as far as music is concerned,

will provide this year. On October 23, we will gather once again at Southeastern

delivering positive information to our

component leaders are working hard to organize an interactive event that will

The question is this: How do I know

education, and we hope they will provide opportunities for you not only to learn

ing, and if it is not, how can I get bet-

As always, please do not hesitate to contact me, or any member of the Florida

Creativity – This isn’t just about being

professional development opportunities Florida NAfME Collegiate and FMEA

but more importantly, how are we

University to participate in the Florida NAfME Collegiate Fall Conference. Your

students that will allow them to grow?

focus on making connections. Events will highlight the inclusive nature of music

that what I’m doing is actually work-

about but to actively engage in making music … perhaps in unfamiliar contexts.

ter? I’m going to leave this one at that

NAfME Collegiate Executive Board, if we can assist you in any way. Enjoy your last

and just relate this back to camarade-

few weeks before the fall semester begins. Be safe, be well, and be blessed.

rie because if other directors are my August 2022

29


ComponentNews I

FLORIDA COLLEGE MUSIC EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION

Marc Decker, DMA, President

love the start of a new school year. As a teacher, it’s an opportunity to set new

goals as our students return from the

summer recharged and eager to learn. At the start of every school year, I think back

fondly to my first class as a music educa-

tion student, many years ago. I took my

seat in Introduction to Music Education slightly sunburned from band camp the

week prior but excited to learn. Our professor entered the room at a brisk pace

for an elderly man, put down his brief-

“Your students are waiting for you to graduate!”

case, and said to us, “Your students are waiting!” We all stared at him for a few

seconds, and then he elaborated, “Your

students are waiting for you to graduate!” We continued to stare, unsure where

he was going with this. He went on to

others. At its deepest core, music has

gain a sense of self-confidence, and foster

were mostly already in school and that

ative imagination of children throughout

Have I listed enough reasons why stu-

explain that the students we would teach they would need us in a few short years. It

sure feels good to be needed. Being needed provides purpose and makes us feel

valued. So, I say to all the music teachers in Florida: Your students are waiting!

The students need us this year to guide

them in their musical development. To

grow and love the art form. To develop technical and auditory skills they can use throughout their lifetime and then one day share their love of music with

value because of what it provides the crethe nation. But when we look at music

education from the general education

social skills necessary for future success. dents need us?

Every year, on the first week of school,

lens of student learning, it’s only a small

I think back to what my professor said

studying music. Academically, our music

with me, and now I share them with you.

portion of what they can gain through classes guide students to develop reasoning skills, teach methods for processing

and memorizing information, and keep

many years ago. Those words have stuck You are needed, and what you do has value. Your students are waiting!

Good luck as you make your final

them engaged in school. Emotionally and

preparations for the start of term. Thank

tunity for students to develop friendships,

the children of Florida.

socially, our music classes are an oppor-

you for sharing your love of music with

Print. Digital. Direct.

30    F l o r i d a

Music Director


FLORIDA ORCHESTRA ASSOCIATION

Laurie Bitters, President

G

reetings, everyone, and welcome

Please contact your district chairperson if

come our new teachers to the profession

ful and rejuvenating as we prepare for

activity. We look forward to seeing you in

peers for insight and support. In the midst

back! I hope your summer was rest-

the 2022-23 school year. As I enter my

second year of service to you as president,

members and students statewide. This

know your district chairperson, visit our

work of our FOA board members. Thank

year, please review the upcoming reg-

Joani Slawson, President

istration deadlines. FMEA/NAfME/FOA

T

membership dues need to be postmarked

he beginning of a new school year is

or paid online by September 10. All-state

always exciting. It is a time to start

registration/eligibility information can

anew with an organized classroom, new

be found on the FMEA website (FMEA.

lesson plans, and a smile on everyone’s face.

org) or the FOA website (myfoa.org). The

I have to admit that I get excited about fresh

all-state recording window is September

school supplies and a new planner. The year

26-October 1. Check with your district

is a clean slate. It is also a time to renew

chairperson for the recording date in your

and build relationships with your students.

district. In addition to your FOA/FMEA

I would like to encourage each of you

to get involved with our association. One

way to participate is by attending the 2022 FOA/FLASTA Fall Conference to be held at the Hilton Orlando on October 6-7. Our keynote speaker will be David Eccles.

Attending this conference is a wonderful way to obtain teaching ideas and to network with fellow educators in a relaxed

atmosphere. Be sure to check out the excit-

ing sessions being offered. Registration information can be found on the FOA

website. Another way to get involved is to participate in the all-state adjudication on Saturday, October 22. Breakfast and lunch

will be provided. Listening to the recordings will give you insight into the level of

preparation invested in these auditions.

time. I hope to see you soon.

FLORIDA ELEMENTARY MUSIC EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION

As you prepare for the new school

ticipate in MPAs this year.

world. Keep changing lives one note at a

website (myfoa.org). I would like to wel-

association.

paid so your students are eligible to par-

choosing the greatest profession in the

meetings, starting soon! If you do not

you for your commitment to serve our

dues, please ensure your FSMA dues are

to thank you, my fellow educators, for

Please stay involved and informed in

your district by attending your district

cannot be done without the outstanding

of the daily unforeseen challenges, I want

September!

I continue to be amazed at the incredible commitment of FOA to empowering our

and encourage you to reach out to your

you are interested in participating in this

Music is a natural way to connect with your

students. What are their favorite songs or genres? Who is their favorite composer? What is their favorite instrument? I always like to find out if my students have

pets, play sports, or share my corny sense of humor. Singing games and other

musical activities also connect your students with each other. So, as you are teaching your rules and expectations and setting the groundwork for the year, remember this quote by John C. Maxwell: “Students don’t care how much you know until they know how much you care.”

Your FEMEA Board is continuing to work on bringing you and your students

amazing opportunities. I am pleased to announce the conductors for our 2023

all-state ensembles. Karen Benson and Chris Judah-Lauder will conduct the AllState Orff Ensemble, and Sophia Papoulis will conduct the All-State Elementary

Chorus. We know All-State will be an outstanding experience with these topnotch educators. We are also excited to be bringing back our regional ensembles.

Please visit femeamember.org to get the most updated information about AllState and Regionals.

I look forward to continuing to serve as your president this year. I am truly

honored to represent such a compassionate and dedicated group of individu-

als. You make a difference in children’s lives every day! As always please feel free to contact me at joani@femea.flmusiced.org if you have any questions or concerns.

