Page 1

The Fluent High School Flutist Effective & Efficient:

Modeling in the Choral Rehearsal A History of the

Florida A&M University Choral Music Division and Choral Ensembles

PLUS: June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship Candidates for FBA President-Elect

EVEN TEACHERS NEED TEACHERS As an educator, one of the most impactful ways to improve is by educating yourself. That’s why the Yamaha Educator Suite (YES) helps music teachers access professional development opportunities, music teacher resources, program health support, advocacy assistance and more. YES brings you a network of like-minded teachers, experts and professionals, who want to help you achieve your goals. Let us help you raise the bar. Go to Yamaha.io/educatorsFMD


Florida Music Director

Executive Director Florida Music Education Association Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD

Hinckley Center for Fine Arts Education

402 Office Plaza Tallahassee, FL 32301 (850) 878-6844 or (800) 301-3632 (kdsanz@fmea.org)


D. Gregory Springer, PhD Florida State University College of Music 122 N. Copeland Street Tallahassee, FL 32306 (850) 644-2925 (office) (dgspringer@fsu.edu)

Contents April 2021

Volume 74 • Number 7


Reflections of FMEA Past Presidents. . . . . . . 6-7

Candidates for FBA President-Elect. . . . . . . 12-13

Editorial Committee Terice Allen (850) 245-8700, Tallahassee (tallen1962@hotmail.com) Judy Arthur, PhD Florida State University, KMU 222 (850) 644-3005 (jrarthur@fsu.edu) William Bauer, PhD University of Florida, Gainesville (352) 273-3182; (wbauer@ufl.edu) Alice-Ann Darrow, PhD College of Music, FSU, Tallahassee (850) 645-1438; (aadarrow@fsu.edu) Jeanne Reynolds Pinellas County Schools, Largo (727) 588-6055; (reynoldsj@pcsb.org) John K. Southall, PhD Indian River State College, Fort Pierce (772) 462-7810; (johnsouthall@fmea.org)

Advertising Sales

Valeria Anderson (val@fmea.org) 402 Office Plaza Tallahassee, FL 32301 (850) 878-6844

Official FMEA and FMD Photographers

Bob O’Lary Debby Stubing

Art Director & Production Manager Lori Danello Roberts LDR Design Inc. (lori@flmusiced.org)

Circulation & Copy Manager

Valeria Anderson, (800) 301-3632

Copy Editor

Susan Trainor

The Fluent High School Flutist. . . . . . . . . . . . 15 A History of the Florida A&M University Choral Music Division and Choral Ensembles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Effective & Efficient: Modeling in the Choral Rehearsal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Music Teachers Are Leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . .


Teaching in a Pandemic World.. . . . . . . . . . . 32 June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 FCAP: If You Rebuild It, They Will Come.. . . . 45 D E PA R T M E N T S

President’s Message. . . . . . . . . . 5

Committee Reports. . . . . . . . . 42

Advocacy Report. . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Research Puzzles. . . . . . . . . . . 50

Academic Partners. . . . . . . . . . 28

Advertiser Index. . . . . . . . . . . 51

Corporate Partners . . . . . . . . . 29

Executive Director’s Notes. . . . . 52

Component News.. . . . . . . . . . 33

Officers and Directors.. . . . . . . 53

2020-21 FMEA Donors. . . . . . . 38 April 2021


Session 2

Anti-Racism for Music Educators:

Moving Beyond SEL and Representation presented by Alysia Lee March 30, 2021 7:00-8:00 PM EDT Free for FMEA members

F M E A Professional Development Series

Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, & Access in the Music Classroom The Professional Development Committee is hosting a four-part mini-series designed to lay the foundation for more inclusive music classrooms in Florida schools. As part of this series, participants will explore the elements of diversity, equity, inclusion, and access as a way to encourage intentionality toward meeting the goal of music education for ALL students. Each of the four sessions will be 60 minutes long and will include opportunities for interactivity.

Session 1 Feb. 22, 2021 7:00 PM EST

Session 2 Mar. 30, 2021 7:00 PM EDT

Session 3 Apr. 19, 2021 7:00 PM EDT

Visit fmea.org/programs/webinars to register to attend. Registration is free for all FMEA members. 4

Florida Music Director

Session 4 May 17, 2021 7:00 PM EDT

Steven N. Kelly, PhD


President Florida Music Education Association

Moving Forward: Hope & Vigilance


ello, FMEA members! It is amazing how far we

national advocacy effort is good, the best advocacy that

from programs being closed almost overnight to many

music teacher at his or her individual school. You must be

have come since the beginning of the pandemic,

programs now rehearsing and performing. I see hope, but I caution you to be vigilant. Music education in the United States has experienced similar conditions in

our past. During the Progressive Era of the late-1800s

through the mid-1900s, our profession experienced the “Golden Age” of music education. During this time, it was not unusual for entire school enrollments to be in

a music class. Performing ensembles were thriving, and nonperformance classes such as music appreciation were

attracting students looking for a different type of music

will help our programs grow again begins with each your own best advocate for your program and your students!

You must be your own Albert Einstein! Perhaps one of the greatest mistakes during the “Golden Age” of music education was that music teachers assumed their students,

schools, and communities would always want music,

that they would always see the value of music. Thus, we must be vigilant and never miss opportunities to inform everyone of our contributions to every student’s complete education.

As we begin the slow return from the pandemic, we

experience. There was music for all. Communities val-

must have hope for our future, but we must be vigilant.

to expand the knowledge of other fields. Then came the

negatively affect our music programs, our music stu-

ued music and sought it out as a way to enjoy life and

launch of the Russian satellite Sputnik 1. Fear caused the first “back to basics” movement, literally closing down

successful music programs overnight. Then came hope,

as the scientists, led by Albert Einstein, championed

music’s value in our lives and advocated for music as part of a quality education. The vigilance paid off, and music programs started to grow again.

We are approaching that crossroad again. We have

hope as our schools and communities appear to be realizing the void of not having school music in their lives.

While this is positive sign, we cannot assume our music

programs will thrive again without vigilance through a significant advocacy effort. Since Sputnik, communities

and music educators have frequently come together to

We must not allow others to make decisions that could

dents, and the value of music in our communities. As I have written before, my crystal ball has not been helpful

in letting me know what the future will look like; howev-

er, I strongly suspect that much of our programs will look very familiar, but much will also change. I encourage you to take this opportunity and evaluate every aspect of your program. What has worked? What has not worked? What might be done differently, from music to admin-

istration to processes and products? This is a unique opportunity to make music education better than it has

ever been. By being your best advocate and reexamining your programs, perhaps we can create a second “Golden Age”!

My colleagues, there is hope, but we must be vigilant.

discuss the value and role of music education in our

Florida music educators have been challenged, but they

Research and Teacher Education Conference and PreK-12

ever. Florida music educators are the best. Thank you for

society. This most recently occurred at the national Music

Learning Collaborative sponsored by NAfME. While this

have “rung the bell”! We can be stronger and better than all you do, and how you do it.


Steven N. Kelly, PhD, President

Florida Music Education Association

April 2021


Dr. Russell L. Robinson, PhD President, 1995-1997 Florida Music Education Association

Reflections of an FMEA Past President


hen asked by Val Anderson, director of operations

(e.g., the Haydn Trumpet Concerto) with digital, sampled

cy of FMEA, it gave me the opportunity to recall many

ence. Would you be interested in having him as your

for FMEA, to write a reflection on my presiden-

wonderful experiences, hopefully shared by those of you around at the time. I remember in the fall of 1992 receiving a call from Frank Howes, president of the Florida

Bandmasters Association. I was 40 years old at the time.

His question: Would you consider running for presi-

dent-elect of FMEA? After catching my breath, I said, “I’d like to discuss it with my family and get back to you.” I

called back a couple of days later with a resounding YES! After being elected president-elect at the FMEA con-

ference in 1993, I began my two-year term and tried to “learn the ropes.” I had an awareness of board meetings, as I had been the state advisor for the Collegiate FMEA and also served as the music technology chairman.

Technology was “very different” then. Andre Arrouet was president, and we, together with the board, had to

make some immediate, tough decisions and transitions in

orchestrations. We’d like to send him to a state confer-

FMEA keynote speaker and performer?” My response to Mr. Paulson was, of course, YES! Coda paid all of the

expenses and the honorarium. We “landed” Wynton Marsalis as our keynote speaker and performer for free!

I remember being nervous as he arrived from Japan early the morning of his keynote, and after his spectacular performance and presentation, he stayed and signed every

autograph requested by the all-state participants who

were also packed in the auditorium, as the FMEA board

had made sure they were there. We also had the U.S. Air Force Band and Singing Sergeants on the second general session. For the 1997 conference, we had the U.S. Navy

Band on one of the general sessions. Both of my parents

were alive then, and I was able to sit with them on the front row for the performance.

These are but a few of my highlights as president.

the FMEA office in Tallahassee. The FMEA office is now a

During my tenure as president, we transitioned from Bob

Val Anderson as director of operations.

ence exhibits managers. We now miss all four of them,

“dream team” with Kathy Sanz as executive director and My presidency began in July 1995, just

a month shy of my being 43 years old.

The first big item on the agenda for me

was “what to do for the 1996 conference?” Bobby Adams, a sage to many, including me, who always told it like it was, said to

along with June Hinckley, who was the Florida DOE arts coordinator and later NAfME president, Bobby Adams, and so many other leaders as well as both of my parents

who have passed on. My, how we loved them all. Friends and colleagues, make great memories while you can!

Trying to keep this reflection brief, so suffice it to say:

me and the board when he was FMEA

It was an honor and privilege to have served as your

We need to have more music on the con-

protocols have made teaching music a most challenging

president, “This is a music conference.

Photo by Clay McBride

and Lois Drumm to Byron and Bobbie Smith as confer-

ference by professionals as role models.” I remembered that, and coincidentally (or providentially), in fall 1995, I was in

the UF music office when they said, “Dr. Robinson, you have a phone call.” It was

FMEA president. The present COVID-19 pandemic and

time. I am so encouraged by the faith and tenacity teach-

ers have shown during this time. Bravo! And, as I say, “musician educators always find a way.”

Jon Paulson, president of Coda Music, and later Finale

Russell L. Robinson

with us and helping us program classical solo repertoire

University of Florida

and Smart Music. He said, “Wynton Marsalis is working

6    F l o r i d a

Music Director

Emeritus Professor of Music Education

Beth Ann Cummings President, 2013-2015 Florida Music Education Association

Reflections of an FMEA Past President


hange—it is the one constant we can depend on in education, and the years during my presidency

(2013-2015) were no exception. Acronyms became more challenging as we added RTTT (Race to the Top—or as

I liked to refer to it, “the crawl to the finish”), NGSSS (Next Generation Sunshine State Standards), PFAAP

pandemic! The changing of students’ lives through music has become more important than the issues we face.

2. I have also learned that we need each other. Leaning

on and learning from my colleagues continues to be immeasurably important as we endure and over-

(Performing Fine Arts Assessment Project, part of the

come obstacles in teaching. After nearly 30 years in

(end-of-course exams). As music educators, we were in

important than ever.

RTTT), ESSA (Every Student Succeeds Act), and EOCs the midst of high accountability with an extraordinary

this profession, learning from my colleagues is more

To my young colleagues who are questioning how

focus on assessment, and the state was struggling with

long they can continue in this profession: You will

Danielson ring a bell?)

mastering an extremely difficult profession. What we do

how to evaluate teachers. (Do Marzano, Cambridge, and And yet, music education remained a strong founda-

tion of a child’s complete education for all of Florida’s

students. FMEA’s conference focus was RELEVANCY—

both in what we teach and in our professional develop-

ment. To that end, we restructured our sponsors into Corporate and Academic Partners, with the guidance of Fred Schiff and Kathy Sanz. Our Black Caucus

was reorganized into the Multicultural Network, with Bernie Hendricks leading the way. College Night was first instituted as a way to connect our all-state students

with colleges and universities. A third set of cohort data from the 2013-14 school year was released, which contin-

ued to solidify that there is a strong correlation of time spent in the arts with student

achievement. We saw record attendance at our conference,

which was supported by the great FMEA staff. It was a busy two years!

So, here we are in 2021. I

like to ask people after an

event or a challenging time,

experience unforgettable joys while you work toward

is not easy, but it is so worth it. Take time for yourself,

reflect and recalibrate. We all get off track at times— give yourself grace and space to recover. When you

focus on students and give of your knowledge and tal-

ents rather than focus on your own accolades, the latter will come. And when it gets really hard, lean on your

colleagues; they understand like no other. FMEA is an

anchor you can count on as it continues to be a source of information, an entity that serves music educators and

is an advocate for music education throughout the state and the nation.


The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung noted: “One looks

back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but

What did you Learn

“What did you learn?” Here is my answer:

1. I have learned that music teachers have this wonder-

ful, innate ability to persevere and make beautiful music, no matter what the challenge. Yes, even in a

with gratitude to those who touched

our human feelings. The curriculum is

so much necessary raw material, but warmth is the vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of the

child.” Through YOU, let music educa-

tion be that vital element in a child’s soul.

Beth Ann Cummings Director of Fine Arts

School Board of Polk County

April 2021



Jeanne W. Reynolds

Chairwoman Government Relations Committee

Legislative Session in Full Swing


hanks to our FMEA Government Relations Committee for producing “just in time” 60-second advocacy videos

to help all FMEA members be highly effective advocates. The committee is busy following all education-related legislation. Our highest priority is to pass the Seal of Fine Arts Legislation,

Senate Bill 1740 (see pages 9-11). There is an identical House Bill

1375. We are sincerely grateful to Senator Darryl Rouson and Representative Ben Diamond from Pinellas County for championing this bill. Let’s honor their hard work by getting this bill

passed! Your

BECOME THE MUSIC EDUCATOR THE WORLD NEEDS YOU TO BE Earn a Master of Music in Music Education degree in just one year— SOCIAL CHANGE | EQUITY | ACCESS | INCLUSION

“Just as our close community of faculty and students inspire others, we will prepare you to do the same for your students.”

—Erin Zaffini, MM/ME Chair




8    F l o r i d a

Music Director

job is to… Be engaged Be informed Be empowered Be prepared to act

Florida Senate - 2021

SB 1740

By Senator Rouson 1



A bill to be entitled


An act relating to the Florida Seal of Fine Arts


Florida Seal of Fine Arts Program within the

3 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14

15 16 17 18 19

Program; creating s. 1003.4321, F.S.; establishing the Department of Education; providing the purpose of the program; specifying eligibility requirements for the awarding of a Seal of Fine Arts; defining the term “work of art”; authorizing the State Board of

Education to adopt additional requirements for the award of a seal; requiring the Commissioner of

Education and school districts to perform specified

duties to administer the program; prohibiting a school district or the Department of Education from charging

a fee for the seal; requiring the state board to adopt rules; providing an effective date.

Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida: Section 1. Section 1003.4321, Florida Statutes, is created


to read:




within the Department of Education to recognize high school



21 23 25 27 28 29

1003.4321 Florida Seal of Fine Arts Program for high school

(1) The Florida Seal of Fine Arts Program is established

graduates who have met exemplary benchmarks in fine arts

(2) The purpose of the Florida Seal of Fine Arts Program is

to encourage students to develop an exemplary level of proficiency in the performing or visual arts. Page 1 of 3

CODING: Words stricken are deletions; words underlined are additions.