August 2022

31


32    F l o r i d a

Music Director


ComponentNews

FLORIDA MUSIC SUPERVISION ASSOCIATION

Lindsey R. Williams, PhD, President

s we approach autumn, the promise

Zander, 2002, p. 26). For example, artic-

me has heard me say I’m “living the

prospect. We have experienced much over

for your third-graders or your treble

for expecting to live the life I want to

of a new beginning is a fascinating

the past year both educationally and culturally. I have felt empowered and hope-

ful at times and helpless and despondent at others. This dichotomic existence cued me to spend some time reflecting on what I’ve learned from the many

ulate what a successful year looks like chorus, your intermediate orchestra, or

your advanced jazz ensemble. Have you envisioned what this year will be like in

the most fantastic and amazing ways? Have your students? Have you and your

students shared these expectations? Are these expecta-

meaningful people who have been a part of my journey

to revisit one of my favorite

Stone Zander and Benjamin

at various points of my life,

remind me of the control I

to live in to” (p. 26). Let’s give

to live up to, but a possibility

all our students—and ourselves—this gift of promise

this wonky journey called

for this year.

life.

Another lovely passage

One exercise that Zander &

from The Art of Possibility that

Zander (2002) recommend is

that you start from a place of giving everyone an A. Some

may blanche at the thought

Rosamund Stone Zander

way things are is not the same

proceed. In doing so, we can

“earn” it, but if you can think

treat others in a way that we

a bit more abstractly, you may

see the expectations that are cess. “When you give an A,

Benjamin Zander

against your standards, but

from a place of respect that gives them room to realize themselves” (Zander &

that?!

One of my mentors, Clifford Madsen,

tor of future behavior is present and

this statement, beyond its accuracy, is

that present and past behaviors are not a guarantee of what will happen, but a

strong predictor. This means that if we are purposeful and thoughtful with our present behaviors, they become our past

behaviors, which strongly predicts how

we will act. We are not victims when we choose how we act; we are rewriting

our future. Imagine how much this can

impact our interactions with our students. Now imagine if we continue to model and teach our students abilities to choose how

they act rather than reacting. This is how the world changes—for the better.

I encourage us all to delve into how

we each choose to respond to the world

while striving to help them

this year. Let’s teach our students to expect

understand our perspective.

you find yourself speaking

sibilities inherent in the arts. How cool is

would like to be treated— with respect and kindness—

inherent in this thought pro-

measuring how they stack up

me is “Being present to the

are.” We can choose how we

er than making the students

to people not from a place of

illuminated this mindset for

as accepting things as they

of “giving” something rath-

and a mentor. I get to work with teachers

past behaviors.” An important aspect of

“[a]n A is not an expectation

have over how I experience

fascinating and illuminating. I get to be

as well. If we purposefully act

it both to motivate me and, perhaps more importantly,

not without challenges, but it’s certainly

frequently states that “the best predic-

from a nurturing perspective,

and I know I can count on

references to “nightmares.” My life is

unheard or undervalued, and our students can feel this way

Zander. I have read this book

tic comments to confusion to near-angry

and students to help them realize the pos-

expectations? We all can feel

Personal Life by Rosamund

Responses range from laughter to sarcas-

or on group accomplishment? the classroom fit into these

Transforming Professional and

get as I usually say this with enthusiasm.

a husband and a dad. I get to be a friend

How does the social aspect of

books, The Art of Possibility:

live. I am fascinated by the responses I

tions focused explicitly on

individual skill development

to today. It also inspired me

dream.” It has become a mantra of sorts

One of my dear friends, Dr. Charles

Robinson,

taught

me to be “direct and polite.”

Truly words to live by.

Anyone who has spent any time with

around us. Let’s change the narrative for to grow and flourish and to be amazing. Let’s expect to be musically astonished! Reference Zander, R. S., & Zander, B. (2002). The art of possibility. Penguin Books.

August 2022

33


SOCIAL JUSTICE & DIVERSE LEARNERS COMMITTEE Alice-Ann Darrow, Chairperson

CommitteeReports

Don’t say disability! Do say disability! D

on’t say disability! Do say disability!

tions? Which major life activities? Who

Medical Model of Disability

it depends. Some individuals do not con-

are substantially limited? Sixty-one mil-

disability is a result of an individual’s

Well, which is it? The answer is …

sider themselves disabled while others

embrace the term disabled as a person-

al descriptor. Whether to say disability

depends on two factors: who the term is

being assigned to and how the term is

decides if a person’s major life activities

In the Medical Model of Disability, one’s

lion Americans live with a disability;

physical, sensory, or cognitive impair-

many of these individuals do not consider themselves to be impaired or limited in any substantial way.

Francis and Silvers (2016) defined dis-

being defined. The generally accepted

ability as “a term with different special-

by the Centers for Disease Control and

particular policy or program that uses it.

definition of disability and the one used Prevention (2022) is “any condition of the body or mind that makes it more difficult

for the person with the condition to do certain activities and interact with the world around them.” The Americans with

Disabilities Act (2022) defines an individual with a disability as “a person who

has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life

activities.” Both definitions are vague

and beg for further explanation. What is meant by limita-

ized meanings, each developed for the How disability is conceptualized shifts relative to the methodologies used to study it and the contexts in which it is addressed. The criteria for judging people to be disabled likewise fluctuate over time

and across different social and cultural

a deficit within the individual. In the

medical model, typical human traits or characteristics are valued; thus, aberra-

tions from these norms are considered defects that need to be fixed or cured. For

the many individuals who accept their disabilities or consider them to be an

important part of their personhood, the

notion that they need fixing is hurtful and

often affects their social acceptance and employment potential.

contexts” (p. 1). Their definition allows

Social Model of Disability

deserves, both in terms of the context in

ed in response to the medical model, takes

the flexibility that the word disability

The Social Model of Disability, construct-

which it is used and the individual being

a different approach to disability. The

described. It also suggests that the cultural lens through which disability is viewed

should be considered. Two such lenses are the Medical Model of Disability and

the Social Model of Disability (Haegele & Hodge, 2016).

< The disability pride flag

34

ment. These impairments are considered

social model distinguishes between disabilities and impairments. Impairments

refer to an individual’s physical condi-

tion, such as hearing loss. Disability is a result of societal barriers that affect a person’s ability to function. For persons with hearing loss, their “disability” might

be the high cost of hearing aids, the lack of

Created by Ann Magill, the

real-time captioning options, the absence

different disabilities, and

who communicate using sign language

move around

imposed by society, not their physical

in creative

remove societal barriers rather than how

zigzag colors represent

of interpreters, or attitudes toward people

how disabled people

rather than speech. Their disability is

barriers

impairment. The remedy becomes how to

ways.

to fix their hearing loss. Persons who sub-

scribe to the Social Model of Disability are


TIP: How should we talk about disability? Avoid euphemisms like “handiCAPABLE,” “differently abled,” or “special needs” that seek to soften or minimize the word “disability.” #DisabilityIsNotADirtyWord

likely to say, “Don’t say disability, at least in referring to me.”