April 2021


Florida Senate - 2021


SB 1740



(3)(a) Beginning with the 2021-2022 school year, the Seal


of Fine Arts shall be awarded to a high school student who has


least three year-long courses in dance, music, theatre, or the

32 34 35 36 37 38

earned a standard high school diploma, successfully completed at visual arts with a grade of “A” or higher in each course or

earned three sequential course credits in such courses with a

grade of “A” or higher in each course, and meets a minimum of two of the requirements below:

1. Successfully complete a fine arts International


Baccalaureate, Advanced Placement, Dual Enrollment, or honors


“B” or higher.

40 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

course in the subjects listed in paragraph (a) with a grade of 2. Participate in a district or statewide organization

juried event as a selected student participant for two or more years.

3. Record at least 25 volunteer hours of arts-related

community service in his or her community and present a comprehensive presentation on his or her experiences.

4. Meet the requirements of a portfolio-based program


identifying the student as an exemplary practitioner of the fine


5. Receive district, state, or national recognition for the




creation and submission of an original work of art or


art” means a musical or theatrical composition, visual art work,

53 55 56 57 58

performance. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “work of or choreographed routine or performance.

(b) The State Board of Education may establish additional

criteria for the award of the Seal of Fine Arts. (4) The Commissioner of Education shall: Page 2 of 3

CODING: Words stricken are deletions; words underlined are additions.

10    F l o r i d a

Music Director

Florida Senate - 2021


SB 1740



(a) Prepare for and provide to each school district an


appropriate seal to be affixed to a student’s diploma indicating


(b) Provide appropriate benchmarks in rubric form necessary

61 63 64 65

that the student has been awarded the Seal of Fine Arts.

for a school district to successfully implement the program. (5) Each school district shall:

(a) Maintain appropriate records to identify a student who


has met the requirements to receive a Seal of Fine Arts.


of students who have met the requirements to receive a Seal of

67 69 70

(b) Provide the Commissioner of Education with the number

Fine Arts.

(c) Affix the appropriate insignia to the student’s diploma


and indicate on the student’s transcript that the student has


(6) A school district or the department may not charge a


earned a Seal of Fine Arts.


fee for a Seal of Fine Arts.


administer this section, including, but not limited to:


of the requirements in subsection (3) through the creation of a

75 77 79 80 81 82

(7) The State Board of Education shall adopt rules to (a) A process to confirm a student’s successful completion


(b) Any additional requirements a student must meet to be

awarded the Seal of Fine Arts.

Section 2. This act shall take effect July 1, 2021.

Page 3 of 3

CODING: Words stricken are deletions; words underlined are additions.

April 2021



Jeff Cayer J

eff Cayer is in his fifth year as

conducted numerous honor bands

Wilson Middle School in South

and he directed the 2016 Florida

in both jazz and concert settings,

director of bands at Woodrow





Middle School All-State Band. Jeff


serves as the jazz adjudicator train-

Wilson Middle School staff, Mr.

er for the state of Florida, where he

Cayer served as director of bands

is responsible for the approval and

at Southwest Middle School in

renewal of new jazz adjudicators.

Lakeland from 1995 until 2016.

Jeff has presented many FMEA and

Over his 26 years of public school

FBA clinics on a broad scope of top-

teaching, Mr. Cayer’s bands have

ics, including Jazz Band Literature

consistently earned superior rat-


ings at concert and jazz band music


Room, and a preconference event,

Early in his career, Jeff collab-

Crossing the Divide, focused on

orated with a colleague to cre-

retention of middle school band

ate the Polk Jazz Festival, which

students as they enter high school.

sought to encourage the develop-

In Mr. Cayer’s free time, he enjoys

ment of jazz musicianship at the middle and high school levels.


With Exceptionalities in the Band

performance assessments.

competing on the professional bar-

This program later evolved into the Polk

Southern College in Lakeland in 1995 and

becue circuit, restoring classic cars, and

ebrates the diversity of jazz ensembles

Southeastern University in 2010. He was

and grandchildren. His wife Jennifer is

County Jazz Showcase, an event that cel-

in Polk County. Jeff was recognized as Southwest’s Teacher of the Year and was honored with the Chris Keehn Spirit of

Teaching Award. During his years at Southwest Middle School, Mr. Cayer also

the EdM in educational leadership from

recognized as the Outstanding Master’s

Graduate in December 2010. He is pursu-

ing the EdD in educational leadership at Florida Southern College.

He has served two terms as chairman

created an Elementary School Band expe-

of FBA District 12. He has served FBA

at his feeder schools the opportunity to

middle school representative and state

rience, which allowed fifth grade students explore band in a nine-week, before-

school ensemble. In 2013, Mr. Cayer was selected as a national quarterfinalist for the GRAMMY Music Educator Award.

Jeff earned the BME from Florida


in multiple facets such as junior high/ jazz chairman. He was also a member of

the Clinics, MPA, and Adjudicator com-

mittees. Jeff serves as secretary of FBA District 7 and is an active adjudicator

and clinician around the state. He has

Florida Music Director

spending time with his wife, children, also a career educator, specializing in

gifted education and television produc-

tion. His daughters Denise and Ashley are both all-state French horn players

and continue to enjoy music. Denise is a music educator in Polk County, and her husband Daniel is director of bands at St.

Paul Lutheran School. Ashley is complet-

ing her doctorate in occupational therapy, and her husband Austin is an engineer

with Con Edison. Jeff is an active member in FBA, FMEA, NAfME, Alpha Chi, and Phi Beta Mu.


Bernie Hendricks, Jr. B

ernie Hendricks, Jr., has served

His duties at Ocoee High School

as director of bands at Ocoee

include leading the Marching

Florida, since 2005. He previous-

Band, and Beginning Band. Ocoee

High School in Orange County

Knights, Wind Ensemble, Jazz

ly served as director of bands

bands as well as his Robinswood

at Robinswood Middle School

Middle School bands earned supe-

in Orlando for eight years. Mr.

rior ratings and have always been

Hendricks is a 1997 magna cum

in high performance demand

laude graduate of Florida A&M

throughout Central Florida. The

University, where he served as

Marching Knights have partici-

band president and percussion sec-

pated in the New York Veterans

tion leader for his final two years


of college. He is an active mem-

ber of the Florida Bandmasters



parades, the Cotton Bowl and

Association for which he has

Liberty Bowl music festivals, the

served multiple terms as district

National Memorial Day Parade

secretary and treasurer. He has

in Washington, D.C., the Florida

also served on the Orange County fine arts curriculum and leader-


Philadelphia Thanksgiving Day

Citrus Parade, the Florida Blue

Battle of the Bands, as well as the

ship teams and the all-county concert

tion and performing arts opportunities

ESPN Under Armour All-America high

Bernie is the past chairman of the

These festivals have recently hosted jazz

years. The Ocoee Jazz Knights have had

and jazz band committees.

Florida Music Education Association Multicultural Network. He served on the FMEA Executive Board for which he

has been a part of numerous curriculum

school football game for the past eight

and experiences to more Florida students.

the pleasure of performing with Wycliffe

artists Peter and Will Anderson, Wycliffe

Gordon and Scotty Barnhart over the past

Gordon, Scott Wilson, Jeff Rupert, Tom

few years.

Garling, Per Danielson, and many more.

Mr. Hendricks is an active adjudica-

Mr. Hendricks received the honor of

teams and Sunshine State Standards writ-

Teacher of the Year in 2000 at Robinswood

tor and clinician throughout the state of

Mr. Hendricks has also served as

at Ocoee High School. He was a finalist

to many young band directors as well as

ing teams.

a founding member and clinician for the Hapco Jazz Festival and the Hapco

Summer Jazz Camp. Both of these

events are sponsored by Hapco Music

Foundation, a local not-for-profit organization focusing on bringing jazz educa-

Florida and enjoys serving as a mentor

Middle School as well as in 2007 and 2017

numerous college interns. He also serves

for Orange County Teacher of the Year

the community as band leader and life

in 2017. Hendricks was also recognized

group leader at Orlando World Outreach

by School Band & Orchestra magazine as

Center. Bernie is happily married to Sha

the Florida representative for its “50 Most

Hendricks, and they are the proud par-

Influential Directors” issue in December

ents of three active children.


April 2021


Figures 1-4

Flute yoga: Where is the flute held?


14    F l o r i d a

Music Director

The Fluent High School


F LU T I ST by Charlene Cannon

It all started three years ago; I was sitting in my classroom,

the questions I’ve been asked, it’s probably the most com-

school for an informal flute choir gathering. Flute choir

receive from band directors include topics like posture,

surrounded by flute players who signed up to come after wasn’t really a “thing” at the time, but I was trying to

make it that way. Most of our students are unable to take

private lessons, and our flute players in particular were very motivated but needed some direction and formal training. Luckily, I happen to be a flute player, so I was happy to gather my students for this meeting after school

to share my love for playing and teaching the flute. This

meeting was a group lesson where we did some listening, worked through scales and some flute-specific exercises, and passed around our alto and bass flutes for everyone

to try. This was also the meeting where I asked them The Question:

hand position, articulation, scales, and more. Through my recent teaching experiences, I have developed a list of topics with tips and tricks to help high school flute players

flourish in the band. Below is a summary of these tips and tricks, which I hope will be helpful to you as you work with your high school flutists. Posture

Before we begin, let’s take a posture pop quiz. Where is the flute held? Try this simple four-step exercise, which I call flute yoga:

1. Hold the flute in front of you, almost like a “marching

“Where does vibrato come from?” The room got quiet, eye contact was avoided, and a few

students giggled. Finally, a lone 10th grader raised his hand slowly and shyly, and I called his name to answer. “Ms. Cannon, vibrato comes from your heart.” After a long bout of laughter, the awkward silence was

over, and we began to work our way toward a simple defi-

band attention.” Your eyes should be looking through the headjoint lip plate, and the flute should be paral-

lel to your body with fingers on the correct keys (see Figure 1).

2. Drop the headjoint to your left shoulder. Push your

right hand forward to let this happen naturally. The lip plate will probably be directly over your shoulder and under your ear (see Figure 2).

nition that would come to shape the way I teach vibrato:

3. Lift the entire flute up about four inches. The headjoint

There is more to it, but that’s just one way to keep it

4. Turn your head to find the lip plate and don’t change

Vibrato is pulses of air and variations in pitch.

simple. Regardless, I call this The Question because, of all


mon one among band directors. Other questions I often

should be next to your left ear (see Figure 3). anything else! (see Figure 4).


Continued on page 16


April 2021


F LU T I ST Continued from page 15

Correct right thumbs

Where are your arms? Your arms

should be in front of your body. The flute should be held in front of you with your head turned to the left. Try this with your students; I can assure you they will be

surprised by the result if they follow the steps correctly!

The Right Thumb

The thumb of the right hand is the most important finger touching the flute.

Through my experience visiting other


programs and teaching flute lessons, this is the one thing that can make or break a flute player and a flute section.

Take a look at your flute players and

zoom in on the right thumb; you may see

« The thumb is on its side, underneath a few things:

the key pressed down for F (this is

« The thumb is turned sideways and pointing toward the Ab key. « The thumb is turned sideways and correct).

pointing toward the Ab key, and the thumb print is touching the bottom of the flute.

The placement of the right thumb


affects intonation. One quick test to check


metered manner, but this exercise gives

them drop the right hand to their side and

pitch (Debost, 2002; Kara & Bulut, 2015).

air pulses and pitch variations as they

your flute players’ right hands is to have relax it completely. It is probably making a

very relaxed “C” shape. This is the correct shape of the right hand for playing the

flute and should result in the thumb lying

Vibrato is pulses of air and variations in

Here is a four-step exercise to get all of your flutists playing with vibrato:

1. Play four above-the-staff B-flat quarter notes without using your tongue.

on its side, underneath the key pressed

The pitch should change as much as

down for F.

possible. It will start flat and go very

One quick note about intonation: Please

do not tell your flute players to roll in and

sharp. The goal is to blow air slowly, then very fast, and then slowly again.

out! We just got them sitting correctly,

2. Play eight eighth notes on the same

their right hand. By rolling in and out,

3. Play 12 eighth note triplets without

and the way the flute is held. Intonation

4. Play 16 sixteenth notes without using

speed and pressure around the aperture.

The goal is to hear the variation in pitch

holding the flute correctly, and relaxing you change the curvature of the wrists can be adjusted on the flute through air

Intonation is most easily adjusted by moving the chin up and down.

16    F l o r i d a

develop control and understanding of this

new skill. We use this exercise in all of our long tone warm-ups. We instruct the flute players to practice triplet vibrato. By practicing wide variations in pitch and by

practicing pulsing air, flute players will

become accustomed to this motion, and vibrato will happen more naturally.

pitch without using your tongue.


using your tongue.

their scales in as many octaves as possi-

your tongue.

by creating pulses of air. Keep in mind

that vibrato is not normally pulsed in a

Music Director

your flute players a chance to practice

Encourage your flute players to perform

ble! In Florida, students auditioning for

all-state bands perform all scales in at least two octaves. Four scales are possible

in three octaves with a B foot flute: B, C,

D-flat, and D. 17 Big Daily Finger Exercises

Incorrect right thumbs for students each year. Students participate by preparing a solo or ensemble musical piece that is performed for a

certified band adjudicator. This experience is important and can be replicated by practicing the performance of études throughout the year.

Our students perform an Étude of the

Week assignment each week. The Étude of the Week is chosen with student input

each Friday. Students have until the following Friday to submit a recording to


our shared Google Drive account. Each Friday, we listen to the recordings and

practice providing feedback. We also listen to reference recordings of each étude.

I hope these tips are helpful, but I know

there are many ways to teach the same

concept or idea. My way isn’t necessarily the right way, but it is one way that works

for me and my students. I am proud that

my flute players play with vibrato and that they are excited to talk about the flute. They are fluent in double tonguing,

in discussing flute literature, and in gossiping about the latest Instagram posts

from their favorite flute players. Flute


by Paul Taffanel and Philippe Gaubert

the front and the back of the tongue.

to practice scales in two octaves.

Tonguing Exercises Progressively Arranged

(1958) is an excellent collection of exercises

Double Tonguing

Double tonguing is an extremely useful

skill that will help high school flute students develop a better understanding of

physical articulation and will give them the ability to articulate faster. Double

Charlene Cannon is a band

2. Say it aloud again, taking the repeat

School in Orlando, Florida. She earned the MA in music

written in the exercise.

education from the University

3. Play it as written.

of South Florida and the BME from Florida State University. She teaches a full-year flute

By practicing the speech patterns of

choir class at Freedom High School.

apply this skill to music performance. Musicality

to approach this concept; using a legato

opportunities for our students to prac-

help demonstrate the difference between

director at Freedom High

1. Say the exercise aloud while fingering.

of your mouth when you say the word

doo-goo-doo-goo, for example, tends to

their fluency, in flute playing.

class played four different ways:

double tonguing, students will learn to

doo? How about goo? There are many ways

approach to develop their techniques, and

(1985). We use these exercises every day in

order to master. Try asking your stuWhere does your tongue touch the roof

you approach them with a well-rounded

for the Flute or Piccolo by Victor V. Salva

4. Play it up an octave if possible.

dents (and yourself) these questions:

Your flute players will flourish when

Check out the book 243 Double and Triple

tonguing is also a skill that requires practice in speaking, or speech patterns, in

isn’t difficult, but it is a little different.