Don’t Say Disability

Many individuals reject disability as a

basis for constructing their identity. They do not consider themselves disabled, or their disability is such an insignificant

aspect of their life that they do not iden-

tify with the term. Two specific groups

of individuals have a long history of rejecting the term disabled: those who are neurodiverse and those who are Deaf.

ing differences. The neurodiversity move-

members of the Deaf cultural group, and

to increase acceptance and inclusion of

condition of hearing loss or to individu-

ment emerged during the 1990s, aiming all people while embracing neurological differences (Balin, 2019). Many if not most

of the individuals in the autistic commu-

selves as Deaf with a capital D. There are

not mean they view themselves as dis-

abled, but rather they have a unique way of thinking or acting.

Deaf perspective. The perception of

Deaf culture. These individuals see them-

there is no right way to think, learn, or act. Differences are not considered deficits or defects. Neurodiversity is often used in

the context of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as other neurological conditions such as ADHD and learning disabil-

ities, which are often described as learn-

Those who uphold the values of Deaf

Owning the label autistic, though, does

am autistic” or “I am an autistic person.”

brain and cognition. The neurodiversity while people’s brains work differently,

speech rather than sign language.

culture and use ASL take pride in their

deafness as a disability has long been

community subscribes to the concept that

als who may have a hearing loss but use

nity prefer identity-first language as in “I

Neurodiversity perspective. Neuro-

diversity refers to variations in the human

deaf is used to refer to the audiological

challenged by those who are a part of selves as a cultural and linguistic minority group. Higgins and Lieberman (2016)

and other scholars consider the Deaf to be a community of people who use a

fully formed and legitimate language—

American Sign Language (ASL)—and who are members of a distinct minority culture. Consistent with this perspective,

Deaf refers to those who are considered

cultural identity. They describe themothers, however, who do not share the

language or social ties and thus identify more with the hearing culture. These

individuals are more apt to describe themselves as deaf with a lower case d

or with the term hard-of-hearing (Leigh, Andrews & Harris, 2018). Although the

term hearing impaired is used in IDEA, many people who are Deaf/deaf take

exception to the term, believing it has negative connotations that imply they are broken and in need of repair. Although

many professionals in the field of educa-

tion prefer to use person-first language,

as in person who is Deaf/deaf, members Continued on page 36

August 2022

35


Don’t say disability! Do say disability! Continued from page 35

of the Deaf community use the term Deaf person with pride. Using this term indicates their respect for and membership

in the Deaf community. A capital D is

used to describe this community much like those who are French or German use

a capital letter to describe themselves. In addition, their language, ASL, also mer-

its a capital, as does English or Spanish.

Thus, members of the Deaf community

to the word disability, Internet users have

ity as an integral part of who they are

What is a more positive way to say

viduals use the term disabled with pride

« « « « «

asked Google: disability?

What’s a better word for disability?

What’s an affirmative way to say disability?

What’s a nicer way to say disability? What’s another word for disability?

According to disability activist Judith

consider themselves a cultural linguistic

Heumann (2020), “The way society thinks

There are other groups that fit the defi-

many people view disability as some-

minority.

nition of persons with disabilities, and yet do not consider themselves disabled.

For example, many persons who are blind have learned to circumvent the numer-

ous environmental and societal barriers placed before them. Because they func-

tion so easily in their communities, places

of employment, and social circles, they do not consider themselves disabled. Do Say Disability

Disability is a perfectly good word. No

one should be afraid to use it or to refer to people with disabilities using the label.

There is no need for euphemisms such as special learners, exceptional learners,

people who are differently abled or physi-

cally challenged. Using such euphemisms

dirty word. There is no need to gloss over

it or try to sugarcoat it. Nevertheless, in a

condition. It is that line of thinking that prompted the person-first movement in speaking or writing about people with

36    F l o r i d a

Music Director

disabilities. Consequently, people with

disabilities often find comfort with others who have shared similar life experiences.

Disability Culture. All individuals

from other cultures, persons with dis-

ences and resilience. This common bond has resulted in what has been termed

disability culture (Jones, 2002). Culture shapes how we see the world, influ-

disabilities—putting the person before

ences our behaviors, and defines how

physical disability” rather than a “dis-

culture also determines how we make

the disability as in “a person with a

abled person.” Person-first language has

been rejected by certain disability groups, such as the neurodiversity community.

Autistic people generally prefer identity-first language, though even within that community there is not complete consen-

sus on terminology. People who prefer identity-first language use the descriptor disability with pride.

Disability Pride. Though largely

Disability Pride Day was first held in

with Disabilities Act was signed into law. New York City observed the first

official Disability Pride Month in July 2015 during celebrations of the ADA’s 25th anniversary. Disability pride is a way to

DISABILIT Y is not a four-letter word quest for a more “acceptable” alternative

as pitiable or less than persons without

abilities share a common bond of experi-

is not a negative condition, but a human

Boston in 1990, the year the Americans

not all have disabilities. Disability is not a

they are sometimes framed by society

thing to loathe or fear” (p. 1). Disability

with “varying abilities” is not an accurate All of us have varying abilities, but we do

diversity, yet with the knowledge that

share and create culture, and like those

unknown, July is Disability Pride Month.

substitute for people with “disabilities.”

and see disability as a part of human

about disability needs to evolve, as too

implies there is something unacceptable about being disabled. Similarly, people

rather than a flaw or a deficit. These indi-

recognize people who view their disabil-

we see others and ourselves. Likewise, sense of disability and respond to people

with disabilities. Persons with disabilities are viewed differently depending upon

where they live in the world. Brown (2002), the most noted author on the topic of the disability culture, shared his perspective regarding this term:

Those of us working the field of dis-

ability culture probably all agree on several basic points. First, disability culture is not the same as how different cultures treat different disabilities. Instead, disability culture is a set

of artifacts, beliefs, expressions creat-

ed by disabled people to describe our own life experiences. It is not primar-

ily how we are treated, but what we have created. Second, we recognize that disability culture is not the only

culture to which most of us belong.

We are also members of different

nationalities, religions, colors, profes-

sional groups, and so on. Disability

culture is no more exclusive than any other cultural tag (p. 49).


Implications for Practice

Students with disabilities, like all peo-

ple with disabilities, do not constitute

a homogeneous or like-minded group,

even regarding their shared disabilities. To say or not to say disability depends

on the individual. Students with the same disability may see themselves and their place in the world very differently.

Encourage them to construct their own

identity. Show deference to them and their chosen identity. View them the way they view themselves, and use their pre-

ferred terminology. Respect their choice to identify or not to identify as a person with a disability. All students learn better

when they are respected and accepted for their individuality.

School life has improved for students

with disabilities over the last 50 years, and they are rarely educated in self-con-

“The way society thinks about disability needs to evolve, as too many people view disability as something to loathe or fear. By recognizing how disabled people enrich our communities, we can all be empowered to make sure disabled people are included.”