References Debost, M. (2002). Vibrato. In The simple flute from A to Z. Oxford University Press.

We are fortunate to have many different

Kara, Z. E., & Bulut, S. (2015). Approaches and teaching methods in breathing and vibrato technique in flute education. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 126-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.109

tice performance in the state of Florida.

Solo and ensemble is a huge opportunity

April 2021



Florida A&M University Choral Music Division and Choral Ensembles


by Dale A. Thomas

From the early history of the State Normal

During the early years at the college, les-

ing oratorios” (Florida State Normal and

now Florida A&M University, the choral

however, there were monthly fees for

1897-1898, p. 36). The Orpheus Club,

College for Colored Students to what is music division and its choral ensembles have always had an impressive record of performance achievements and accom-

sons in vocal music were free for students; piano and organ lessons and use of the instruments.

From that early beginning, one of the

plishments. The choral ensembles are

first and largest choral ensembles orga-

ensembles in the long history of the music

the Musical Union. Around 1897, the col-

among the oldest organized musical department. They have undoubtedly contributed significantly to the rich cultural

history of Florida A&M University since its founding in 1887.

In the years 1888 to 1891, Laura L. Clark,

a charter faculty member who taught

English, was one of the first instructors

nized at the college in the late 1890s was lege catalog specifically mentioned that

the Musical Union had a membership

of 50 students, and its goal was “… to study, and from time to time to render, in public, standard musical compositions

of the most advanced character, includ-

Industrial College for Colored Students, a much smaller choral ensemble, was also organized during the late 1890s. In

the same catalog, it mentioned that the Orpheus Club was

… composed of the best voices avail-

able among the students. Its present membership is ten. The best modern

and classical music is studied by this club, and its powers will undoubtedly

be felt, not only by the State Normal, but over the entire State. (p. 36)

whose name was mentioned as having

taught music for three years at the college. Seeing a greater need for more formal training and instruction in music, one of

the first and earliest directors of music hired by the college was Phillip Amos von

Weller. A musician of German descent,

von Weller served from 1891 until 1897 and had the responsibilities of teaching courses in music and English. His early

musical training as a choirboy in the Queen’s Chapel at St. James’s Palace in London, England, would be valuable to him in not only teaching instrumental

music in the areas of strings, piano, and organ, but also in teaching vocal music.

18    F l o r i d a

Florida A&M College Choir, 1915

Music Director

Photo courtesy of A. Quinn Jones, used with permission

The early choral ensembles were led by

standard practice of hiring music instruc-

vices, and Bible study courses. The choral

instructors who taught other non-music

instrumental and vocal music separately

hymns and Negro spirituals, performed

several music instructors in addition to

subjects at the college during the early years. Thomas W. Talley and Frederick C.

Johnson, who were instructors primarily

in the natural sciences, were known to have directed the Musical Union. Thomas

V. Gibbs, one of the charter founders of

the college and a member of the Florida House of Representatives in 1885 and

1887, taught music and English at the col-

lege. By 1916, and perhaps as early as 1914, he was also mentioned as having direct-

ed the Musical Union. During the time

that Gibbs was an instructor, the college catalog from 1915 to 1916 indicated that admission to the choir was dependent upon the instructor and “… students are

allowed to join the Musical Union where

bles also participated in recitals, concerts,

who arrived at the college around 1927

commencements, convocations, commu-

with a music degree from Wiley College.

nity events, in-state and out-of-state tours,

It was during this time that the College

clinics, conferences, and other special

Choir, now known as the Choral Union,


along with the college Glee Clubs, was

Since radio was a popular medium

under the direction of Professor James. He is credited with organizing the popular

during the 1920s and 1930s, the choral

was later known as the Varsity Quartet.

radio stations, which were broadcasted

ensembles also performed frequently on

and well-known FAMC Quartet, which

throughout several cities in Florida. With

Professor James, along with Norman L.

their popularity rising and the many

Merrifield, was influential in having the

accolades they received, the choral ensem-

quartet perform at the 1933 World’s Fair

bles became an important recruitment

in Chicago, Illinois.

and public relations tool for the college.

During the early years of the col-

attendance and appropriate attire. These

and throughout the 1930s, had begun the

services at the college, the choral ensem-

during this period was Frank E. James,

musical works” (Florida Agricultural and The college, beginning in the early 1920s

Besides their performances for religious

ble of the choral music instructors hired

lege, religious services were a regular

Mechanical College, 1915-1916, p. 37).

for some of these early religious services.

within the music department. Most nota-

they receive special instruction in sight

reading and in singing the best standard

ensembles, with their varied repertoire of

tors with music degrees to formally teach

President John Robert E. Lee, who served from 1924 until 1944, took advantage of

part of student life and required strict

this opportunity to promote the college

to potential students and financial sup-

religious services included daily devo-


tions, midweek prayer services, Sunday

school, Sunday preaching, vesper ser

Continued on page 20 April 2021


Florida A&M University Continued from page 19

Leading into the mid-1930s, in addi-

rise not only in personnel, but in their

more of the choral ensembles within the

lar minstrel group known as the FAMC

1950s. During the year 1946, William P.

that while many of the music instructors

tion to band, orchestra, and the popuCollegians, there were several active

choral ensembles such as the Freshman

Quartet, the Men’s Glee Club, the Women’s Glee Club, the Men’s Quartet,

the Women’s Octet, the A Cappella Chorus, and a large Chapel Choir. It was

around 1934 when J. Harold Brown, a native of Lakeland, Florida, came to the college with a music degree from Fisk

University. Shortly thereafter, he became

dean of the music department and direc-

tor of the choral ensembles. While the FAMC Quartet had previously performed at the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago, it

should be noted that J. Harold Brown was

influential in having the quartet perform

popularity as well during the 1940s and

Foster was hired to serve as director of bands at the college. A few years later, in

1949, he became chairman of the music department and continued to serve in both capacities until his retirement in

1998. Several years earlier, in 1973, Foster

was elected as the first African American to serve as president of the Florida Music Educators Association (now known as the

Florida Music Education Association). He can be credited with hiring many of the

music instructors within the choral and

of them were also soloists and accom-

panists on the organ with the various choral ensembles. The title of university

organist was granted to many of them in that capacity. Most notable to mention

is J. Harrison Thomas, who directed the College Choir from 1942 to 1952 and continued the choir’s frequent in-state tours and performances on the radio.

By late 1947, the College Choir had


which were broadcasted from WMBR

ment during his lengthy tenure at the

Multitasking was not uncommon for

York City, New York.

ment during this time period. In addition

ensembles were continuing their steady

some of them were also directing one or

keyboard divisions of the music depart-

to their other academic responsibilities,

Florida A&M University Concert Choir, Rebecca W. Steele, director, 1958

20    F l o r i d a

1980s were performers on the piano, some

completed several consecutive radio

the music instructors in the choral and

The College Choir and other choral

hired during this period until the early

keyboard divisions of the music depart-

at the 1936 Centennial Fair in Cleveland, Ohio, and the 1939 World’s Fair in New

music department. It should be noted

Music Director

broadcasts on the CBS Radio Network, in Jacksonville, Florida. And by 1950, the College Choir and Male Quartet

had already performed during in-state

tours, a total of four consecutive years at the University of Florida in Gainesville. Following Professor Thomas’s tenure,

Photo courtesy of Florida A&M University, used with permission

Mervin Todd Hutton directed the College

as the director of the Hampton University

Noted as one of the longest-serving

division. Except for one year when he

Choir from 1952 to 1953.

directors of choral activities, Rebecca W. Steele came to the college in 1947

with a music degree from Alabama State

College. Steele initially served as an assistant choir director, but shortly after J.

Harrison Thomas’s departure, she became the director of choral activities in 1952 and served until 1976.

University Concert Choir after 1995

was on sabbatical to complete course

tors either on an interim or permanent

her students had participated in and won

many vocal contests, including appearances on the popular television show The

Ted Mack Amateur Hour. Other large and small choral ensembles directed by Steele

included the Radio Choral Ensemble, the

Choral Music Society, the Summer School Choir, the Verse Choir, the Steeletts, the

Odell Hobbs, Charlie J. Toomer, and

Mark Butler. Under their direction, the

During his sabbatical, Anthony T. Rucker

University Concert Choir would con-

served as interim director of the choir

tinue its out-of-state performances in

from 1984 to 1985.

Alabama, Alaska, New York, New Jersey,

Highly commendable during the latter

peted and won the Annual American

Verdi, and Weil. Additionally, several of

ed Yvonne Hatchett, Maria Thompson,

University Concert Choir for 12 years.

continued a long tradition of performing

composers as Bach, Handel, Haydn,

basis. These music instructors includ-

State University, Smith would lead the

part of Smith’s tenure from 1988 through

major choral works by such well-known

would be led by a few music instruc-

work for his doctoral degree at Florida

Under Steele’s direction, the choir, now

known as the University Concert Choir,

The division of choral music and the

Choirs and chaired the music education

Michigan, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, Nevada, Virginia, and the

1991, the University Concert Choir com-

District of Columbia, and overseas per-

formances to such destinations as the U.S.

Negro Spiritual Festival in Cincinnati,

Virgin Islands (1996), the Bahamas (2003),

Ohio, for three years. In March 1991, the

and the Federal Democratic Republic of

choir returned to win the “Winner of

Ethiopia in Africa (2004). While these

Winners” Competition under the direction

performance tours have continued a long

of alumnus Mark Butler. When Professor

tradition, the University Concert Choir

Smith departed from the university in

has also been credited with making its

1990, Mark Butler, the first alumnus to

own compact disc recordings and per-

serve as director of the University Concert

forming with groups such as Three Mo’

Choir, would serve for one year from 1990

Tenors and GRAMMY award-winning

to 1991.

artists such as Phil Driscoll and Richard

With a vision of increasing the promi-


Summer Opera Workshop, the Imperials,

nence of the choir in national and interna-

the Four Jays, a quartet of male singers

uate of Howard University, the University

sional choral music associations, the

assumed the responsibilities of director of

choral events such as the Annual High

the Choral Society, the Opera Guild, and from Jacksonville, Florida. After Steele’s departure from the university in 1976,

Curtis R. King, who in the late 1950s and early 1960s served in various capacities as director or assistant director of the Choral

Union, Choral Society, University Concert Choir, and Male Glee Club, temporarily assumed directorship of the University Concert Choir until 1977.

In 1977, Vernon L. Smith, who was

a native of Jacksonville, Florida, and a

Hampton University and University

of Florida graduate, became the direc-

tor of choral activities. While a student

at Hampton, Smith studied with wellknown choral director Roland M. Carter.

Prior to his directorship of choral activ-

ities at Florida A&M University, Smith served on the music faculty at Hampton

Within the community and profes-

tional circles, Augustus J. Pearson, a grad-

University Concert Choir has hosted

of Michigan, and the University of Kansas,

School Choral Day, which served to cul-

choral activities from 1991 to 1995. Under

tivate and enhance choral singing among

his direction, the University Concert

high school students. Additionally, the

Choir participated in the Smithsonian

University Concert Choir has performed

Institution Folkways Recordings of Wade

at conferences of the Southeastern African

in the Water, Volume 1: African American

American Choral Festival, the American

Spirituals: The Concert Tradition on compact


disc. The recordings, with the Howard




National Association for Music Education,

University Chamber Choir and the Fisk

the Black Music Caucus Convention, now

Jubilee Singers, were heard over many

known as the National Association for

National Public Radio stations across the

the Study and Performance of African

United States. While making its first inter-

American Music, the William Dawson

national performance abroad in 1994, the

Commemorative Choral Festival, and the

University Concert Choir, now known as

Florida Music Educators (now Education)

the University Singers, entertained audi-

Association. While at the FMEA confer-

ences and performed encores in Soria,

ence in 2004, the University Concert Choir

Spain, and at the International Festival of University Choirs in Valencia, Spain.

Continued on page 22

April 2021


Florida A&M University Continued from page 21

served as the exhibition choral group

tion, the University Concert Choir con-

focusing on the topic “The Face of Gospel

and out-of-state performance schedule.

promoting and presenting performances Music in the Choral World.”

Since 2008, the choral music division

and the University Concert Choir have been led by Mark Butler. Under his direc-

22    F l o r i d a





tinues to maintain both an active in-state

appeared with Broadway artist Sal

These performances have included spe-

Orchestra and performed at the National

cial appearances with a cappella ensemble Sweet Honey in the Rock and rapper T-Pain.

Music Director

Viviano and the Tallahassee Symphony

Museum of African American History

and Culture in Washington, D.C. In 2018, the choral music division hosted

a reading session of recently published

the National Association of Teachers of

the Dr. Rebecca W. Steele and Dr. Vernon

GIA Publications with a reading session,

ipated in the Carnegie Hall Collegiate

nificant number of years, both of those

works in the African American Series of lecture, and presentation by Dr. James Abbington of Emory University.

The students in the choral music divi-

sion have continued to participate in

L. Smith Choir Rehearsal Suite. For a sig-

Singing competitions and have partic-

choral directors made significant contri-

Honors Chorus and even in an abroad

butions to the field of choral music edu-

study and performance program in

cation to the state of Florida and Florida

Bulgaria. Because of the members’ talents,

A&M University.

service, and dedication, the University

It is with great pride that the

Concert Choir was awarded the Willie

E. Jackson Choral Achievement Award

long-standing history, consistent supe-

Collegiate Choral Festival and nominated

the choral music division with its choral

rior performances, and contributions of

at the Southeastern African American

ensembles, music instructors, and stu-

for Organization of the Year at Florida

dents will continue to remain an enduring

A&M University in 2010. In 2019, the

cultural legacy of excellence at Florida

University Concert Choir had the high

A&M University for many years to come,

honor of performing Seven Last Words of

beyond the 21st century.

the Unarmed, composed by Joel Thompson,

with the Tallahassee Symphony Orchestra and the Morehouse College Glee Club.

Dale A. Thomas is a media

within the choral music division have

Schools. He holds the BS

specialist with Leon County

Over the years, the various ensembles

degree from Florida A&M

continued to perform a diverse reper-

University and two MS

toire of music that spans the genres of

degrees from Florida State

classical, jazz, contemporary, spiritual,

University. He served as a band director in

gospel, and other multicultural styles.

A 1950 issue of FAMCEAN, the college

Oklahoma and Florida and is the author of

the book A Band in Every School: Portraits

newspaper, reported that, “the appeal of

the choir may be attributed to the exten-

of Historically Black School Bands in Florida. He is a past president of Florida

sive repertoire at its command. Ranging

NAfME Collegiate.

from sacred to secular, from ballad to opera, from art song to folk song, the interpretations are invariably inspiring


1950). This fact remains the same today

“College Choir Gets High Praise Notes.” (1950, March). FAMCEAN (Tallahassee, FL).

as well as authoritative” (“College Choir,”

as the choral music division and its cho-

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College. (1915-1916). Vocal Music. Twenty-ninth Annual Catalogue of the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College. Accessed June 20, 2019, http://famu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/ famu%3A15507#page/Page+62/mode/2up

ral ensembles have continued to serve as models of “Excellence With Caring,” which Florida A&M University has embraced as its motto.

Florida State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students. (1897-1898). Musical union. Eleventh Annual Catalogue of the Florida State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students. Accessed May 29, 2018, http:// famu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/ famu%3A17861#page/Page+36/mode/2up

Recently, as a tribute and honor to two

of the former choir directors, the Florida

A&M University Board of Trustees officially designated the choir rehearsal room

Florida A&M University Concert Choir, Mark Butler, director, 2010 Photo courtesy of Sebastian Alexander, used with permission

April 2021


24    F l o r i d a

Music Director


Modeling in the Choral Rehearsal by Adam Zrust, PhD


Much of what we learn is based on observation and expe-

rience. From learning how to properly eat with a spoon

to learning how to form a foreign mixed vowel, imitation

can play a vital role in the acquisition of a skill. In fact, some claim that quality musical traits are learned through

repetition, not inheritance, and that skills are best developed with practice and persistence (Suzuki & Suzuki, 1983). As teachers, when we use modeling as a primary

mode of communication, we can save time and make our rehearsals effective and more efficient.

Modeling is a frequent conductor activity (Babb, 2010)

and a technique used often in rehearsal settings (Watkins,

1986). It is a useful tool for accomplishing many tasks, including pitch matching (Yarbrough et al.; 1991, 1992,

1995), accuracy (Price et al., 1994), expressivity (Ebie, 1999, 2004; Woody, 1999, 2006), development of tone (Fonza,

2014), performance achievement (Sang, 1987), and attitude

(Mann, 2008), to name a few. Additionally, it appears to increase cognitive complexity over time (Grimland, 2005). Modeling can be a highly effective and extremely efficient

mode of communication, and can be used throughout a

teaching cycle: preparation, execution, and reinforcement. Continued on page 26

April 2021


Modeling Continued from page 25

Proactive Modeling (Preparation)

Research supports using “sequential patterns of instruction” as an effective way

to teach and rehearse (Price, 1989). In its simplest form, the three-step process is as follows: (1) assign a task; (2) allow stu-

dents to complete the task; and (3) provide specific, related feedback. For example,

a normal teaching sequence might look something like this:

Teacher: “Students, I’d like you to sing

time. It should be noted, however, that musical models (both appropriate/correct and inappropriate/incorrect) must be

accurate models in order to be effective

(Dickey, 1992). As conductors, when an aural image is clearly defined, an accurate

model can relay a plethora of information to our singers. This can be especially valu-

able in a time when many rehearsals are being held virtually.

the phrase beginning at measure 14

Concurrent Modeling (Execution)

nected. If it helps, imagine that it’s a

task, concurrent modeling can be used

molto legato, or very smooth and con-

When students are executing an assigned

warm summer day and you are mean-

to assist with retention and to reinforce

dering down the river in an inner

tube. There are no strong currents. This

water is calm and steady, and you glide across the water. You drift without a care in the world.”

Students: [Sing the phrase, beginning at measure 14.]

Teacher: “That was fine. Let’s try it

again. This time, I want you to imagine you are a feather floating in the wind.

No strong gusts of wind. Everything is smooth and connected.”

This sequence can be quite effective;

however, the use of semantic process-

ing and metaphorical language has been

shown to be confusing to some students (Persson, 1996). An alternative approach,

and perhaps more efficient sequence, might look something like this:

that which has already been stated. These models can be delivered aurally or visu-

ally. Aural techniques include techniques

like “static phonation” (Grimland, 2005),

could inform sufficient lip rounding and

phrase without regard to its rhythmic

physical gestures can be used to meet an

which is singing the final word of a

value to emphasize cutoff or consonant

endings. For example, if the final word in a phrase is pacem and the conductor

wants to ensure students give diligent attention to the final voiced “m,” the con-

tion is needed. Like this: [reiterative model].”

Effective modeling can supplement

metaphorical language or eliminate it altogether, ultimately saving precious

26    F l o r i d a

an ensemble’s depth of knowledge.

UCLA Bruins won 10 national basketball

tive modeling” (Zrust, 2017), can be used when a conductor reactivates a previously demonstrated model when the students are in the middle of a musical attempt.

Another option is to pair an initial

model with a facial or physical model

be sung [accurate model].”

Teacher: “Close. A little more connec-

on a conductor’s gestural vocabulary and

consonant. A similar technique, “reitera-

a lifted, unified tone on an ah vowel, a

measure 14.]

behaviors. Of course, much of this hinges

Reactive Modeling (Reinforcement)

with them, emphasizing the final pitched

Teacher: “Students, this is how the

Students: [Sing the phrase, beginning at

ensemble’s needs and to reinforce positive

ductor would audibly sing the final word

(conducting cue). To illustrate, if a con-

phrase beginning at measure 14 should

unify nonverbal intentions. Many other

ductor desires the choristers to sing with downward, cup-shaped palm can be used

to reflect a lifted soft palate (imagine

holding a tennis ball in your palm). To ensure the message is received, one can pull the wrist in an upward motion, trac-

ing the jaw line until the knuckles are at approximately eye level. For added security, concurrently inhaling a warm breath

through an established embouchure

Music Director

During the 1960s and 70s, John Wooden’s titles in his last 12 seasons, including seven straight from 1967 to 1973, before

his retirement in 1975. This unprecedent-

ed winning streak sparked two UCLA researchers to determine what made legendary basketball coach John Wooden

so successful. They observed and doc-

umented over 30 hours of practice and pinpointed several effective techniques.

One of the primary tools he used in his process involved implementing a reproof/

reinstruct sequence, which would eventu-

ally become known as “a Wooden.” After

he explained what to do and how to do it, his players would execute the assigned task. When something went awry, Coach Wooden would stop practice, scold, and

then implement the following sequence:

Left: UCLA Bruins Coach John Wooden (Photo: The UCLA Anderson Blog)

A native Nebraskan, conductor, and teacher Adam Zrust is active in the United States and abroad. His calendar includes concerts, guest performances in festivals and workshops, lectures, and active membership in several professional organizations. Holding degrees from Florida State University and the University of Nebraska at Kearney, Adam is based in Missouri, where he serves as assistant professor of music education and director of choral activities at the University of Central

Education, 28, 25-36. https://doi. org/10.1177/025576149602800103 Price, H. E. (1989). An effective way to teach and rehearse: Research supports using sequential patterns. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 8(1), 42-46. https://doi.org/10.1177/875512338900800110 Price, H. E., Yarbrough, C., Jones, M., & Moore, R. S. (1994). Effects of male timbre, falsetto, and sine-save models on interval matching by inaccurate singers. Journal of Research in Music Education, 42(4), 269-284. https://doi. org/10.2307/3345736 Sang, R. C. (1987). A study of the relationship between instrumental music teachers’ modeling skills and pupil performance behaviors. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 91, 155-159. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40318077


Suzuki, S., & Suzuki, W. (1983). Nurtured by love: The classic approach to talent education. Alfred Music.


model-positive, model-negative, mod-

el-positive (Tharp & Gallimore, 1976). In other words, he would show them what to do, show them what not to do, and then

reinforce again what to do. Discriminatory modeling can be an effective and efficient tool in the musical classroom. In fact,

by using the model-positive–model-neg-

ative–model-positive sequence, one can

deliver negative feedback to students in a positive way, ultimately holding students more accountable.

Time is a precious commodity, and

most teachers would agree there is gen-

erally not enough of it. Testing procedures, inclement weather, and in-school

functions often hamstring educators from meeting personalized performance stan-

dards with student ensembles. “If only I

had more time” is a common catchphrase shared among educators, music or oth-

erwise. Therefore, practices that promote efficiency in a rehearsal setting appear to be a worthy pursuit. Modeling can be

used throughout the instructional process and should be considered an effective and

powerful tool of communication. After all, if a picture is worth a thousand words, perhaps a model is too.

Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R. (1976). What a coach can teach a teacher. Psychology Today, 9(8), 75-78.

Babb, S. L. (2010). Rehearsal techniques used to build choral tone by four expert collegiate choral conductors across settings (Publication No. 3462263) [Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Watkins, R.E. (1986). A descriptive study of high school choral directors’ use of modeling, metaphorical language, and musical/technical language related to student attentiveness (rehearsal, verbalization) (Publication No. 8618590) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Dickey, M. R. (1992). A review of research on modeling in music teaching and learning. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 113, 27-40. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40318509

Woody, R. H. (1999). The relationship between explicit planning and expressive performance of dynamic variations in an aural modeling task. Journal of Research in Music Education, 47(4), 331-342. https://doi.org/10.2307/3345488

Ebie, B. D. (1999). The effects of traditional, vocally modeled, kinesthetic, and audio-visual treatment conditions on male and female middle school vocal music students’ abilities to expressively sing melodies (Publication No. 9945489) [Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Woody, R. H. (2006). The effect of various instructional conditions on expressive music performance. Journal of Research in Music Education, 54(1), 21-36. https://doi.org/10.1177/002242940605400103

Ebie, B. D. (2004). The effects of verbal, vocally modeled, kinesthetic, and audio-visual treatment conditions on male and female middle-school vocal music students’ abilities to expressively sing melodies. Psychology of Music, 32(4), 405-417. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735604046098

Yarbrough, C., Bowers, J., & Benson, W. (1992). The effect of vibrato on the pitch-matching accuracy of certain and uncertain singers. Journal of Research in Music Education, 40(1), 30-38. https://doi.org/10.2307/3345772

Fonza, F. R. (2014). Tone building strategies used for beginning high school choirs (Publication No. 3625838) [Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Yarbrough, C., Green, G., Benson W., & Bowers, J. (1991). Inaccurate singers: An exploratory study of variable affecting pitch-matching. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 107, 23-34. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40318418

Grimland, F. (2005). Characteristics of teacherdirected modeling in high school choral rehearsals. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 24(1), 5-14. https://doi.org/1 0.1177/87551233050240010102

Yarbrough, C., Morrison, S. J., Karrick, B., & Dunn, D. E. (1995). The effect of male falsetto on the pitch-matching accuracy of uncertain boy singers, grades K-8. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 14(1), 4-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/875512339501400102

Mann, B. A. A. (2008). The effect of vocal modeling on student achievement and attitude (Publication No. 3325676) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Zrust, A. C. (2017). A descriptive analysis of concurrent instruction in secondary choral rehearsals (Publication No. 10282805) [Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Persson, R. (1996). Brilliant performers as teachers: A case study of common sense teaching in a conservatoire setting. International Journal of Music

April 2021


Please take time to thank and support our 2020-2021 Academic Partners.


SILVER PARTNERS Jacksonville University

BRONZE PARTNERS Florida College Florida Gulf Coast University Rollins College Department of Music

Partners as of March 11, 2021.

University of Florida University of Tampa

*Please visit FMEA.org/partners for partnership details or call 850-878-6844.

28    F l o r i d a

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Please take time to thank and support our 2020-2021 Corporate Partners.



Music Man, Inc. The Horn Section, Inc. Cadence Music Excelcia Music Publishing Head’s House of Music


J. W. Pepper & Son, Inc. National Concerts Neil A. Kjos Music Company

Partners as of March 11, 2021.

*Please visit FMEA.org/partners for partnership details or call 850-878-6844.

April 2021




by Luis Rios, Chairman, FEMEA District 8

Music Teachers Are


Leadership is a term that has been on

ing fluency in younger students. Math?

I decided to go to school for music edu-

have found that many elementary music

my mind more than ever before. When cation, I had no doubt it was the path I wanted to pursue. After graduating, the opportunity to pursue a master’s degree

in educational leadership came about, and

I decided to enter the program. Unlike the certainty I had about my bachelor’s degree in music education, I never thought about

Science? History? Yes, yes, and yes! I

teachers integrate cross-curricular standards without realizing they are doing

it because that is simply our normal. I encourage you to take a look at some of

the standards for other classes so you can see for yourself.

Many of us serve as the only music

the prospect of being a leader in edu-

teacher in the school. This tends to lead

teacher and retire as such. As my teaching

Furthermore, if we do reach out for help

cation. My goal was to remain a music career went on, I began to realize that

educational leadership is not necessarily a

term that is only linked to moving into an administrator’s role in a school. I slowly

began taking on leadership roles within my school and my county. I started serving as a member of my school-based leadership team, participated in curriculum

revision teams and textbook adoption committees for the county, and facilitated

countywide performance groups. More recently, I received the honor of being elected chairman of FEMEA District 8.

As the years passed, I started realiz-

ing that we, as elementary music teach-

ers, are in a unique place for taking on a leadership role within our schools.

to isolation when it comes to planning. with planning lessons, we most likely

reach out to other music teachers. As teachers of the entire school’s population,

we are also part of each grade-level team. The simple action of showing interest in

cross-curricular integration with classroom teachers will immediately speak

volumes to the depth and quality of the

music education the students are receiving. Additionally, we can work to bridge a

gap and strengthen collaboration between

the arts and the tested subjects. Reach out to classroom teachers, ask them what skill they are focusing on, and integrate it

after they leave us. As far as advocacy is

maximize instructional effectiveness.

tive when speaking to politicians or pol-

in your own lessons. This will no doubt Why is it so important to do this?

First off, we teach a subject that easi-

Simple: students and advocacy. As a

Phonological awareness in primary? Yes,

we employ the motto “Students First.”

ly integrates all of the other courses. we teach that through song lyrics and

diction. Fluency? Absolutely! Singing and

playing instruments is a proven method for building fluency in literacy. In fact, there is research that supports the notion

that even a steady beat can improve read-

30    F l o r i d a

teacher in Polk County Public Schools, Educating students intentionally with

their success as the goal is every teacher’s mission. Building lessons that reinforce

skills across the board can only serve to better build knowledge within the stu-

dents and prepare them to be successful

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concerned, many believe it is only effecicy makers on the state or national stage;

however, I am a firm believer that advoca-

cy starts within your local school building with your coworkers. It is widely known

that due to the emphasis testing gives to English/language arts and math, the

arts can seem expendable. Building rela-

tionships and becoming leaders within our campus can serve as a means to edu-

cate our coworkers and administrators


about the importance and efficacy of arts

parents, teachers, community members,

to contact your district chairperson so we

know what they don’t know. It is up to us

ple grade levels and impact their learning.

teacher leader!

education for our students. People don’t

to lead by example. Advocacy efforts at the local level can have significant results at the state and national levels.