—Judy Heumann Disability rights activist and author

tained classrooms, which only solidifies one’s identity as a student with a disabil-

ity. Students with disabilities are now

free to switch identities depending on the circumstances. In social circles, they may

not wish to disclose or identify their dis-

ability; however, in seeking services via

their IEP or 504, they may need to identify as a disabled student. As educators

and/or administrators, we need to allow students to switch identities and accept whatever identity they have chosen at a particular moment in time.

Whether disability is used to describe an

individual or a human condition, keeping the word alive in our professional con-

versations is important. When we use it without condescension or pity, we help to

destigmatize the term. As educators, we

might consider ways we can promote a positive connotation of the word disabil-

as disabled, we contribute to our collective richness and diversity. When we try to remove disability from the human

Brown, S. E. (2002). What is disability culture? Disability Studies Quarterly, 22(2), 34-50.

tributions of individuals such as Stephen

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2022). What is disability? Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/ disabilityandhealth/disability.html

experience, we lose the extraordinary conHawking, Frido Kahlo, Beethoven, van Gogh, and others. “To eliminate disability is to eliminate the possibility of discovering alternative ways of being in the world,

to foreclose the possibility of recognizing and valuing our interdependence” (Kafer,

2013, p. 83). Educators possess a powerful voice to change the way students and

others think about disability, as well as

many other perceived differences among people.

References

ity and eliminate deficit-based perspec-

Americans with Disabilities (ADA) (2022). Introduction to ADA. Retrieved from https://www.ada.gov/ada_intro.htm

our own core beliefs, values, and assump-

Bailin, A. (2019, June 6). Clearing up some misconceptions about neurodiversity. Scientific American. Online newsletter retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.

tives of disability. We might also examine tions about disability. Finally, by respect-

ing and including students who identify

com/observations/clearing-up-somemisconceptions-about-neurodiversity/

Francis, L., & Silvers, A. (2016). Perspectives on the meaning of “disability.” American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 18(10), 1025-1033. Haegele, J. A., & Hodge, S. (2016). Disability discourse: Overview and critiques of the medical and social models. Quest, 68(2), 193-206. Harris, R. L., Andrews, J. F., & Leigh, I. (2018). Deaf culture: Exploring deaf communities in the United States. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing. Higgins, M., & Lieberman, A. M. (2016). Deaf students as a linguistic and cultural minority: Shifting perspectives and implications for teaching and learning. Journal of Education, 196(1), 9-18. Heumann, J., & Joiner, K. (2020, July 20). What the ADA means to me. The New York Times (online). Retrieved from https://www.nytimes. com/2020/07/20/us/judy-heumann-alice-wonghaben-girma-disability-activists.html Kafer, A. (2013). Feminist, queer, crip. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

August 2022

37


CommitteeReports s we turn the page on summer, the

EMERGING LEADERS COMMITTEE

Mary Palmer, EdD, Chairperson

Be patient with yourself and others …

excitement of a new year, a fresh

and always be kind. Be a servant leader;

ture and cherish. What’s ahead may seem

difference in the lives of my family, my

start, and a better future are ours to nurdaunting. A shift in mindset can turn concerns into opportunities.

I find inspiration in this African prov-

erb:

ask yourself, “What can I do to make a

students, my school, my community?” There’s a huge pallet of possibility. Go for it!

I’m thrilled with the great people who

If you want to go fast ... go alone.

have joined the FMEA Emerging Leaders.

It’s together that we can really make a

pable, and the possibilities abound. One

If you want to go far … go together.

difference … actually, change the world.

Make friends in your school, in your community, in professional groups. Work

together to be all that you can be … encourage and engage in collaboration. Believe in yourself and know that if you

can dream it, you can DO it—with a little help from your friends!

The excitement and dedication are palof the things we did at our Summer

Conference was to build bridges—out of paper and masking tape. Building these

bridges was a metaphor for building bridges that bring people together. That’s

what the world needs now. Pictured here is a look at some of the results. Make it a GREAT year!

Partners Make It Possible The Florida Corporate and Academic Partners help strengthen music education in Florida through their tireless work to support teachers. FMEA expresses its greatest thanks to each of our Partners, Corporate and Academic, for their partnership over the past year. We hope that FMEA members from across the state support our partners as they support FMEA and Florida music educators. Visit https://FMEA.org/partners for more information.

38    F l o r i d a

Music Director

Academic Partners • colleges • universities • military organizations Corporate Partners • businesses • organizations


MULTICULTURAL NETWORK Bruce J. Green, Chairperson

Just say hello.

Building Relationships With Your Colleagues, Part 1 by Angela Pagunsan

H

ello! I have been a middle school band director for 13 years. I am

somewhere in between being a new teacher and a veteran teacher. I have had many

moments of success and many moments of failure. There will be many more

moments coming my way. If there’s one

thing I’ve learned along my journey, it’s an impactful but simple principle: don’t isolate yourself.

My first job was in a small district at

a Title I school. I experienced the normal woes and triumphs of a novice teacher.

Three years later, I moved to a larger school district and took over a well-

established program. It was exciting, but difficult! I was trying to fill shoes that were too big. Blaming my shortcomings

on being a novice teacher seemed futile. I felt too embarrassed to ask for help.

teachers. My high school feeder teachers

Veteran Teachers

vulnerable enough to build connections

incoming students. They are also available

longer than you. Find out what works for

Eventually I realized that I had to be

with other teachers. The first step was simply saying hello. As a new school year starts, these are the people I would reach out to:

Teachers at My School

are always clear on their expectations for

Talk to teachers who have been teaching

to come to my classroom to help provide

them by asking how they manage logis-

support and feedback. When students see the rapport you have with the high school director, it eases the transition from middle school to high school.

Building relationships with teachers and

Neighboring Middle School

to start. Do not underestimate relation-

Getting familiar with middle school

staff at my school was the easiest place ships formed as you go about your daily routine: morning duty, collaborating

on school events, faculty meetings, and working as a team to help students suc-

ceed. Eating lunch together is a great way to chat, brainstorm, or vent.

Feeder High School Teachers

As a middle school teacher, one of the

most important relationships you can form is with your high school feeder

tics for events, pedagogy, and teaching

philosophies. They are more than willing to answer any questions you have. You can also share your knowledge with them. Questions never go away.

Establishing connections with nearby

Teachers

teachers broke me out of isolation. It gave

teachers who teach at neighboring schools

dents. In part two, I will share particular

is a wonderful way to figure out community resources. They can give recom-

mendations for vendors, fundraisers, and activities that are successful in your area.

me the confidence to better serve my sturelationships that helped me find my place in the world of music education. Who will you say hello to this year?

Bringing bands to perform and listen at

Angela Pagunsan received

between directors. Planning an area mid-

of Central Florida. She is

community events builds relationships

dle school band camp also gives opportu-

nities for you to observe and learn from one another.

the BME from the University the band director at Timber

Springs Middle School in Orlando, Florida.