Elementary music teachers are natural

born teacher leaders. Let’s use the skills

we already possess to further expand the impact of arts education. We already excel in communication with stakeholders. This is evident when we put on schoolwide

shows and need to communicate with

can highlight them and celebrate you, a

etc. We are able to reach students in multi-

Organizational skills are second nature when dealing with lesson planning, grad-

Luis Rios was born in a small

to our plate. Whether you have consid-

Puerto Rico. He has a bach-

town called San German,

ing, and adding extracurricular activities

elor’s degree in music from

ered yourself one or not, I know there

the Interamerican University

are incredible leaders in our elementary

of Puerto Rico and a mas-

music classrooms ready and willing to

ter’s degree in educational leadership. He has

impact their local schools and districts.

worked as an elementary music teacher for the

FEMEA districts would love to hear of

past nine years in Polk County Public Schools.

your leadership efforts. Do not hesitate

April 2021




by Jenny Chambless, Chairwoman, FEMEA District 5

Teaching in a Pandemic World If you had told me when I graduated in

2004 that I would be teaching my students in a virtual setting in 2020-21, I would have said you were crazy. Actually, I

would have had no idea what you were talking about!

We find ourselves in the midst of

very uncertain circumstances, and there doesn’t seem to be an end to the pandemic in sight. COVID-19 is forcing all teachers to constantly adapt what and how we are teaching.

Fortunately, I do not travel on a cart to

teach music. I do not teach my classes in

a virtual format and am only required to post monthly lessons by grade level. For

those of you who do these things, you have my utmost respect, and I believe you are all superstars!

It is disheartening for us to know what

always pulled together and supported

long for days ahead when we will make

ing, and be told we cannot do the very

just check out any of the Facebook pages

will come out stronger and better teachers

is best for our students, musically speakthings we know are the right things.

Children need to move, dance, sing, and play to experience music to the fullest. They need to become the music.

Right now, we are telling our students

each other. If you are unsure about that,

or blogs about teaching music, and you will find a plethora of things that will help in your lesson planning. It really does take a village!

We must not forget that the very reason

music “like we used to” and know we having taught through this pandemic.

Blessings to you all, and know that

you make a difference in the lives of children—every single day!

about music, we are showing them things

we teach is for the benefit of our kids.

Jenny Chambless is the

involve them in music making. Our hands

is to help mold and shape young minds

Oaks Academy in St. Johns,

about music, but we are not able to fully are tied as we try to come up with creative ways for our students to make music.

There are so many creative folks out there who are reinventing the way they teach.

What a privilege and a responsibility it and to lead students to develop a love and an appreciation of music that will follow them throughout their lives.

We must realize that this crazy time is

The generosity I witness every day with

just a season and seasons change. We may

pected. Elementary music teachers have

winter, but then comes the spring. We can

teachers sharing resources is not unex-

32    F l o r i d a

feel like we are in the middle of a barren

Music Director

music specialist at Patriot Florida. Graduated from the University of Georgia in

2004, she is also master level

Orff certified and past president of the Atlanta Chapter of AOSA. Teaching is her passion,

and instilling a love of music to her students is paramount.

ComponentNews T

hank you to all who have made our music performance assessments pos-

sible this season! From the tireless work

Thank you to all

of our current adju-

dicators for taking

Director Josh Bula, I am so thankful for

wisdom and words

all of the individuals who put in count-

less hours to bring solo and ensemble and concert MPAs to the orchestra students of

Florida. It truly takes a village of support to make these experiences happen!

Even though we used a variety of

formats this year, MPAs still provided our students with important feedback

from qualified judges. Some events were

Matthew Davis, President

love best—perform!

of the district chairpersons to the FOA Executive Board to FMEA Technology


the time to share your of


during these district assessments. We are

always looking to add

adjudicators to our approved list. Refer

cerns or would like more clarification on

the MPA heading for further information

your questions or thoughts to mdavis@

to the FOA website (myfoa.org  ) under about becoming an approved adjudicator.

As we head into our end of the year

live, some were virtual, and some were a

district meetings, please remember to

performance opportunities, MPAs gave

district chairperson for the May FOA

hybrid of the two. In a year with limited

students an opportunity to do what we

items in the handbook, please forward myfoa.org.

The handbook committee

will be meeting in July.

Please always feel free to contact one

submit any motions or concerns to your

of us on the board. We are here to serve

executive board meeting. If you have con-


you and your students, and we value your

The Florida Music Education Association values the broad human diversity in the state of Florida. We are distraught and

Your source for orff instruments, accessories, and teaching materials for your virtual, in-person,and physically distant classroom!

frustrated by the continued injustice and violence toward Black people in our country. Social inequality and violence, in any form, must not be tolerated in our nation. FMEA sees, hears, and supports the struggles of our teachers and students in the Black community. We are with you, and together we can and will do better to end discrimination while advocating for equality.



MusicConstructED.com April 2021


ComponentNews It’s Time for JAM!


hroughout American history, lots of significant things have happened in

the month of April: April 4, 1968

Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated.

April 12, 1861 The United States Civil War began.

April 13, 1743 Thomas Jefferson was born. He later helped draft the Declaration of Independence.

April 14, 1865 Abraham Lincoln was shot. He died a day later. April 15, 1912 The unsinkable Titanic sank. Whoops! April 17, 1775 Paul Revere rode to Boston to issue a warning that the British were coming. April 19, 1775 The American Revolution began.

April 30, 1803 The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from the French in a deal known as the Louisiana Purchase. What a deal that Louisiana Purchase

was! The French had colonized that area and controlled it throughout much of the

1700s before ceding it to Spain. About 40 years later, Spain ceded it back to France

34    F l o r i d a

(and Napoleon). Finally, in 1803, the

trol of the Mississippi River and the port

so much trouble back home, he decided

heavy influences from France, Spain, and

United Kingdom was giving Napoleon to get rid of the entire Louisiana Territory and forget about building an empire in

the New World. For only $15 million (roughly $345 million today), President

Thomas Jefferson and the United States government acquired the Louisiana

Territory and practically doubled the size of the country.

A significant benefit of ownership of

the Louisiana Territory was gaining con-

Music Director

city at its mouth: New Orleans. With the Caribbean, New Orleans became a significant sociocultural hub for a grow-

ing nation. The food, customs, traditions, and language heard in and around the

city were unique, due to the diverse pop-

ulation of people who inhabited the area. Of particular interest to us was the new American music that developed in New

Orleans in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: jazz.


Mark A. Belfast, Jr., PhD, Advisor

April is Jazz Appreciation Month

Plessy v. Ferguson nearly six decades later.

take advantage of all these great resources

history, and as a music educator, it is

Creoles. His grandfather was a white

a jazz history lesson or activity in your

(JAM!). The history of jazz IS American

important you learn all you can about how jazz has and continues to influence

American culture, as well as how the American sociocultural and

not, track down a faculty mem-

ber or a professional musician


with knowledge of jazz history,

American) began his bat-

buy him or her a coffee, and

have a conversation! Before you

inequality in America by sitting in a train

do, though, ensure you are able to have

battle took him to the Supreme Court

homework first. Check out these great

“separate but equal” became the law of

an intelligent conversation by doing your resources

provided to you by NAfME

in celebration of Jazz Appreciation Month.

The resources include lessons on jazz

the land. As you know, that ruling had

fundamentals taught by staff at Jazz at

and resulted in legally segregated schools

Marsalis about teaching in the 21st cen-

far-reaching implications for education, until the Supreme Court’s decision in

Brown v. Board of Education overturned

month, because jazz music is OUR music!

to fit it into your schedule. If

male who looked white but

court ruled against him, and the doctrine

Let’s make jazz education our focus this

If your institution offers a

that Homer Plessy (an adult

of the United States, where in 1896 the

education (*whispering* I would love to!).

is related to everything!

was in New Orleans (1892)

car designated as “whites only.” That

to talk to your chapter about jazz and jazz

the island from … Napoleon. Everything

jazz history course, find a way

tle against systematic racial

Perhaps you might invite a guest speaker

Orleans after the slave rebellion that freed

ed the music. Remember, it


April NAfME Collegiate chapter meeting?

Frenchman who fled from Haiti to New

political landscape has affect-


collected in one place. Why not include

Plessy’s parents were French-speaking

Lincoln Center, messages from Wynton tury, links to articles about teaching jazz, and much, much more! I hope you will

April 2021




Alexis Hobbs, President

Collegiate Advocacy Committee Is Ready for 2021-22 by Megan Wright


he 2021-22 Florida NAfME Collegiate

accessibility of advocacy resources pro-

another great year of advocating for music

fostering stronger relationships between

Advocacy Committee is ready for

education! Our committee is composed of passionate collegiates from around

the state who want to learn more about advocacy and help their fellow collegiate

vided by Florida NAfME Collegiate, and the state advocacy committee and advo-

cacy chairpersons and chapters around the state.

We plan on fulfilling these goals

members do the same. Some of our goals

through continuing many of our ongoing

ways to advocate for music education in

orated focus on creating stronger rela-

for the year include finding innovative our new virtual world, enhancing the

projects as well as including an invigtionships between chapters throughout

Florida. Some of these ongoing projects include our State of the Arts Report. This

publication is released by the Advocacy Committee every three months to Florida

Now Accepting Session Proposals and Performance Applications

NAfME Collegiate members and includes articles on relevant advocacy information

and updates from around the state. Our podcast “Music Talks” will also continue

with new episodes on all things music education aimed at our collegiate listeners. In terms of new projects, we plan

for the 2022 FMEA Professional Development Conference January 12-15, 2022, Tampa Convention Center

to focus on visiting as many chapters throughout the state as possible to share a short presentation about the resources

we have available and how chapters can

begin to get involved in state advocacy

efforts. We hope the personal connections

We strive to promote professional insight that

formed during these visits will inspire

will be most beneficial to the music educators in Florida. It is preferable that your proposal(s) have a connection to the conference theme (Unity in Music Education: Building Communities One Note at a Time) for an overall uniformity of vision. All session proposal submissions should be consistent with current educational trends, promote curricular experiences that lead to


to music that in turn instills lifelong values for learning and participation.

36    F l o r i d a

engage with state and local advocacy.

product showcases

Megan Wright is a senior


music education at FSU. She

a better cultural understanding, and allow educators to create, perform, and respond

chapters around the state to further





has served as both advocacy

chairwoman and secretary of

the FSU NAfME Collegiate chapter and is

president of the Beta Alpha chapter of ΣΑΙ. She plans to graduate in fall 2021 and teach middle school band.

Music Director


Marc Decker, DMA, President


hope you are all finding success in

bering a dear friend from many years

to play, a clean stage to perform on, and

many of you, I was busily preparing for

program she had built in a rural town in

no one else to make it happen, so we got to

the classroom! This morning, like so

one of my classes. Hunched over a mas-

sive audio switchboard and covered from

head to toe in cables, I scrambled to set up my daily classroom equipment. It’s a

somewhat standard setup for an outdoor rehearsal space with both in-person and distance learners: wireless microphone for the instructor, audio speakers to proj-

ect my voice to the students, microphone for the ensemble, electric keyboard, computer, monitor, camera, and two loud fans

to keep us cool in sunny South Florida. I’m sure you can imagine the mess of color-coded cables dangling from my shoulders and the befuddled look on my face trying to plug them all in correctly.

It was then I laughed to myself remem-

ago. We taught together in a great music

an audience to enjoy the show. There was

Michigan. The two of us shared an inside

work, remembering to find some humor

joke for situations such as this. Back then

in the moment.

it was usually when we were shoveling

It occurs to me how many music teach-

snow, taking out the trash, or sweeping

ers in Florida are covered in as many

once when we found gum stuck inside a

preparing in order to make music in an

the stage prior to a concert. It happened

figurative cables as I am right now. Busily

trumpet’s leadpipe and another time as

environment that continues to change

we peeled off an old clarinet reed glued to

modalities and challenge our education-

the instrument by an unknown substance.

al imagination. In these moments, draw

During these times we would laugh to

inspiration in knowing that students need

ourselves, stop what we were doing, and

us, and although we should take our jobs

say, “Yup. Just teaching music!” Then we

seriously, it’s alright to occasionally laugh.

would giggle and go right back to what

I wish you all the best in the remaining

we were doing because we knew that no

months of the school year. Don’t forget

were, they were absolutely necessary. We

little humor to brighten your day.

matter how ridiculous each of these tasks

what motivates you, and always look for a

wanted our students to have instruments

Stay safe and teach well!

April 2021



Thank you to all of the donors who have shown their dedication to the improvement of music education in Florida by supporting our Mission through financial contributions.

Our donors support specific causes by donating to the FMEA funds of their choice: FMEA Scholarship Fund Music Education Advocacy General Fund

June M. Hinckley Scholarship Professional Development for Members Mel & Sally Schiff Music Education Relief Fund

The following have graciously donated to FMEA from April 1, 2020, through March 11, 2021.

MAESTRO’S CIRCLE $10,000 and up

No current donors at this time.

ARTIST’S CIRCLE $1,000 – $9,999

Artie Almeida In Honor of June Audrey Holcombe Grace & Katie Grace Miller Frank Howes In Memory of Tom McDonald & In Honor of Anne Howes & Lou Hyatt Clifford Madsen Russell Robinson

SUSTAINERS $100 – $999

Ann Adams-Valle In Dedication of Bobby L. Adams Andre Arrouet Lucinda Balistreri In Honor of June M. Hinckley Anthony Chiarito Dayna Cole In Memory of Linda Mann Alice-Ann Darrow In Honor of Mr. & Mrs. O. B. Darrow Virginia Densmore In Memory of Jeff Bradford, Byron & Bobbie Smith Jason Dobson Florida Bandmasters Association In Memory of Bobbie & Byron Smith; In Memory of Larry Wasserwerfer on behalf of D. Tracey Ryan, Claire Allyn Ryan, & Mary D. Young 38    F l o r i d a

Music Director

Patricia Flowers Stanley Hoch Dennis Holt Alexander Jimenez Marsha Juday Steven Kelly Carlton Kilpatrick Sheila King In Memory of John W. King Frances Lilly In Memory of Byron & Bobbie Smith Jason Locker In Memory of June M. Hinckley Natalie Mallis Angel Marchese Carolyn Minear

SUSTAINERS continued Ree Nathan John Nista Kimberly Oppermann On Behalf of the Board of Directors of HCEMEC, Inc. David Pletincks In Honor of Alexis & Jonathan Pletincks Jeanne Reynolds In Honor of Pinellas County Performing & Visual Arts Educators Mary Catherine Salo In Memory of Gary Rivenbark & Wes Rainer Steven Salo In Honor of John “Buck” Jamison & Dr. Bill Prince Kathleen Sanz In Honor of June M. Hinckley & In Memory of A. Byron Smith J. Mark Scott In Honor of Dr. Judy Arthur & Dr. Judy Bowers; In Memory of Byron & Bobbie Smith on behalf of the Florida Vocal Association

Frederick Schiff Kathy Shepler D. Gregory Springer Harry Spyker In Honor of Fred & Marlene Miller Gregory St. Jacques In Honor of Bobbie & Byron Smith Jeannine Stemmer In Memory of Barbara Kingman & Lauren Alonso Valerie Terry Leiland Theriot In Memory of Clayton Krehbiel Robert Todd In Memory of Gary Rivenbark Richard Uhler David Williams Kenneth Williams