August 2022

39


CommitteeReports W

ith summer winding down, it’s

STUDENT DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE

Michael Antmann, EdD, Chairperson

in our profession, we can get back to pro-

Participating students will interact with

students.

lege representatives, and incredible per-

time to start thinking about the

viding life-changing experiences for our

we can provide for our students. Two

The Florida Music Education Asso-

coming school year and the opportunities years ago, we dealt with the challenges

ciation’s Student Development Comm-

Last year, much of the focus was on help-

our students:

of digital learning during the pandemic.

ing our students make up and relearn much of what was missed. As we emerge

from one of the most challenging times

ittee facilitates several opportunities for The Student Conference Experience

expands access to the annual conference to students from throughout the state.

Call for Papers – Summer 2022

amazing clinicians and educators, colforming groups. These students will have memorable experiences that they can take back and share with their high school

music programs. The program will take place on Thursday and Friday of the

2023 FMEA Professional Development Conference. Students will participate in

workshops, observe rehearsals, attend

College Night, and engage in networking and social activities with their peers.

The Tri-M Experience provides stu-

dents with experiences that will build

their leadership and advocacy skills, as well as expose them to the experienc-

Description

Florida Music Director, a previous recipient of the Music Educators’ National

Conference Award for Excellence, is the official publication of the Florida Music Education Association. The Florida Music Director contains articles of interest to music educators of all levels, from prekindergarten through college. It is published

eight times annually and distributed to more than 5,000 music teachers, district music supervisors, and other subscribers.

The Florida Music Director publishes feature articles for music educators of all lev-

els, preK through college. Articles generally focus on concepts for the practitioner

with practical ideas applicable to music teachers in all areas. Articles should clearly identify problems and offer solutions or considerations for addressing concerns or issues.

Featured articles to be considered for publication are usually three to five pages in length for printed issues and five to 10 pages in length for digital issues. Each

page should have approximately 500 words per page, be double-spaced, and include references to all citations. Most articles contain a small number of refer-

ences for work or information provided by outside sources. Citation and reference styles should adhere to the latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA). Complete instructions for submission are available at this website: https://FMEA.org/publications/florida-music-director/submission-information/.

Editor, Florida Music Director

dgspringer@fsu.edu

40    F l o r i d a

amazing clinicians and educators, college representatives, and incredible performing groups. These students will have

memorable experiences they can take music programs. The Tri-M and Student

Conference Experiences run concurrently

with some overlap; schools can choose to participate in one of these experiences.

The Student Leadership Workshop

takes place on Wednesday of the FMEA

conference. This is open to all Florida high

Submission Information

D. Gregory Springer, PhD

Participating students will interact with

back and share with their high school

Type of Submissions Sought

Questions should be directed to

es available at the annual conference.

school music students. Both the Tri-M and Student Conference Experience stu-

dents can also participate in the Student Leadership Workshop. Participants have the opportunity to learn from world-class leadership experts.

During the school year, the Student

Development Committee will be offering

webinars focused on careers in music.

Please visit the FMEA website for details

LEARN MORE AT

https://FMEA.org/publications/ florida-music-director/

about these events, as well as other

opportunities. If you have any questions, please email Michael Antmann, commit-

tee chairperson, at michaelantmann@ mac.com.

Music Director


AWARDS COMMITTEE

Sondra A. W. Collins, Chairperson

W

elcome back to school, amazing music edu-

cators! Please remember as you start this new

year that the 2023 FMEA

In 2016, after taking a summer graduate class at

FSU with Ed Prasse (chairperson, FMEA Secondary

General Music Committee), I started Rockestra at

George Jenkins High School. I remember spending

that summer in the music library reading many

awards nominations period is officially open. We want to rec-

articles about how popular music could be included in the

year. We want to shine a light on those who have demonstrated

aged educators to jump right in, without really giving a

ognize the heroes among us who have been “the light” this past

visionary thinking, resiliency, positivity, innovation, and a col-

laborative spirit. We want to hold up and empower those who persevered through a constantly changing year of music education and continued to be the light for their students and others.

Your FMEA Awards Program offers several awards in recog-

nition of the efforts and accomplishments of music educators, school administrators, superintendents, school board members, school boards, business partners, music education leaders, music advocates, music programs, and music projects that have

made outstanding contributions to music education. Your active involvement in the nomination process ensures that FMEA rec-

ognizes the most deserving individuals throughout our state. The deadline for all categories (except the Music Education Service and the Music Enrollment Awards) is September 11, 2022. Please check the FMEA website for details about the

awards and nomination process: https://FMEA.org/programs/ awards/.

As we think about colleagues to nominate and start to

percolate on new ideas for our music programs in the com-

ing school year, I’d like for you to hear from a few of our amazing 2022 FMEA awardees. Here are some inspirational ideas from our 2022 FMEA Exemplary Model Music Program

and Model Music Project awardees to get your musical creative juices flowing.

Shelby Montgomery, creator of the 2022 FMEA Exemplary

Model Music Program, Rockestra, and music educator at George Jenkins High School in Polk County, states:

As I was growing up, my music teachers had a profound

impact on my music education. Not only did they emphasize the importance of quality musical experiences, but they also

stressed the importance of leadership, community, and other lifelong skills. They provided a variety of musical activities

for me to participate in. And while it mainly included tra-

ditional large ensembles, I firmly believe that this led me down the path to discovering musical theatre, which broad-

ened my repertoire of playing styles and allowed me to keep an open mind.

secondary music classroom. Many of these articles encour-

plan of attack other than “Just do it!” I remember becoming increasingly frustrated the farther along I got that there was nothing available for the string educator. I came across a

study about the Lakewood Project in Ohio when the idea

suddenly dawned on me that by borrowing ideas from Ed’s class and taking a model like the Lakewood project, I could

create a Rock curriculum at my high school. This works in tandem with my orchestra curriculum and reinforces many of the pedagogical techniques that we learn in class. My students have become better communicators, are better at reading tricky rhythms, have improved intonation, and are more

likely to give their opinions when asked. Most importantly,

my students are playing THEIR music. I feel that music

educators are sometimes resistant to change, particularly orchestra directors. Many times we are already the forgotten people because we are not as visible as our other colleagues.

But instead of trying something new to increase our visi-

bility, we keep playing all of “the greats.” And don’t get me wrong, they really are great. But there are other genres out

there! And it’s OK to deviate from the well-trodden path. I want to encourage you to take the plunge in incorporating

an alternative style and know that it’s going to be OK. Your students won’t turn away from your large ensemble. In fact, I think it’s quite the opposite. I think they move closer to it and become stronger musicians.

Yet despite this growing interest at the state and national

levels, popular music has yet to be widely embraced by

directors. Many teachers cite a lack of knowledge, resourc-

es, and time as reasons not to teach popular music. What I truly think is unique about Rockestra, and sets it apart

from many of the other things happening around the United States, is that I am an average classroom teacher and a classically trained musician. In other words, if you’re uncomfortable and unsure where to start—it’s OK! If our

goal as music educators is to truly create lifelong musicians, then we must give them the tools to succeed long after they leave our ensembles.

Continued on page 43 August 2022

41


ResearchPuzzles FOR MUSIC TEACHERS

William I. Bauer, PhD FMEA Research Committee Chairperson, University of Florida

Practice ll musicians would agree that practice of an instrument

representations, that are used in musical performance: (1) goal

tive (technical) skills and musicianship. As a new school year

imaging is a mental representation of the sound to be pro-

or voice is essential to the development of both execu-

begins, a major goal for music teachers will be to get their

students to practice. Researchers have documented that to practice effectively, a musician must understand how to prac-

tice. In particular, deliberate practice, which is “a structured and

effortful activity, done in isolation, and specifically designed to improve one’s skills,” (Woody, 2022a, p. 2) is necessary for successful practice. Deliberate practice requires self-regulation,

which involves (a) establishing specific goals for a practice session, (b) monitoring and assessing oneself while practicing,

and then (c) adjusting the practice approach used (i.e., practice

imaging; (2) motor production; and (3) self-monitoring. Goal

duced. It is important that this auditory image is focused on the most important aspects of the sound. Motor production is

the physical actions necessary to produce a sound. Motor skills usually require a great deal of effort initially, but over time they can become automatic, relieving the performer’s cognitive

load. Self-monitoring involves comparing one’s goal image

with the sound that is actually produced. One hopes that this results in the adjustment of motor production in a manner that allows a performance to more closely match the goal image.

strategies) based on a comparison of the self-monitoring and

Methodology

musicians’ understanding of three cognitive skills that are

a large Midwestern university. They were divided into two

desired goals. Recently, Robert Woody (2022a) examined how essential aspects of music performance may affect their ability to engage in self-regulative practice. Review of Literature

The theoretical framework for Woody’s study was based on a three-component model of cognitive skills, described as mental

The study’s participants were 100 sophomore music majors at equal groups. One received a treatment (experimental group)

while the other did not receive the treatment (the control

group). Students in both groups were instructed to engage in 15 to 20 minutes of formal practice, defined as “effortful, done

in isolation, and designed to improve skill” (Woody, 2022a, p. 4). While free to choose the specific musical material to practice, the students were asked to work on something related to

musical expression—more than correct pitches and rhythms. The

treatment group received a written document that described the three component cognitive skills of music performance.

The control group did not receive information about the component cognitive skills; rather, they were prompted to

consider what they thought about before, during, and after their practice session. Following their practice sessions, both groups were given specific prompts to respond to in writing. The experimental group’s prompts asked them to comment on

the goal imaging, motor production, and self-monitoring they employed while practicing, as well as their overall impressions of the experience (whether they believed their skill improved and if they felt a focus on the cognitive skills made their

practice more effective). The control group was prompted to

comment on their thoughts before, during, and after practicing, and whether they thought their skills improved and their practice was effective.

42    F l o r i d a

Music Director


CommitteeReports This on-going column seeks to stimulate awareness of research issues for FMEA teachers and researchers.

AWARDS COMMITTEE

Continued from page 41

And Alexander Busby, creator of the 2022 FMEA Exemplary

Model Music Project, Project Grow Music, and music educator at Oviedo High School in Seminole County, states: Results and Implications

When I was thinking about what to say, I immediately

combination of qualitative and quantitative tech-

school system, the fall of 2020, a year that no teacher will

reported that their practice was effective while only

attended, online of course, in which our principal told new

to this question. Woody points out that when stu-

survival. When I think about survival, I immediately think

be more motivated to continue to engage in it. The

under extreme pressure, when all else fails. Survival was

The researcher analyzed the resulting data using a

thought back to my first year of teaching in the public

niques. Nearly 92% of the experimental group

soon forget. I thought back to my first faculty meeting I

64.7% of the control group gave a positive response

and old teachers alike that the key to that school year was

dents have self-efficacy about their practice, they will

of something that is a last resort. Something that you do

frequency with which students in the experimental

our theme.

group reported indicators of self-regulation (time management, avoiding distraction, using advice,

and keeping records) and effective practice strategies

(slowing, chaining/chunking, and resource use) was significantly greater than the control group.

It is not enough just to tell students to “go prac-

tice.” Music educators need to teach their students

how to practice. In this study, something as simple as making students aware of three component cog-

nitive skills was enough to change their approach to practice and make them feel more self-efficacious about practicing. Music teachers can provide developmentally appropriate instruction on deliberate

practice, self-regulation, and effective practice strategies to empower their students for success as musi-

cal performers. For a more complete discussion of musical practice, readers are encouraged to examine Dr. Woody’s book chapter on the topic (Woody, 2022b).

References Woody, R. H. (2022a). University musicians’ use of component cognitive skills in practice: A self-report study. Psychology of Music. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/03057356221095259 Woody, R. H. (2022b). Practice. In, R. H. Woody, Psychology for musicians: Understanding and acquiring the skills (2nd ed., pp. 66-91). Oxford University Press.

Email your questions and feedback to wbauer@ufl.edu with a subject heading Research Puzzles.

As a new teacher, I took it as a challenge, one that

told me, “You can rise above. What else can you do to exceed survival?!” Many instances, survival was all I could achieve, but I set a goal for myself that I would thrive throughout the year, and not only survive.

When I think about what thriving looks like in music

education, I think of two clear points to thriving. One is

you have to have a love for music—the content. And sec-

ond, you have to have a love for people—those you work

with, those students you deal with on a day-to-day basis,

and seek to understand where they’re coming from when they enter your classroom. When you combine these two elements in a way that works for your classroom, then you

are able to achieve new areas of creativity and opportunities for students to be creative. Thriving’s ultimate byproduct is creativity. And so throughout the year, I was seeking

opportunities for my students to be creative. Creative with

those who are in the classroom and creative with those who were joining us virtually. It was hard to do. I often

failed. It was very difficult. But still my goal was to thrive, not just to survive.

As I think about this project and having been selected

for this award, I am extremely grateful because I get to tell others that it’s not just me who can thrive. Not just me who can create a project in which high levels of creativity can be achieved by students. It’s all of you. Every music educator has the potential to thrive, to rise above survival and to

thrive. So, my challenge for you is to seek to thrive in every scenario. The byproduct will be great levels of creativity, unlike you’ve seen before. You can do it!

August 2022

43


Please take time to thank and support our 2021-2022 Academic Partners.

GOLD PARTNERS

BRONZE PARTNERS Cannon Music Camp - Appalachian State University Florida Southern College Orlando Philharmonic Orchestra Rollins College Department of Music

University of North Texas The University of Tampa Valdosta State University

Partners as of July 11, 2022.