PATRONS $25 – $99 Carlos Abril David Bayardelle In Memory of Matthew Jensen Mark Belfast In Memory of Dr. Mark A. Belfast, Sr. Karen Bradley In Memory of Harold Bradley Gordon Brock James Bruce Jamie Bryan In Honor of J. Mark Scott Katarzyna (Kasia) Bugaj Alexander Busby Stanley Butts Tara Callahan In Memory of Kristin Y. Clark Audrey Carballo In Memory of Irwin Bernard Patrick Carney In Memory of Stephen & Sally Carney Greg Carswell Renee Cartee Carol Casey Shelby Chipman Dale Choate

Zachary Chowning Blair Clawson

Cheryce Harris Julie Hebert John Henderson John Jarvis Michael Johnson Mary Keyloun Cruz In Memory of George & Laurice Keyloun Pauline Latorre Lu Anne Leone Joseph Luechauer Kevin Lusk Robert McCormick Jeneve Medford Jarvis Katie Grace Miller In Honor of My Aunt Artie Ronald Miranda Amy Nickerson In Memory of Carola F. Nickerson Mary Palmer Galen Peters Edward Prasse Marie Radloff In Memory of Charles F. Ulrey

In Honor of Ginny Densmore & Cliff Madsen

Debbie Cleveland Don Coffman David Cruz Matthew Davis In Memory of Robert Morrison Marc Decker Virginia Dickert

In Memory of Lindsay Keller & Deborah Liles

Monica DuQuette In Memory of Robert F. Ruddy, my dad who supported my dreams Patrick Dunnigan Judith Evans Scott Evans Debbie Fahmie Melanie Faulkner Margaret Flood In Memory of Dr. Karen Kennedy Bradley Franks In Memory of Gary W. Rivenbark Tina Gill In Memory of Gary W. Rivenbark

April 2021


PATRONS continued Kyle Spence Missy Tanton Dobson In Memory of Bobbie & Byron Smith Valerie Terry Howard Weinstein In Memory of Barry Weinstein Julian White In Dedication of Kenneth Tolbert Marguerite Wilder In Memory of Bobbie & Byron Smith

C. William Renfroe In Memory of Herbert Beam, past FVA President & my high school choral director Alicia Romero-Sardinas In Honor of John Rose Melissa Salek Ted Shistle John Sinclair Danielle Singer On Behalf of Judi Soto

Billy B. Williamson In Memory of Bob Maguire Richard Yaklich Anonymous (7)


up to $24

Shirley Andrews Gloria Berkowitz In Memory of Judy Berger Crystal Berner Antonio Borges Dan Brockman Nicholas DeCarbo Beth Ann Delmar Dennis Demaree Jodie Donahoo Christopher Dorsey Wanda Drozdovitch Ashley Espinal Ninabeth Frank Anna Marie Friars In Memory of Matthew McLaughlin Jimmy Gillis Walter Halil Harold Hankerson Jaida Hawkins Bernie Hendricks

Jason Jerald Emily Langerholc Patricia Losada Kathleen Mannion Deborah Mar In Memory of Barbara Kingman W. Everett McConn Mackenzie Meiers Christopher Miller Kristy Pagan Hank Phillips Edgar Rubio Jack Salley James Sammons Ian Schwindt John Southall Timothy Stafford Thomas Stancampiano Phil Tempkins Michelle Tredway Gary Ulrich

Sondra Wenninger Collins La Toya Wilson Lisa Wilson Anonymous (10) In Memory of Rosemary Collins

DONATE TODAY FOR A STRONGER TOMORROW. With your support, FMEA will continue to grow its programs for teachers and students, strengthen united advocacy efforts, and improve your professional development opportunities. Visit FMEA.org to learn more information about each fund and to make a donation.

40    F l o r i d a

Music Director

C A L L F O R A P P L I C AT I O N S About

June M. Hinckley As arts education specialist for the Florida Department of Education, June Hinckley led the

development of the Sunshine State Standards for the Arts, which are based on the National Arts Standards, and were adopted by the Florida State Board of Education in 1996. Ms. Hinckley

assisted schools and school districts with the implementation of the arts standards and connecting the arts with the state accountability and testing program, and served as a liaison

among the various K-12 arts education groups,

June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship We are pleased to announce that the Florida Music Education Association (FMEA) is soliciting scholarship applications for the 2021 June M. Hinckley Music Education Scholarship. The association will award $1,000 scholarships to selected 2020-21 graduating high school students who participated in a Florida all-state ensemble and who intend to major in music education at a Florida college or university.

Apply online at FMEA.org/Scholarship. A P P L I C AT I O N

The following should be sent to the FMEA office after submitting the online application: Printed copy of the essay Official transcript—should remain sealed Three letters of recommendation

« « «

Postmark Deadline: April 20, 2021

higher education, and community arts organi-

zations. She was a founding organizer of the Arts for a Complete Education project, which

has coalesced the various community, industry, and school arts organizations in Florida to cooperatively and proactively work to improve the

quality and quantity of arts programs throughout the state.

Ms. Hinckley served as president of MENC

(now NAfME), was chair of the National Consortium for Arts Education Association, and

represented all the arts on several national

committees. She was a member of the writing

team that developed the National Standards for Music Education. As MENC president, Ms. Hinckley conceived and initiated Vision 2020:

The Housewright Symposium on the Future of Arts Education. This effort has been credited

with providing a blueprint for music education for the future that picks up the work done at the

Tanglewood Symposium. Ms. Hinckley received

the Hall of Fame Award from FMEA and the ACE of Hearts Award from Arts for a Complete

Education/Florida Alliance for Arts Education. In 2003 she was designated an NAfME Lowell Mason Fellow.

April 2021



DIVERSE LEARNERS COMMITTEE Alice-Ann Darrow, PhD, Chairwoman

Barriers to Successful Inclusion and Strategies to Overcome Them


teve Kelly, FMEA president, recent-

cate whether you are socially included

The director called a friend, and she sent

class, Music in Society, about inclusion.

what if the teacher doesn’t display any

had used a computer with a mouth stick

ly asked me to talk to his graduate

Inclusion is a multifaceted process; consequently, it is a topic I enjoy exploring with

students. Steve had given the class the following definition:

Inclusive education is when all stu-

dents, regardless of any challenges they may have, are placed in age-appropriate general education classes that are in their own neighbor-

hood schools to receive high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports that enable them to meet suc-

cess in the core curriculum. (Bui, Quirk, Almazan, & Valenti, 2010; Alquraini & Gut, 2012)

Inclusion, like other terms such as educational equity, is complicated; nevertheless, it is an ideal all educators should strive for

in their classrooms. Implementation is not

by your peers. I then asked the students of these behaviors; does that negate the

students’ behaviors? What if students and

the teacher are hospitable, but after class instruction begins, you do not understand

anything the teacher is talking about? Do you still feel included? What if there is

no one in the class who looks like you? What if everyone has a computer or a tablet with them and you don’t because

you can’t afford one, or if everyone else drives to school in their cars and you

are the only one standing at the bus stop after school? What if everyone is wearing a Trump shirt and you are the only one with a Biden shirt, or vice versa? Do

you still feel included? Inclusion involves numerous factors such as representation, socioeconomics, accessible curricula, and group ideology.

Given the numerous factors to consid-

always easy. There are numerous avenues

er in creating an inclusive classroom, it


with a homogeneous class of students who

to its inclusion and often barriers to its

I began the conversation with Steve’s

class by asking the students how they know they are included when they walk

into a classroom. Students responded: people greet me, they know my name, they know the correct pronunciation of my name, they joke with me, they smile

at me, they show positive body language (turn toward me—not away from me,

walk toward me, sit next to me, walk with

me to class, etc.)—all excellent responses.

So, inclusion involves verbal exchang-

es, positive affect, and body language, all measureable behaviors that can indi-

42    F l o r i d a

might seem that teaching would be easier

have similar characteristics, but that’s not an inclusive classroom. Inclusion, by its

definition, involves bringing together stu-

dents with unlike characteristics. I would suggest the most inspired teaching hap-

him information on an individual who to compose music. The orchestra director went to work and set up a workstation

in one of the practice rooms. The student

came to class every day and worked

through a music reading program on the computer. After finishing the program, he told the director he would like to

learn something about arranging music for strings. The director gave him several

books to read and a number of scores to study. Finally, the teacher gave him a computer program to learn the notation software Sibelius. As it turned out, the

student was very musical and composed a beautiful suite for string ensemble. The high school orchestra premiered the suite

on its spring concert. At the conclusion of the piece, the orchestra invited the composer to come on stage and be recognized by the audience and his peers. This

student was very unlike the students in

his orchestra class, but similar in that he was musical and loved music. His director found a way to adapt the curriculum

such that his talents were not lost. That is inspired teaching.

Many barriers to inclusion have been

eliminated with laws such as IDEA, teach-

pens in heterogeneous classrooms. For

er training, accessible buildings, etc., yet

signed up for high school orchestra. He

ful inclusion that can be summarized in

example, a student in Wichita, Kansas,

had always wanted to play a string instrument. When the student came to class, the

director was surprised to find he could not read music, but perhaps was even

more surprised to find he had quadriple-

gia and could not move his arms or legs.

Music Director

there remain several barriers to successthree broad areas: organizational barriers, attitudinal barriers, and knowledge barri-

ers. Barriers to educational access may be physical in nature, or they may be unseen

aspects of a program or a school that impede successful inclusion.

Organizational Barriers

(Note: Parts of the following section were taken, revised, or edited from Music in

a role in some teachers’ negative attitudes

that once this information is understood

Another organizational barrier is relat-

alize to fit the educational needs of other

and utilized, the information will gener-

toward inclusion.

Special Education (Adamek & Darrow,

ed to how the actual music classroom or

Organizational barriers relate to the ways

rooms tend to be filled with instruments,

differences between music education and

equipment, computers, and other assort-

therapy might be the most appropriate


schools and classrooms are structured, how goals for students are defined, how

instruction is delivered, how classrooms

are set up or arranged, how students are assigned to music courses, and whether teachers are involved in conversations

with the individuals who govern such

organizational issues. Music educators

students as well.

Educate administrators in the distinct

rehearsal space is set up each day. Music

music therapy. In some situations, music

chairs, risers, music stands, props, AV

placement for students, such as those

ed items. If not organized in a thoughtful

with the most severe disabilities. Music

manner, these objects create structural

therapists also can work as consultants

barriers for students who have physical

to classroom teachers and music educa-

disabilities, visual disabilities, or atten-

tors to help develop effective music-based

tion or behavior problems.

interventions that are appropriate for the

Strategies to overcome this barrier:

typically teach dozens, if not hundreds, of

Discuss concerns with administrators

port from administrators, time to gather

rather than complain. Always keep the

space in a way that provides an adequate

explain why the current situation is det-

who come to the classroom. For a child

students each week. Teachers need sup-

information and plan for students with diverse abilities, access to adaptive tech-

nology, and time to consult with other teachers and professionals about their

students. These organizational barriers, if not addressed and resolved, may play

age and functioning level of the student.

Set up the music room or rehearsal

and offer solutions to solve the problems

structure for the needs of the students

needs of the students in the forefront and

in a wheelchair, be sure there is plenty of

rimental to the education of the students.

room for him or her to enter, move about,

Gather basic information regarding

and exit the class with the same ease Continued on page 44

students’ strengths, needs, IEP goals, and

effective intervention strategies. It is likely

April 2021


CommitteeReports Diverse Learners continued from 43 as the students who are independently

Strategies to overcome this barrier:

Strategies to overcome this barrier:

mobile. For a student who is blind or

Find out information about the strengths

Educate yourself about students’ general

in a consistent way each day so the stu-

dents who have disabilities in the music

students with autism spectrum disorder,

has a visual disability, set up the room dent can learn the map of the room. If

changes are made, give the student verbal

directions so he or she can learn the new

setup and adapt his or her cognitive map

and accomplishments of a few of the stuclass. What can these students do to contribute to the positive climate of the classroom or the music environment?

education teachers, and therapists such

to support teachers who are struggling with difficult students or situations create

school problem solvers and multiple victors in any conquered barrier to success-

Attitudinal Barriers

Attitudinal barriers relate to the beliefs and

ful inclusion.

Students might be afraid of peers who

attitudes that teachers or other school

are different in some way, or they may

rooms, students’ accommodation needs,

with them. Students may need informa-

personnel may have about inclusive class-

interactions with students’ parents or guardians, students’ technological needs,

and the time required to adapt the curriculum. Negative attitudes may stem from

lack of information, misinformation, pre-

get to know their peers as individuals

rather than by their diverse characteristics.

Positive attitudes can be developed

and enhanced by giving teachers, as well as students, the support they need.

Teachers are encouraged to discover students’ strengths and to design instructional methods and adaptations that build on those strengths. In addition, learning

about students beyond their abilities or disabilities helps humanize the teaching experience.

44    F l o r i d a

Design intervention strategies and

students’ learning in music class. Use

age appropriate and music activities with which the students can be successful.

Eliminating the barriers related to

practices. It takes continuous efforts by

about their classmates.

knowledge and skills that teachers need


addressed in music.

vide an appropriate model for students to

of students who do not have specialized

new approaches to communication and

IEP goals, particularly those that can be

organization, attitudes, and knowledge

Knowledge Barriers

new ways of thinking about teaching and

vention strategies. Find out the students’

A music educator’s positive attitudes,

concerned with how inclusion will affect

instructional needs. Inclusion requires

dents’ abilities, needs, and effective inter-

music that is culturally appropriate and

emulate and to develop positive attitudes

the classroom climate and the education

occupational therapists) to determine stu-

tion and structured activities to help them

Teachers may have misconceptions or inclusive setting. Teachers may also be

as speech and language pathologists or

classroom accommodations to support

language, and respect for all students pro-

fears that they will not be effective in an

ers, specialists such as art and physical

bring their parents’ prejudices to school

vious experiences, or difficult situations that remain unresolved or unsuccessful.

For students with disabilities, talk

in the classroom. Collaborative efforts

distracting or tempting instruments are or view.

teristics of students with ASD).

with the team members (classroom teach-

about ways to solve difficult situations

not easily accessible or within easy reach

learn about typical behaviors and charac-

Talk to other teachers or professionals

of the room. For a student with attention or behavior problems, make sure that

characteristics (e.g., if there are several

Knowledge barriers relate to the range of

to provide effective services to students, such as adapting the curriculum and

instructional methods, providing necessary classroom structure and management, and developing appropriate goals

and interventions based on students’ ages, functioning levels, and backgrounds.

Collaboration is key to successful inclusion. Through collaboration, the music

educator can find out specific information about his or her students, including strengths and weaknesses, goals, and

effective instructional methods used by other teachers.

Music Director

sets the stage for more effective inclusion all professionals to make sure integration

and acceptance are infused in all aspects of the educational system, starting at the classroom level. The adaptations required to successfully include all students often

result in inspired teaching, and consequently, happier and more successful students and teachers. References Adamek, M. S., & Darrow, A. A. (2018). Music in special education. Silver Spring, MD: American Music Therapy Association. Alquraini, T., & Gut, D. (2012). Critical components of successful inclusion of students with severe disabilities: Literature review. International Journal of Special Education, 27(1), 42-59. Bui, X., Quirk, C., Almazan, S., & Valenti, M. (2010). Inclusive education, research and practice: Inclusion works. Retrieved from http://www.mcie.org/site/usermedia/ application/11/inclusion-works-(2010).pdf


Partners Make It Possible

If You Rebuild It, They Will Come

The Florida Corporate and Academic Partners help strengthen music education in Florida through their tireless work to support teachers. FMEA expresses its greatest thanks to each of our Partners, Corporate and Academic, for their partnership over the past year. We hope that FMEA members from across the state support our partners as they support FMEA and Florida music educators.

by Fred Schiff, Chairman FMEA Corporate & Academic Partners

Of course, the actual quote from the movie Field of Dreams is “If you build it,

he will come.” And just like Ray, the main character of that film, my belief is that over the past year, we’ve all heard voices in our head telling us things we couldn’t quite see or understand.