*Please visit FMEA.org/partners for partnership details or call 850-878-6844.

44    F l o r i d a

Music Director


Please take time to thank and support our 2021-2022 Corporate Partners.

GOLD PARTNERS

Bornoff Foundation for the Advancement of String Education (FASE, Inc.)

SILVER PARTNERS The Horn Section, Inc.

Cardinal Digital Marketing Cathy’s Choir Class Eastman Music Company Head’s House of Music J. W. Pepper & Son, Inc. Meloquest, Inc.

BRONZE PARTNERS

Music & Arts Music is Elementary Music Man, Inc. Romeo Music West Music Company

Partners as of July 11, 2022.

*Please visit FMEA.org/partners for partnership details or call 850-878-6844. August 2022

45


ExecutiveDirector’sNotes

FMEA Executive Director

The mission of the Florida Music Education Association is to promote quality, comprehensive

Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD

music education in all Florida schools.

FMEA: Moving Music Education Forward

I

n the last two years we all have spent countless hours learn-

Legislative Session/Government Relations

ing new technologies and strategies to continue educating

The 2023 Legislative Session will begin on March 7 and will end

students have been varied. Many have demonstrated strong

bills are being filed this summer. Please look for communication

our students. The reactions of our teachers, administrators, and resilience with the the capacity to recover quickly from the dif-

ficulties. We also know that many did not have this resilience, and this has led to a vast teacher shortage. The leadership of

FMEA convened a Think Tank group in June to contemplate this and other issues we are facing as we work to move music educa-

tion forward in Florida. The results of the Think Tank are being reviewed, and Florida music educators will be asked to assist as we navigate the difficulties confronting our profession.

One of the major discussions focused on the biggest threat

on May 5. Committee meetings will begin in September, and

coming from FMEA to assist us with reviewing the bills. If you have any questions about the bills as they move through the process, please call Dr. Kathy Sanz at the FMEA office. IMPORTANT LEGISLATIVE DATES Primary Elections:

August 23, 2022

General Election:

November 8, 2022

2023 Legislative Session:

March 7, 2023 – May 5, 2023

to music education in Florida: not having enough teachers to

Professional Development Opportunities for Members

that there are teacher shortages in many content areas, there are

State Concerts is Unity in Music Education: Building Communities

Yet the State of Florida does not include music education in

Chipman’s leadership of this confer-

potential employees from other states don’t see Florida listed. A

September, and we look forward to

perception that there are no jobs available in music; we know

face-to-face in Tampa.

in the districts. The number of students majoring in music edu-

Committee met during July and is plan-

meet the needs of our students and schools. While we are aware

The theme of the 2023 FMEA Professional Development and All-

many, many shortages in music education within our schools.

One Note at a Time. We’re looking forward to Dr. Shelby

the list of teacher shortages for our state. This is a problem, as

ence. Registration will be available in

combination of problems compounds the shortages. There is the

coming together January 11-14, 2023,

that to be false as discussions take place with music supervisors

The

Professional

Development

cation in colleges and universities is declining.

ning several professional development opportunities for teach-

music in our schools with our students; educate parents, admin-

sessions.

music education; promote a wider, diverse teaching field; and

Florida School Music Association

to develop and organize Tri-M chapters in middle schools and

Leadership Symposium for secondary teachers to assist in devel-

Therefore, we need to do the following: promote teaching

istrators, and guidance counselors about the possibilities in

ers. Please watch for announcements about upcoming training

“grow our own.” In addition, at the secondary level, we need

The Florida School Music Association (FSMA) hosted a

high schools. We need to communicate about the profession in a

oping leadership for our components FBA, FOA, and FVA.

positive way with students and parents.

FMEA will be working within the state and with national

associations to help turn this around so we have more music teachers entering the profession than are leaving it. With on-

Stay tuned to our website and read our monthly eNews that

is emailed to you to keep you apprised of FMEA’s many projects.

I’m looking forward to the 2022-23 school year! Keep in tune

and involved with your state professional association.

going discussions about how teaching music education in Florida is critically important, we can change the narrative. Stay tuned, and let us know your thoughts and ideas.

46    F l o r i d a

Music Director

Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD


F LO R I DA M U S I C E D U C AT I O N A SSO C I AT I O N

Officers and Directors

EXECUTIVE BOARD President

Shelby Chipman, PhD

Florida A&M University, Department of Music Foster-Tanner Music Bldg., Room 318 Tallahassee, FL 32307; (850) 599-8165 shelby.chipman@famu.edu Past President

Steven N. Kelly, PhD

Florida State University; College of Music, KMU 330 Tallahassee, FL 32306 (850) 644-4069; skelly@admin.fsu.edu President-Elect

Jason Locker

Orange County Public Schools 445 W. Amelia St.; Orlando, FL 32801 (407) 317-3200; jasonlocker@fmea.org FBA President

Bernard (Bernie) Hendricks, Jr.

Ocoee High School 1925 Ocoee Crown Point Pkwy.; Ocoee, FL 34761 bernard.hendricks@ocps.net FCMEA President

Marc Decker, DMA

Florida Atlantic University 777 Glades Rd.; Boca Raton, FL 33431 (561) 297-3883; deckerm@fau.edu

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS

FLORIDA COLLEGE MUSIC EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION

Historian/Parliamentarian & Executive Director....................................................Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD Hinckley Center for Fine Arts Education 402 Office Plaza Dr.; Tallahassee, FL 32301-2757 (850) 878-6844; Fax: (850) 942-1793; kdsanz@fmea.org

President......................................................................... Marc Decker, DMA Florida Atlantic University; 777 Glades Rd.; Boca Raton, FL 33431 deckerm@fau.edu

Editor-in-Chief.....................................................D. Gregory Springer, PhD FSU College of Music; 122 N. Copeland St.; Tallahassee, FL 32306 (850) 644-2925; dgspringer@fsu.edu

President....................................................................................Allison Yopp Southeastern University; ayopp@seu.edu

FSMA President .......................................................................Jane Goodwin jane.goodwin@sarasotacountyschools.net

FMEA COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSONS

Past President............................................................ Ernesta Chicklowski Roosevelt Elementary School; 3205 S. Ferdinand Ave.; Tampa, FL 33629 (813) 272-3090; ernesta.chicklowski@sdhc.k12.fl.us

Conference Planning Committee.............................John K. Southall, PhD Indian River State College; 3209 Virginia Ave.; Fort Pierce, FL 34981 (772) 462-7810; johnsouthall@me.com Contemporary Media................................................... David Williams, PhD University of South Florida; 4202 E. Fowler Ave., MUS 101 Tampa, FL 33620; (813) 974-9166; davidw@usf.edu Emerging Leaders............................................................ Mary Palmer, EdD 11410 Swift Water Cir.; Orlando, FL 32817 (407) 382-1661; mpalmerassoc@aol.com FMEA Corporate & Academic Partners.....................................Fred Schiff All County Music; 8136 N. University Dr.; Tamarac, FL 33321-1708 (954) 722-3424; fred@allcountymusic.com Government Relations..................................................Jeanne W. Reynolds jeannewrey@gmail.com Health & Wellness........................................................ Revae Douglas Ross Brandon High School; 1101 Victoria St.; Brandon, FL 33510 (813) 744-8120, ext. 311; revae.douglas@hcps.net