On one thing, however, I am sure. We stand at a time when rebuilding

Florida’s great music programs is critical. We have dreamt of a day when all students and teachers can securely return to classrooms and continue the work

that came to a grinding halt in March 2020. And now that vaccine roll-outs are gaining STEAM, we can feel the optimism.

The Academic Partner memberships are for colleges, universities, and military organizations, and the Corporate Partner memberships are for businesses and organizations.

Like any product that has been in short supply, there is pent-up demand for

school music and the positive attributes it provides for society. Divided into several camps, there are students who can’t wait to return, students who have lost interest, and students who need to be recruited into your program. The

question for directors now becomes “How do we rebuild, and what are the expectations?”

Please choose the appropriate button for more information.

Fortunately, you are not alone in this process. The music products industry

has developed tools for addressing these scenarios to assist you in navigating a strong return to in-person education.

Corporate Partners

In my opinion, one of the best post-pandemic guides for successfully getting

back to the classroom is underwritten by a group of manufacturers. Under the banner of MusicEdNow, this cross-industry committee pulled together the

Academic Partners

create a suite of tools that offers a blueprint on how to rebuild your program.

FMEA is a not-for-profit professional education association that serves and supports music education across Florida. FMEA promotes and publishes the Florida Music Director and music education research, organizes professional development programs, and broadens teachers’ knowledge and interest in their profession through affiliation with colleagues. Membership in FMEA is open to music instructors from pre-kindergarten level through college, including music supervisors, and component organization membership is available for your specific music education focus.

minds of music educators and industry professionals who worked diligently to The series features sessions on communicating with administrators, recruiting

ideas, and the latest information about new funding options through ESSRA, as well as a host of topics that have affected every music educator. To receive this vital information, click HERE.

The success of music education has always been placed on the backs of music

educators and their willingness to build programs. And while the foundation has been rocked, it did not crumble.

And that is why I am convinced: “If you rebuild it, they will come.”


April 2021


How Does the TEACH Act Help With Virtual Music Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic? As music educators across the country are engaging in distance learning, it is important that they understand the copyright laws in this environment.

The Technology, Education, and

Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act provides certain protections for music education while distance learning.

NAfME, in collaboration with the NFHS, has created a new resource to

help teachers better understand the copyright implications of using music in a distance learning environment, providing analysis on the TEACH Act as well as addressing some frequently asked questions.

CLICK HERE to download the document entitled Copyright Guidancce for Distance Learning.

46    F l o r i d a

Music Director


Debbie Fahmie, Chairwoman


we knew we’d be going virtual, all sorts of

the Florida Department of Education.

As my time in this role begins to wind

ing the awards ceremony.

announcing our awardees this year.

those years of service. I’ve had the privi-

option of putting together an on-de-

movers and shakers in music education. I

viewers got a glimpse into

 have served as your FMEA awards

 chairwoman for over a decade now.

down, it gives me pleasure to reflect on

lege of working with so many of Florida’s have learned so much from so many of my fellow FMEA board members. The networking, collaboration, mentorship, and

visionary leadership I’ve experienced in

my years on the FMEA board are unique and priceless. My participation with FMEA has made me a better educator, musician, and person. I have truly learned how servant leadership yields the most fulfilling rewards a person could ask for.

Over all these years, I’ve gotten to



awards breakfast at the conference in Tampa. I’ve appreciated my awards com-

mittee members who put in endless hours

single awards category. This in itself is

rare. The Awards Committee did a phe-

nomenal job in the selection process. Once

cacy efforts.

Now, let’s look to the

future. Nominations for the

tell and a message for all

2022 FMEA Awards are open,

of us. Once the video footage

and I know there are more indi-

was collected, awards commit-

tee member Sondra Collins used her

viduals who are deserving of this rec-

iMovie that became the on-demand ses-

to read about the 2021 FMEA awardees

ognition. If you have not had a chance

super talent to edit them all and create the

in the February/March issue of Florida

Music Director, I encourage you to take a

the beautiful messages of hope from the

few moments to do so. I know you will be impressed, and I hope it will also inspire

of working with them on this project, I

you to think of the music heroes among

really got to know our awardees in a spe-

you and consider them for nomination

cial way that hasn’t been possible with a

to the 2022 Awards Program. The call for

live awards breakfast. Another plus to the virtual event this year. Additionally,


nominations is available HERE.


the awards presentation.

collected multiple applications in EVERY

can use in your own advo-

They each had a story to

education, this has been such an extraor-

Despite the pandemic and lockdown, we

haps find portions of it you

of the major categories.

able to invite a superstar

dinary year for the Awards Committee.

will be inspired and per-

and awardees in each

during the selection process each year.

As with every other aspect of music

and tune in now. I know you

souls of our nominators

nominators and awardees. In the course

and every early Friday morning FMEA

ence, I encourage you to go back

the hearts, minds, and

cation for all in the state of Florida … our

education! I cherish the memory of each

awards ceremony during the confer-


sion. I was absolutely inspired by hearing

FMEA awardees, a.k.a. heroes of music

In case you missed the on-demand

Since we were virtual and had the

know so many amazing folks who have made a significant impact on music edu-

What a great honor to have Dr. Graham

positive opportunities opened up regard-

If you

have never nominated someone

for an FMEA award, fear not.

guest host to be a part of

Examples of successful award

applications are available online

Many of you know Dr. Dré

to help guide you in the nomina-

Graham. He was the 2020

tion process.

Florida Teacher of the Year

I wish you all much health

and spent a year touring

and happiness and look forward

the state as an education ambassador. He

to receiving the next round of FMEA

now works as an executive director with

award nominations.

April 2021




Approaching the 2021 MPA Season With an by David Ramos


receive a high enough rating (often a superior

t is concert MPA season again. A time when

rating) where their efforts will be recognized

directors across the state assess their ensem-

and rewarded at the district or state level.

ble’s performance level, peruse their state

Known players, fixed rules, and an agreed

organization’s music lists for program ideas,

upon objective.

and consult with their colleagues, asking the

age-old question: “What are you performing for

Then there are infinite games. According to

assessment?” Much like last year, however, this year will look

Sinek, “Infinite games are defined as known and unknown

have either been transferred to a completely virtual format with

The rules are changeable, which means you can play however

quite different. With regard to FBA, FOA, and FVA, assessments a comments-only system or cancelled altogether. To directors

whose educational focus during the spring semester each year is dedicating exorbitant amounts of energy on rehearsing specific

repertoire to be recognized by their peers and administration at the district and state levels, this may seem like a loss. To

directors whose educational focus year-round is providing their

ensembles with quality, performance-appropriate literature that will advance their students musically and allow for an aesthetic

experience in the classroom, this news may not come across as

something to stress over. It may even be a relief. That is because often the former teacher approaches MPAs with a finite mindset while the latter approaches them with an infinite mindset. Finite Games, Infinite Games, and MPAs

How I view these two mindsets is through the lens of game theory, in which there are two kinds of games:

players, which means new players can join whenever they want. you want, and the objective is to perpetuate the game, to stay

in the game as long as possible” (Brown, 2021). Things like education and creativity are viewed as infinite games. Anyone can join a classroom and become a student, which is why teachers

strive for equitability in their teaching. Anyone can pick up an instrument and make music, which is why directors emphasize

skills such as improvisation and composition. Any appropriate

means of engaging students and sparking interest is welcome in the classroom, which is why when educators realize halfway

through a lesson the plan they spent hours on over the weekend is not working, they throw it away and come up with something

that does. There are no winners, there are no losers, there are no ratings. The only objective is to continually learn and create, which is often forgotten when the focus lies on festivals and competitions.

finite games and infinite games. According

No MPAs = Infinite Possibilities

Infinite Game, “The finite game is defined as

MPAs. How can an infinite mindset allow directors to see

to Simon Sinek, author of the book The known players, fixed rules, and an agreed upon objective” (Brown, 2021). Sports like baseball and basketball are examples of a

finite game—two teams, using an agreed

upon set of rules, play against each other;

one scores more points than the other and

ultimately wins. Through this lens, a regular concert MPA could be viewed as a finite game. Think about it—after agreeing to a

previously established set of rules and regulations, music direc-

tors register their ensemble to perform specific repertoire in a concert setting where they will be rated on their performance and place a great deal of emphasis on having their ensemble

48    F l o r i d a

Music Director

Now we return to the reality of virtual concerts and cancelled

the positives of the current situation? For one, the rules have changed. For organizations like the Florida Vocal Association, literature list requirements have been waived. That means directors have the freedom to choose literature outside of the Florida

lists, such as music by underrepresented composers. Works by Jennifer Higdon, Omar Thomas, and Chen Yi can be discussed and explored in the classroom. Students can also bring their

own suggestions of music to study and rehearse without the restriction of concert lists. This will allow students to feel like they have a say in the music room, especially during a time

when virtual learning may cause students to feel disconnected rather than closer to being together.


Infinite Mindset

Mary Palmer, EdD, Chairwoman


uring these challenging times, I am in awe of the amazing work of Florida music educators! The volu-

For another, the objective is no longer fixed. No MPAs means

no ratings, which means no need to treat a concert like a com-

petition. Teachers who normally strive for that superior can take a step back from the finite mindset and reassess their goals and

vision for the ensemble. Have meaningful discussions with your students, asking questions like “Why is band, orchestra, choir, etc., so important?” “What is the value in making music?” and

minous creative ways you have invented to continue to teach your students is inspiring. I see students who are

inspired by music and the teachers who are so devoted to continuing to use the power of music to change lives. Thank you for your dedication and your continuing contributions to the future generations of students and to our great profession.

Great leaders are needed! How about YOU? Are you

“How do we grow as an ensemble?” If you know your ensemble

willing to step up to leadership for music education?

to an emphasis on fundamentals rather than rehearsing the

role in your school, your district, your state, or the nation,

is struggling in certain musical areas, take this time to return

same three pieces every day. For directors who plan to register for comments only this year, perhaps the objective is simply to make and send a recording. Students have been away from per-

formance environments for quite some time, so a virtual MPA may just be an opportunity to have the ensemble come together to perform a piece of music. Conclusion

Whether you’re interested in taking a greater leadership connecting with like-minded people who are on their own leadership journeys can help you frame and achieve your

aspirations. What do successful leaders have in common? What’s necessary to build these habits of mind and actual skills? Are the characteristics of leaders different in different settings? Why even invest time and energy into being a leader?

IF these are burning questions for you, the FMEA

While we may have another year without MPAs, the oppor-

Emerging Leaders Program is for you! This FMEA ini-

online, teachers can spend their rehearsals making sure students

music educators who demonstrate exemplary teaching and

tunities for musical growth are endless. Whether in person or

are advancing musically and learning about their instrument. Instead of asking, “What are you performing for assessment?”

teachers can ask themselves, “How are you engaging your students during this difficult time?” The rules of the game are

changing for music teachers, but that does not mean they, and

their students, should stop playing. Let this MPA season be an opportunity for discovery, creativity, and infinite possibility.

tiative provides guidance and support to outstanding the potential and propensity for professional leadership. Selected teachers have the opportunity to participate in leadership development talks, workshops, discussions, and action. FMEA Emerging Leaders have opportunities to enhance and use their abilities in all aspects of music edu-

cation, including at the FMEA Professional Development Conference in January 2022.

Nominations from school principals, district music

David Ramos is a graduate of Florida State University

supervisors, and any music educator are encouraged and

is an active member of NAfME and FMEA. After

as well. More information about the program is posted

with the BME in instrumental music education. He completing his internship in fall 2020, David accepted a position as an instructor of residence life at the

Interlochen Arts Academy in Interlochen, Michigan, where he currently resides. References Brown, B. (2021). Brené with Simon Sinek on developing an infinite mindset (No. 11).

welcomed. Self-nominations are accepted and welcomed HERE.

Please be sure to include your resume/vitae

with your nomination. Nominations are due April 30.

Questions? Please contact Dr. Mary Palmer at mpalmerassoc@aol.com.

Don’t simply try to “find yourself.” Instead, be the

CHANGE you’d like to see! We’re looking forward to YOUR application and/or your nominations.

April 2021



This on-going column seeks to stimulate awareness of research issues for FMEA teachers and researchers.

Music, Math, and Reading Achievement— What’s the Connection? 1 and 2 of Richard Colwell’s (1968) Music Achievement Test (MAT). Using multilevel models for statistical anal-

ysis they were able to “weed out” (statisticians will say “control” or “account”) this dizzying

array of confounding influences to examine

the relationship between math achievement

and music achievement and between reading achievement and music achievement. They sought to explain the variance in student

scores by essentially distilling that variability down as much as possible.

In their article, the authors express

surprise at the strength of the relation-

ships that resulted, and Martin commented

on his surprise to NPR’s Noel King in a radio interview on

December 9, 2020 (NPR, 2020):


usic educators have long observed that students in their

I was absolutely convinced that the link—once other things

music advocates have noted that music students’ SAT scores are

between music achievement and math achievement and

programs often do well in other school subjects. And

on average higher than non-music students; however, the rela-

tionship between music and other cognitive abilities is elusive—

music students in graduate research methods courses quickly

that are controlled for and accounted for, that the link reading achievement essentially disappears.

On the contrary, in the article the authors observe:

learn that “correlation does not imply causation.”

With these background variables held constant, the rela-

students do well in school music, math, and reading, and trying

achievement remained quite strong—an outcome that we

There are many possible influences that could explain why

to account for those influences is a daunting endeavor. Students

can vary by grade level, gender, ethnicity, the educational attainment of their parents/guardians, whether they are on free/

reduced-price lunch, where they live (rural, small city, suburban, urban, metropolitan), and by characteristics of their school and

district (school achievement, available funds, local revenue, and so forth).

tionships between music achievement and reading/math had not anticipated. Furthermore, also not as we had anticipated, almost all the variability was situated at the level

of the individual student. Classrooms and schools were

noncontributory, and only a small portion of variability was located at the district level. They further note:

In August 2020, Martin J. Bergee and Kevin M. Weingarten

Moreover, the two MATs seem to be differentially related

data from 1,081 Midwestern students in grades 4-8, spread

findings, MAT-2, which assesses major-minor mode dis-

(2020) published an impressive paper that collected all of these

across seven school districts. They also collected student scores from the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), from levels


Florida Music Director

to reading and math achievement. According to the study’s crimination, feeling for tonal center, and music reading, was more strongly related to both reading achievement and math


Don D. Coffman, PhD University of Miami

achievement than was MAT-1, which assesses pitch, interval, and meter discrimination. MAT-2 generally

uses longer, more complex musical segments (cadences and phrases), whereas MAT-1 uses shorter, simpler segments (two- and three-tone sequences and single-voice melodic sequences).

What is the strength? The authors acknowledge that a sizeable amount of variance was unexplained (72% of the read-

ing scores variance, 64% of the math scores variance), but

point out that, “On the other hand, the reciprocals of .28 and

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.36, which can be treated as a sort of pseudo R2, would not

indicate failed models in most social science contexts.” This

R2 implies a correlation, which we remember does not imply

causation, but this a respectable level of overlap.

The authors speculate about possible influences on

achievement in music, math, and reading that their study did not address. Teacher characteristics were not included,

Florida Music Director reserves the right to refuse any ad not prepared to the correct specifications OR to rework the ad as needed with fees applied.

cessing in the brain of music, math, and reading might be

2020-21 FMEA Membership: You are eligible for membership in the Florida Music Education Association if you are an individual engaged in the teaching, supervision, or administration of music in elementary and secondary schools, colleges, or universities within the state.

Like Martin (a friend of nearly 50 years), I have been skep-

Visit FMEA.org/membership to learn more about the benefits of active membership.

for example. And we should consider that syntactical prointegrated in ways we do not yet understand.

tical of breezy connections between math and music or

music and language—there have been so many issues to complicate simple explanations. His years of careful methodical work have now stripped away some of the clutter. References Bergee, M. J., & Weingarten, K. M. (2021). Multilevel Models of the Relationship Between Music Achievement and Reading and Math Achievement. Journal of Research in Music Education, 68(4), 398-418. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022429420941432 Colwell, R. (1968). Music achievement tests. Follett Educational Corporation. NPR (2020). https://www.npr.org/2020/12/09/944528396/examining-thelink-between-music-and-scores-for-math-reading

Email your questions and feedback to d.coffman1@miami.edu Research Puzzles.

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Direct correspondence regarding subscriptions to: Hinckley Center for Fine Arts Education, 402 Office Plaza, Tallahassee, FL, 32301-2757. Subscription cost included in FMEA membership dues ($9); libraries, educational institutions, and all others within the United States: $27 plus 7.5% sales tax. CIRCULATION: 4,500 educators. Published eight times annually by The Florida Music Education Association, Hinckley Center for Fine Arts Education: 402 Office Plaza, Tallahassee, FL 32301-2757. FMEA reserves the right to approve any application for appearance and to edit all materials proposed for distribution. Permission is granted to all FMEA members to reprint articles from the Florida Music Director for non-commercial, educational purposes. Non-members may request permission from the FMEA office. SUBMISSIONS: Article and art submissions are always considered and should be submitted on or before the 1st of the month, one month prior to the publication issue to: D. Gregory Springer, PhD, dgspringer@fsu.edu.

All articles must be provided in digital format (e.g., Microsoft Word). All applicable fonts and images must be provided. Images must be at least 300 dpi resolution at 100% of the size. All submissions must be accompanied by a proof (color, if applicable). Ads may be submitted via email to val@fmea.org.

April 2021



Florida Seal of Fine Arts Legislation Filed in Senate and House

FMEA Executive Director Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD


he 2021 Legislative Session began on March 2

equity, inclusion, and access as a way to encourage

Arts legislation has been filed in both the Senate (SB

education for ALL students. Each of the four ses-

and will end on April 30. The Florida Seal of Fine

The mission

1740) and the House (HB 1375) and has been assigned

of the Florida

to committees.

Music Education

Florida Seal of Fine Arts Program: Establishes

Association is to promote quality,

Florida Seal of Fine Arts Program within DOE;

comprehensive music education in all

Florida schools.

provides purpose of program; specifies eligibility requirements for awarding the Seal of Fine

Arts; defines “work of art”; authorizes State

Board of Education to adopt additional requirements for award of seal; requires Commissioner

of Education and school districts to perform

specified duties to administer program; prohib-

its school district or DOE from charging fee for seal; requires state board to adopt rules.

Professional Development Opportunities for Members

The 2021 FMEA Virtual Professional Development

intentionality toward meeting the goal of music

sions is 60 minutes long and includes opportunities for interactivity. Session 1, “Living a Hip Hop & Abolitionist Life: Resistance, Creativity, Hip Hop

Civics Ed, Intersectionality, & Black Joy,” was held on February 22. Mark your calendars for the remaining

sessions. Registration is free and can be accessed on our website.

Session 2, “Anti-Racism for Music Educators:

Moving Beyond SEL and Representation,” will be

held on March 30, from 7 p.m. to 8 p.m. Join Alysia Lee for an interactive and deeply reflective series exploring the mindset and operational shifts that

elevate instructional practice and student achieve-

ment. Prepare for in-session reflection, collaboration, and visioning tools to create a strategic plan for your anti-racism journey.

The remaining sessions will be held at 7 p.m. on

Conference sessions are still available for members

April 19 and May 17.

the many sessions that are available for viewing until

Resources for Teachers and Schools

sessions, you can still register through the FMEA

are working together to provide resources for teach-

who have registered. Remember to take advantage of

June 1, 2021. If you did not register for the conference website.

The theme for the 2022 FMEA Professional

Development and All-State Concerts is Unity in

Music Education: Building Communities One Note at a Time. The portal for session proposals is open.

We look forward to seeing the fantastic session pro-

FMEA and Florida School Music Association (FSMA) ers, students, and schools for health and safety. Please review these resources on the FMEA and FSMA web-

sites. FSMA is also developing resources for “Back to School.” Please continue to look for these informative documents.

FSMA is hosting a Leadership Symposium in

posals for 2022.

July to help assist in developing leadership for

ing “Diversion, Equity, Inclusion, & Access in the

FBA, FOA, and FVA.

The Professional Development Committee is host-

Music Classroom,” a four-part mini-series designed

up-and-coming leaders of the secondary components As we navigate the remainder of the 2020-21 school

to lay the foundation for more inclusive music

year, let’s continue to work together to maintain

participants will explore the elements of diversity,


classrooms in Florida schools. As part of this series,

safety for teachers, students, families, and our com-

Best wishes! Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD


Florida Music Director


Officers and Directors


Steven N. Kelly, PhD

Florida State University; College of Music, KMU 330 Tallahassee, FL 32306 (850) 644-4069; skelly@admin.fsu.edu Past President

Kenneth Williams, PhD

Douglas Anderson School of the Arts 2445 San Diego Road; Jacksonville, FL 32207 (904) 346-5620; kenwms@flmusiced.org President-Elect

Shelby Chipman, PhD

Florida A&M University, Department of Music Foster-Tanner Music Bldg., Room 318 Tallahassee, FL 32307; (850) 599-8165 shelby.chipman@famu.edu FBA President

Ian Schwindt

Titusville High School 150 Terrier Trail S.; Titusville, FL 32780-4735 (321) 264-3108; schwindt.ian@brevardschools.org FCMEA President

Marc Decker, DMA

Florida Atlantic University 777 Glades Rd.; Boca Raton, FL 33431 deckerm@fau.edu FEMEA President

Ernesta Chicklowski

Roosevelt Elementary School 3205 S. Ferdinand Ave.; Tampa, FL 33629 (813) 272-3090 ernesta.chicklowski@sdhc.k12.fl.us Florida NAfME Collegiate President

Alexis Hobbs

Southeastern University aphobbs@seu.ed Florida NAfME Collegiate Advisor

Mark A. Belfast, Jr., PhD

Southeastern University 1000 Longfellow Blvd.; Lakeland, FL 33801 (863) 667-5104; mabelfast@seu.edu FMSA President

Harry “Skip” Pardee

Collier County Public Schools 5775 Osceola Trail; Naples, FL 34109 (239) 377-0087; pardeh@collierschools.com FOA President

Matthew Davis

Harrison School for the Arts 750 Hollingsworth Rd.; Lakeland, FL 33801 (863) 499-2855; matthew.lawson.davis@gmail.com FVA President

Jason Locker

Orange County Public Schools 445 W. Amelia St.; Orlando, FL 32801 (407) 317-3200; jason@fva.net Member-at-Large

Edgar Rubio

Silver Trail Middle School 18300 Sheridan St.; Pembroke Pines, FL 33331 (754) 323-4321; merenguesax@aol.com



Historian/Parliamentarian & Executive Director....................................................Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD Hinckley Center for Fine Arts Education 402 Office Plaza Dr.; Tallahassee, FL 32301-2757 (850) 878-6844; Fax: (850) 942-1793; kdsanz@fmea.org

President......................................................................... Marc Decker, DMA Florida Atlantic University; 777 Glades Rd.; Boca Raton, FL 33431 deckerm@fau.edu

Editor-in-Chief.....................................................D. Gregory Springer, PhD FSU College of Music; 122 N. Copeland St.; Tallahassee, FL 32306 (850) 644-2925; dgspringer@fsu.edu

President...................................................................................Alexis Hobbs Southeastern University; aphobbs@seu.edu

FLORIDA NAfME COLLEGIATE Past President...........................................................................Julian Grubb Florida Gulf Coast University, grubb.julians@outlook.com

FSMA President ........................................................................Valerie Terry vterrymusic@gmail.com


FMEA COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSONS Awards.................................................................................... Debbie Fahmie fahmied@yahoo.com

President..................................................................... Ernesta Chicklowski Roosevelt Elementary School; 3205 S. Ferdinand Ave.; Tampa, FL 33629 (813) 272-3090; ernesta.chicklowski@sdhc.k12.fl.us

Budget/Finance, Development.................................. Steven N. Kelly, PhD Florida State University, College of Music, KMU 330 Tallahassee, FL 32306; (850) 644-4069; skelly@admin.fsu.edu

Past President...............................................................Rosemary Pilonero rosemary@femea.flmusiced.org

Committee Council............................................................... Debbie Fahmie fahmied@yahoo.com

Executive Director............................................................. Jennifer Sullivan 1750 Common Way Rd., Orlando, FL 32814 (321) 624-5433; slljenn@aol.com

Conference Planning Committee.............................John K. Southall, PhD Indian River State College; 3209 Virginia Ave.; Fort Pierce, FL 34981 (772) 462-7810; johnsouthall@me.com

FLORIDA MUSIC SUPERVISION ASSOCIATION President.....................................................................Harry “Skip” Pardee Collier County Public Schools; 5775 Osceola Trail; Naples, FL 34109 (239) 377-0087; pardeh@collierschools.com

Contemporary Media................................................... David Williams, PhD University of South Florida; 4202 E. Fowler Ave., MUS 101 Tampa, FL 33620; (813) 974-9166; davidw@usf.edu

Past President............................................................................Scott Evans scott.evans@ocps.net

Diverse Learners.....................................................Alice-Ann Darrow, PhD Florida State University, Music Education and Music Therapy 123 N. Copeland St.; Tallahassee, FL 32306 (850) 645-1438; aadarrow@fsu.edu

Treasurer......................................................................................... Ted Hope Hillsborough County Public Schools, School Administration Center 901 E. Kennedy Blvd.; Tampa, FL 33602 (813) 272-4861; ted.hope@sdhc.k12.fl.us

Emerging Leaders............................................................ Mary Palmer, EdD 11410 Swift Water Cir.; Orlando, FL 32817 (407) 382-1661; mpalmerassoc@aol.com


FMEA Corporate & Academic Partners....................................Fred Schiff All County Music; 8136 N. University Dr.; Tamarac, FL 33321-1708 (954) 722-3424; fredallcounty@aol.com

President................................................................................Matthew Davis Harrison School for the Arts; 750 Hollingsworth Rd.; Lakeland, FL 33801 (863) 499-2855; matthew.lawson.davis@gmail.com

Government Relations..................................................Jeanne W. Reynolds Pinellas County Schools, Administration Bldg. 301 4th St., SW, P.O. Box 2942; Largo, FL 33779-2942 (727) 588-6055; reynoldsj@pcsb.org

Past President...........................................................................Jason Jerald jason.jerald@sdhc.k12.fl.us Executive Director............................................................. Donald Langland 220 Parsons Woods Dr.; Seffner, FL 33594 (813) 502-5233; Fax: (813) 502-6832; exdirfoa@yahoo.com

Multicultural Network...........................................................Bruce J. Green (407) 927-3141; bruce.green@ocps.net


Professional Development........................................................Scott Evans Orange County Public Schools; 445 S. Amelia St.; Orlando, FL 32801 (407) 317-3200; scott.evans@ocps.net

President.................................................................................. Jason Locker Orange County Public Schools; 445 W. Amelia St.; Orlando, FL 32801 (407) 317-3200; jason@fva.net

Research...................................................................... Don D. Coffman, PhD University of Miami; d.coffman1@miami.edu

Past President.....................................................................Tommy Jomisko tommy@fva.net

Secondary General Music.............................................................Ed Prasse Leon High School; 550 E. Tennessee St.; Tallahassee, FL 32308 (850) 617-5700; prassee@leonschools.net

Executive Director....................................................................J. Mark Scott 7122 Tarpon Ct.; Fleming Island, FL 32003 (904) 284-1551; exec@fva.net

Student Development.............................................. Michael Antmann, EdD Freedom High School; 2500 W. Taft-Vineland Rd.; Orlando, FL 32837 (407) 816-5600; michael.antmann@ocps.net

Business Manager..................................................................Jo Hagan, CPA 8975 San Rae Rd.; Jacksonville, FL 32257 (904) 379-2245; Fax: (904) 379-2260; business@fva.net



Exhibits Managers fmeaexhibits@fmea.org

402 Office Plaza Dr.; Tallahassee, FL 32301-2757 (850) 878-6844; Fax: (850) 942-1793

Local Chairperson Ted Hope—(813) 272-4861; ted.hope@sdhc.k12.fl.us

President..................................... Kathleen D. Sanz, PhD (kdsanz@fmea.org) Director of Operations........................Valeria Anderson, IOM (val@fmea.org)


Technology Director......................................Josh Bula, PhD (josh@fmea.org)

President...................................................................................Ian Schwindt Titusville High School; 150 Terrier Trail S.; Titusville, FL 32780-4735 (321) 264-3108; schwindt.ian@brevardschools.org

Public Affairs & Communications Coordinator..................................... Jenny Abdelnour, CAE (jenny@fmea.org) Marketing & Membership Coordinator................................. Jasmine Van Weelden (jasmine@fmea.org)

Past President..................................................................... Cathi Leibinger Ransom Everglades School; 2045 Bayshore Dr.; Miami, FL 33133 (305) 250-6868; pastpresident@fba.flmusiced.org Executive Director......................................................................Neil Jenkins Florida Bandmasters Association P.O. Box 840135; Pembroke Pines, FL 33084 (954) 432-4111; Fax: (954) 432-4909; exec@fba.flmusiced.org


Business Manager..................................................................Jo Hagan, CPA 8975 San Rae Rd.; Jacksonville, FL 32257 (904) 379-2245; Fax: (904) 379-2260; jo@barefootaccounting.com

April 2021



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Florida Music Director April 2021  

The official publication of the Florida Music Education Association. Featured in this issue: The Fluent High School Flutist, Effective & Eff...

Florida Music Director April 2021  

The official publication of the Florida Music Education Association. Featured in this issue: The Fluent High School Flutist, Effective & Eff...

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