Professional Development/Committee Council.....................Scott Evans Orange County Public Schools; 445 S. Amelia St.; Orlando, FL 32801 (407) 317-3200; scott.evans@ocps.net

Southeastern University ayopp@seu.edu Florida NAfME Collegiate Advisor

Mark A. Belfast, Jr., PhD

Southeastern University 1000 Longfellow Blvd.; Lakeland, FL 33801 (863) 667-5104; mabelfast@seu.edu FMSA President

Lindsey R. Williams, PhD

Seminole County Public Schools (407) 320-0434; willialz2@scps.k12.fl.us FOA President

Laurie Bitters

Winter Park High School 2100 Summerfield Rd.; Winter Park, FL 32792 (407) 622-3200; laurie.bitters@gmail.com FVA President

Jeannine Stemmer

Florida Christian School 4200 SW 89th Ave.; Miami, FL 33165 j9stemmer@floridachristian.org Member-at-Large

Chad Norton

Miami Northwestern Senior High School cnorton@dadeschools.net

FLORIDA ELEMENTARY MUSIC EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION

Budget/Finance, Development................................ Shelby Chipman, PhD Florida A&M University, Department of Music, Foster-Tanner Music Bldg., Room 318 Tallahassee, FL 32307; (850) 599-8165; shelby.chipman@famu.edu

Holy Trinity Episcopal Academy 1720 Peachtree St.; Melbourne, FL 32901 joanislawson@gmail.com

Allison Yopp

Past President..........................................................................Alexis Hobbs Southeastern University; (352) 220-2791; aphobbs@seu.edu

President.................................................................................Joani Slawson Holy Trinity Episcopal Academy; 1720 Peachtree St.; Melbourne, FL 32901 joanislawson@gmail.com

Multicultural Network...........................................................Bruce J. Green (407) 927-3141; bruce.green@ocps.net

Florida NAfME Collegiate President

Florida NAfME Collegiate

Awards............................................................................Sondra A. W. Collins sondra.collins@marion.k12.fl.us

FEMEA President

Joani Slawson

Reclamation.............................................................................. Chad Norton Miami Northwestern Senior High School; 1100 NW 71st St.; Miami, FL 33150; cnorton@dadeschools.net Research......................................................................William I. Bauer, PhD University of Florida; wbauer@ufl.edu Secondary General Music.............................................................Ed Prasse Leon High School; 550 E. Tennessee St.; Tallahassee, FL 32308 (850) 617-5700; prassee@leonschools.net Social Justice & Diverse Learners.........................Alice-Ann Darrow, PhD alifsu@mac.com Student Development.............................................. Michael Antmann, EdD Freedom High School; 2500 W. Taft-Vineland Rd.; Orlando, FL 32837 (407) 816-5600; michael.antmann@ocps.net

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE Exhibits Manager fmeaexhibits@fmea.org Local Chairman Ted Hope—(813) 272-4861; ted.hope@sdhc.k12.fl.us

Executive Director............................................................. Jennifer Sullivan 1750 Common Way Rd., Orlando, FL 32814 (321) 624-5433; slljenn@aol.com

FLORIDA MUSIC SUPERVISION ASSOCIATION President.............................................................. Lindsey R. Williams, PhD Seminole County Public Schools (407) 320-0434; willialz2@scps.k12.fl.us Past President............................................................Harry “Skip” Pardee pardeh@collierschools.com Treasurer......................................................................................... Ted Hope Hillsborough County Public Schools, School Administration Center 901 E. Kennedy Blvd.; Tampa, FL 33602 (813) 272-4861; ted.hope@sdhc.k12.fl.us

FLORIDA ORCHESTRA ASSOCIATION President.................................................................................Laurie Bitters Winter Park High School; 2100 Summerfield Rd.; Winter Park, FL 32792 (407) 622-3200; laurie.bitters@gmail.com Past President.......................................................................Matthew Davis Harrison School for the Arts; 750 Hollingsworth Rd.; Lakeland, FL 33801 (863) 499-2855; matthew.lawson.davis@gmail.com Executive Director............................................................. Donald Langland 220 Parsons Woods Dr.; Seffner, FL 33594 (813) 502-5233; Fax: (813) 502-6832; exdirfoa@yahoo.com

FLORIDA VOCAL ASSOCIATION President........................................................................ Jeannine Stemmer Florida Christian School, 4200 SW 89th Ave.; Miami, FL 33165 j9stemmer@floridachristian.org Past President......................................................................... Jason Locker jason@fva.net Executive Director.....................................................................Michael Dye 231 S. Bayshore Dr.; Valparaiso, FL 32580 (850) 217-7419; mike@fva.net Business Manager..................................................................Jo Hagan, CPA 8975 San Rae Rd.; Jacksonville, FL 32257 (904) 379-2245; Fax: (904) 379-2260; business@fva.net

CENTER FOR FINE ARTS EDUCATION

402 Office Plaza Dr.; Tallahassee, FL 32301-2757 (850) 878-6844; Fax: (850) 942-1793 President..................................... Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD (kdsanz@fmea.org)

FLORIDA BANDMASTERS ASSOCIATION

Director of Operations........................Valeria Anderson, IOM (val@fmea.org)

President...................................................Bernard (Bernie) Hendricks, Jr. Ocoee High School; 1925 Ocoee Crown Point Pkwy.; Ocoee, FL 34761 bernard.hendricks@ocps.net

Public Affairs & Communications Coordinator..................................... Jenny Abdelnour, CAE (jenny@fmea.org)

Technology Director......................................Josh Bula, PhD (josh@fmea.org)

Past President..........................................................................Ian Schwindt Titusville High School; 150 Terrier Trail S.; Titusville, FL 32780-4735 (321) 264-3108; schwindt.ian@brevardschools.org

Marketing & Membership Coordinator................................. Jasmine Van Weelden (jasmine@fmea.org)

Executive Director......................................................................Neil Jenkins Florida Bandmasters Association P.O. Box 840135; Pembroke Pines, FL 33084 (954) 432-4111; Fax: (954) 432-4909; exec@fba.flmusiced.org

AFFILIATIONS

Business Manager..................................................................Jo Hagan, CPA 8975 San Rae Rd.; Jacksonville, FL 32257 (904) 379-2245; Fax: (904) 379-2260; jo@barefootaccounting.com

August 2022

47


SAVE THE DATES

48    F l o r i d a

Music Director